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Child Soldiers Neg SDI Strategy Forum


Intel Strategy Sheet (UMICH) .....................................................2 Notes ....................................................................................2 Case Advantages Outline.....................................................3 UMICH Child Soldiers Plan Text.......................................4 UMICH K Adv ....................................................................5 UMICH Heg Advantage ......................................................6 UMICH 1AC Solvency........................................................8 UMICHS 1AC Framework (For K Adv) ......................................9 UNT Child Soldiers Plan Text..........................................10 JDIs Child Soldiers Plan Text .........................................11 Topicality T: PHA (Human Rights) ....................................................12 T: PHA (Violence).............................................................13 Solvency Solvency Frontline (1/3) ....................................................14 Solvency Frontline (2/3) ....................................................15 Solvency Frontline (3/3) ....................................................16 No Solvency: No Desire ....................................................17 No Solvency: Ethnocentricity ............................................18 No Solvency: Soldiers Elsewhere ......................................19 Child Soldiers Population = Exaggerated ..........................20 AT: US Key (UMICH) ......................................................21 DDR Fails ..........................................................................22 Psychologists Fail ..............................................................23 Disarmament and Reintegration Fail .................................24 Education Fails ..................................................................25 Education Exists Now........................................................26 Education Doesnt Solve Economy ...................................27 Advantage Alt Causes Frontline (1/2)..................................................28 Alt Cause Frontline (2/2) ...................................................29 Alt Cause: AIDS ................................................................30 Alt Cause: Economic Conditions.......................................31 Alt Cause: Extreme Poverty...............................................32 Alt Cause: Infrastructure....................................................33 Alt Cause: Voluntary .........................................................34 Alt Cause: Small Arms ......................................................35 No Psychological Damage .................................................36 Framework Consequentialism Framework Frontline (1/3)................... 37 Consequentialism Framework Frontline (2/3)................... 38 Consequentialism Framework Frontline (3/3)................... 39 CP's UN CP 1NC....................................................................... 40 UN CP Solvency EXT....................................................... 41 UN CP Solvency Ext......................................................... 42 IFESH CP 1NC ................................................................. 43 Generic NGO CP Ext. ....................................................... 44 Canada CP 1NC ................................................................ 45 Canada CP Solvency Ext (Child Soldiers) ........................ 46 Canada CP Solvency Ext. (Education) ............................. 47 EU CP 1NC ....................................................................... 48 EU CP Solvency Ext. ........................................................ 49 EU CP Solvency Ext. ........................................................ 50 EU CP Solvency Ext. ........................................................ 51 AT: US Moral Obligation.................................................. 52 Links to Generics Spending Links.................................................................. 53 Spending Links.................................................................. 54 Ptx Popular Links .............................................................. 55 Ptx Popular Links .............................................................. 56 Reps K Links..................................................................... 57 Reps K Links..................................................................... 58 Education = Dependency K Link ...................................... 59 Education = Imperialistic K Link ...................................... 60

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Strategy Sheet (UMICH)


Strategy #1: The UN CP Framework Case Defense Spending DA Strategy #2: Reps K o The link is present in the plan text the fact that they characterize children as people younger than 18 Case Defense Framework

Notes
Most of these advantages are based off the fact that there are child soldiers right now therefore, you can use almost any international agent to do the plan and it would solve the entirety of the case 100% FHA o US Food and Humanitarian Assistance Bureau Bush Bad o You are probably on the right side of the disad with this plan being popular IFESH CP o IFESH is an NGO so you can use a generic NGO CP ext. o IFESH does not have anything good or bad on it really I searched through all four engines lexis, proquest, project muse, and google scholar and nothing really showed up for it or against it but the solvency card included is pretty sweet! Education = Dependency K Link o Specific to Africa o Not specific to child soldiers education just education in general however, it still links to their solvency advocate TVET (Training and Vocational Education and Training)

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Case Advantages Outline


Most advantages cannot be turned because they are simply true like killing little children probably does hurt morale. So, I created a no solvency frontline and an alt cause frontline. Advantages (UMICH): Psychological Problems Hegemony o The internal link to the disad is that child soldiers exist and are fighting however, the US will remain the hegemon if the children do not fight anymore therefore, you can solve with any actor so long as they educate children and send them into rehabilitation, demobilization, and reintegration programs. Disease o Spread of STDs because girls are more likely to be raped Advantages (JDI) Warfighting o Children will become killing machines as a result millions will die and refugees will flee cutting off oil supply to America. Oil-induced economic decline will lead to extinction Soft Power Terrorism Democracy o Education For All Act of 2007 key internal link to democracy Advantages (UNT) Patriarchy o Girls being discriminated right now

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UMICH Child Soldiers Plan Text


The USFG should substantially increase funding for education efforts to reduce the participation of people less than 18 years of age in armed conflict in topically designated areas.

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UMICH K Adv
Contention 1: Bling Bang Traditional understandings of war as a principled interstate dispute have collapsed. Modern war is marked increasingly by atrocities committed against civilian populations. In these conflicts a child soldier perishes every 3 minutes
P.W. Singer, Senior Fellow in Foreign Policy Studies at the Brookings Institution. 2005. Children at War. Pg. 4-5

Affairs (GSPIA) at the University of Pittsburgh. Simon F. Reich is Director of the Ford Institute for Human Security at the University of Pittsburgh and Professor of International Affairs at GSPIA. International Security Summer 2006

The number of child soldiers is increasing despite international norms to the contrary Vera Achvarina and Simon F. Reich; Vera Achvarina is a doctoral candidate at the Graduate School of Public and International

Child soldiers are conditioned to have contempt for life through psychological manipulation destroying the fabric of their society for generations Mike Wessells, professor of psychology at Randolph-Macon College in Virginia, is a former president of the Division of Peace Psychology
of the American Psychological Association. He has done extensive consulting on conflict resolution and healing the wounds of war, particularly in Sierra Leone and Angola. BAS 11-21-97

This focus on warfare permanently scars its participants- in children it instills the belief that violence is more than an acceptable, normal mode of dispute resolution-but that it is the organizing principle of human life
J. Pearn, Department of Paediatrics & Child Health, Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, April 2003, Children and war Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health , http://www.blackwellsynergy.com/doi/full/10.1046/j.1440-1754.2003.00124.x?prevSearch=allfield%3A%28child+soldiers%29, Date Accessed : June 26, 2007, Volume 39 Issue 3 Page 166-172, DC

Psychic damage is a precondition to global annihilation- only after psychological defense mechanisms have been weakened through habituation to violence is pure war and complete destruction possible Mark B. Borg, Jr. is a practicing psychoanalyst and community/organizational consultant working in New York City. He is a graduate of the
William Alanson White Institute's psychoanalytic certification program and continues his candidacy in their organizational dynamics program. He is co-founder and executive director of the Community Consulting Group. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society 8.1 (2003) 57-67

Psychological peace is a pre-requisite to material peace Joanna Montgomery Byles is a Professor of English in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Eastern Mediterranean Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society 8.2 (2003) 208-213 The effects of this socialization of violence outweigh the negatives disads Vera Achvarina and Simon F. Reich; Vera Achvarina is a doctoral candidate at the Graduate School of Public and International

Affairs (GSPIA) at the University of Pittsburgh. Simon F. Reich is Director of the Ford Institute for Human Security at the University of Pittsburgh and Professor of International Affairs at GSPIA. International Security Summer 2006

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UMICH Heg Advantage


Contention 1: The DogChild soldiers are proliferating world wide- the US will increasingly face them on the field of Battle P. W. Singer , Olin Fellow in Foreign Policy Studies at The Brookings Institution and director of the Project on U.S. Policy Toward the Islamic World, Washingtonpost.com 6-12-06 Small soldiers are a big threat to US hegemony- Their presence escalates conflicts and makes them intractable, increasing the likelihood of US intervention. Peter Warren Singer is an Olin Fellow in the Foreign Policy Studies Program at the Brookings Institution Parameters, Winter 2001-02, pp.

40-56. http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/parameters/01winter/singer.htm

Engagement with child soldiers shatters unit cohesion, morale, and the resulting public backlash will END US engagement and the war on terror P.W. Singer Olin Fellow in Foreign Policy Studies at The Brookings Institution and director of the Project on U.S. Policy Toward the Islamic World, Military Review May 2003 We will control the vital internal links to Hegemony
Woodruff, William A, Law Professor, Campbell University, 1995, University of Missouri at Kansas City Law Review, Fall, 1995, 64 UMKC L. Rev. 121, p. 162

First, Unit Cohesion- Its the most important factor in military effectiveness Second, Morale is key to win wars Colonel M. Yu. Zelenkov, MILITARY THOUGHT, November 2000, p.
http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JAP/is_6_9/ai_72703609

Third, Public Support Cultivation of public support is the most important source of American leadership it is the most likely threat to leadership
G. John Ikenberry, Professor of Geopolitics and Global Justice, Georgetown University, Winter 2002 (American Strategy in the Age of Terror Survival) p. 21-22

Material preponderance isnt important if public support for engagement collapses, then unipolarity will unravel
Charles A. Kupchan, Professor of International Relations, Georgetown University, 2002 (The End of the American Era: US Foreign Policy and the Geopolitics of the Twenty-First Century) p. 63

Fourth, Readiness A weak military is worse than none at all- it promotes miscalculation and war Feaver Professor of Political Science at Duke 2003 (Peter D., Armed Servants: Agency, Oversight, and CivilMilitary Relations, p.213 //AGupta)

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Readiness is essential to US hegemonydeclining force capabilities create balancing incentives and undermine US security guarantees.
Jack Spencer, Policy Analyst at Heritage, 9/15/2000. www.heritage.org/Research/MissileDefense/BG1394.cfm.

Fifth and Independently- A focus on reducing the use of child soldiers will increase the U.S.s soft power.
Ramesh of the Canadian Center for Foreign Policy Development in Ottawa, January 19, http://www.unu.edu/hq/ginfo/media/Thakur13.html

Thakur and Steve Lee, Mr. Thakur is vice rector of the United Nations University in Tokyo and Mr. Lee is executive director 2000, The International Herald Tribune, 6/28/07,

Attempts to outweigh the case will be both laughable and patheticFirst, 30 regional conflicts will go global in a world without US soft power
Joseph Nye, Washington Quarterly, Winter 1996. Conflicts after the Cold War.

Second, A world in which the United States exercised leadership would have tremendous advantages Khalilzad 95 Zalmay, the amazing, Washington Quarterly, Spring Heg Bad, like the negs clothing, is out of style- The US is the only game in town Niall Ferguson, international history at Harvard, Fall 2004 (http://www.hooverdigest.org/044/ferguson.html)

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UMICH 1AC Solvency


Contention 2: US Action is Essential

US funding for education based rehabilitation and reintegration is essential. Action will resolve the perception that Washington condones violence Shannon McManimon is the Jim Bristol Fellow in the AFSC National Youth and Militarism Program Foreign Policy in Focus 11-2-99 Atrocity continues because we ignore it- action by the United States can end the conflict GRACE GRALL AKALLO, SPOKESPERSON AFFILIATION: WORLD VISION, former child soldier, congressional Testimony 4-26-06 The Legacy of colonialism gives us a burden to respond Elliott P. Skinner, Franz Boaz Professor of Anthropology Columbia University, International Journal on World Peace, BA NYU, PhD Columbia, former ambassador to Upper Volta, Member of the council on foreign relations 6-1-99 Africa is crucial- biggest child soldier problem is there- age and volume Vera Achvarina and Simon F. Reich; Vera Achvarina is a doctoral candidate at the Graduate School of Public and International

Affairs (GSPIA) at the University of Pittsburgh. Simon F. Reich is Director of the Ford Institute for Human Security at the University of Pittsburgh and Professor of International Affairs at GSPIA. International Security Summer 2006

Health care is crucial to reduce backlash associated with child soldiers P.W. Singer Olin Fellow in Foreign Policy Studies at The Brookings Institution and director of the Project on U.S. Policy Toward the Islamic World, Military Review May 2003 A sustained education campaign can help to heal the psychological wounds of war Mike Wessells, professor of psychology at Randolph-Macon College in Virginia, is a former president of the Division of Peace Psychology
of the American Psychological Association. He has done extensive consulting on conflict resolution and healing the wounds of war, particularly in Sierra Leone and Angola. BAS 11-21-97

