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Area Area Tuning Tuning Process Process for for J-Phone J-Phone

30.08.2002

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Contents
Introduction Preparation & Drive Test Analysis Process Report

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Introduction
Objectives

To let the trainee get the image of Area Tuning Process To let the trainee understand the Responsibility of each phase in the whole Area Tuning activities To let the trainee understand how to achieve high quality of Area tuning 1 Day Training Course Trainee

Training Schedule

About 15 trainees (4-5 persons/region)

Pre-requisite knowledge for trainee


WCDMA knowledge related to network planning Experience of cluster tuning How to use WCDMA post processing tool Basic knowledge of MapInfo

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Tuning Flow Diagram -Introduction Area tuning flow diagram


Preparation Preparation Drive DriveTest Test Analysis Analysis Report Report Approval Approval Implement Implement

Work: Work:Generating Generatingpre-simulation pre-simulationproject projectfor forthe theArea Area and andpreparing preparingdrive drivetest test (vehicle, equipment & (vehicle, equipment &site siteready, ready,etc) etc) Output: Drive test team ready Output: Drive test team ready Route Routemap map Site information Site information Site Sitelocation locationmap map Pre-simulation Pre-simulationof ofArea Area(CPICH (CPICHRSCP RSCP& &Ec/No) Ec/No) Drive DriveData DataSheet Sheet Owner: Owner:Navigator, Navigator,Field Fieldtest testengineer, engineer, Data analyst Data analyst Period: Less Period: Lessthan than11day day

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Tuning Flow Diagram -Introduction Area tuning flow diagram


Preparation Preparation Drive DriveTest Test Analysis Analysis Report Report Approval Approval Implement Implement

Work: Work:Performing Performinglogging loggingusing usingXCAL-W XCAL-Walong alongthe the defined defineddrive driveroute routeand andfill fillout outdrive drivedata datasheet. sheet. Output: Measurement raw data (2-cd roms) Output: Measurement raw data (2-cd roms) Drive DriveData DataSheet Sheet Owner: Navigator, Field Owner: Navigator, Fieldtest testengineer engineer Period: 4 days Period: 4 days

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Tuning Flow Diagram -Introduction Area tuning flow diagram


Preparation Preparation Drive DriveTest Test Analysis Analysis Report Report Approval Approval Implement Implement

Work: Work:--To Toanalyze analyzethe thelogged loggeddata datausing usingXCAP-W. XCAP-W. --To identify problematic event on the To identify problematic event on themap map and To Find the cause of problem. and To Find the cause of problem. --To Tofind findthe thesolution solutionaccording accordingto toproblem problemsolving solvingflow flow diagrams diagrams Output: Output:--Tuning Tuningsolution solutionsuch suchas asRAN RANparameter parametermodification modification --Plots Plotsof oflogged loggeddata data --RAN parameter change RAN parameter changelist list --Improvement calculation Improvement calculationof ofwhen whentuning tuning solution is applied (CPICH RSCP/EcNo Plots): same as solution is applied (CPICH RSCP/EcNo Plots): same as ststDT report cluster tuning 1 cluster tuning 1 DT report --All Allfiles filesrelated relatedto tothe theabove aboveitems items Owner: Owner:Data DataProcessor, Processor,Data Dataanalyst analyst Period: Period:33days days
6 NOKIA Company Confidential

Tuning Flow Diagram -Introduction Area tuning flow diagram


Preparation Preparation Drive DriveTest Test Analysis Analysis Report Report Approval Approval Implement Implement

Work: Work:--Reporting Reportingtuning tuningresult resultof ofthe theArea Areaand and verification verificationof ofimprovement improvement Output: Area tuning report Output: - Area tuning report(2 (2copies) copies) --Deliverables defined in Deliverables defined inReport Reportformat format Owner: Data analyst Owner: Data analyst Period: Period:22days days After Report After Reportis ismade, made,it itshould shouldbe bediscussed discussedwith withNokia Nokia

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Tuning Flow Diagram -Introduction Area tuning flow diagram


Preparation Preparation Drive DriveTest Test Analysis Analysis Report Report Approval Approval Implement Implement

Work: Work:Report Reportand andall alldeliverables deliverablesare arechecked checkedby by customer customerand anddiscussion discussionfor forapproval approvalof oftuning tuning solution solution Output: Output:Customers Customersapproval approval Owner: Nokia NWP team, Owner: Nokia NWP team,data dataanalyst, analyst,subsubcontractors coordinator contractors coordinator Period: 2 Period: 2days days(Submission (Submission+ +Approval) Approval)

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Tuning Flow Diagram -Introduction Area tuning flow diagram


Preparation Preparation Drive DriveTest Test Analysis Analysis Report Report Approval Approval Implement Implement

Work: Work:Request Requestfor forBTS BTSimplementation implementationchange changeto to Nokias implementation team and customer Nokias implementation team and customer Output: Change Output: Changerequest requestfor forNokia Nokiaand andCustomer Customer Owner: Nokia NWP team, Customer Owner: Nokia NWP team, Customer Period: Period:Immediately Immediatelytriggered triggeredafter afterapproval approval

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Area Tuning Schedule -Introduction Same for first drive and second drive Day 1-4 drive test Day 5-7 analysis Day 6 afternoon : draft idea of solution and needs to discuss with Nokia Day 8 @1 pm: Draft version of Report ->Nokia-Partners discussion Day 9 after discussion : finalize report Day 10 submission of the report Readiness of the AREA will be informed by Nokia window person (but please inform regional planning manager if you do not get information)

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Driver Driver Navigator Navigator

v Drive v Drivethe thecar caraccording accordingto todrive drivetest testroute routebeen beenplan plan v Control the car speed at adequate speed vControl the car speed at adequate speed v Ensure v Ensurethe thecar caris isfollowing followingright rightroute route v To v ToPrepare Preparedrive driveplan planand androute routemap map v To Discuss and agree with other drive vTo Discuss and agree with other driveteam teamnavigators navigatorson onwhich whicharea areais is their responsibility to avoid unnecessary additional drive test. their responsibility to avoid unnecessary additional drive test. v To vToAssist AssistField Fieldtest testengineer engineerto tocheck checkthe thearea areacondition conditionon onthe thedrive drive route map. route map. v To v ToCheck Checkout outthe theactual actualtesting testingcars carsposition position v Ensure the car is following right route vEnsure the car is following right route v To RF which v ToStudy Studythe thend RFperformance performanceof ofthe theclusters clusters whichbelong belongto tothe theAREA AREA st v The road of 2 drive test is following 1 drive test route (if mismatch, nd st vThe road of 2 drive test is following 1 drive test route (if mismatch, explanation explanationis isneeded.) needed.) v To v ToPerform Performthe thedata datalogging logging v To Study the RF performance vTo Study the RF performanceof ofthe theclusters clusterswhich whichbelong belongto tothe theAREA AREA v To Setup the tools in the car and ensure in the good condition vTo Setup the tools in the car and ensure in the good condition v To v Toremark remarkthe thepropagation propagationenvironments environmentsin indrive driveroute routemap map during the drive test if call drop takes place. during the drive test if call drop takes place. v To v ToWrite Writedown downyour yourobservation observationduring duringthe thedrive drivetest test v To Save the logging data in file name according vTo Save the logging data in file name accordingNokia Nokiadefinition definition v To Copy the data into CD Rom and submit to Window person vTo Copy the data into CD Rom and submit to Window person v To v Toinform informthe theproblematic problematicstatus statusto toWindow Windowperson person v To Fill in the data sheet vTo Fill in the data sheet
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Responsibility (1) -Introduction-

Field FieldTest TestEngineer Engineer

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Responsibility (2) -IntroductionData DataAnalyst Analyst


v To v ToAnalyze Analyzethe thedata datausing usingXCAP-W XCAP-W v Reporting. Submit the report vReporting. Submit the reportto toNokia Nokiabefore beforesee seethe thecustomer customer v Explain to customer about the Solution vExplain to customer about the Solution v Improve v Improvethe thereport reportaccording accordingto tocustomer customerrequest request v Ensure the changes are implemented to the vEnsure the changes are implementednd to thenetwork network v Instruct Drive test team to start the 2 drive nd vInstruct Drive test team to start the 2 drivewithout withoutany anydelay delay v Confirm v Confirmthe thesite sitestatus statuswith withNokia NokiaNMS NMSengineers engineers v Located in Nokia office vLocated in Nokia office v Ensure v Ensurethe thetuning tuningactivity activityis iscarried carriedout outaccording accordingto tothe theschedule schedule v Participate the progress meeting if necessary vParticipate the progress meeting if necessary v Main v Maininterface interfacebetween betweenNokia Nokiaand andPartners Partners

Window WindowPerson Person

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Preparation Preparation & & Drive Drive Test Test

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Preparation for Drive test


Preparation Item List

Road Map which specified the road that should be measured. Route Map which specifies the actual measurement route and used for remarking the position where call drops take place. Site information of AREA Site location Map Pre-simulation results CPICH RSCP/EcNo plots Problem Area Sheet and Drive Data Sheet for each AREA Test equipment (GPS, PC where XCAL is installed, 3UEs per team) Measurement Vehicle Set up the Measurement Vehicle and test equipments Sufficient Drive test teams

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Preparation for Drive test


Map

Road Map

Road Map should be made and agreed with J-phone. Road map shows road that should be measured during drive test. The Road Map is based on AREA categories as shown in the table.

AREA Categories Area Category-1 Area Category-2 Area Category-3 Area Category-4 Area Category-5

Mileage Below 1000 Km Below 1300 Km Below 1500 Km Below 1800 Km Below 2000 Km

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Preparation for Drive test


Route Map (2 Copies are needed)
Navigator plans Route Map according to Road Map Every road in the Road Map should be included but drive route in route map should not be overlapped each other if possible. If superhighway exists in AREA, the measurement in superhighway should basically be performed and stored in separated data file. Problem areas should be marked in one of Route maps when event such as call drop/setup failure takes place Navigator handles 2 Route maps one is for navigation and the other is for announcing field test engineer the problem area during drive test.

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Preparation for Drive test


Site information of each AREA

Navigator prepares site information, obtained from Nokia, for the field test engineer. Contents are Site ID, Site Name, Scrambling Code and Ant Info. Site location can be confirmed by Site Location Map
Base Station Name Pronunciation(En) M iyakojim a M iyakojim a M iyakojim a Deiribashi Deiribashi Deiribashi Kouraibashi Kouraibashi Kouraibashi Sakuranomiya Sakuranomiya Sakuranomiya Kema Kema Kema Mi nami mor i machi Mi nami mor i machi Mi nami mor i machi Cluster ID Ant. Height (AGL) A7 31.5 A7 31.5 A7 31.5 A5 38 A5 38 A5 38 A5 40.5 A5 40.5 A5 40.5 A7 36.1 A7 36.1 A7 36.1 A7 25 A7 25 A7 25 A5 47.7 A5 47.7 A5 47.7 Ant. Direction 0 120 240 0 120 240 0 120 240 0 120 240 0 120 240 0 120 240 Ant. Downtilt (Elec) 6 6 6 10 10 11 10 6 6 6 8 10 6 6 6 10 10 10 SC 128 256 384 512 640 768 896 1024 1152 1280 1408 1536 1664 1792 1920 2048 2176 2304

Site ID Sector A,B,C 1008 A 1008 B 1008 C 1030 A 1030 B 1030 C 1018 A 1018 B 1018 C 1037 A 1037 B 1037 C 1005 A 1005 B 1005 C 1009 A 1009 B 1009 C
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Preparation for Drive test


Site Location Map (Navigator prepares using MapInfo)
Field test engineer makes sure site location, scrambling codes of cells using this map. This map helps positioning the received scrambling codes during drive test.

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Preparation for Drive test


Pre-Simulation Results
Propagation model is cell-based model come out from cluster tuning Pre-simulations comprising of Best Server CPICH RSCP and Ec/Io will be used to recognize poor coverage area(low RSCP and low Ec/No) during the drive test Plot of Simulated Best Server CPICH RSCP:
Identifies poor best servers RSCP coverage areas. The threshold level 110 dBm.

Plot of Simulated Best Server Ec/Io: Identifies poor best servers Ec/No coverage areas. The threshold level is
16dB.

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Preparation for Drive test


Drive Data Sheet
Used for confirmation of drive team information, status of drive testing, equipments, sites, and measurement file. The Field test engineer needs to bring this sheet for every AREA test.
This is the basic information of drive test condition. All information is entered before drive test start. Parts checking box. There are two check boxes of Before and After on each parts. The existence of every parts must be checked before and after drive test. This is the site status Table. It is entered in case that measurement engineer find the site problem during drive test. Data file management Table. File name, Start Time and Start mileage are entered when logging is started. Stop Time, Stop mileage and reason of Stopping are entered when logging is stopped. Odometer value of car is used for mileage.
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( Management of Data File ) ( Cluster Drive Test ) (Region) (Tohoku) H H (Region Name) ( ) (measurement type) Tool No Leader Name Team Name Assistant Name ( Confirmation of machine parts ) Before GPS and Gyro GPS ANT Gyro or Converter Cable Before Anritsu Tool ML8720B Cable POW Cable POW Adapter RX ANT ATT X B PC card ( ( Cluster ( Cluster for measurement ) ( ) ( ) (Site Name) (note) ( ) ) After etc. After Personal Computer PC POW Cable POW Adapter Before DC-AC Converter socket Map Two pieces Problem Area Sheet After Before After rd Moniter Number Driver Name (Kansai) K K (Cyugoku) N N (Shikoku) S S

07/Nov/01 ver 1.0B

Cluster Name

( )

) (Site Name) (note)

(File Name) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

(Start Time) (Start mileage) (Stop Time) (Stop mileage) (standstill reason)

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Preparation for Drive test


Test equipments GPS Receiver and Antenna and the cable needed for connecting the PC. 2UEs (AMR short call/long call)for the 1st drive test. 4UEs(AMR short call/long call, PS, UDI ) for the 2nd drive test. PC where data logging tool (XCAL-W, MOS scoring tool) is installed. For the 1st drive, one PC is needed for connecting 2 UEs while in the 2nd drive, 2 PCs are required for the purpose. RS-232C cable DC-AC Inverter Power cable, socket, battery, etc.

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Preparation for Drive test


Measurement Vehicle

The car height is 1.7m to 2m and the attachment and removal of GPS-ANT should be able to be performed easily. The vehicle must be able to be drawn in the indoors the power supply LINE (DC-AC) from BATT indoors directly and also be able to be put the one more BATT.

The two seats must be secured for Navigator and Field test engineer after setting up the equipments for measurement. (totally 3seats)

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Preparation for Drive test


Set up the measurement vehicle and test equipments
At least five sockets on the outlet is needed. The UEs should be set up and fixed firmly in the center of vehicle being connected to logging tool (Notebook) and power supply. A device to prevent slipping or to fix are needed so that PC or other equipments are not destroyed.

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Preparation for Drive test


Connection configuration of equipments for the 1st drive test

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Preparation for Drive test


DC-AC Inverter Connection configuration

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software

Direct to Car Battery

DC / AC Inverter

Socket

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Preparation for Drive test


Automatic Call Generation XCAL-W provides the automatic call generation function where we can configure the call setup time, call duration, and waiting time when call drop takes place.

Automatic call generation configuration:

AMR Short Call: Call setup time=10sec, Call duration=15sec, Idle time=15sec. AMR Long Call: Call setup time=10sec, Call duration=continuous, Idle time=15sec.

MOS Test

MOS test will be carried out only for AMR long call. MOS scoring SW is totally separated from XCAL-W so that Field test engineer should check MOS scoring SW is running correctly during the drive test. If call drop happens, MOS scoring SW should be terminated and re-start.

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Drive Test for AREA Tuning


Start Confirmation of site status

Equipment check Can Logging Start Whether measurement can be continued or not.(In office) Cant

Logging

No Problem Area? Yes

No No The equipment or site problem is found Is it necessary to stop Logging? Yes

Logging stop and inform the status to the Office

Yes Measurement suspended

Fill in the Problem Area sheet Logging Stop Report to Office

No

Are all schedules completion?

Yes Report to Office

Drive Test Finish

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Drive Test for AREA Tuning


Window person
Has to check if all sites are ready for drive test Window person handles information related to drive test between Field test
engineer and Nokia and needs to stay in Nokia office. Prepare the report on the drive test status and checklist confirmed during the drive test.
(in the car) Driver (in Nokia office) Tools intellectual NMS Person Navigator Measurement Engineer Window person judge Driver Driver Driver Driver Navigator Navigator Navigator Navigator
** * ** ** *

Etc
** ** ** **

**

**

**

**

Measurement Engineer Measurement Engineer Measurement Engineer Measurement Engineer


** ** * ** *

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Drive Test for AREA Tuning


Report of Drive Test Status (for Window person)

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Drive Test for AREA Tuning


Drive test team SHOULD BRING the following items
2 Route maps for navigation and identification of problem events and areas. Site information sheet Site location map Drive Data sheet Pre-simulations CPICH RSCP & Ec/Io plots Measurement equipment

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Drive Test for AREA Tuning


The confirmation check list before drive test
Site status in the AREA
Nokia must confirm the site status in planned AREA from implementation team every morning (before Drive test) and inform Window person of whether drive test can start or not.

Route maps, equipment, and Vehicle


Drive test team must confirm whether the drive route(Map, AREA) is the same with assignment from coordinator, and equipment number, vehicle number in the Drive Data Sheet.

Existence of equipment parts.


Drive test team must confirm if all equipments are well connected and stabilized and remark it on the Drive Data sheet.

Measurement equipment is working


Drive test team must confirm whether the measurement equipment is functioning properly (UE, GPS ,etc) : test measurement (no logging) nearby office. Company Confidential

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Drive Test for AREA Tuning


Notes at the time of Logging Start
The Required matters are filled in the Drive Data Sheet
File name(Detail is after page), Start time, Value of odometer

The Start point is marked in the route map Confirmation of GPS reception

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Drive Test for AREA Tuning


Notes during Logging Confirmation of equipment being working and site normality
Confirmed that the Logging is performed at normal by UEs, GPS and PC. Confirmed that the signal of neighboring site are received as Ch ecking of SC or RSCP(Ec/No)

Field test engineer must stop the Logging and inform the status to
Window person in case of followings:
The measurement cant be performed due to equipment problem after trying to improve Site problem is found (Cell or Site down, etc)

In the office side, decide whether measurement can be continued or not


and inform Field test engineer.

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Drive Test for AREA Tuning


Notes during Logging
Confirmation of Problem Positions
To describe types of problems call drop, call setup fail - and environments around and specify the time when the event took place To remark the problem positions on the route map and describe the surroundings to assist the analyst utilizing the propagation environments information during problem analysis.

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Drive Test for AREA Tuning


Notes at the time of Logging Stop Condition of the Logging Stop
All planed tests are finished Field test engineer is directed to stop Logging A break is taken (i.e Lunch)

Notes
The stop point is marked in the route map The Required matters are filled in the Drive Data Sheet Stop time, reason of stopping, value of odometer

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Drive Test for AREA Tuning


Notes at the time of measurement finished Confirmation whether planned route is completed or not Confirmation whether data logging was performed in normal
or not by using Replay function of logging tool The first, the size of data file logged in measurement PC is
confirmed.

Informing the office of the finish of measurement

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Drive Test for AREA Tuning


Data Management
Definition of the File Name
The measurement data files must be named as follows figure. The numbering of he logged file starts from -001 when several data files were
produced due to break (lunch break) etc.
Region Name Date xx xx xx AREA Name Drive team No File No

K yymmdd_ A 1
Region Name; Tohoku Kansai Chugoku Shikoku Date; Measurement Date :H :K :N :S

- 002

AREA Name; AREA ID Block No,; Number of AREA division (AREA is divided by 1day drive unit) File No,; File Serial Number

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Drive Test for AREA Tuning


Data Management
Drive Data Management
Data transfer to Nokia is performed using CD-ROM
The CD-R should be made after whole drive test of the AREA is completed,
and two CD-ROMs are needed. (one is for J-phone and the other is for Nokia)
(in the car)

(in the office)


Database Server Card Reader

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ML8720B software

or
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software Local Network

CD-R

and PC-Card

Logged in this PC H/D This organization is different according to the network structure and the peripherals in the each office.

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Analysis Analysis Process Process

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What does "Analysis Process" look like?