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UMICHS 1AC Framework (For K Adv) Contention 3: T.I.A. Our approach to human pain should be based on universal compassion instead of narrow self interest. It is the duty of those with means to respond to the suffering of others. Universal responsibility is essential to survival HIS HOLINESS THE XIV DALAI LAMA OF TIBET THE UNITED NATIONS WORLD CONFERENCE ON HUMAN RIGHTS 15 JUNE, 1993 Vienna, AUSTRIA http://jbe.gold.ac.uk/1995conf/dalai1.html A traditional focus on war as interstate dispute impoverishes our understanding of the world by focusing exclusively on crises based policy making that ignores the omnipresent effects of global militarism. Chris Cuomo. Ph.D., 1992, University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Philosophy University of Cincinnati Hypatia Fall 1996.Vol.11,
Iss. 4; pg. 30

Law: A discipline of crisis Modern Law Review, 65:3, May

Refuse the model of Crisis centered politics and refocusing decision making on the everydayness of exploitation is crucial to negate the short-term crisis crutch that makes structural injustice and insecurity inevitable Hillary Charlesworth Director Centere for International and Public Law and PF Law Australian National University 2002 International A focus on short term, low probability risks necessitates a sacrifice of justice- The plans push for accountability is a better path to peace M. Cherif Bassiouni Distinguished Research Professor of Law, President, International Human Rights Law Institute, DePaul University

College of Law; President, International Institute for Higher Studies in Criminal Sciences (Siracusa, Italy); President, International Association of Penal Law (Paris, France). Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law Spring, 2003

Strictly Consequential decision frameworks are unsustainable- they collapse into irrational violence Michael Charles Williams,The Realist Tradition and the Limits of International Relations p. 172-3, 2005 Utilitarianism is incapable of evaluating human rights- it instrumentalizes the individual rendering life meaningless Jack Donnely, PhD Poli Sci Berkley, The Concept of Human Rights, 1985 p. 52-55 Interstate war has become obsolete due to economic integration, spread of democracy, and nuclear deterrence Michael Mandelbaum is Christian A. Herter Professor of American Foreign Policy, the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Council on Foreign Relations, New York. Survival Winter 98/99 proquest

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UNT Child Soldiers Plan Text


PLAN: The United States federal government should fund and expand Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration programs focused on public health in the region commonly designated as Sub Saharan Africa.

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JDIs Child Soldiers Plan Text


The United States Federal Government should provide all necessary financial and logistical assistance for education, rehabilitation and reintegration regarding children in combat in sub-Saharan Africa.

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T: PHA (Human Rights)


A. Interpretation: Public health assistance includes prevention of diseases, water purification, and medical supplies. MMWR 92 (Public Health Assessment Russian Federation, 1992, February 14) The FHA assessment indicated three priorities for public health assistance to the Russian Federation. First, efforts should focus on the prevention of vaccine-preventable childhood diseases, including measles, pertussis, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis. The assessment indicated that approximately 3 million children aged 1-3 years may be at risk for measles and serious sequelae. In addition to providing measles vaccine, efforts are needed to increase the production of other childhood vaccines. Second, support should be provided to waterpurification plants, particularly in regions where organic pollution of public water supplies is severe. Third, medical supplies should include essential and life-saving drugs and other basic supplies. B. Violation: The aff doesnt do any of these they only provide education to prevent the recruitment of child soldiers. C. Standards 1) Limits: Under their interpretation, any plan that solved violence would be topical including the genocide in Sudan, small arms, The Great Boer War. 2) Ground: The aff can spike out of core disads such as influence tradeoff disads by only increasing local competition aff can spike any disad that comes off an increase in US material aid 3) Predictability: With the explosion of aff cases, the neg will never be able to predict what aff will be run D. T is a voter for fairness and education.

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T: PHA (Violence)
A. Interpretation: Public health assistance includes prevention of diseases, water purification, and medical supplies. MMWR 92 (Public Health Assessment Russian Federation, 1992, February 14) The FHA assessment indicated three priorities for public health assistance to the Russian Federation. First, efforts should focus on the prevention of vaccine-preventable childhood diseases, including measles, pertussis, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis. The assessment indicated that approximately 3 million children aged 1-3 years may be at risk for measles and serious sequelae. In addition to providing measles vaccine, efforts are needed to increase the production of other childhood vaccines. Second, support should be provided to waterpurification plants, particularly in regions where organic pollution of public water supplies is severe. Third, medical supplies should include essential and life-saving drugs and other basic supplies. B. Violation: The aff doesnt do any of these they only provide education to prevent the recruitment of child soldiers. C. Standards 1) Limits: Under their interpretation, any plan that solved violence would be topical including the genocide in Sudan, small arms, The Great Boer War. 2) Ground: The aff can spike out of core disads such as influence tradeoff disads by only increasing local competition aff can spike any disad that comes off an increase in US material aid 3) Predictability: With the explosion of aff cases, the neg will never be able to predict what aff will be run. D. T is a voter for fairness and education.

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Solvency Frontline (1/3)


1. DDR doesnt solve for girls 40% of child soldiers Agence France Presse 06 (October 11, 11,000 child soldiers abandoned in DCR: Amnesty, L/N, NL)
The London-based human rights group said the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) programme, which aimed to help 200,000 combatants, was failing to meet the traumatised youngsters' needs. Girls in particular were worst affected, with most of those snatched by armed groups in the warravaged central African state still unaccounted for, it added in a report critical of the interim power-sharing administration. In the majority of cases, girls had either been abandoned or misidentified as legitimate "dependents" of adult fighters. President Joseph Kabila's government has done little or nothing to trace them, it added. In certain areas, Amnesty estimated that girls accounted for less than two percent of the child soldiers released from armed groups and into the DDR programme. Yet they make up about 40 percent of under-18s illegally used to fight by armed forces and groups, said Tawanda Hondora, the deputy director of Amnesty's Africa programme. A number of people are said to have testified that commanders and adult fighters often do not feel obliged to release girls, whom they consider their sexual playthings, and some DRC officials are willing to turn a blind eye. Some girls are said to consider it impossible to leave, fearing recriminations including torture and death if they try to escape.

2. Child soldiers inevitable A) Warlords convenience Africa News 07 (July 20, Ghana, Ex-UN Force Commander Says the World Has Failed Child Soldiers, L/N,
NL) A former United Nations (UN) Force Commander in Rwanda, Lt. Gen Romeo Dallaire (rtd.) has indicted humanity for collectively looking on unconcerned as warlords commit the unacceptable practice of recruiting child soldiers. He argues that the lukewarm posture of the world towards the plight of child soldiers contributed in no small way to their recruitment. He points out that besides the complicity of humanity it is also easier and cheaper to recruit child soldiers. "It is easier and cheaper to recruit child soldiers, and ultimately the world lets them get away with it," said Lt. Gen. Dallaire in a response to the question as to why warlords recruit child soldiers instead of adults in an exclusive interview with the Public Agenda at the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC) in Accra.

B) Cost-effective services. Manoharan 05 (N, The Hindu, May 24, Child Soldiers, L/N, NL)
There are two major factors behind children being preferred for soldiering. First, recruiting and maintaining children is cost-effective. They eat less, wear less and are paid less. It is estimated that expenditure on child soldiers is less than half of what is spent on their adult counterparts. But, when it comes to work, they are treated like adults - fighting on frontlines, carrying heavy war supplies and, at times, injured or dead soldiers, cleaning, guarding and cooking. The fearlessness and ignorance of children are manipulated to employ them on the most hazardous tasks such as laying and clearing landmines and handling toxic weapons.

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Solvency Frontline (2/3)


3. No solvency Rebels will not release child soldiers in one piece. BBC Monitoring 07 (BBC Monitoring International Reports, Congolese Paper Reports 400 Child Soldiers to
be Demobilized in Car, May 29, L/N, NL) Damane Zakaria, a self-proclaimed "General," did not clearly indicate when the children will be handed over to the authorities for them to be demobilized. In a communique, UNICEF confirmed that negotiations had begun with the non-government armed groups so that hundreds of child soldiers enlisted in the northeast of the CAR will be released and handed over to their families. According to the UN agency, "the UFDR leader has agreed to release about 400 children. An initial list of 220 child soldiers has been submitted to UNICEF, stating that the rebels could sign a final agreement in the coming weeks." At the same time, UNICEF pointed out it had begun discussions with the government in Bangui to study the modalities for demobilizing the children and for their return to civilian life. The peace accord signed at Birao on 13 April has already provided for the integration of the UFDR combatants into the ranks of the loyalist defence and security forces or their reintegration into civilian life. However, this agreement did not mention either the existence of child soldiers or of their fate. The UFDR, that emerged towards the end of 2006, by occupying several localities in the north-east of the country, was, before the signing of the peace agreement, one of the main rebel movements hostile to the regime of the CAR president, Francois Bozize. Since 2005, the action of these movements, combined with the activities of "those who erected road blocks" and to the brutalities of members of the regular army, had plunged the northern half of the CAR into notorious insecurity.

4. Prefer our evidence its comparative. Non-participants and participants in DDR have performed similarly in society. Humphreys and Weinstein 05 (Macartan, Assistant Professor @ Columbia University, and Jeremy,
Assistant Professor @ Stanford University, Disentangling the Determinants of Successful Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration, February) Perhaps the most surprising result is that international interventions designed to aid the demobilization process appear to have only weak impacts on the likelihood of successful reintegration. Nonparticipants in DDR do just as well as those who entered the formal demobilization program. But there is some evidence that non-participants may have been aided in reintegration by the programs that targeted other combatants, creating community-level effects that paved the way for their return as well.

5. A) Turn: Western education in Sub-saharan Africa creates a new European racism. Tikly 01 (Leon, Globalization and Education in the Postcolonial World: towards a conceptual framework,
Comparative Education, 37:2, 151-171, May 1) Finally, European racism continues to exert an influence on the trajectory of educational reform in sub-Saharan Africa. Hoogvelt (1997) argues that the implementation of structural adjustment policies has been very much tied in with the spread of the new racism which has come to underpin popular explanations for the growing political instability and intercommunal conflicts in the marginal areas of the global economy (p. 179). This new racism, based on cultural explanations of difference, has come to replace biologically driven notions of racial superiority in the Western psyche. In many European constructions of the African Other, Africas malaise is seen to be rooted in Africa itself. International school effectiveness studies, supported by global agencies such as the World Bank can feed into and support such views. Largely based on research, rationalities and an underlying epistemology developed elsewhere, school effectiveness studies lay the blame for school failure at the local level. Understood in discursive terms, as an example of knowledge/power in operation, school effectiveness can be understood as a disciplinary technology, i.e. as an important tool for managing crisis and apportioning blame (Morley & Rasool, 1999; Tikly, 1999; Harber & Davies, 1997; Samoff, 1994).

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Solvency Frontline (3/3)


B) Impact: We must take every action to breakdown racism failure risks annihilation Barndt 91 Educator, Trainer, and Organizer in field of Racial Justice
[Joseph, Dismantling racism: the continuing challenge to White America, http://militantmoderate.debateaddict.com/forums/showthread.php?p=804#post804] To study racism is to study walls. We have looked at barriers and fences, restraints and limitations, ghettos and prisons. The prison of racism confines us all, people of color and white people alike. It shackles the victimizer as well as the victim. The walls forcibly keep people of color and white people separate from each other; in our separate prisons we are all prevented from achieving the human potential that God intends for us. The limitations imposed on people of color by poverty, subservience, and powerlessness are cruel, inhuman, and unjust; the effects of uncontrolled power, privilege, and greed, which are the marks of our white prison, will inevitably destroy us as well. But we have also seen that the walls of racism can be dismantled. We are not condemned to an inexorable fate, but are offered the vision and the possibility of freedom. Brick by brick, stone by stone, the prison of individual, institutional, and cultural racism can be destroyed. You and I are urgently called to join the efforts of those who know it is time to tear down once and for all, the walls of racism.

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No Solvency: No Desire
No solvency: Children dont want to learn in a formal education system. Panafrican News Agency 04 (April 29, Burundis Former Child Soldiers Dislike Schools, L/N, NL)
Burundian authorities are facing enormous problems to reintegrate former child soldiers into the education system after their demobilisation under a series of cease-fire agreements. According to a source at the institution charged with the re- integration process, a majority of the 964 former child soldiers prefer to learn a trade in a non-formal education system. Unfortunately, this type of training is not available in all the provinces of the country. The co-ordinator of the national project for demobilisation, reintegration and prevention of recruitment of child soldiers, Desiree Gatoto said she plans to encourage the demobilised children to choose other more traditional forms of training that are readily available. "But such an advise will only bear fruit if it is backed by parents and close relatives," Gatoto pointed out, adding that the former belligerents were also to blame for the slow pace at which they were releasing the former child soldiers within their ranks.

Children dont want to go home because they receive food and most of their family has already dead. Marano 02 (Lou, United Press International, When the enemy is a child, June 12, L/N, NL)
The second point was that despite the brutality of their lives, it is a mistake to think that child soldiers are eager to escape. Child soldiers are effectively alienated from their home environment, he said. "Their ability to go home is completely removed by the fact that they're forced to commit atrocious and appalling acts." Gray said he never met a child soldier who wanted to go home. In their environment someone who was fed, had a pair of boots and a gun was king. "They become hooked on the power to some extent." That coupled with the fact that almost no one was left alive between 18 and 40 meant that no child soldier was trying to escape. "They become a very useful commodity, and they are used extensively. There are an awful lot of them, and to some extent they are pretty effective."

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No Solvency: Ethnocentricity
Teaching children right from wrong is ineffective Marano 02 (Lou, United Press International, When the enemy is a child, June 12, L/N, NL)
Gray made three points, and saved the most dramatic one for last. The first was that in some parts of the world, ethnocentric moral exhortation won't work. The attitude he encountered in Sierra Leone "is something we in the West can't really comprehend." He thinks that "preaching" to the leaders of child soldiers, and telling them that what they are doing is wrong, is ineffective. "You might as well be speaking Chinese."

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No Solvency: Soldiers Elsewhere


Cant solve for readiness: child soldiers will still exist in Iraq and other parts of the world. United Press International 03 (February 6, US May Face Child Soldiers in Iraq, L/N, NL)
Western experts say there are now around 300,000 child soldiers around the world fighting in 30 conflicts, or approximately 75 percent of the world's military battles. "It certainly is not a problem unique to Iraq," said Stohl. "Anyone in the U.S. military forces that are deployed many places oversees is likely to come into contact with child soldiers." Singer said that even if the United States does not go to war with Iraq, it is nearly inevitable that American soldiers will face children in battle somewhere. He added that Iraq's child soldiers raise not only combat issues for the military, but also pose a potential public relations nightmare given today's global media environment. "The scenes (of American soldiers fighting children) will possibly be played back not only within the United States but also around the world," said Singer.

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Child Soldiers Population = Exaggerated


Child soldiers only make up 0.05% of the population. Accra Mail (Ghana) July 10, 2007 (WHAT BONO DOESN'T SAY ABOUT THE CONTINENT L/N)
What percentage of the African population would you say dies in war every year? What share of male children, age 10 to 17, are child soldiers? How many Africans are afflicted by famine or died of AIDS last year or are living as refugees? In each case, the answer is one-half of 1% of the population or less. In some cases it's much less; for example, annual war deaths have averaged 1 out of every 10,800 Africans for the last four decades. That doesn't lessen the tragedy, of course, of those who are such victims, and maybe there are things the West can do to help them. But the typical African is a long way from being a starving, AIDS-stricken refugee at the mercy of child soldiers. The reality is that many more Africans need latrines than need Western peacekeepers - but that doesn't play so well on TV.

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AT: US Key (UMICH)


1. There solvency evidence does not state that the US is key to solving problems in sub-Saharan Africa. Neither does it state that rehabilitation, reintegration programs, healthcare can solve for the children in sub-Saharan Africa. 2. The McManimon evidence a. Discusses that the US has a problem with child soldiers they allow 17 year olds to fight only by fixing the USs problem will they resolve the perception of condoning violence. b. The US should look over the arms trade because this exacerbates the child soldier problem opposition groups use US arms - the plan does not solve for small arms 3. Their Akallo evidence doesn't say the U.S. is key -- it just says that people in general have an obligation to
"act against atrocity." Even if this card says the U.S. COULD end conflicts, it's not comparative that other actors are WORSE.

4. Skinner 99 evidence doesnt say the US is key - explains that the international community should help out African countries because many developed countries manipulated African states during the Cold War. Ergo, some international community should help Africa.

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DDR Fails
DDR does not stop recruitment of children and economic incentives are key to preventing re-recruitment not only education. Agence France Presse 06 (October 11, 11,000 child soldiers abandoned in DCR: Amnesty, L/N, NL)
The London-based human rights group said the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) programme, which aimed to help 200,000 combatants, was failing to meet the traumatised youngsters' needs. This has done nothing to stop the new recruitment of children, including some who were only recently demobilised and reunited with their families, said Hondora, urging international action to tackle the problem. "The new government must make it their first priority to ensure that all children associated with armed forces and groups are released, protected and provided with meaningful educational and income-generating opportunities to enable them to stay within their communities. "This is the only way to prevent the re-recruitment and further abandonment of these children."

SDI 2007 5 Week

23 Child Soldiers Neg

Psychologists Fail
Western trained psychologists fail to address the true problem spiritual discord. Wessels 98 (Michael G., professor of Psychology, Radolph-Macon College, a former president of the Division
of Peace Psychology of the American Psychological Association, Journal of Peace Research, Review Essay, Children, Armed Conflict, and Peace) Culture Context, and Stress Stress, its effects, and the socially appropriate means of responding to it are powerfully influenced by culture (DiNicola, 1996). As Cairns (1996) notes, psychologists have tended to embrace Western models of stress, acting as if they were universal. In fact, stress is a socially constructed construct that exhibits considerable variation across cultures. In countries such as Angola, where life is colored by spiritual cosmology, a child soldier who has killed may present symptoms such as guilt and sleeplessness, but the deeper problem may be his belief that he is haunted by the unavenged spirits of those he killed (Green & Wessells, 1995; Wessells, 1997). Whereas Western-trained psychologists might urge this individual to express his feelings about what he had done, this approach might not address the spiritual contamination issue. Failure to restore spiritual harmony can lead to the youths rejection by the community (Green & Wessells, 1995; Wessells, 1997).

SDI 2007 5 Week

24 Child Soldiers Neg

Disarmament and Reintegration Fail


Disarmament and reintegration programs fail because of a permanent education system and jobs. Wood 05 (David, Newshouse News Service, Child Soldiers Mature Into Threat to Africas Stability, June 20,
L/N, NL) The phenomenon of child soldiers, which burst into the world's consciousness in the 1990s as a series of savage civil wars swept sub-Saharan Africa, has morphed into a brutal new form as tens of thousands of hardened teenage fighters rejoin militias and drift across borders from one conflict to another. Senior U.S. defense and intelligence officials say the re-emergence of child soldiers who are used by rebel and government forces alike is a serious and rising threat to stability across a broad swath of Africa. It comes despite millions of dollars spent by international donors and aid agencies to disarm and reintegrate them into their local communities, efforts falling short in part because of the lack of sustaining education and jobs in Africa's sagging economies. "It's a big problem," said Theresa Whelan, deputy assistant defense secretary for Africa, who has met with former child soldiers who are now experienced adolescent fighters in Uganda and Liberia.

SDI 2007 5 Week

25 Child Soldiers Neg

Education Fails
Ex-child soldiers find it difficult to participate in education and may revert back to violence. Wessels 98 (Michael G., professor of Psychology, Radolph-Macon College, a former president of the Division
of Peace Psychology of the American Psychological Association, Journal of Peace Research, Review Essay, Children, Armed Conflict, and Peace) The Machel Study establishes just how distant a goal peace is, as it documents that childrens human rights are being violated on a massive scale. In addition, the Study suggests that the impacts of armed conflict on children pose formidable obstacles to the construction of peace. Even after ceasefires and peace treaties have been signed, societies must find a way of reintegrating significant numbers of underage soldiers who have been trained to kill and who have seen and experienced events viewed traditionally as outside the realm of children. Many war-affected children are at risk of continuing cycles of violence, and they may find it difficult to participate fully in education or in wider tasks of development. Intervention and violence prevention efforts are badly needed. Peace and childrens well-being are inseparable, a point having particular salience in war-torn countries where children make up nearly half the population.

SDI 2007 5 Week

26 Child Soldiers Neg

Education Exists Now


Education and reintegration programs exist now. Menon and Argaese 07 (Geeta, Senior Technical Advisor for Education in Emergencies, and Abby, Inter to
Basic and Girls Education Unit, American Institutes of Research, Role of Education and the Demobilization of Child Soldiers Aspects of an Appropriate Education Program for Child Soldiers, March, NL) The Christians Children Fund implemented program in Angola, which worked with the community to legitimize the return of the former child soldiers. The program worked through church-based motivators and welcomed returning children in a traditional ceremony involving cleansing rituals. The Save the Children-run program in DRC layered demobilization activities with their strong Community Child Protection Networks (CCPN), which focused on preventing and protecting children from all kinds of abuse, advocating for childrens protection and development, and disseminating and promoting the rights of children and legal protection instruments. Because they were already actively engaged in child rights issues, the CCPN played critical roles in demobilization and reintegration activities The USAIDsponsored Community Focused Reintegration (CFR) programs in Burundi, DRC, Liberia, and Sierra Leone made community central to the reintegration and education processes. In Burundi, for example, the program consisted of three components: 1) leadership training for esteemed community members, including training on understanding perceptions, communicating effectively, and resolving conflicts; 2) combined vocational skills and literacy training for ex-combatants and other community members; and 3) small grants for small community infrastructure projects. Together these activities helped to reweave the social networks of the community while reintegrating the returning child soldiers.

SDI 2007 5 Week

27 Child Soldiers Neg

Education Doesnt Solve Economy


Education doesnt solve for the economy - it does not provide jobs. Van Wyk 07 (Anneline, Namibia: Education Does Not Provide Jobs, New Era, August 7)
Despite the fact that education and training are imperatives, they do not provide direct jobs. They only empower, enlighten and liberate people. This was said over the weekend by the Minister of Youth, National Service, Sport and Culture, John Mutorwa, when he officially opened the Karas Regional Youth Expo at Keetmanshoop under the theme, Our Youth, Our Gem, Our Assets. He warned that the youth must remain focused and constructively engage themselves in the country's socio-economic, political, cultural, intellectual, moral and educational activities and development. Young entrepreneurs, artists, youth and cultural groups from all over the Karas Region participated in the event. The overall winner of the Karas Regional Youth Expo 2007 was Thomas van Niekerk from Karasburg, trading under the name Shareez Leather Designs.

SDI 2007 5 Week

28 Child Soldiers Neg

Alt Causes Frontline (1/2)


Alt Causes: A) Bulging population, living in cities, shattered economies, and abundance of small arms. Wood 05 (David, Newshouse News Service, Child Soldiers Mature Into Threat to Africas Stability, June 20,
L/N, NL) Some obstacles to reintegration can never be overcome. "Very often the initiation into a militia is to kill a family member, reinforcing the idea that the kid can never go home," said a senior U.S. intelligence official with long experience in African conflicts, who was authorized to speak only anonymously. "They fight without remorse they're frightening," the officer said. What's pushing many of these young men back into warfare now is a powerful combination of factors: a bulging youth population, massive demographic shifts of youths from countryside to Africa's broken and teeming cities, economies shattered by warfare and corruption, and a proliferation of small arms.

B) AIDS Byriak 07 (George J, The Tragedy of Child Soldiers, July/September, Peace Magazine, L/N, NL)
Peter W. Singer of the Brookings Institution believes AIDS is a significant factor in the rise of child soldiers. Having watched their parents succumb to this sickness, "many [children] will consider they have nothing to lose by entering into war." By 2010, more than 43 million children will be AIDS orphans, losing one or both parents to the disease. The numbers will be greatest in Africa, "the epicenter of the child soldier phenomenon."

C) Economic conditions Byriak 07 (George J, The Tragedy of Child Soldiers, July/September, Peace Magazine, L/N, NL)
Prolonged warfare all but destroys normal economic and social conditions, especially in poverty stricken developing nations. With schools closed and their parents unemployed, children join armed forces to "secure daily food and survive." Surrounded by violence and conflict, many volunteer for the protection they believe carrying weapons will afford them.