Role of Analysis
Analyze the field data of Drive Test in order to Simulation using NetActPlanner in order to verify the tuning solution if the problem is related to poor RSCP or Ec/No coverage
extract the problematic area or/and event make tuning solution against the problems

Analysis process consists of


Call setup failure analysis Call drop analysis BLER analysis MOS analysis Handover analysis

Data Processing: Most of data processing can be done using XCAP-W. Field Data Analysis :

Simulation Analysis: Needed for verifying RSCP and Ec/No coverage optimisation

Data Analysis and Simulation branches are working together.

A draft tuning solutions are created from Field Data Analysis branch and tested in Simulation branch Simulations to confirm the effectiveness of the tuning solutions(RSCP & Ec/No)
Result before applying the tuning solutions Result after applying the tuning solutions
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Analysis Process Flow Diagram


Simplified Simplified Overall OverallOptimisation Optimisation Process Process
Call CallSetup SetupFail FailOpt. Opt. Call CallDrop DropOpt. Opt. BLER Opt. BLER Opt. Throughput ThroughputOpt. Opt. Neighbour Neighbourlist listOpt Opt Coverage CoverageOpt. Opt. MOS MOSOpt. Opt.
Measurement MeasurementData Data Find Findout outthe theCAUSE CAUSE of ofProblem Problem NetActPlanner NetActPlannerProject Project Simulation Simulationresults resultsof ofAREA AREA -CPICH RSCP -CPICH RSCP --CPICH CPICHEc/No Ec/No Coverage CoverageImprovement Improvement Solution (Best Solution (BestEffort EffortSolution) Solution)

Coverage Coverage Problem? Problem?

Optimisation Optimisationof of RAN RANParameters Parameters

Problem ProblemSolved Solved & &Reporting Reporting

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Needed material for making AREA Tuning Report (1 st Drive Test Report)
Item RF Performance Analysis (note: each UE will have own CPICH RSCP and Ec/No data for the analysis) Detail Problem Area Map Best Server CPICH RSCP Best Server CPICH Ec/No Cumulative Distribution of RSCP Cumulative Distribution of Ec/No Distribution of RSCP and Ec/No Call Set-up Failure Ratio Call Drop Ratio HO Ratio Distribution of MOS Evaluation BLER MOS Call drop point indicated on map

Data Processing -Analysis-

Voice AMR
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AMR Measurement

Call Drop Point Analysis

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Data Processing -Analysis Needed material for making AREA Tuning Report (2nd Drive Test Report) The materials of 1 st drive test report are all needed and the following items are additionally required.
Throughput Cumulative Distribution Average Download time Call Set-up Failure Ratio Call Drop Ratio FTP Throughput BLER Throughput Average Download time Call Set-up Failure Ratio Call Drop Ratio FTP Throughput BLER Throughput PS PS Measurement Coverage Map UDI Coverage Map
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Data Processing -Analysis

Plot of Measured Best Server RSCP


Plotted along the drive route on the map Shows measured best servers CPICH RSCP level so that Data Analyst can see the Coverage problem area Plotted along the drive route on the map Shows measured best servers CPICH Ec/No level so that Data Analyst can see the Dominance problem area (Low Best Server Ec/No)

Plot of Measured Best Server Ec/No


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Data Processing -Analysis

Problem Area Map


Shows all problem areas in the AREA MapInfo is used to draw polygons of problem areas on the map. This map is used for producing Graph of RSCP and Ec/No in problem area, which is explained later section Minimize the size of polygon for easy area identification Several polygons that have same solution/causes of problem could be combined on one problem sheet. Case by case. Analysis is needed in order to identify whether it is real problem area or not => then to be put as problem area or not could be decided (together with Nokia, if required). Some notes could be taken for backup explanation.

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Data Processing -Analysis

Histogram and CDF of RSCP


Shows the percentage of samples at different received RSCP level for whole drive data Shows the percentage of samples at different received Ec/No level for whole drive data

Histogram and CDF of Ec/No

RSCP distribution 100 90 80 70 60 %pdf 50 40 30 20 10 0 -102 -107 -112 RSCP in dBm


First drive pdf(%) Third Drive pdf (%)(if any) Second drive cdf (%)

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -117 -32 -37 -42 -47 -52 -57 -62 -67 -72 -77 -82 -87 -92 -97 % cdf

Second drive pdf(%) First drive cdf (%) Third Drive cdf (%)(if any)

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Data Processing -Analysis

Distribution of RSCP and Ec/No


Distribution of RSCP and Ec/No for Problem Area: Dotted distribution of measured CPICH RSCP and Ec/No profiles for problem area. This plot is very useful for compare the network improvement achieved in 2 nd drive test with that of 1 st drive test.

A5-1 Distribution of Best Server RSCP and Ec/No (First Drive)


-30

-25

12.61%
-20

14.51%

-15 Ec/No (dB)

-10 -9.7

-5

71.55%
0

1.34%

-92 5 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 RSCP (dBm) -90 -100 -110 -120 -130

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Data Processing -AMR Call set-up failure ratio


This includes RRC connection set-up failure and RAB connection set-up failure . The ratio is calculated according to the whole drive route as a reference purpose only.It is not the indication of a cell-based performance. This includes RRC connection drop and RAB connection drop. The ratio is obtained from the data of the whole drive route , not the cell-based performance indication and thus shall be treated like nothing but a reference.

Call drop ratio


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Data Processing -AMR HO ratio


2 way soft/softer handover:There are 2 branches (cells) in the active set for the handover. 3 way soft handover: There are 3 branches(cells) in the active set for the handover. The handover ratio here is the proportion of different handover types in terms of 2-way or 3-way or non-handover state. There wont be any hard handover in the area tuning on account of the fact that there wont be inter-frequency handover in the area tuning , not to mention the inter-system handover.Besides, some hard intra-frequency handovers are not expected to see in the inter-RNC handover cases in the area tuning.

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Data Processing -AMR Distribution of MOS evaluation


MOS (mean of score) is collected along the test route with the 3 r d party software at the UE/PC end. Score1:Bad; Score2:Poor; Score3:Fair; Score4:Good; Score5: Excel lent. The MOS distribution is the collection of portion of scores along the whole drive test route.
MOS distribution 1% 2% 2 1 % 1 2 %

6 4 %

1 : B a d

2:Poor

3:Fair

4:Good

5:Excellent

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Data Processing -AMR BLER

Block error ratio:BLER is measured from the CRC Transport Block (TB) is a basic unit that is exchanged between Layer 1 and Layer 2 (MAC). Layer 1 adds CRC for each TB and BLER is calculated from the CRC. The BLER is plotted along the whole drive test route as a sort of quality indication for the whole route and can be an aid to other problem events analysis. BLER performance will also be expressed as a statistical figure which mean value is shown in it.
Mean
10.00%

Frequency

9.00%

8.00%

7.00%

Freq of BLER

6.00%

5.00%

4.00%

3.00%

2.00%

1.00%

0.00% 0.00% 0.25% 0.50% 0.75% 1.00% 1.25% 1.50% 1.75%

BLER

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Data Processing -AMR Call drop point indicated on map Showing the problem events on the map for a clear indication and to facilitate the problem analysis.

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Data Processing -PS Throughput cumulative distribution

For the PS call session test , throughput is used as an important index for the session quality.And the distribution can be used to be a reference for the whole drive test route.

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Data Processing -PS Average download time

The PS call is tested with the help of a FTP server locates at the core network.The basic idea is to download a certain content from the FTP server.The content is to be kept uniform for the whole drive test.Thus we could have a download time for ever y session.The timing issue can be used as an aid to the PS session quality evaluation. The proportion of the session set-up failure along the whole drive route.Again , it is simply for a reference purpose only(or bench-marking). The ratio of the session drops along the test route.

Call set -up failure ratio

Call drop ratio

FTP throughput

The data rate in the transmission pipe. The better the transmission media quality , the higher the throughput. Plot the PS call BLER along the drive test route. Indication of the quality and a good aid to the problem event analysis. BLER performance will also be expressed as a statistical figure which mean value is shown in it. Plot the throughput collected along the drive route and the statistical distribution chart together with the BLER map can provide good assistance to the problem event analysis.
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BLER map and statistical distribution


Throughput map and statistical distribution

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Data Processing -UDI Throughput cumulative distribution

For the UDI call session test , throughput is also used as an important index for the session quality. And the distribution can be used to be a reference for the whole drive test route.

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Data Processing -UDI Average download time

The UDI call is tested with the help of a server locates at the core network.The basic idea is to download a certain content(probably video streaming) from the server.The content is to be kept uniform for the whole drive test.Thus we could have a do wnload time for every session.The timing issue can be used as an aid to the PS session quality evaluation. The proportion of the session set-up failure along the whole drive route.Again , it is simply for a reference purpose only(or bench-marking). The ratio of the session drops along the test route.

Call set -up failure ratio

Call drop ratio

BLER map and statistical distribution


Plot the UDI call BLER along the drive test route. Indication of the quality and a good aid to the problem event analysis.

BLER performance will also be expressed as a statistical figure which mean value is shown in it.
Plot the throughput collected along the drive route and together with the BLER map can provide good assistance to the problem event analysis.

Throughput map and statistical distribution

Throughput performance will also be expressed as a statistical figure for a reference.


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Data Processing -Analysis Additional Needed material

For making the materials that will be helpful for Data Analyst

Plot of Each SC RSCP from cluster tuning result Plot of Each SC Ec/No from cluster tuning result Graph of RSCP and Ec/No in problem area if the cause of the problem is poor coverage of RSCP or Ec/No Real Networks RAN parameter settings including Neighbour list of serving cells Signaling message logs to help tracing the cause of problem

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Data Processing -Analysis Graph of RSCP and Ec/No in problem area


Special process of making Graph of RSCP and Ec/No vs, Data No, in Problem Area. The only data included in each problem area polygon are exported by using MapInfo function after Problem Area map is made. This graph is very useful to analyze the problem area and to fin d a draft solution RSSI is also plotted together in this graph

Plot of RSCP and Ec/No vs Data No. in problem Area


1 002

Data No,

0 -5

1200
1 098

-20 -10 RSCP and RSSI (dBm)

1600

Exporting and 1400


1 008

-40

-15 Ec/No (dB) -20 -25

Problem Area

Making graph

-60

-80

-30 -35 -40

-100

1300
1 037

-120 -45 -140 -50

1200

1300 1400

Data No. SC106 RSCP SC97 Ec/No SC180 Ec/No SC103 RSCP SC106 Ec/No SC69 RSCP SC103 Ec/No

ANT1_RSSI SC174 RSCP SC69 Ec/No

SC97 RSCP SC180 RSCP SC174 Ec/No

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1600

Field Data Analysis Process


AREA tuning is event based optimisation so that if there is problematic event, the cause of the event should be traced and solved according to the following optimisation procedures. Call Setup Failure Optimisation Call Drop Optimisation BLER Optimisation MOS Optimisation Throughput Optimisation Neighbour list Optimisation CPICH RSCP and Ec/No Coverage Optimisation

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Overview
Four kinds of Call testings: AMR short/long call, UDI call, PS call AMR short call

Call configuration:

Call duration: hold15 sec/waiting for 15 sec and repeat Call setup fail opt. Call drop opt. ( Neighbour list opt.) BLER opt. Coverage opt.