D) Government harassment Manoharan 05 (N, The Hindu, May 24, Child Soldiers, L/N, NL)
Children at times readily join armed opposition groups to avoid harassments from the government forces. The urge to seek revenge in children for harassment by government forces is built on and carefully manipulated by armed groups for their advantage. The children also pick up guns for the thrill and power behind wielding weapons. But most child recruitment takes place by force. Kidnappings and press-ganging are popular methods used in Myanmar and Sri Lanka. Known as " afesa " in Ethiopia, children are picked up in streets by roaming security forces personnel. Orphans, displaced and street children are potential victims.

SDI 2007 5 Week

29 Child Soldiers Neg

Alt Cause Frontline (2/2)


E) Small arms Boivin 05 (Alexandra, B.A. and B.C.L./LL.B. degrees from McGill University and a Masters degree (DEA) in
International Humanitarian Law from the GraduateInstitute of International Studies, Geneva, Complicity and beyond: International law and the transfer of small arms and light weapons, International Review-Red Cross) While the legal basis for imposing and enforcing arms embargoes falls outside the realm of international humanitarian law, a quick glance at the parties currently embargoed reveals that this type of response on the part of the international community is closely related to the perpetration of serious violations of the laws of war. In the past two years, with the Security Council becoming more active on the question of child soldiers, arms embargoes have been threatened against parties that recruit children into their ranks.46 This suggests that beyond the general association of small arms with violations of international humanitarian law, a specific link is being authoritatively established between the availability of small arms and violations of the rights of children in armed conflict. One may reasonably conclude that embargoes in such circumstances are a reflection of States Common Article 1 obligation to ensure respect for international humanitarian law.

F) The aff does not stop voluntary action - Children join the army voluntarily. Leahy 06 (Stephen, environmental journalist, IPS Inter Press Service, Rights: Redefining Justice For Child
Soldiers, October 25, L/N, NL) Some 300,000 combatants under age 18 -- some as young as six and 40 percent of them girls -- are illegal recruits in more than 30 conflicts around the world, Popovski and co-author Karen Arts say in the brief, which is based on a forthcoming book that examines how a child rights approach has been gradually introduced into the operation of international tribunals. Child soldiers are made to commit serious crimes alongside adults in such strife-torn places as Darfur, Sudan, the DRC, Sierra Leone, the Philippines, Nepal and Colombia. But there are cases of child soldiers clearly in control of their actions, "who were not coerced, drugged or forced into committing atrocities. Some have become child soldiers voluntarily and committed atrocities of their own discretion," the brief says. "Children often volunteer because their family members have been gunned down by paramilitaries or other groups," said Marco Puzon of UNICEF East Asia about the armed conflict in the Philippines.

SDI 2007 5 Week

30 Child Soldiers Neg

Alt Cause: AIDS


AIDS orphans are more easily exploited lack of parents to protect them.
Neilson No date (Trevor, Executive Director of the Global Business Coalition on HIV/AIDS, a network of 165 international companies fighting the AIDS pandemic and is co-founder of Debt, AIDS, Trade, Africa, AIDS, Economics, and Terrorism in Africa, NL) The AIDS orphan crisis suggests that they are recruiting in the right place. UNICEF estimates that 12 million children under 15 in sub-Saharan Africa have lost at least one parent to AIDS and that there will be 20 million AIDS orphans in Africa by 2010. Most African countries have no plan to address the crisis and UNICEF has only recently begun to examine the real costs of addressing the problem. Little research has been done about the link between Africas AIDS orphan crisis and the work of terrorist groups in Africa but, in examining the role of child soldiers in African conflicts, one is able to paint a disturbing picture of what is likely to unfold. Hundreds of thousands of children as young as ten years old have been forced by adults to participate in violence aimed at provoking political change in Angola, Ethiopia, Uganda, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, Sudan, Congo and other countries in Africa. While some children are abducted from their homes, children are most easily coerced into this work when there is no caring adult in their lives to protect them. The deadly conflicts that have ravaged Africa have created a steady stream of orphans who can be exploited.

SDI 2007 5 Week

31 Child Soldiers Neg

Alt Cause: Economic Conditions


Children join armies because they are guaranteed food, clothing, and shelter. Manoharan 05 (N, The Hindu, May 24, Child Soldiers, L/N, NL)
The United Nations Report on Impact of armed conflict on children' (1996) notes that "one of the most basic reasons for children joining armed groups is economic." For orphan children, joining armed groups is attractive to guarantee themselves the basic necessities of food, clothing and shelter. At times, poverty forces parents to offer their children for fighting in return for money. However, the children of parents who involve themselves in armed conflicts drift into soldiering by default. If there is a strong prevalence of violence within a particular community in a conflict area, there is a greater likelihood of children belonging to such communities to be part of hostilities. In these circumstances, a gun in their hands is a safer option rather than being without one.

SDI 2007 5 Week

32 Child Soldiers Neg

Alt Cause: Extreme Poverty


Children enlist in the army as a result of extreme poverty. Gray 02 (James, in the process of getting the degree of M.A. in political science, The End of Innocence: Child
Soldiers In Africa and International Assistance, November) Child soldiers are usually recruited from poor and disadvantaged areas. Poverty often drives children to enlist in an armed group for the material benefits that are offered food, shelter and clothing. Frequently they come from marginalised groups street children, internally displaced persons, or refugees with no support structures.14 Children from displaced or non-existent family backgrounds are unable to benefit from anti-war values or the protection offered by families. Sometimes parents force their children to enlist in an armed group for material reasons, or because they believe that this is the only way out of dire situations faced. Extreme poverty can drive people to do extreme things; sending a child off to war may, in certain circumstances, appear the least bad option.

SDI 2007 5 Week

33 Child Soldiers Neg

Alt Cause: Infrastructure


Rebels increase as a result of a weak state. Sambanis 04 (Nicholas, Yale University, Poverty and the Organization of Political Violence, Muse, NL)
Recently, these theories have been prominently applied by two sets of researchersCollier and Hoeffler, and Fearon and Laitinboth of whom explain rebellion as the outcome of rational decision making, subject to the constraints of the rebel "labor market."13 Fearon and Laitin use income not as a measure of poverty but rather a measure of state strength. According to their model, rebel labor supply increases if the state is weak and cannot effectively police its territory.14 Mountainous terrain and a large population also make policing harder. Wars are more likely in new states that are "anocratic" (that is, neither full autocracies nor democracies) and plagued by political instability, or in newly founded states. Dependence on oil exports also adds to the risk of civil war since it may corrupt political institutions.

SDI 2007 5 Week

34 Child Soldiers Neg

Alt Cause: Voluntary


Children voluntarily join the militias because of insecurity, vulnerability, boredom, and lack of food. Honwana 02 (Alcinda, Negotiating Post-war Identities Child Soldiers in Mozambique and Angola)
In Angola, many children pointed to insecurity, vulnerability, boredom and lack of food as some of the reasons that drove them to volunteer. Particularly important was the sense of security and power that the possession of a gun seems to provide. In Angola there was direct involvement of the traditional authorities in the recruitment of child soldiers. There were cases in which parents had to give their young boys to the soba2, who would then send them to UNITA. Political and ethnic alliances may also have played a role in this because not everyone had to act in this way. Some sobas, some parents and even youths might have decided to take that course of action because, according to their own convictions, that was the right thing to do.

SDI 2007 5 Week

35 Child Soldiers Neg

Alt Cause: Small Arms


The availability of small arms directly correlates with the use of child soldiers. Stohl 01 (Rachel, Putting Children First Background Report, UN Security Council)
Greater examination of the link between small arms and the use of children in conflict has highlighted that the availability of small arms is clearly a contributing factor to the use of child soldiers .5 3Without small arms children are generally less useful to armed groups, although they may still be used as soldiers or in support roles. For example, in the Goma area of the Democratic Republic of Congo, rebels did not have enough arms for each soldier and so deployed children unarmed as a diversionary force. The children were instructed to take sticks and beat on trees to draw the fire of the opposition, allowing armed combatants to attack from a different direction.5 4H o w e v e r, children as young as eight years of age are being taught to fire assault rifles and machine guns, to throw grenades, and to carry and repair mortars and rocket-propelled grenade launchers. These weapons have made child combatants just as effective as adults, to a large extent erasing distinctions between child and adult combatants. Indeed, some adult combatants recognize that they can use childrens vulnerability and immature understanding of conflict to physically or emotionally coerce children into undertaking dangerous tasks. Child soldiers are often subjected to life threatening risks, even those beyond the normal dangers of w a r. For example, some have been made to walk across fields to clear the area of landmines.

In order to rid of child soldiers, the government and international community must regulate small arms. Gray 02 (James Staurt, applying for MA in Political Science, The End of Innocence: Child Soldiers in Africa
and International Assitance, http://64.233.179.104/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=cache:sUX8fqOl0wEJ:www.devzone.net/downloads/devnetabstract368.pdf+%22child+soldiers%22+education+fails+psychological+wounds%22sub -saharan+africa%22) As it is accepted that small arms and light weapons enable children to become soldiers, then analysing child soldiers needs to incorporate the role of these instruments of war to fully understand the child soldier phenomena. The trafficking, sale and use of small arms is more prevalent in zones of conflict than in areas of peace and stability. The breakdown of law and order provides an unbridled market for those trading in small arms; the conflict results in a high demand for weapons, both by armed groups wishing to actively engage in fighting, or by civilians seeking to protect themselves. Small arms allow child soldiers to exist, and conflicts provide an unhindered trading ground for such weapons. Therefore, to be rid of child soldiers requires the cessation of a conflict so that the trade in small arms can be brought under government and international - control and regulation. This may reduce the likelihood of weapons ending up in the hands of children, and the chances of their entering combat functions.

SDI 2007 5 Week

36 Child Soldiers Neg

No Psychological Damage
Turn: Psychological trauma does not occupy the childs mind; instead, the children create stable, dependable social structures. Abatneh 06 (Abraham Sewonet, M.A. in Sociology at the University of South Africa, Disarmament,
Demobilization, Rehabilitation, and Reintegration of Rwandan Child Soldiers, December http://etd.unisa.ac.za/ETD-db/theses/available/etd-05212007-081452/unrestricted/dissertation.pdf) The research revealed that rather than being passive victims, some of the youth ex-combatants came out the armed conflicts with certain resilience and advantages including pride, maturity and respect from their families and communities. Although youth ex-combatants were understandably distressed by their experience, this did not prohibit them from positively, or functionally, rebuilding their lives again. Contrary to the expectation of aid agencies, the scars of psychological trauma did neither pre-occupy the youths mind nor has caused a lost generation. Instead, the youth were able to develop strong and dependable social structures as combatants as well as survivors and gained stability in their lives. Hence, the notion held by aid agencies about the inevitable vulnerability and passivity of all young people in armed conflicts is wrong and has led to a lack of understanding of the wider socio-economic and political dynamics that greatly influenced the manner in which children participated in and were affected by war.

SDI 2007 5 Week

37 Child Soldiers Neg

Consequentialism Framework Frontline (1/3)


Consequentialism subsumes other methods of moral evaluation rights violations must ultimately be viewed as a consequence David Sosa, Professor of Philosophy at Waggoner Hill University, 1993 (Consequences of Consequentialism,
Mind, Vol. 102 No. 405, pp. 103-104, HL) Rights-based ethical theories are often opposed to consequentialist theories over examples such as this. The hanging of the innocent is wrong because it violates the innocent's rights and no amount of good consequences can outweigh that right. Rights trump utilities, as it is sometimes put. The version of consequentialism defended here has a response that partially accommodates that intuition. The violation of the innocent's rights must be weighed along with the other factors in evaluating the states of affairs consequent upon his hanging. If the officials hang him they violate his right not to be punished unless guilty. The violation of that right is a very serious harm, perhaps greater even than many deaths which are not in punishment of innocent people . Of course we need not be absolutist (in Anscombe's sense, see 1958, pp. 9-19). We can consistently believe that even that great harm could be outweighed (although I do not
think, as consequentialists, we must do even that). If it is wrong to punish the innocent in that case, consequentialism can consistently explain it. If we do take the non-absolutist line, and hold that the disvalue of the violation can be outweighed, then we disagree with the "trumpers", those who think rights trump utilities. They are at odds even with our partially conciliatory consequentialism. For them it is not enough that rights violations figure, negatively, in the evaluation of states of affairs. But consequentialism can be even more conciliatory. It can allow that some bad consequences trump. Consistent with the version of consequentialism here being developed, we could hold that if

one of the consequences of an act is that a right is violated, then that act cannot be made right by any amount of positive value of any other kind. This may sound non-consequentialist, but it can be assimilated. The disvalue of a rights violation is so great, goes the consequentialist interpretation, that no consequences of other kinds can compete. Rights trump (other) utilities, as it were, simply because of the enormous disvalue of a rights violation.

SDI 2007 5 Week

38 Child Soldiers Neg

Consequentialism Framework Frontline (2/3)


Even if there are other possible frameworks for individuals, moral governments must be consequentialist Larry A. Alexander, Professor at the School of Law, University of San Diego, 1987, (Scheffler on Agent
Centered Prerogatives: Comments and Criticism, The Journal of Philosophy, pp. 282-283, HL) First, the response exposes the precarious status of the agent-centered prerogative. A moral agent may have an agent-centered prerogative to do A only if another moral agent does not exercise her agent-centered prerogative to do B. Of course, within consequentialist moral theories other than certain (implausible) types of rule- consequentialist theories, the permissibility or obligatoriness of an act is always dependent upon how others are acting. Usually, how- ever, it is possible theoretically for properly motivated actors to coordinate their
acts at an optimal level." Given Scheffler's agent- centered prerogative-his enclave of discretion to deviate from producing optimal consequences-no stable coordination is morally obligatory and thus realizable (except fortuitously) among properly motivated actors. Second, there is not even available to Scheffler a stable floor, a consequentialist baseline, a state of affairs that is the worst such state an actor is permitted to produce. For any actor facing such a state of affairs would, in the absence of agent-centered restrictions, presumably still be able to weight her projects more than they are weighted in the measurement of the baseline state of affairs. She may then presumably act to produce an even worse set of consequences, which in turn permits other actors themselves to produce still worse consequences, ad infinitum. Even if each actor can give her projects only slightly more weight than they are accorded in the impartial consequentialist calculus, the absence of agent-centered restrictions results in the possibility of an endless downward spiral of worse and worse consequences. An equally important reason why Scheffler cannot plausibly posit conflicting moral permissions across the board, rather than as limited to discrete spheres such as athletic and business competition and (more problematically) self-defense, is that, without agent-centered restrictions, there is one important actor that is

always obligated to produce an optimal set of consequences. That actor is the government. The government is not the kind of moral agent which can possess an agent-centered prerogative with respect to its own acts. It must always act as a thoroughgoing consequentialist, giving only impartial consideration to individuals' weightings of their own projects. Now Scheffler's positing of an agent-centered
prerogative has absolutely no implications for how government must act. Because it has no such implications, it also places the government in direct opposition to all exercises of Scheffler's agent-centered prerogatives. To the extent

that the agent-centered prerogative entails moral permissions beyond those which are consequentialistjustified, to that ex- tent it necessarily conflicts with what the state is morally required to see happen. The state would be obligated to attempt to prevent all non-consequentialist-justified exercises of the agent-centered prerogative, perhaps even to the extent of denying the existence of such a prerogative and inculcating a purely consequentialist morality. Moreover, because resisting the government might have dire consequences where the government is acting as a proper consequentialist and where resistance would be contagious, the consequentialist limit on the agent-centered prerogative might dictate that the prerogative never be exercised.

Nuclear war and extinction come first. Acting in the face of any risk of extinction is immoral George Kateb, political theorist and author, 1992 (The Inner Ocean: Individualism and Democratic Culture pp.
111, HL) Schell's work attempts to force on us an acknowledgment that sounds far-fetched and even ludicrous, an acknowledgment that the possibility of extinction is carried by any use of nuclear weapons, no matter how limited or how seemingly rational or seemingly morally justified. He himself acknowledges that there is a difference between possibility and certainty. But in a matter that is more than a matter, more than one practical matter in a vast series of practical matters, in the "matter" of extinction, we are obliged to treat a possibility--a genuine possibility-as a certainty. Humanity is not to take any step that contains even the slightest risk of extinction. The doctrine of no-use is based on the possibility of extinction. Schell's
perspective transforms the subject. He takes us away from the arid stretches of strategy and asks us to feel continuously, if we can, and feel keenly if only for an instant now and then, how utterly distinct the nuclear world is. Nuclear

discourse must vividly register that distinctiveness. It is of no moral account that extinction may be only a slight possibility. No one can say how great the possibility is, but no one has yet credibly denied that by some sequence or other a particular use of nuclear weapons may lead to human and natural extinction. If it is not impossible it must be treated as certain: the loss signified by extinction nullifies all calculations of probability as it nullifies all calculations of costs and benefits.

SDI 2007 5 Week

39 Child Soldiers Neg

Consequentialism Framework Frontline (3/3)


Nuclear war would cause extinction multiple ways George Kateb, political theorist and author, 1992 (The Inner Ocean: Individualism and Democratic Culture pp.
111-112, HL)
Abstractly put, the connections between any use of nuclear weapons and human and natural extinction

are several. Most obviously, a sizable exchange of strategic nuclear weapons can, by a chain of events in nature, lead to the earth's uninhabitability, to "nuclear winter," or to Schell "republic of insects and grass." But the consideration of extinction cannot rest with the possibility of a sizable exchange of strategic weapons. It cannot rest with the imperative that a sizable exchange must not take place. A so-called tactical or "theater" use, or a so-called limited use, is also prohibited absolutely, because of the possibility of immediate escalation into a sizable exchange or because, even if there were not an immediate escalation, the possibility of extinction would reside in the precedent for future use set by any use whatever in a world in which more than one power possesses nuclear weapons. Add other consequences: the contagious effect on nonnuclear powers who may feel compelled by a mixture of fear and vanity to try to acquire their own weapons, thus increasing the possibility of use by increasing the number of nuclear powers; and the unleashed emotions of indignation, retribution, and revenge which, if not acted on immediately in the form of escalation, can be counted on to seek expression later. Other than full strategic uses are not confined, no matter how small the explosive power: each would be a cancerous transformation of the world. All nuclear roads lead to the possibility of extinction. It is true by definition, but let us make it explicit: the doctrine of no-use excludes any first or retaliatory or later use, whether sizable or not. No-use is the imperative derived from the possibility of extinction.

SDI 2007 5 Week

40 Child Soldiers Neg

UN CP 1NC
Counterplan Text: The UN should substantially increase funding for education efforts to reduce the participation of people less than 18 years of age in armed conflict in topically designated areas. Contention 1: The counter plan is __________________. Contention 2: The counter plan competes by net benefits. Contention 3: Solvency The UN has unique experience in DDR programs. M2 Presswire 06 (December 18, UN: United Nations launches new standards for disarmament,
demobilization, ad reintegration of ex-combatants) The United Nations has been involved in supporting disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes since the late 1980s. In the past five years alone, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration has been included in the mandates for multidimensional peacekeeping operations in Burundi, Cte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Liberia and Sudan. Simultaneously, the United Nations has increased its disarmament, demobilization and reintegration engagement in nonpeacekeeping contexts, such as Afghanistan, Central African Republic, Congo, Indonesia (Aceh), Niger, Somalia, Solomon Islands and Uganda. This extensive experience has fostered a body of knowledge about the specific needs of key groups, including female combatants, children associated with armed conflict, and cross-cutting issues like gender, HIV/AIDS, and health. In parallel, attention has increasingly been paid to the longer-term requirements for stability, based on a growing awareness of the link between successful disarmament and demobilization and genuine and lasting opportunities for ex-combatants to reintegrate into their peacetime communities.

UNICEF has empirically set up education programs Liberia proves.


Panafrican News Agency 03 (October 15, UNICEF Supports Free Primary Education in Liberia, L/N, NL) Liberia's Education Ministry and the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF), have started a free primary education programme targeting some 70,000 children in the country, at least 15,000 of them child soldiers. Liberian officials say the targeted number of child soldiers could be much higher because of the large-scale forceful conscription of children by various armed groups in the country. Liberia's outgoing Education Minister Evelyn Kandakai told PANA Wednesday the programme was part government's "free and compulsory primary education." UNICEF Representative to Liberia, Cyril Niameago said the programme would be in phases, starting with Monrovia, the capital, and extending to the hinterlands as the security situation improves. He estimated UNICEF's support to the programme at six million US dollars, two million of which, had gone into the purchase of school materials for distribution. The UN agency has also appealed to international donors for additional five million dollars for its "child protection" programme. Niameago said Liberia's three belligerent forces have been urged to release thousands of child fighters for demobilisation and re-integration.

SDI 2007 5 Week

41 Child Soldiers Neg

UN CP Solvency EXT
The UN solves they have reformed their approach to DDR. M2 Presswire 06 (December 18, UN: United Nations launches new standards for disarmament,
demobilization, ad reintegration of ex-combatants) The new Integrated Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Standards acknowledge the difficulty of transforming individuals who have been scarred by conflict, in some cases for years or even decades, into productive members of their societies. In order to ease the transition, the Standards call for measures to provide psycho-social counselling, job training, educational opportunities and mechanisms to promote reconciliation in the communities where they return. Jointly developed, over the past two years, by staff members from peacekeeping missions, United Nations country teams and Headquarters, the Standards are being launched together with three accompanying tools that will ensure their widespread application: -- The Operational Guide aims to help users find their way through the IDDRS by briefly explaining the key guidance in each area, highlighting practical steps for the planning, implementation and evaluation of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes; -- The Briefing Note for Senior Managers contains key strategic and policy guidance; and -- The web-based DDR Resource Centre (www.unddr.org) includes all of these documents, and serves as the United Nations "one-stop shop" for all related information. "We've learned that, while different combatants in various contexts may have similar concerns and needs, there are also many specific factors that must be taken into account," explained Jean-Marie Guehenno, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations. "A child soldier must be reunited with his family, while a person living with HIV/AIDS will have particular health concerns that require attention." "By refining our approach to DDR," he continued, "We can better help each excombatant to ultimately reintegrate into society, so that they can go from being a cause of insecurity to a force for growing stability in countries urgently in need of committed people who can contribute to the rebuilding process."

With the release of child soldiers, UNICEF will place children into reintegration programs. BBC Monitoring 07 (Middle East, UN children agency, ex-Darfur rebel group sign pact to demobilize child
soldiers June 23, L/N, NL) Sudan Liberation Movement [SLM] leader, Mani [Arkoi] Minawi, has reached an agreement with UNICEF this month to identify locations of child soldiers within his faction group in one month's time to ensure that they are demobilized. According to Swangin Bismarck, communication officer of UNICEF in Southern Sudan, UNICEF in collaboration with the government and other international agencies will support the provision of family tracing and community reintegration programmes, with training of SLM/A field commanders on international child rights and protection standards, inclusive of permanent cessation of hostilities. The SLM/A has indicated that it has already identified a number of children attached to its forces in South and North Darfur and that a formal process of identifying all children associated with its armed groups would start within the next month. "The demobilized children will benefit from life skills and vocational training opportunities, education support, psycho social activities such as recreational, sports and career guidance," reports Swangin Bismarck.

SDI 2007 5 Week

42 Child Soldiers Neg

UN CP Solvency Ext.
The UN has been successful in convincing army leaders to demobilize child soldiers. Choe Choe 07 (Tan, New Straits Times, and the children lead the way, June 10, L/N, NL)
"War was the biggest vocation and the army was the biggest employer. "But if you create schools, health centres and markets, then they have other sources of employment." Dr Sharad remembers vividly a UNorganised workshop called "The Future Search Workshop" where children from warring tribes joined in. After three days of discussion, "they came up with something called Peace 2005". It was the children's aspirations for the future and they realised that peace could only come through education. "They had never seen television, never worn shoes, never seen any modern-day things, but they knew education was their way out of this (conflict)." Towards the end of his tenure there, Dr Sharad helped orchestrate one of the largest demobilisation of child soldiers in a combat zone in history. The UN managed to convince army leaders that children did not have a place in war situations, and within three weeks of negotiations, some 3,500 children between 6 and 12 were released.

The UN has had more than a decade of experience in DDR programs. Humphreys and Weinstein 05 (Macartan, Assistant Professor @ Columbia University, and Jeremy,
Assistant Professor @ Stanford University, Disentangling the Determinants of Successful Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration, February) As the UN now has more than a decade of experience in disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration, there has been no shortage of attempts by policy analysts and practitioners to cull the lessons learned from various experiences of implementation around the globe. These evaluations neatly divide into three categories: lessons that emerge from dialogues among policy experts, from cross-country comparisons of program design, and from the outside evaluation of specific DDR programs. While these approaches employ distinct research strategies, they share a common aim: to advance hypotheses about the determinants of successful DDR at the country level. We discuss each in turn, before highlighting the need for new evaluation approaches that enable us to isolate the factors that make reintegration more or less difficult for ex-combatants and precisely capture the impact of outside intervention.