Optimisation activity

AMR long call Call configuration: keep/wait for 15sec if theres a call drop and re-set-u p Optimisation activity

Call setup fail opt. Call drop opt. ( Neighbour list opt.) BLER opt. MOS opt. Coverage opt.
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Overview
PS call (only for 2 nd Drive test) Call configuration: keep/wait for 15sec and repeat, data rate=64kbps/128kbps Optimisation activity

Call setup fail opt. Call drop opt. (Neighbour list opt.) BLER opt. Throughput opt. Coverage opt.

UDI call (only for 2 n d Drive test) Call configuration: keep/wait for 15sec and repeat, data rate=64kbps Optimisation activity

Call setup fail opt. Call drop opt. (Neighbour list opt.) BLER opt. Coverage opt.

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Overview
There are two problem categories: Problem Area and Problem Event. Problem Event There are problematic cases like Call Setup failure or Call Drops during the drive test and the reasons to this might be different from case to case so the optimisation methods applied to this would be different accordingly.Thus it requires detailed analysis on each happening and the concept is termed as problem event. Example: Call set-up failure, call

drop.
Problem Area For some performance deteriorations, they are not coming as an outstanding case but rather as a form of an area which are inter related. Thus we need to analyse it as a whole. This concept is termed as problem area . Example: CPICH RSCP, CPICH Ec/No, BLER , MOS,

Throughput
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Overview
UE is different from Anritsu RF Scanner in measurement: Anritsu Scanner measures all SCs signals but UE only measures the signals of cells that the system informs through BCH (neighbour list) Therefore if an area shows poor CPICH RSCP coverage, it might be real poor coverage problem but there is possibility that there is a site covering the area with high enough RSCP level but the site is missing in the neighbour list of serving cell. This phenomenon can mislead the analyst to propose incorrect sol ution or even cause serious side effect to other area so that we have to use Best servers CPICH RSCP and Ec/No plots and Each SCs CPICH RSCP and Ec/No plots from Cluster Tuning to see if there is a dominant cell, which is missing in the neighbour list of serving cell.

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M O S Optimisation

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M O S Optimisation
MOS score indicates the network quality by estimating AMR long c all voice quality, which is expressed by the followings: 1: Bad, 2: Poor, 3: Fair, 4: Good, 5: Excellent MOS score will be generated every 5 seconds and if the score is 1 or 2, MOS problematic area will be identified on the problematic area map and MOS optimisation is needed. If other problematic events call drops, call setup failure or poor BLER performance were observed nearby the MOS problematic area, those problematic events and area will be optimized beforehand. MOS optimisation is basically closely related to CPICH RSCP and Ec/No coverage optimisation. If there are no problematic events, no missing neighbour list and best servers CPICH RSCP and Ec/No high enough, Analyst needs to report what he observed such as system messages from XCAP- W

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M O S Optimisation
MOS MOSScore Score<<33 Yes No Report/Finish Report/Finish

Yes

Call CallDropped(AMR Dropped(AMRshort short /long call) in MOS problematic /long call) in MOS problematic area? area? No

Best BestServers ServersCPICH CPICHRSCP RSCP >>-110dBm -110dBmand and Best Bestservers serversCPICH CPICHEc/No Ec/No >>-16dB -16dB No

Yes

Go Goto toeach each Optimisation Optimisation Procedure Procedure

Yes

Call CallSetup Setupfailed(AMR failed(AMR short call) in MOS short call) in MOSproblematic problematic area? area? No

Missing Missing Neighbour? Neighbour? Yes

No

Coverage Coverage&& Dominance Dominance Opt. Opt.

Yes

Poor PoorBLER BLERperformance performance in MOS problematic in MOS problematic area? area? No

Neighbour NeighbourList ListOpt. Opt.

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation


During the drive test, Call Setup failure event happens at a location, Call Setup Failure optimisation process will be triggered for the location Analyst should investigate the best servers CPICH RSCP and Ec/No and signaling messages and identify the cause of the event. The solution of call setup failure can be CPICH coverage (RSCP or Ec/No) improvement or RAN parameter modification depending on the identified cause of event. Call Setup Failure optimisation will be considered in every kind of call testing AMR short/long calls, UDI call, and PS call. Related measurement and deliverables: Problem Area Map which identifies call setup failure location Call setup success ratio from AMR short call testing
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Call Setup Failure Optimisation


Call Setup Failure optimisation procedure identifies the cause of call setup fail by investigating the coverage and messages as follow:

Best Server CPICH RSCP and Ec/No coverage using UEs sensitivity threshold UL coverage and Random Access Process investigation Admission Control (AC) investigation L1 Synchronisation Failure investigation Investigation of logged system messages

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation


Start

A
No

B
Report & Finish Check system message
No

Best servers RSCP > -110dBm


Yes

Missing Neighbour ?
Yes

No

Coverage Optimisation

Best servers Ec/No > -16dB


Yes No AICH(ACK) received?

No

Neighbourlist Optimisation

Dominance Optimisation

RACH failure Message sent? UL coverage & RACH param. Opt (changing serving cell)
Yes

Report & Finish (Check failure cause)


Yes (FACH) RRC Connection Setup received? Yes No No RRC setup reject received? Yes

Report & Finish (Reason of problem: L1 sync fail)

No

(DCH) RRC Connection setup Completed sent from UE? Yes

AC optimisation (check PrxNoise & interferer around BTS)

Report & Finish (Check failure cause)

No

Radio Bearer setup failure Received?

Report & Finish

Report & Finish Check failure cause (Not radio problem/cell update)
70 NOKIA Company Confidential

Yes

Call Setup Failure Optimisation - Block A In Block A, we check if the cause of call setup failure is CPICH RSCP and Ec/No coverage problem The received best servers CPICH RSCP and Ec/No will be compared to the coverage thresholds at the location where call setup failed and if best servers CPICH RSCP OR Ec/No is less than the thresholds, coverage optimisation will be performed. The thresholds of CPICH RSCP and Ec/No depend on UEs sensitivity: CPICH RSCP coverage threshold = -110 dBm CPICH Ec/No coverage threshold = -16 dB Best server CPICH RSCP and Ec/No coverage optimisation process is almost same as cluster tuning. Simulation using NetActPlanner will be used to verify the proposed coverage optimisation solution
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Call Setup Failure Optimisation


-Block A (Coverage Opt.) The area which doesn't meet one of the following criteria is defined as Coverage Problematic Area and Dominance Problematic Area respectively. Coverage Problem Area
Best 11 00 dd BB m Best Servers Servers CPICH CPICH RSCP RSCP < < -1 -1 m

Dominance Problem Area

Low Best Servers Ec/No


Best Best Servers Servers CPICH CPICH Ec/No Ec/No < < -16 -16 dB dB

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation


-Block A (Coverage Opt.)Drive DriveTest Test Measurement Measurement
Best servers CPICH RSCP>X dBm

(A)
No

Coverage problem area Coverage Coveragearea area optimisation optimisation

(B)
No

Yes Best servers Ec/No>Y dB Yes

Dominance Dominancearea area optimisation optimisation

Dominance problem area (Low best server Ec/No)

Complete Complete Measurement Measurement Analysis Analysis

Where: Where: X is the threshold for CPICH RSCP, -110 d B m X is the threshold for CPICH RSCP, -110 d B m Y is the threshold for CPICH Ec/No, -16 dB Y is the threshold for CPICH Ec/No, -16 dB

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation


-Block A (Coverage Opt.) Recommendable data for finding Draft Solution

Coverage Problem Area


Problem Area Map Plot of Measured Best Server RSCP Graph of RSCP and E c/No in problem area Measurement data of best server s RSCP and each SCs RSCP coverage of cluster tuning

Dominance Problem Area


Problem Area Map Plot of Measured Best Server E c/ N o Graph of RSCP and Ec/No in problem area Measurement data of best servers RSCP and each SCs RSCP coverage of cluster tuning Measurement data of best servers RSCP and each SCs RSCP coverage of cluster tuning

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation


-Block A (Coverage Opt.) A draft tuning solution can come out by

Identifying interfering cells Deciding tuning methods (Tilting, Bearing angle, Tx Power, etc) to apply Prioritizing cells of which implementation parameter is needed to be changed Anticipating the effect of draft solution using gain calculation macro, which calculates the change of antenna gain when antenna tilting is applied. Example of Draft solution

Problem property: Low Best server Ec/No Site priority: Site001 -> Site003 -> Site004 Site(Sector) to be modified: Site001(A) Tuning method: 3 degree antenna down-tilting Reason: Site001 generates interference/big coverage. Expected effects: 5dB reduction of Site001s RSCP level from gain calculation macro.
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Call Setup Failure Optimisation


-Block A (Coverage Opt.) Gain Calculation Macro
Used to estimate the effect of antenna tilting on RSCP level at problem area Because of simple calculation (site info is not needed), it gives rough idea of draft solution

60m

5 13.5m 12m Ant Mail Beam 531.5m

2.7

Target 1000m

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation


-Block A (Coverage Opt.) Possible Cell Priority for modification

Coverage Problem Area Case


1. Current Best Server 2. Site with lowest link loss 3. Site with big down-tilting angle

Dominance Problem Area Case

Low Best Server Ec/No Problem

2 nd Best server Best server

: :Up -tilting/Increasing Up -tilting/IncreasingPower Power : :DD oo w nn -tilting/Decreasing w -tilting/DecreasingPower Power

However, this priority is NOT always applicable and is HEAVILY DEPENDENT on practical situations