The UN has now given more attention to the reintegration program of child soldiers. Council 06 (EU Concept for Support to Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR), November
13) The UN has recently developed a new approach to enhance coordination between UN agencies, which sees the sustainable reintegration of ex-combatants as a key objective of DDR, rather than an afterthought, which has sometimes been the case in the past. Consequently, the UN has developed IDDRS which set the framework for a more coherent and efficient cooperation of all UN agencies. The World Bank has also drawn important lessons learned from its engagement in DDR and other international agencies such as the International Organization for Migration (IOM) have also conducted DDR activities and have identified important lessons while implementing DDR activities.

The UN does not discriminate against women - UNSCR 1325 checks. Council 06 (EU Concept for Support to Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR), November
13) UNSCR 1325 reaffirms the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, peace negotiations, peace-building, peacekeeping, humanitarian response and in post-conflict reconstruction and stresses the importance of their equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security. The Resolution urges all actors to increase the participation of women and incorporate gender perspectives in all United Nations peace and security efforts, including DDR.

SDI 2007 5 Week

43 Child Soldiers Neg

IFESH CP 1NC
Counterplan Text: The International Foundation for Education and Self-Help should substantially increase funding for education efforts to reduce the participation of people less than 18 years of age in armed conflict in topically designated areas. Contention 1: The counter plan is __________________. Contention 2: The counter plan competes by net benefits. Contention 3: Solvency IFESH will provide education, counseling, and skills training. PR Newswire US 05 (May 17, The World Bank Awards IFESH an Additional $1.2 Million for Child Soldier
Programs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Africa, Scottsdale, AR, L/N, NL) The International Foundation for Education and Self-Help (IFESH) announced today that it has received an additional $1.2 million from the World Bank to expand its child soldier demobilization and reintegration programs in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Africa. The expansion brings the World Bank's current IFESH grant for child soldier repatriation projects in the DRC's Northern Katanga Province to $2.1 million. IFESH will use the added revenues in cooperation with the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) to promote the demobilization and socio-economic reintegration of approximately 2,215 child ex-combatants in the DRC. "The World Bank grant to IFESH to expand its child soldier reintegration program in the Democratic Republic of the Congo signals the organization's confidence in IFESH's ability to deliver sustainable development initiatives on the ground. The IFESH program in the Congo focuses on training former child combatants and in providing employment opportunities and counseling for them, thus reducing the likelihood of their return to conflict. The program relies heavily on community involvement and consensus building," said Dr. Julie Sullivan, CEO and President of IFESH. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has one of the largest populations of child soldiers in the world. Estimates place the number of 9-to-12-year-old soldiers in the DRC alone at 30,000. Tragically, nearly 70 percent of the children who manage to escape the conflict return to fighting because they have had no schooling and have no marketable skills. Through the intervention of IFESH and its partners, these children, most of whom have never experienced anything resembling a normal childhood, will receive extensive counseling, education, and skills training. The success of the IFESH program, which provides real world skills for these young men, was a major contributing factor in the World Bank grant expansion. IFESH's effort to aid education in sub-Saharan Africa is not limited to counseling, skills training, and small business funding for the child soldiers because even where schools do exist, they are ill equipped -- most lack desks, chairs or even chalk. Since 1987, IFESH has sent more than 800 master teachers to Africa, built more than 200 of its planned 1,000 schools, and sent more than $30 million in school and medical supplies to several countries. Established in 1981, the International Foundation for Education and Self-Help (IFESH) continues to uphold the pioneering self-help philosophy and transcendent message of hope of its founder, the late Reverend Leon H. Sullivan. Reverend Sullivan's work, which earned him the Presidential Medal of Freedom, America's highest civilian honor, is based on the concept that, for true sustainable development to occur, principles of self-reliance must be adhered to and integrated into community projects. Headquartered in Scottsdale, Arizona, USA, IFESH, employs more than 160 people in Benin, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, and South Africa. Ninety percent of IFESH employees in those ten country offices are natives of the countries in which they work.

SDI 2007 5 Week

44 Child Soldiers Neg

Generic NGO CP Ext.


NGOs have worked with the UNICEF to set up reintegration programs. Wessels 98 (Michael G., professor of Psychology, Radolph-Macon College, a former president of the Division
of Peace Psychology of the American Psychological Association, Children, Peace Education, and Postconflict Reconstruction for Peace) These practical aspects of peace education are best illustrated by an example from Sierra Leone, where the conflict ended officially in January 2002. At that time, people in rural villages frequently said they felt unconnected to the peace process, saying What peace?We were hungry before the war, during the war, and still now we are hungry. Building peace was a daunting task because much of the country lay in ruins, people struggled to meet basic needs, and large numbers of soldiers, including children, carried weapons.A 17-year-old who had fought in the RUF told me, This gun gives me power, and I know how to get what I need. Why should I go back to the village when I have no money and no job, no education? To address these issues, a national program of disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration was constructed, and UNICEF and international nongovernmental organizations organized the reintegration of former child soldiers. In the Northern Province, which had been the home of the RUF toward the end of the war, girl and boy soldiers were returning home to the villages they had attacked and local villagers typically feared them or sought revenge. Former child soldiers were frequently stigmatized as rebels, and girls who had been raped and who had become mothers were harassed or regarded as if they were damaged goods (Kostelny, 2004).

SDI 2007 5 Week

45 Child Soldiers Neg

Canada CP 1NC
Counterplan Text: Canada should substantially increase funding for education efforts to reduce the participation of people less than 18 years of age in armed conflict in topically designated areas. Contention 1: The counter plan is __________________. Contention 2: The counter plan competes by net benefits. Contention 3: Solvency Canada has the diplomatic clout to end the use of child soldiers. The Toronto Star 98 (April 3, Canada Urged to Lead Effort Against Use of Child Soldiers U.N. envoy
praises step to protect minors, Pg. A28, L/N, NL) Canada should take a lead in the campaign to eradicate the victimization of children by war but it has to do more to get its own house in order, a special United Nations envoy says. Olara Otunnu, the U.N. special representative for children in armed conflict, used a visit to Canada yesterday to urge this country to use its diplomatic clout to help eradicate use of child soldiers and to alleviate the impact of war on children.

SDI 2007 5 Week

46 Child Soldiers Neg

Canada CP Solvency Ext (Child Soldiers)


Canada has empirically helped Africa in regards to protecting children. The Toronto Star 98 (April 3, Canada Urged to Lead Effort Against Use of Child Soldiers U.N. envoy
praises step to protect minors, Pg. A28, L/N, NL) Otunnu said he was glad Canada decided yesterday to codify the fact that it does not send people under 18 into conflict but suggested Canada's policy of recruiting soldiers at age 16 should change. "What was announced today is a wonderful gesture, is a move very much in the right direction and it indicates the political will on the part of Canada to try to reconcile its own practice with the direction in which things are moving internationally," Otunnu said. "I believe that the Canadian government itself wants to do more and . . . more on the domestic front and that's why the gesture today is so important." Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy announced Canada will spend $650,000 on projects to help protect children in armed conflict in Uganda, Liberia and the Democratic Republic of Congo and to support a coalition against use of child soldiers.

Canadas refusal to recruit 16 17 year olds will be modeled globally. The Toronto Star 98 (April 3, Canada Urged to Lead Effort Against Use of Child Soldiers U.N. envoy
praises step to protect minors, Pg. A28, L/N, NL) But Canada's refusal to stop recruiting those 16 and 17 into the armed forces - even if only into education programs and not into combat - flies in the face of a plan to amend the Convention on the Rights of the Child to make 18 the minimum recruitment age globally.

SDI 2007 5 Week

47 Child Soldiers Neg

Canada CP Solvency Ext. (Education)


Canada has empirically used organizations such as IDRC to support the development of education in South Africa. Canadian Corporate Newswire 98 (Canada Helps South African Schools, September 25, L/N, NL)
The President of Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Maureen O'Neil, announced today the creation of a major program to promote school networking in the Republic of South Africa, and to support the development of education resources which can be used by South African schools. The announcement was made on the occasion of the visit to Canada of the President of South Africa, Mr Nelson Mandela. IDRC, through its Acacia initiative for sub-Saharan Africa, will contribute over $450,000 to this new program for an initial period of two years. The grant will enable SchoolNet South Africa, which will be located at IDRC's regional office in Johannesburg, to establish national on-line education resources; facilitate development of provincial school networks in four selected provinces; assist in the development of partnerships with other donor agencies and the private sector; and evaluate the pedagogical and cost effectiveness, and replication of these activities in other South African provinces. " IDRC's support of SchoolNet South Africa is an example of the growing collaboration between Canada and South Africa in the field of education and the use of information and communication technologies to support distance education and school networking, " said Ms O'Neil. An agreement signed at the Africa Telecom conference in Johannesburg in May 1998 between Industry Canada and the Department of Education of South Africa strengthens cooperation in the field of technology-supported learning. In this perspective, SchoolNet South Africa will play a critical role and emphasize linkage with Canada's SchoolNet and its public and private sector partners. SchoolNet South Africa, a non-profit agency founded in late 1997, reports to a governing Executive Council represented by the South African government departments: Education; Communications; Trade and Industry; and Arts, Culture, Science and Technology. The Acacia Initiative is an international effort created and led by IDRC to empower sub-Saharan African communities with the ability to apply information and communication technologies (ICTs) to their own social and economic development. Canada's International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is a public corporation created by the Parliament of Canada in 1970 to help developing-country scientists and communities find their own solutions to social, economic, and environmental problems through research. By bringing together people, institutions, and ideas, IDRC tries to ensure that the benefits of this research will be shared equitably among all its partners in the North and the South.

SDI 2007 5 Week

48 Child Soldiers Neg

EU CP 1NC
Counterplan Text: The European Union should substantially increase funding for education efforts to reduce the participation of people less than 18 years of age in armed conflict in topically designated areas. Contention 1: The counter plan is __________________. Contention 2: The counter plan competes by net benefits. The EU has sent a signal to militia leaders by convicting rebels for recruiting child soldiers. US Fed News Service 07 (Javiar Solana, EU High Representative for CFSP, Welcomes Landmark
Convictions in Sierra Leone For Use Of Child Soldiers, June 21, Proquest, NL) The European Union's European Council's Secretary General issued the following statement: Javier SOLANA, EU High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), has welcomed landmark convictions in Sierra Leone for the use of child soldiers: "Today in Sierra Leone, the Special Court for war crimes handed down its first convictions against three men from the rebel Armed Forces Revolutionary Council, accused of recruiting and using child soldiers. These convictions are an important step toward ending the exploitation of large numbers of children as soldiers. This case also sends a signal to other militia leaders still active in other parts of the world that there is no impunity when it comes to recruiting and using child soldiers. A major milestone in international attempts to end the use of child soldiers, the decision of this UN-backed tribunal reinforces the work of other national and international war crimes courts."

SDI 2007 5 Week

49 Child Soldiers Neg

EU CP Solvency Ext.
EU has empirically helped they have given 205 million euro for rehabilitation of child soldiers. Associated Press Worldstream 03 (Amnesty International calls on EU to do more to curb use of child
soldiers in Congo, September 9, L/N, NL) Human rights group Amnesty International called on the European Union Tuesday to step up efforts to stop the recruitment of child soldiers in Congo. In a 50-page report, Amnesty said the 15-nation bloc needed to put more pressure on Congo and other African nations involved in the fighting, including Rwanda and Uganda, to curb the use of under-18-year olds in militias. Local aid groups estimate the number of children fighting in Congo in the hundreds, but that number could well be higher, said Victor Hamisi, who works at a rehabilitation center in Bukavu, a city in eastern Congo. "The numbers are much more than 600 but we don't have exact numbers," Hamisi said of the Bukavu region. "Poverty drives many to join." Around Bunia in eastern Congo, aid workers estimate up to 50 percent of the thousands of fighters are under 18 years old. The report released Tuesday highlights how many children are taken from schools and off the street to sign up, with the promise that they will be fed and protected if they join. "The ruthless exploitation of Congo's children by leaders of armed forces to further their own material and political ends is one of the most egregious examples of human rights abuses of the entire conflict in the Congo," the report said. "The international community should bring pressure on all parties ... to hold recruiters accountable for their acts and to bring them to justice." Amnesty said U.N. and EU troops still in the country must do more to pick up child soldiers and demobilize them. The group also called on the EU to "ensure the swift adoption" of an effective arms embargo for Congo and make sure that an [euro]205 million (US$228 million) EU aid package for Congo provides necessary money for rehabilitation of child soldiers. Bunia, in resourcerich Ituri province, has been the scene of some of the worst atrocities in the five-year-old civil war in Congo. The war erupted in August 1998 when neighboring Rwanda and Uganda sent troops into Congo to support rebels seeking to oust then-Congolese President Laurent Kabila. They accused him of supporting insurgents from their countries who they said were threatening regional security. Zimbabwe, Angola and Namibia sent troops to back government forces. The foreign troops have withdrawn, but fighting between rival rebel and tribal factions continues.

The EU has been involved in DDR programs in Africa since the 1990s. Council 06 (EU Concept for Support to Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR), November
13) The EU has been involved for a long time in supporting DDR programmes in many partner countries, mainly through Community activities. In the case of Central America, this has included European Community support to DDR processes in Guatemala and El Salvador and in South America the EC has recently supported Children's DDR in Colombia and is in the process of designing assistance to communities receiving demobilised combatants. In Africa, the EC has been engaged in supporting DDR in 16 countries since the early 1990s. In Southern Africa, this includes support to Mozambique and Namibia. In the Great Lakes region, in the current Multi-Country Demobilisation and Reintegration Process involving seven countries, the Commission is playing an active role in the overall donor coordination. In West Africa, the EC has supported the DDR processes in Sierra Leone, Guinea, Ivory Coast and Liberia. In East Africa it has included support to Ethiopia, Somalia and Djibouti. In Asia EC support has been granted to reintegration in Aceh, in coordination with the ESDP Aceh Monitoring Mission (AMM) and more recently DDR related support is being prepared in support of the Mindanao Peace Process in the Philippines.

SDI 2007 5 Week

50 Child Soldiers Neg

EU CP Solvency Ext.
The EU will help out both with short term humanitarian assistance but also can contribute to long term efforts including supporting institution building, increasing respect for human rights, and social and economic development. Council 06 (EU Concept for Support to Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR), November
13) The European Community, in the framework of its external action, is able to support all the DDR phases with a focus on demobilisation and reintegration, through short term humanitarian assistance, under certain conditions, rapid response through the Stability Instrument and through long-term external support of the overall DDR process. EC support is also provided to the wider recovery and development efforts, notably by applying conflict sensitive approaches, which can contribute to long term reintegration needs, including support to democratic governance processes and institution building, respect for human rights, consolidation of the social and economic development of the country including health and education programs.

The EU can provide various disarmament programs from giving advice to local authorities to sending military to ensure a safe environment. Council 06 (EU Concept for Support to Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR), November
13) Disarmament: the EU engagement in supporting DDR in this phase can, for example, range from giving advice to the local authorities to sending monitors to oversee the disarmament phase or to sending a military or civilian operation to undertake the disarmament phase, or parts of the disarmament phase of the programme and to ensuring a safe and secure environment, normally as a specific task within a peace support operation. EU involvement in disarmament could also include support to State and non-State actors. In this broad range of possible activities are included the sending of military and/or civilian experts to give advice to any actor on weapons, ammunition and explosives collection, registration, transportation, and storage or destruction, the sending of a monitoring or evaluation team and the providing of financial support for capacity building.

The EU can monitor ex-combatants as well as provide food, clothing, psychological assistance. Council 06 (EU Concept for Support to Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR), November
13) Demobilisation: in this phase, the EU can undertake to monitor and give support to the reception, screening, registration, discharge of ex-combatants, building or maintaining and/or managing a cantonment sites, assembly area or barracks as well as sensitisation (AIDS awareness etc) and provide assistance in terms of clothing, food, psychosocial, medical and immediate physical assistance.

SDI 2007 5 Week

51 Child Soldiers Neg

EU CP Solvency Ext.
The EU has the ability to provide shelter, food, education and vocational training, which are key to reintegration. Council 06 (EU Concept for Support to Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR), November
13) Reintegration: in the phases of reinsertion and reintegration, the EU can give support to ex-combatants, their dependents and receiving communities including shelter, food, vocational training, education, tools, micro-credits, employment opportunities, and addressing psychosocial and physical needs. Support can be provided either as part of broader development programmes or through specific projects, including institution building. Essential in this phase is the involvement of local communities and to provide sufficient financial support to the local communities which can play a key role in providing social integration, jobs and livelihoods for the ex combatants. The works and initiatives implemented "together" will have an important impact in terms of reconciliation, involving not only ex-combatants but also the wider war affected community.

SDI 2007 5 Week

52 Child Soldiers Neg

AT: US Moral Obligation


The EU has an ethical obligation to help Africa. German Bundestag 07 (Motion, 16th electoral term, February 28)
The African states and the African Union must be given greater prominence in German and European foreign policy, in the same measure as our neighbours in the Middle East and Eastern Europe. Germany and the EU have a political and ethical obligation to support the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa through a more active development policy; it is also in their own interests to do so. Germany and the EU should not treat Africa as a supplicant; instead they must formulate their own interests with respect to Africa and pursue these in a partnership-based dialogue with African players. Germany and the EU are not seemingly selfless players but have their own foreign, security and economic policy interests in a peaceful, democratic and economically prosperous neighbouring continent.

SDI 2007 5 Week

53 Child Soldiers Neg

Spending Links
Reintegration programs are costly. Wood 05 (David, Newshouse News Service, Child Soldiers Mature Into Threat to Africas Stability, June 20,
L/N, NL) U.S. intelligence estimates put the total number for Africa in the tens of thousands. In the Ivory Coast alone, Human Rights Watch an independent, nongovernmental organization based in New York suggests there are 2,500 to 3,500 Liberians involved in the fighting, most of them former child soldiers. "They aren't children anymore," a 30-year-old Liberian mercenary, returning with five adolescents from combat in Ivory Coast, told Human Rights Watch researcher Dufka. "They have been fighting for years, and after all they've done and gone through they are big men now." Such adolescents are said to be more brutal fighters than the child soldiers of a few years ago, having little to return to. Some joined "because it looked cool," only to find themselves unable to break away, said Beth Verhey, an international child protection consultant who works with child soldiers for the United Nations Children's Fund and Save the Children-UK. Programs to return such children to civil society can be effective, Verhey said. But they require intense counseling and support, a costly effort that is not well funded by international donors.

Basic education will cost $3 billion. Africa News 07 (June 28, Africa; Panel Urges More Help For Education in Conflict Areas, L/N, NL)
Gabriel Oling Olang of Save the Children Uganda said that for children returning home after being at war, school provides a very good stabilizing environment The best way to reintegrate former child soldiers is to ensure that they get [an education]. All of the panelists supported the Education For All Act of 2007, which would increase the aid given to developing countries for universal basic education to $3 billion by the fiscal year 2012. Education will lay the groundwork for the rule of law and for preparing the future leaders and planners required to build sustainable systems of governance and economically productive societies, Vargas-Barn said. She called the Education For All Act enlightened legislation and emphasized that the bill commits resources to all developing countries, and not simply those countries that are free of conflict.

To create a sustainable education system, $10 billion would have to be spent in the next five years. US Fed News 07 (Sen Smith Joins Bono in Push for Education for all, May 2, L/N, NL)
This week, Sen. Gordon H. Smith (R-OR) joined U2 lead singer, Bono, co-founder of DATA (Debt, Aids, Trade, Africa) to launch the Education for All Act of 2007. The bill would provide $10 billion over the next five years to help developing countries meet the goal of universal basic education by 2015. Today, at least 77 million children of primary school age, a majority of which are girls, are not in school. Worldwide, half of school-age children who start primary school drop out. Hundreds of millions more are denied a secondary school education. According to the 9/11 Commission, increasing educational access directly impacts U.S. national security because it contributes to global stability and prosperity. At the World Economic Forum in 2000, the U.S. joined the international community in setting the goal of achieving universal education by 2015. "Access to an education for impoverished youngsters helps them gain success and stability," Senator Smith said. "Closing the school house door leaves them on the path to poverty and depravity. Americans want to help those in need, whether they are here at home or abroad. Better coordinating our efforts will improve our effectiveness."

SDI 2007 5 Week

54 Child Soldiers Neg

Spending Links
Basic education will cost at least $10 15 billion. Rudolph 02 (Randy, co-chair of the education session at the G6B People's Summit, Calgary Herald, Taking
the lead in educating Africa: Canada has the expertise and the money to make a difference on the poorest continent, May 21, L/N, NK) More than 110 million primary-school-age children -- two-thirds of them girls -- remain out of school. In sub-Saharan Africa, unlike other developing regions, the number of children out of school is actually rising rather than falling. One-third of the world's children not in school live in sub-Saharan Africa. With current trends, this will increase to two-thirds by 2015, when the region will represent only 10 per cent of the world's primary school population. Education in Africa is off the rails. What will it take to get back on track? Santosh Mehotra, the author of a recent UNICEF study on the cost of education, says: "Developing countries already spend $82 billion US per year on primary education. Additional spending from both donor and developing countries of $9 billion per year would be enough to provide access to basic education for all children." Mehotra says that total costs, including capital spending and improvements in the quality of education, are closer to $10 billion to 15 billion, a third of the recent increase in the U.S. military budget. For education development to be sustained up to and beyond 2015, countries must develop the capacity to finance basic education over the long term from stable domestic revenue sources.

Education will cost $3 billion by 2012. Hamilton 07 (Bruce, reporter, Panel Urges More Help For Education In Conflict Areas, Allafrica.com, June
28, L/N, NL) Activists, academics and authors have urged the United States Congress to put more attention on universal basic education for children in areas of conflict. Speaking at a panel discussion in Washington, DC to mark World Refugee Day, they argued that the U.S. needs to increase aid for such children. Forty-three million children worldwide are not in school due to conflict, according to Save the Children, the group which convened the panel. Children who lack basic education tend to become victims of armed groups, child labor, child trafficking, child abuse, and devastating diseases such as HIV/Aids and malaria, said Emily Vargas-Barn, director of the Institute for Reconstruction and International Security through Education. Aid in conflict-affected regions is disproportionately low, but desperately needed, according to panelists and Save the Children. Vargas-Barn said the lack of education in conflict-ridden areas was a matter of national security, because it made them a seed bed of potential future combatants. Gabriel Oling Olang of Save the Children Uganda said that for children returning home after being at war, school provides a very good stabilizing environment The best way to reintegrate former child soldiers is to ensure that they get [an education]. All of the panelists supported the Education For All Act of 2007, which would increase the aid given to developing countries for universal basic education to $3 billion by the fiscal year 2012. Education will lay the groundwork for the rule of law and for preparing the future leaders and planners required to build sustainable systems of governance and economically productive societies, Vargas-Barn said. She called the Education For All Act enlightened legislation and emphasized that the bill commits resources to all developing countries, and not simply those countries that are free of conflict.

SDI 2007 5 Week

55 Child Soldiers Neg

Ptx Popular Links


Ending the use of child soldiers has bipartisan popularity old bills prove. US Fed News 06 (President Bush Signs Into Law Rep. Lantos Legislation to Eliminate Interational Trafficking
in Persons, January 10, L/N, NL) The ranking Democrat on the House Committee on International Relations, issued the following press release: A bipartisan bill by Rep. Tom Lantos to crack down in trafficking in persons for labor and in the use of children as soldiers was signed into law today. "Human trafficking is a disgrace that we must continue to combat," Lantos said. "It has enslaved thousands of men, women and children, forcing them into war, labor and the sex trade against their will. I applaud the United States government for taking a leadership role in this fundamental human rights issue." Lantos is the principal Democratic co-sponsor of the Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act (H.R. 972) along with Rep. Christopher Smith (RNJ). The bill passed the House and Senate unanimously in December. The legislation provides for increased focus on labor trafficking, launches an initiative in the critical area of child soldiers, establishes new programs for federal-state partnerships in the area of trafficking here in the United States, and provides for robust funding of U.S. anti-trafficking programs. The U.S. Justice Department reports 600-800,000 people are sent across international borders each year in a state of near or actual slavery, with 15-20,000 coming to the United States.