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation


-Block A (Coverage Opt. & Draft Solution)Tuning Tuning methods methods for for Coverage Coverage Problem Problem Area Area Tuning Tuning methods methods for for Dominance Dominance Problem Problem Area Area

High High Priority Priority

Up-tilting Up-tiltingof ofserving servingcells cellsantenna antennato to extend extendcoverage coverageradius radiusand andto toimprove improve unsatisfied coverage area unsatisfied coverage area Increase Increase CPICH CPICH Tx Tx Power Power of of serving serving cell cell Change Change Antenna Antenna Bearing Bearing Angle: Angle: Focus Focus the the main main beam beam of of antenna antenna to to coverage coverage holes holes and and low low RSCP RSCP area area Change Antenna Pattern: Change Antenna Pattern: Displace Displace with with higher higher gain gain antenna antenna with with adequate adequate antenna antennatilting tilting Increase Increase serving serving cells cellsantenna antennaheight heightto to get get higher higher effective effective antenna antenna gain gain but but there is risk to make undesirable interthere is risk to make undesirable intercell cellinterference interferenceto toadjacent adjacentcells cells
Note: Tilting angle range is between -2 to 14 degree
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Down-tilting Down-tiltingof ofinterfering interferingcells cells antenna, antenna, which which generate generate pilot pilot pollution pollution Change Change CPICH CPICH Tx Tx Power: Power: Increase Increase serving servingcells cellsTx Txpower powerbut butdecrease decrease interfering interferingcells cells Tx Tx power power Change Change antenna antenna bearing bearing angles angles of of cells cells involved involvedin inpilot pilotpollution pollution Change antenna Change antenna patterns patterns of of cells cells involved involvedin inpilot pilotpollution. pollution.Smaller Smallergains gains for forinterfering interferingcells cellsand andhigher highergain gainfor for victim victimcell cell Decrease Decreaseantenna antennaheight heightof ofinterfering interfering cells and increase antenna height cells and increase antenna height of of victim victimcell cellwith withadequate adequatetilting tiltingangle angle

Call Setup Failure Optimisation


- B l o c k A ( C o v e r a g e O p t . & V e r i f i c a t i o n ) To develop Completed Solution by applying Draft Solution to NetActPlanner simulation and tying to fine tune. At least Two different Solutions should be submitted in AREA Tuning Report To produce the Best Effort Solution even in case that Completed Solution cannot be found with current number of sites or site location. To make long term Suggestion or reasonable explanation why the problem area cannot be solved easily, when Completed Solution wa s not found.

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation


- B l o c k A ( C o v e r a g e O p t . & V e r i f i c a t i o n ) For Simulation, NetActPlanner is used.

Two different simulations are performed

Simulation without tuning solutions: Cell based Propagation model (cluster tuning) is used. Simulation with tuning solutions: The same Propagation model is used and estimate the effect of tuning solution.

All sites integrated shall be included in simulation Surrounding sites around the border (including sites in other clusters, missing sites in cluster, non-integrated sites) shall be taken in consideration.

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation


- B l o c k A ( C o v e r a g e O p t . & V e r i f i c a t i o n ) "Simulation" step

Parameters like antenna tilt & direction and Tx powers etc. are same as those used in the actual system. Check how much the simulation is accurate by comparing with Problem Area Map. Check list (Simulation Vs Measurement) Simulations vs Problem Area Map Plot of Simulated Best Server RSCP vs Plot of Measured Best Server RSCP Plot of Simulated Best Server Ec/No vs Plot of Measured Best Server Ec/No A draft tuning solution is applied to Re-simulation in the beginning and the draft solution will be revised. Re-simulation may be performed over and over to remove the problem areas or to obtain the best tuning solution. Confirm there is no new problem areas incurred by applying the tuning solution

"Re-simulation" step

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation


- B l o c k A ( C o v e r a g e O p t . & V e r i f i c a t i o n ) "Comparison & Verification" step

Verify Re-simulation with tuning solution whether problem areas were resol ved or improvement was achieved by comparing to Simulation without tuning solution.

The simulation results to be compared are:


Plot of Simulated Best Server RSCP Plot of Simulated Best Server Ec/No

Solution is found OK. => Finish the process and make report. Solution is found NG. => Return to Analysis" step to reconsider solution.

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-Block A (Coverage Opt. & Solution Finding) Flow chart of Problem Area Resolution
Si m ul ati on branch
Analysis Draft solution Apply draft solution to Simulation

Call Setup Failure Optimisation

Change parameters

Re-simulate & Judge Solved? No Change more? No

Yes

Fi el d D ata A nal ysi s branch


Yes

Feed back Yes

Need to change draft solution? No Choose Best result Make suggestion such as long-term solution

Finish this process

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation - Block B UE


Preamble/RACH Acquisition Indicator/AICH RRC: RRC Connection Request/PRACH
NBAP: RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST

WBTS

RNC

NBAP: RADIO LINK SETUP RESPONSE

RRC: RRC CONNECTION SETUP/FACH L1 Synchronisation


NBAP: SYNCHRONISATION INDICATOR

RRC: RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE/DCH UE in CELL_DCH state


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Call Setup Failure Optimisation - Block B To check the Random Access Process working adequately by investigating whether AI (Acquisition Indicator) has been received through DL AICH. If AICH was not received by UE, the cause of the problem can be classified into: Inadequate RAN parameter related to Random Access: RAN parameter settings for pre-amble transmission or open loop power control information is not correct. UL Coverage limit: UL coverage of UE is smaller compared to serving cells DL coverage so that UEs Tx power cannot reach serving cell.

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation - Block B (Basic Theory)Random Access Procedure


Receive Receive information information of of Random Random access access from from BCH BCH Select Select randomly randomly one one of of the the RACH RACH subsubchannels channels and and the the signature signature Set Set initial initial preamble preamble power power level(Open level(Open loop loop PC), PC), and and transmit transmit initial initial RACH RACH preamble. preamble.
One access slot

Decode Decode AICH AICH to to see see whether whether BS BS has has detected the preamble. detected the preamble.

No

AICH AICH is is detected? detected?

Yes

Retransmit Retransmit preamble preamble with with increased power increased power

Transmit Transmit the the 10ms 10ms or or 20ms 20ms message message part part of of RACH. RACH.

AICH rx at MS PRACH message part

RACH preamble AICH preamble RACH message

PRACH tx at MS 4096chips
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Call Setup Failure Optimisation Block B (Basic Theory)PRACH Preamble Retrans Max(PRACH_preamble_retrans)
Range: 1-64 (default = 8) RACH maximum number of preamble cycles(RACH_tx_Max)

How many Preambles

The maximum number of preambles allowed in one preamble ramping cycle.


How many cycles?

Maximum number of RACH preamble cycles defines how many times the PRACH preamble ramping procedure can be repeated before UE MAC reports a failure on RACH transmission to higher layers. Range: 1-32, step=1 (default=8)
RACH preamble

AICH

One preamble cycle

One preamble cycle

PRACH

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation - Block B (Basic Theory)Open Openloop loopPower PowerControl(PRACH) Control(PRACH)
One access slot AICH access slots RX at UE Preamble_ini tial_power Prea mble 1 PRACH access slots TX at UE PowerRamp StepPRACH preamble Prea mble 2
PowerOffsetLast PreamblePRACH [3] message

Acq. ind.

Prea mble N

Conrol part of PRACH message

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation - Block B (Basic Theory)Required received C/I on PRACH at WCDMA BTS This parameter is used by the UE to calculate the initial output power on PRACH according to the Open loop power control procedure In case call setups last too long, this can be tuned

Example : Preamble_Initial_Power = Primary CPICH DL Tx Power - CPICH_RSCP + UL interference + UL_required_CI

Parameter P-CPICH DL Tx Power CPICH_RSCP UL interference


PRACHRequiredReceivedCI

Preamble_Initial_Power
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Value 33dBm -107dBm -100dBm -25dB 15dBm


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Remark Assigned and broadcasted UE measures BTS measures and broadcasts Assigned and broadcasted UE calculates

Call Setup Failure Optimisation - Block B (Basic Theory)PowerRampStepPRACHpreamble The power ramp step on PRACH preamble when no acquisition indicator (AI) is detected by the UE Default = 2dB, range =1..8dB, Step 1dB PowerOffsetLastPreamblePRACHmessage The power offset between the last transmitted preamble and the control part of the PRACH message (added to the preamble power to receive the power of the message control part). Default = 2dB, range = -5..10dB, Step 1dB
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Call Setup Failure Optimisation - Block B (Solutions)Max UE Tx power hit the UE_P_MAX(24dBm)?

No

To Toincrease increasePRACH_Preamble_retrans PRACH_Preamble_retrans Or OrPowerRampStepPRACHPreamble PowerRampStepPRACHPreamble

Yes
Is UL Interference abnormally HIGH?

Yes

Report Reportthere theremight mightbe bean aninterfering interfering source sourceNearby Nearbythe theserving servingcell cell

No Change Changethe theServing Servingcell cellto tocover coverthe theproblem problemArea Area => =>UE UEis istoo toofar farto toreach reachthe theserving servingcell cell

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation - Block C UE has the appropriate DL/UL coverage but if RNC does not allow to set up the RRC connection of the requested RAB (Radio Access Bearer), Call setup will be failed. Admission Control (AC) is involved in RRC connection setup PREVENTIVE STATE: If measured UL (PrxTotal) or DL (PtxTotal) load exceeds target thresholds (PrxTarget and PtxTarget) AC can still admit new RAB to the cell if a new non-controllable load keeps below target thresholds (in practice this means that AC can admit only new controllable load RABs i.e. NRT RABs) OVERLOAD STATE: If measured UL (PrxTotal) or DL (PtxTotal) load exceeds overload thresholds (PrxTarget + PrxOffset and PtxTarget + PtxOffset) then AC can't admit more RABs to the cell

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation - Block C There will be basically no case that AC does not allow RRC connection setup during the drive test of AREA tuning because there are few number of UEs in the network. (Traffic loading is trivial) However, it is needed to check PtxTotal and PrxTotal are less than PtxTarget (40dBm) and PrxTarget (4dB, 60% loading) respectively. If UL AC does not allow RRC setup: Check out the Tx power of WBTS, # of channels transmitted, Signaling messages. If DL AC does not allow RRC setup: Check out if there is an interfering source nearby the serving cell.

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Call Setup Failure Optimisation - Block D & E Block D: To check if Layer 1 Synchronisation (slot/frame sync) failed not. If RRC Connection Setup was received by UE but UE does not send RRC Connection Setup Completed, we will report L1 synchronisation failure and have to check system messages using XCAP-W. Block E: To check if there is any system message showing abnormal status using XCAP-W. If RRC Connection settled, Radio Bearer setup will be normally successful but if it fails, we will have to check the system message carefully and report it in the AREA tuning report.

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Problem Event Finding Flow Diagram

Call Drop Case Optimization


RRC and RAB drops

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Call Drop Optimization RRC Drop Optimization


I.Definitions II.Detailed Flow Explanation -Analysis III.Solutions and Reports

RAB Drop Optimization


I.Definitions II.Detailed Flow Explanation -Analysis III.Solutions and Reports
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Definition of the RRC Connection


When the UE is in idle state, it has no radio resource control (RRC) connection to the radio access network.RRC connection is to be set up when the MS requests it or when it is paged. The RRC connection is needed for the radio access bearer (RAB) establishment.

URA_PCH

Cell_PCH UTRAN Connected Mode

Cell_DCH

Cell_FACH

RRC Connection Established RRC Connection Released

RRC Connection Released

Idle Mode

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Definition of the RRC Connection


RRC connection is always started by UE.UE sends a message to the RNC requesting the RRC connection set-up.RNC then sets up a radio link and sends back UE the physical channel information.The UE will transmit an acknowledgement after it has successfully synchronized itself with the WBTS. The UE will manage to establish an RRC connection under the following conditions: 1.UE is in idle state to execute an MM procedure. 2.UE leaves the idle state to acquire service from the network. 3.UE executes the network-controlled inter-RAT cell change to UTRAN without reservation of resources prior to the cell change. 4.UE initiated the inter-RAT cell reselection to UTRAN without reservation of resources prior to the cell change. The RRC connection will be set up if the DL admission decision succeeds in one active set cell(at least in the access cell)and the UL admission decision succeeds in every active set cell.

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Definition of the RRC Drop


UE
RRC: Connection Request Correctly Received message RRC Connection Setup Starts

BTS

RNC

CN

Resource Reservation in RNC, BTS, Transmission RRC: RRC Connection Request Setup RRC Connection setup completed

RRC Connection Setup phase

RRC Connection Access phase


RNC waits reply from UE RRC: RRC Connection Completed RRC Connection Access completed RRC: Initial Direct Transfer RANAP: Initial UE Message If there is any thing wrong within these signal messages, RRC drop will occur!

RRC Connection Active phase


UE-CN Signaling RANAP: Iu Release Command RRC Connection Active completed

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Definition of the RRC Drop


A call drop is defined as an event where the communication connection has broken down between end entities of a call (connection). According to the previous slide, if there is any disconnection in the signal messages during the RRC connection access phase or the RRC connection active phase, the RRC connection will be dropped. There are a number of causes to trigger the failure.For instance, an Uu interface failure or the loss of layer one synchronization in the base station will drop the RRC connection in the RRC connection Access phase. While Iu interface failure or the loss of integrity in terms of setting can cause the RRC connection to drop as well.Not to mention the possible transmission delay or simply the malfunction of the transmission media.
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Call Drop Optimization RRC Drop Optimization


I.Definitions II.Detailed Flow Explanation -Analysis III.Solutions and Reports

RAB Drop Optimization


I.Definitions II.Detailed Flow Explanation -Analysis III.Solutions and Reports
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RRC Drop Optimization Flow


RRC Drop? Yes RRC Connection Access phase/ RNC waits reply from UE message check. Is RRC connection completed and Initial Direct Transfer received? Yes Are TPC commands still being sent? Yes Neighbour list ID checking, any discrepancy? Yes Correct it! *System Error (might be due to the transmission media problem) No Any suitable cell not in the Active Set? Yes *Report No Is UE Tx Pwr hitting the max? Yes No Is BLER ok? Yes No *BLER Optimization

No

No

RRC Connection Active phase (UE-CN signaling) message checking; Is Iu Release command received? Yes

Report

Is it in SHO state?(2 or more active cells) Yes

No

No

Is Active Set full? Yes *Uplink cell outage! Change Antenna downtilt or MaxUETxPwr

No

*Search for more suitable cells around by changing Addition Window in order to include it.

*Neighbour list optimization

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RRC Drop Flow Analysis-Portion A


RRC Drop? Yes RRC Connection Access phase/ RNC waits reply from UE message check. Is RRC connection completed and Initial Direct Transfer received? Yes

No

RRC Connection Active phase (UE-CN signaling) message checking; Is Iu Release command received? Yes

Report

*System Error (might be due to the transmission media problem)

The RRC drop optimization is event-triggered , which suggests that there is no threshold applied to it like that for the RSCP and Ec/No in the cluster tuning.Whenever there is an RRC drop , there is an analysis.This is termed as a problem event . The first stage of the analysis on the RRC drop is to check the system layer information to check if every necessary massage is received perfectly To break the ice, check messages in the RRC connection access phase.Basically the RNC will wait the reply from the UE for the connection completion confirmation at this phase. If anything goes wrong, go on and check the L1 sync in the BTS and Uu interface. It will be addressed more in portion B and portion C.

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RRC Drop Flow Analysis-Portion A


RRC Drop? Yes RRC Connection Access phase/ RNC waits reply from UE message check. Is RRC connection completed and Initial Direct Transfer received? Yes

No

RRC Connection Active phase (UE-CN signaling) message checking; Is Iu Release command received? Yes

The next is to examine the messages of the RRC connection active phase which mainly comprises UE-CN signaling.This part may involve too much and is not appropriate to be included in the analysis of the area tuning.If we dont have any failure of receiving messages at both ends in this phase, note that in the report but no need to propose solutions. On the other hand, if there do exist some collapses in terms of the message receiving, there still lie a lot of variables like the breakdown of the transmission media or simply ATM problems out of the scope of the area tuning and thus it would be just fine jotting down that observation in the report.

Report

*System Error (might be due to the transmission media problem)

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RRC Drop Flow Analysis-Portion B


RRC Drop? Yes RRC Connection Access phase/ RNC waits reply from UE message check. Is RRC connection completed and Initial Direct Transfer received? Yes *report

No

Is UE Tx Pwr hitting the max? Yes

No

Is BLER ok? Yes

No

*BLER Optimisation

If the messages are improperly received in the RRC connection a the UE transmitted power first , if it has hit the maximum value , this might be due to the uplink cell edge and will be further analyzed in portion C. If the UE transmitted power hasnt reached the utmost extreme set, verify next whether we have a poor BLER or not , if there does exist a BLER problem , go to BLER Optimisation (click) for the details. In the case of a decent BLER , report the observation (system message logs)
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RRC Drop Flow Analysis-Portion C


RRC Drop No Is UE Tx Pwr hitting the max? Yes RRC connection access phase/RNC waits reply from UE message checking.Is RRC connection completed and initial direct transfer received? Are TPC commands still being sent? Yes Neighbour list ID checking, any discrepancy? Yes Correct it! No No Any suitable cell not in the Active Set? Yes

Is it in SHO state? Yes

No

No

Is Active Set full?

Yes

*Search for more suitable cells around by changing Addition Window in order to include it.

*Neighbour list optimization

Upon analyzing a RRC drop , first check the system message of the RRC connection access phase , if theres nothing wrong , follow portion A for the following procedure.If there is indeed something wrong with it , check the UE transmitted power ,if it hasnt reached the maximum allowed, go to portion B for the further analysis, but if the UE transmitted power has achieved the largest allowed value , carry on the analysis in portion C.

*Uplink cell outage! Change Antenna downtilt or MaxUETxPwr 106 NOKIA Company Confidential

RRC Drop Flow Analysis-Portion C


RRC Drop No Is UE Tx Pwr hitting the max? Yes RRC connection access phase/RNC waits reply from UE message checking.Is RRC connection completed and initial direct transfer received? Are TPC commands still being sent? Yes Neighbour list ID checking, any discrepancy? Yes Correct it! No No Any suitable cell not in the Active Set? Yes

Is it in SHO state? Yes

No

No

Is Active Set full?

Yes

*Search for more suitable cells around by changing Addition Window in order to include it.

*Neighbour list optimization

*Uplink cell outage! Change Antenna downtilt or MaxUETxPwr 107 NOKIA Company Confidential

When the UE is transmitting at the maximum power , there might be a number of reasons for this.To name some ,cell edge in terms of uplink coverage or simply severe interference it has now encountered.Under such condition , if the power up command is still continuously received from the system , we could suspect thats on account of the cell edge problem because of the constant deterioration of SIR measured from the pilot bits.This might be due to the interference.But bear one thing in mind that it is not going to be easy to determine a interference outside of the system itself at this stage.

RRC Drop Flow Analysis-Portion C


RRC Drop No Is UE Tx Pwr hitting the max? Yes RRC connection access phase/RNC waits reply from UE message checking.Is RRC connection completed and initial direct transfer received? Are TPC commands still being sent? Yes Neighbour list ID checking, any discrepancy? Yes Correct it! No No Any suitable cell not in the Active Set? Yes

To put the UE in the soft/softer handover state can help mitigate the poor quality at the cell border area.The following step is to check the soft/softer handover related condition.
No No

Is it in SHO state? Yes

The basic idea is to push the UE at the cell edge into the handover state. If the UE is not in the handover state while the RRC drop takes place, it is quite essential to first check if there is any discrepancy in the adjacency parameter settings.Any wrong setting in it will stop the UE/system from performing handover properly.Correct it if theres any.

Is Active Set full?

Yes

*Search for more suitable cells around by changing Addition Window in order to include it.

*Neighbour list optimization

*Uplink cell outage! Change Antenna downtilt or MaxUETxPwr 108 NOKIA Company Confidential

RRC Drop Flow Analysis-Portion C


RRC Drop No Is UE Tx Pwr hitting the max? Yes RRC connection access phase/RNC waits reply from UE message checking.Is RRC connection completed and initial direct transfer received? Are TPC commands still being sent? Yes Neighbour list ID checking, any discrepancy? Yes Correct it! No No Any suitable cell not in the Active Set? Yes

Is it in SHO state? Yes

No

No

For a non-handover ,nondiscrepancy condition,we need to utilize data from the cluster tuning to determine which are proper candidates that could be put into the active set of the serving cell.This might lead to the Neighbor list optimization on page **. Still , if there is no suitable candidate around, follow the coverage optimization determined in the cluster tuning procedure or change the MaxUETxPwr( least recommended).