Child soldier problems are popular with the Dems and the Republicans. Lynch 05 (Colum, Washington Post Staff Writer, At the U.N., a Growing Republican Presence, The
Washington Post, July 21, L/N, NL) Veneman, who served as agriculture secretary during Bush's first term, insists that she is not seeking to implement White House policies at the agency. But she is promoting priorities that parallel those backed by the Bush administration, which nominated her for the job. In her initial speeches, she has sidestepped politically sensitive issues championed by her Democratic predecessor, Carol Bellamy -- such as children's rights and reproductive health care -- that have rankled the administration's social conservatives. Instead, Veneman has highlighted primary health care for children under the age of 5, an area of UNICEF's work that is known as "child survival." She has also advocated what she calls "child protection" themes that are popular in the White House and Congress, including combating the trafficking of children in the sex trade. "People talk about the convention on the rights of the child, nobody knows what you're talking about," Veneman said. But she said that issues such as child trafficking and the forced recruitment of child soldiers resonate with audiences. "The issue of children, I just don't think is a Republican or Democratic agenda," she said. "Virtually all of the issues are issues that people universally care about. I don't see myself as furthering anybody's agenda other than that of the world's children."

SDI 2007 5 Week

56 Child Soldiers Neg

Ptx Popular Links


Bills dealing with child-soldiers have proven to be extremely popular with both the Dems and Republicans. S.1215 proves 97-1. State Department 03 (Senate Passes Burma Sanctions Bill by 97-1 margin; Senator Mitch McConnells bill
would ban imports from ban, June 12) The Senate passed by a 97-to-1 vote June 11 a bill that would ban exports from Burma and freeze assets of the Rangoon regime in the United States. Led by Senator Mitch McConnell (Republican of Kentucky), senators from across the political spectrum backed S. 1215, which now goes to the House of Representatives where a similar bill, H.R. 2330, is being marked up by the House International Relations Committee. McConnell, the Deputy Majority Leader in the Senate, had worked with the Senate leadership to bring the bill directly to the floor of the Senate, where it passed overwhelmingly. After the May 30 attack on Burmese democracy advocate Aung San Suu Kyi, McConnell spoke out against Burma's military rulers in the Senate and crafted the bill. Only Senator Michael Enzi (Republican of Wyoming), a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, voted against the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act of 2003. The two senators not voting on the bill were Senator John Kerry (Democrat of Massachusetts), the ranking minority member of the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific and a declared candidate for the 2004 Democratic Nomination for President, and Senator Charles Schumer (Democrat of New York). Following is the text of S 1215 from the Congressional Record: (the card continues) The SPDC continues egregious human rights violations against Burmese citizens, uses rape as a weapon of intimidation and torture against women, and forcibly conscripts child-soldiers for the use in fighting indigenous ethnic groups.

Congress overwhelmingly supports bills dealing with child soldiers. Tate 05 (Deborah, US To Renew Import Ban on Burma, US Fed News Service, July 19, Proquest)
The U.S. Senate Tuesday overwhelmingly voted, 97 to one, to renew a ban on the import of Burmese products to the United States. The measure, which the House of Representatives passed last month, now goes to President Bush for his signature. Senators voted to renew the Burmese Freedom and Democracy Act for another year. The measure is aimed at pressing Burma to improve its human rights record, and in particular, release all political prisoners, including democracy leader and Nobel Peace Prize winner Aung San Suu Kyi. "The situation in Burma grows ever dimmer," said Senator John McCain, an Arizona Republican, who is a co-sponsor. "The military junta in that country controls the population through a campaign of violence and terror. The lack of freedom and justice there is simply appalling. The Burmese regime has murdered political opponents, used child soldiers and forced labor, and used rape as a weapon of war. Political activists remain imprisoned, including elected members of parliament, and last month, that courageous woman, Aung San Suu Kyi, celebrated her 60th birthday in captivity."

The Child Soldier Prevention Act of 2007 this legislation has just been introduced make sure to look for politics links on a regular basis so there should be more links soon. At this moment, nada really has happened.

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Reps K Links
Reject the way the affs construction of childhood it justifies legal and political agendas and takes away from the true understandings of children and childhoods. Rosen 07 (David M., Department of Social Sciences and History, Fairleigh Dickinson University Child
Soldiers, International Humanitarian Law, and the Globalization of Childhood, American Anthropologist, Vol. 109, No. 2, June) IN THIS ARTICLE, I probe the development and implementation of laws and treaties regulating the use of child soldiers and the political, social, and cultural context in which these are grounded. I argue that the problem of child soldiers, widely regarded as a modern international humanitarian and human rights crisis, derives not from any new phenomenon of young people being present on the battlefield but, rather, from an emerging transnational politics of age that shapes the concept of childhood in international law. By the politics of age, I mean the use of age categories by different international, regional, and local actors to advance particular political and ideological positions. The politics of age is central to the competing agendas of humanitarian groups, sovereign states, and the United Nations and its constituent agencies, and it brings them into complex struggles over the recruitment and use of children as soldiers, the ideological and political manipulation of the concept of childhood, and the definition of who should be considered a child soldier. The representations of childhood by all these groups are political constructs used to support legal and political agendas, and they discount the more varied and complex local understandings of children and childhood found in anthropological research. The politics of age is one aspect of the ideological, political, and cultural use of children and the concept of the child that Nancy Sheper-Hughes and Carolyn Sergeant (1998) call the cultural politics of childhood. The Straight 18 position is a prime example of how a new political agenda can be represented as an existing cultural norm. This strategy, sometimes termed norm entrepreneurship (Herbst 2004), has at its heart the requirement that existing and competing definitions of childhood be abandoned in favor of a single international standard. Cast in the language of human rights and humanitarian imperatives, this definition of childhood pays little attention to the enormity of the issues of social and cultural changes contained in the transnational restructuring of age categories. Like many other avowed human rights imperatives, it tends to demonize both anthropology and culture (Merry 2003). Several problems emerge when this definition is applied to the recruitment and deployment of child soldiers. First, and most obvious, is that adopting a single universal definition of childhood in both international humanitarian and human rights law ignores the fact that there is no universal experience or understanding of childhood. Indeed, if anthropology has anything to contribute to an understanding of childhood, it is that there are a multiplicity of childhoods, each culturally codified and defined by age, ethnicity, gender, history, location, and so forth (Amit-Talai and Wulff 1995; Jenks 1996; Schwartzman 1996). Because the international law regarding child soldiers is built on the humanitarian definition of childhood, it inevitably clashes with many local understandings of the involvement of young people in war. Second, international law abstractly theorizes that child soldiers are victims of adult abuse and criminality. Like the concepts of the child laborer, child bride, or child prostitute, the child soldier is conceived of as a deviant product of adult abuse; such a conception presupposes that children are dependent, exploited, and powerless. However, taking this position also means that children cannot be held responsible for the war crimes they commit, because they are considered to have no legally relevant agency. This view often contradicts the real-world experience of the victims of crimes committed by child soldiers and also may violate local understandings of blameworthiness and justice. Finally, international law dealing with child soldiers has developed as a set of rules and practices that override and restrict local understandings, undercutting the legitimacy of legal and political solutions that challenge the international community.

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International law is not culturally grounded and limits the understanding of childhood because humanitarianism has demanded one universal definition. Rosen 07 (David M., Department of Social Sciences and History, Fairleigh Dickinson University Child
Soldiers, International Humanitarian Law, and the Globalization of Childhood, American Anthropologist, Vol. 109, No. 2, June) The child-soldier crisis is a modern political crisis, which has little to do with whether there are more or fewer children in wars today than in previous eras. It is difficult to disentangle humanitarian issues from political ones, because humanitarian groups increasingly define themselves as political actors, and political groups use humanitarian rhetoric to further their own goals. The language of humanitarianism and human rights has become the language of political discourse. Little attention was paid to the presence of child soldiers in the era of national liberation movements, but it has become a significant issue now that postcolonial states face their own insurgencies. Clearly the child-soldier crisis arises from a complex set of interconnections between humanitarian and political drivers. It is not a new phenomenon as some would claim; neither is it driven by the peculiar nature of modern warfare. Nonetheless, the issue remains that today there are thousands of children and youth caught up in armed warfare who are committing horrible crimes. How should we see them: as innocent victims of political circumstance who should be protected and forgiven, or as moral agents who should be held responsible for their actions? Humanitarian law, discourse, and practice demand a single universal resolution to these questions for which none is available. Local perspectives, as in the case of Sierra Leone, appear to be continually undermined. The humanitarian definition of childhood and its expression in international law is embedded in transnational politics, is not cross-culturally grounded, and is extremely limiting. It is too blunt an instrument, which does not allow for varying solutions to the very real network of social problems it has identified and is trying to address. A more complex and nuanced understanding, informed by ethnographic research and anthropological insight, can offer the possibility for finding appropriate and effective solutions in different sets of circumstances.

Reject the affs construction of child and childhood their policies are focused on Western definitions foregoing the true African meaning of child. Leopold 05 (Mark, Senior Associate Member @ University of Oxford, Violence in Contemporary Africa
Reassessed, September 23) One serious problem with emphasizing the role of children and youths in violence and war is once again one of definition. Abbink points this out in his introduction but does not resolve the issues. The fact is that in Africa local definitions of childhood and youth tend to differ from those used in international law and by bodies such as the United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEP). People who would be considered minors in Europe and North America are frequently expected to assume a range of adult roles, including working and being sexually active, as well as fighting in wars, while others may not count as full adults until their late thirties. One may deplore this, but it remains true and makes it problematic to use the concepts of youth or childhood in describing and analyzing African societies. Another specific ethnographic factor is the existence of formalized age sets in some African pastoralist societies. Finally, it is important to note, as many of Abbink and van Kessels contributors do, the more positive image of associations between the youth and violence in Africas liberation struggles, as well as in postcolonial uprisings against various dictatorships.

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Education = Dependency K Link


Western paradigm perpetuates African dependency on western cultures. Watson 94 (Keith, Technical and Vocational Education in Developing Countries: Western paradigms and
comparative methodology, Comparative Education, Volume 30, No. 2) That Western paradigms continue to shape and influence the thinking in many developing countries cannot be denied. Namibia is a good case in pint. Here the government has opted for English as the official language in order to weld together seventeen different tribal and linguistic groups. Shafer (1986) has described this, and similar African situations, as linguistic imperialism. There is little doubt that where the dissemination of information and knowledge, especially technical, comes through textbooks produced and controlled by Western companies there is a form of knowledge dependency (Altbach, 1977). India is an interesting example. While barely 2% of the population is literate in English, over 50% of all books, and over 80% of scientific and technical journals are produced in English, thereby sustaining the thinking and cultural patterns of the ruling elite (Altbach, 1975). In both Francophone and Anglophone Africa virtually all books and technical and scientific journals are published in French and English, yet between 80 and 95% of the population is illiterate in those languages. It has been argued that, in Africa especially, it is the universities that filter Western knowledge and help to perpetuate the problem of dependency (Eisomon, 19980;Woodhouse, 1987).

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Education = Imperialistic K Link


Western formal education is another tactic used to dominate countries political, social, and economic agendas. Wiggins 75 (Thomas, Review author for Martin Carnoys Education as Cultural Imperialism, American
Educational Research Journal, Vol 12, No. 4, pp. 524-526, Autumn) Free, public education bestowed benevolently upon the unschooled to promote peace, prosperity, and progress is a notion perpetuated in American mythology. Martin Carnoy argues in Education As Cultural Imperialism that education is becoming, along with increased technological industrialization our major contemporary societal preoccupation. Like Roszak in A Man for Tomorrows World and Zymelman in Education in National Development, Carnoy examines schools and schooling by comparing myths with empirical evidence schools by current social scientific investigation. Thus, his thesis emerges: We argue that far from acting as a liberator, Western formal education came to most countries as part of imperialist domination [p.3]. He carefully disassociated that concept imperialism from radical sloganism and defines it as those activities associated with the annexation and/or domination of territories and people. Imperialism is best characterized conceptually by Carnoy as a conscious effort by the dominant class in many countries to influence and control other countries class in many countries economies fore the economic and political gain of the dominating power [p.26]. Applied to the issue of education, the author speaks of schooling, as does Memmi in The Colonizer and the Colonized, as the principal process by which the colonizer indoctrinates the colonized for roles suited to the political, social, and economic needs of the colonizer.