Is Active Set full?

Yes

*Search for more suitable cells around by changing Addition Window in order to include it.

*Neighbour list optimization

*Uplink cell outage! Change Antenna downtilt or MaxUETxPwr 109 NOKIA Company Confidential

RRC Drop Flow Analysis-Portion C


RRC Drop No Is UE Tx Pwr hitting the max? Yes RRC connection access phase/RNC waits reply from UE message checking.Is RRC connection completed and initial direct transfer received? Are TPC commands still being sent? Yes Neighbour list ID checking, any discrepancy? Yes Correct it! No No Any suitable cell not in the Active Set? Yes

If the UE is in the handover state when the RRC is dropped, first check if the active set is full or not.(It is normally set to 3 as a default.) If there is still room in the active set , look for suitable cells around and put them into the active set by loosening the handover triggering parameters. If the active set is full , simply follow the cluster tuning coverage optimization guideline to improve the coverage.But it isnt only restricted to the best serving cell, any component in the active set could be fine tuned in order to get the best result.

Is it in SHO state? Yes

No

No

Is Active Set full?

Yes

*Search for more suitable cells around by changing Addition Window in order to include it.

*Neighbour list optimization

*Uplink cell outage! Change Antenna downtilt or MaxUETxPwr 110 NOKIA Company Confidential

Call Drop Optimization RRC Drop Optimization


I.Definitions II.Detailed Flow Explanation -Analysis III.Solutions and Reports

RAB Drop Optimization


I.Definitions II.Detailed Flow Explanation -Analysis III.Solutions and Reports
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Solutions and Reports


Portion A Basically there is no need to propose any solutions but to record the exact condition in the report.Please check the report session for a reminder. Portion B In this part , the basic proposal is going to be focused on the BLER optimization.The details in terms of the possible solutions and the report related could be found in the BLER optimization session. Portion C In portion C, if the problem lies on the neighbor list , check the neighbor list optimization session for the solutions and reports. For the part of handover triggering , there are quite a few parameters that can be and are recommended to be tuned to suit the need in the area tuning. These parameters mainly belong to Event 1A ,1B and 1C in the soft handover parameter groups.
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Solutions and Reports


AdditionWindow: It is a threshold comparison value with respect to the best serving cell in the active set.The threshold is either relative to the P-CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the best active set cell or to the sum of active set measurement results depending on the value of the parameter Active Set Weighting Coefficient.The bigger the Addition Window , the wider the Sift HO area and thus the soft handover will be in some sense encouraged to take place earlier.But there does exist some bad aftermaths and therefore , it takes elaborate contemplation before changing it. DropWindow: It determines the relative threshold which is used by UE to calculate the reporting range of event 1B.It is either relative to the P-CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the best active set cell or to the sum of active set measurement results depending on the value of the parameter Active Set Weighting Coefficient.There are still some effects ensued the changing of the parameter and still takes cautious consideration before tuning it.

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Solutions and Reports


DropTime : When an active set cell leaves the reporting range(drop window), the cell must continuously stay outside of the reporting range for a given period before UE can send the measurement report to the RNC in order to remove the cell from its active set.Under some circumstances , it can be enlarged a bit to keep the soft handover(especially in the area where small number of cells coverage overlaps). But again, the side-effect can be severer than what it could bring in the good part. Replacement Window: When the number of cells in the active set is the max and a monitored cell becomes better than an active set cell, the UE transmits a measurement report to the RNC in order to replace the active cell with the candidate.It determines the margin by which the P-CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the monitored cell must exceed the P-CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the active cell before the UE can send the event 1C triggered measurement report to the RNC.It could help to get a better cell in to the active set with replacing a poorerperformed active set cell.Still , think before you leap. The reports related can be found with great details in the report session.

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Call Drop Optimization RRC Drop Optimization


I.Definitions II.Detailed Flow Explanation -Analysis III.Solutions and Reports

RAB Drop Optimization


I.Definitions II.Detailed Flow Explanation -Analysis III.Solutions and Reports
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Definition of the RAB


The Radio Access Bearer (RAB) is to be established after the RRC connection is set up successfully.Radio access bearer services will involve a circuit-switched voice call,a circuit-switched data call or a packet-switched call. The RAB can be realized by UTRAN through a number of subflows.these sub-flows correspond to the NAS service data streams that have QoS characteristics that differ in a pre-defined manner within a RAB.For the details , please go to 3GPP spec TS 25.401.

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Definition of the RAB Drop


UE BTS
RRC Connection Active phase
UE-CN Signaling RANAP: RAB Assignment Request

RNC

CN

Resource Reservation in RNC, BTS, Transmission RRC: Radio Bearer Setup RAB set-up and access phases

RAB Setup phase

RAB Connection Access phase


RNC waits reply from UE RRC: Radio Bearer Setup Completed RANAP: RAB Assignment Response

If theres any -thing wrong within These phases, a RAB Drop will happen.

User Plane Data Transfer

RAB Active phase

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Definition of the RAB Drop


A call drop is defined as an event where the communication connection has broken down between end entities of a call (connection). According to the signal flow of the RAB Set-up , access and active phase in the previous 2 slides, if there is anything being wrong from the RAB connection access phase to the RAB active phase, a RAB connection is likely to be dropped. There might be some possible reasons to cause the RAB connection to be ceased, including the end entities like UE, BTS , RNC and the CN and the interface in between.The exact analysis flow will be illustrated in the following session.

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Call Drop Optimization RRC Drop Optimization


I.Definitions II.Detailed Flow Explanation -Analysis III.Solutions and Reports

RAB Drop Optimization


I.Definitions II.Detailed Flow Explanation -Analysis III.Solutions and Reports
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RAB Drop Optimization Flow


RAB Drop? Yes *RRC Optimisation Yes Is RRC dropped? No

Is Best Server RSCP and Ec/No > threshold? Yes *BLER Optimisation No Is BLER ok? Yes

*Correct it No Yes Is it in SHO state? Yes No Check ADJS discrepancy. Any? No

Yes *Report

Check RAB connection Access phase/RRC waits reply from UE. Is the Radio Bearer setup completed message received? No

Is Active Set full? No

Yes

Any suitable cell not in the Active Set? No

Yes

*Adjust HO triggering parameters to put more in the active set

*CPICH RSCP and Ec/No Optimisation

*Report and Finish

C
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*Neighbour list optimisation

RAB Drop Optimization Flow-Portion A


Whenever we have a RAB drop , the first thing is to check if there is a RRC drop at the same spot.If yes, go through the RRC drop optimization procedure mentioned earlier. If false, go on and check the RSCP and Ec/No of the best server P-CPICH to see if they have passed the threshold. The details will be described in the portion B of the flow.

RAB Drop? Yes *RRC Optimisation Yes Is RRC dropped?

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RAB Drop Optimization Flow-Portion B


RAB Drop? Yes Is RRC dropped? No

Is Best Server RSCP and Ec/No > threshold? Yes *BLER Optimisation No Is BLER ok? Yes

Yes *Report

Check RAB connection Access phase/RRC waits reply from UE. Is the Radio Bearer setup completed message received? No

*Report and Finish

If there is no RRC drop at the same spot of the RAB drop , check whether the downlink coverage around that area is ok?If the serving cell RSCP and Ec/No of the P-CPICH fail to meet the target threshold, go to portion C for the rest of the analysis. If the best serving cell RSCP and Ec/No of the PCPICH meet the target threshold, the following is to examine the BLER around that spot, if the BLER is poor in performance, go to the BLER optimization session fro the details. If the BLER has shown some decency , go on and check the system messages which illustrated earlier in the definition part of the RAB drop to check if theres anything lost.If yes, the reasons to this might be enormous and thus the scope of the area tuning could not cover it this time, report the observation.If no, report the observation as well.
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RAB Drop Optimization Flow-Portion C


RAB Drop? Yes Is RRC dropped? No

Is Best Server RSCP and Ec/No > threshold?

*Correct it No Yes Is it in SHO state? Yes No Check ADJS discrepancy. Any? No

Is Active Set full? No

Yes

Any suitable cell not in the Active Set? No

Yes

If there is an RAB drop , but no RRC drop around but the best server RSCP and Ec/No of P-CPICH are promising enough to meet the requirements, the next step is to check if the UE is now in SHO state or not, if yes,check if the active set is full.If at the spot , the active set is not full, try put more SC to the active set by adjusting the handover triggering parameters.Make sure to also take the results of the cluster tuning for a reference. If the active set is loaded at that spot, try improving the best server coverage by improving the RSCP and /or Ec/No of the P-CPICH applying the same guidelines illustrated in the cluster tuning procedures.

*Adjust HO triggering parameters to put more in the active set

*CPICH RSCP and Ec/No Optimisation

*Neighbour list optimisation

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RAB Drop Optimization Flow-Portion C


RAB Drop? Yes Is RRC dropped? No

Is Best Server RSCP and Ec/No > threshold?

*Correct it No Yes Is it in SHO state? Yes No Check ADJS discrepancy. Any? No

Is Active Set full? No

Yes

Any suitable cell not in the Active Set? No

Yes

*Adjust HO triggering parameters to put more in the active set

*CPICH RSCP and Ec/No Optimisation

*Neighbour list optimisation

If the UE was not in the SHO state while the RAB drop happened, the first thing is to find out if there is any discrepancy in terms of the adjacency parameter settings, if yes, correct it and mention in the report. If the setting of the adjacency parameter settings are perfectly done, use the results of the cluster tuning to seek if there are any suitable cells that could be put in the active set by assigning it/them as neighbor cells of the serving cell.The detail of this part will be explained more in the neighbor list optimization session. If there is not any suitable cell that can be put in the active cell around the spot, try improving the best server RSCP and/or Ec/No of P-CPICH by utilizing the guidelines deducted in the cluster tuning procedures.

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Call Drop Optimization RRC Drop Optimization


I.Definitions II.Detailed Flow Explanation -Analysis III.Solutions and Reports

RAB Drop Optimization


I.Definitions II.Detailed Flow Explanation -Analysis III.Solutions and Reports
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Solutions and Reports


Portion A If there is any RRC drop , check the RRC drop optimization flow and come up with some solutions accordingly. Portion B In this part ,take reference to the BLER optimization part for the possible solutions. If there is anything wrong with the system messages, record that in the report ( the details of the report format would be described more in the report session). Portion C In this segment , for the SHO triggering parameters tuning, there actually lie some possible parameters that could be tuned in the area tuning.They are mostly related to event 1A, 1B and 1C. AdditionWindow: It is a threshold comparison value with respect to the best serving cell in the active set.The threshold is either relative to the P-CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the best active set cell or to the sum of active set measurement results depending on the value of the parameter Active Set Weighting Coefficient.The bigger the Addition Window , the wider the Sift HO area and thus the soft handover will be in some sense encourage earlier.But there does exist some bad aftermaths and therefore , it takes elaborate contemplation before changing it.
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Solutions and Reports


DropWindow:

It determines the relative threshold which is used by UE to calculate the reporting range of event 1B.It is either relative to the P-CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the best active set cell or to the sum of active set measurement results depending on the value of the parameter Active Set Weighting Coefficient.There are still some effects ensued the changing of the parameter and still takes cautious consideration before tuning it. DropTime: When an active set cell leaves the reporting range(drop window), the cell must continuously stay outside of the reporting range for a given period before UE can send the measurement report to the RNC in order to remove the cell from its active set.Under some circumstances , it can be enlarged a bit to keep the soft handover(especially in the area where small number of cells coverage overlaps).But again, the side-effect can be severer than what it could bring in the good part.
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Solutions and Reports

Replacement Window: When the number of cells in the active set is the max and a monitored cell becomes better than an active set cell, the UE transmits a measurement report to the RNC in order to replace the active cell with the candidate.It determines the margin by which the P-CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the monitored cell must exceed the P-CPICH Ec/No measurement result of the active cell before the UE can send the event 1C triggered measurement report to the RNC.It could help to get a better cell in to the active set with replacing a poorer-performed active set cell.Still , think before you leap.

If the reason links to the neighbor list optimization , check the neighbor list optimization session for the details. If the analysis triggers the solutions related to the discrepancy checking , it is required to dump the parameter from the network and check the related parameters. E.G.If the cell ID of the target cell is different from that in the adjacent cell setting of the serving cell ,it is out of the question to engage in a soft/softer handover.

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Solutions and Reports


If the result of the RAB drop is proved to be a poor serving cell PCPICH RSCP and/or Ec/No , follow the procedure in the cluster tuning for the solutions. Antenna tilting changing , antenna azimuth altering etc. The reports related can be found in the report session.

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BLER Analysis
SUMMARY BLER What is it? Why do we use it? How do we use it? Protocol layer Scenarios Cell Edge, High interference, Unable to HO to neighbour, same SC nearby Flowchart: How can BLER help in analysis? How to solve for each scenario How to report Neighbour List Analysis
BACK
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BLER Analysis What is it? BLock Error Ratio (or Rate)

BLER is measured from the CRC Transport Block (TB) is a basic unit that is exchanged between Layer 1 and Layer 2 (MAC). Layer 1 adds CRC for each TB and BLER is calculated from the CRC.

Protocol Layer

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BLER Analysis Why do we use it? measure of link quality


Used to define downlink target BLER for the reference service in the downlink power allocation. Reference service is used in determining the maximum downlink code channel transmission power. Used to calculate SIR targets for Power Control generally, Power Control keeps the link quality at a certain level by controlling the transmitted power . In some cases, BLER target cannot be met and the BLER quality becomes degraded. There are some scenarios where this can happen.

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BLER Analysis How do we use it? checking BLER data from drive test to
detect poor quality regions Poor BLER can be caused by Cell Edge High interference Inability to Handover to neighbour cells eg. missing neighbour so considered as interference Co scrambling code Poor BLER could cause Call drops Poor MOS score Lower throughput

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BLER Analysis
DL BLER

Flowchart: How do we use BLER to analyse the problem? How to solve for different scenarios.

No

Is this in cluster border?


Yes

No

BLER Mean > X

Yes

Identify low BLER route/area


Is bad BLER grouped together along some parts of the route? No Yes

Yes

Check UE RSCP sensitivity >Threshold? OR Ec/No sensitivity > Threshold?

No

Check co-SC cell nearby,is there any?


Yes

No

Missing neighbor?
Yes

No

*Change SC

Check system messages

*Neighbor list optimization

*Coverage or Ec/No optimization

Insufficient data
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BLER Analysis-Step1
DL BLER
BLER Mean > X? No No Is this in cluster border? No Yes Yes BLER Confidence > Y? Yes Identify low BLER route/area Is bad BLER grouped together along some parts of the route? No Yes

Yes

Check UE RSCP sensitivity >Threshold? OR Ec/No sensitivity > Threshold?

No

Check co-SC cell nearby,is there any?


Yes *Change SC

No

Missing neighbor?
Yes

No

Check system messages

*Neighbor list optimization

*Coverage or Ec/No optimization

Insufficient data
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BLER Analysis-Step1
Step 1 : Decide if BLER requires analysis. This depends if samples of the whole drive test meet the criteria of BLER mean and confidence interval. If BLER statistics from the whole test route meets the quality requirement, check the cluster bordering area for a further analysis. This can be calculated and graphed using Excel (if Analysis tool does not provide this function). If both Mean and Confidence Interval exceed the threshold, then analysis is required. The BLER is logged every 3 seconds in XCAL-W. The threshold of X is defined to be 1% for AMR.

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BLER Analysis-Step2
DL BLER
No No Is this in cluster border? No Yes BLER Mean > X? Yes BLER Confidence > Y? Yes Identify low BLER route/area Is bad BLER grouped together along some parts of the route? No Yes

Yes

Check UE RSCP sensitivity >Threshold? OR Ec/No sensitivity > Threshold?

No

Check co-SC cell nearby,is there any?


Yes *Change SC

No

Missing neighbor?
Yes

No

Check system messages

*Neighbor list optimization

*Coverage or Ec/No optimization

Insufficient data
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BLER Analysis-Step2
Step 2 : Check BLER Mean. If it is better than the threshold, check if route is in cluster border. If Yes, continue analysis. Cluster border is important at this time and may contain most of the problems. Identify the low BLER route in the border areas. If No, check if bad BLER is grouped together. If Yes, identify area. If No, there is insufficient data so just report your findings.

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BLER Analysis-Step3
DL BLER
No No Is this in cluster border? No Yes BLER Mean > X? Yes BLER Confidence > Y? Yes Identify low BLER route/area Is bad BLER grouped together along some parts of the route? No Yes

Yes

Check UE RSCP sensitivity >Threshold? OR Ec/No sensitivity > Threshold?

No

Check co-SC cell nearby,is there any?


Yes *Change SC

No

Missing neighbour?
Yes

No

Check system messages

*Neighbour list optimization

*Coverage or Ec/No optimization

Insufficient data
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BLER Analysis-Step3
Step 3 : After identifying area in cluster border, check if the RSCP and Ec/No levels are better or worse than 115 dBm /-16 dB respectively. If worse (No), then problem might lie in a missing neighbour. Step 4 : Check for missing neighbour. From the pilot signal results of Cluster tuning, check to see if there is a high level pilot that is not included in the neighbour list of the serving cell. Missing neighbour can be found by using the cluster tuning drive test results. Obtain the Best Servers (Ec/No > -9.7dB)* scrambling code plots/drive test plots for the area being investigated. Identify the cells having the possibility of being added to the Active Set.

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BLER Analysis-Step4
DL BLER
No No Is this in cluster border? No Yes BLER Mean > X? Yes BLER Confidence > Y? Yes Identify low BLER route/area Is bad BLER grouped together along some parts of the route? No Yes

Yes

Check UE RSCP sensitivity >Threshold? OR Ec/No sensitivity > Threshold?

No

Check co-SC cell nearby,is there any?


Yes *Change SC

No

Missing neighbour?
Yes

No

Check system messages

*Neighbour list optimization

*Coverage or Ec/No optimization

Insufficient data
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BLER Analysis-Step4
Step 4 (cont.): Then cross-check with neighbour list of the serving cell to see if these have been included. If Yes - missing neighbour is the problem, proceed to the Neighbour List Optimisation process. If No, its not the problem, proceed to Coverage and Dominance optimisation.

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BLER Analysis-Step5
DL BLER
No No Is this in cluster border? No Yes BLER Mean > X? Yes BLER Confidence > Y? Yes Identify low BLER route/area Is bad BLER grouped together along some parts of the route? No Yes

Yes

Check UE RSCP sensitivity >Threshold? OR Ec/No sensitivity > Threshold?

No

Check co-SC cell nearby,is there any?


Yes

No

Missing neighbour?
Yes

No

*Change SC

Check system messages

*Neighbour list optimization

*Coverage or Ec/No optimization

Insufficient data
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BLER Analysis-Step5
Step 3 again: Check if the RSCP and Ec/No levels are better or worse than the threshold. If better (Yes), then problem might lie in another cell with same Scrambling Code. The other cell that is far away could be seen as a multipath of the serving cell Step 5 : Check for same SC in surrounding area. This can be found from the dominant SC plot of the area.

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BLER Analysis-Step5
Step 5 (cont): Check for co-SC by using the SC plan (or the Primary Scrambling Code list of the Parameter plan) and the coverage plot of the cluster tuning data of each sector to find out the location of the site that is using the same code. Determine if there is a possibility of LOS from the co-SC sector to the UE location. Check distance and the terrain between the two sites. If a cell with same code is found, change the SC of that cell. If none is found, check system messages. Report your observations.

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BLER Analysis
In summary, for the Area Tuning, we can only analyse certain parts of the network based on the drive route. Any unsolvable cases should be reported this should include the different methods used to attempt to analyze the problem.

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Neighbour List Optimization

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Neighbour List Optimization


Neighbor list Optimization flow

3 best pilot from the cluster tuning in neighbour list? Yes Max Active Set Size reached? Yes Check ActiveSetUpdate Failure messages; also Reporting event 1C
(Note)

No

*Add Pilot to neighbor list.

No

Check ActiveSetUpdate Failure messages; also Reporting event 1C


(Note)

No

Is Add Window zero,0? Yes

No

Finish (go to Coverage Optimisation)

Yes

Change Add Window value to > 0. Recommend 4 dB.

*Report

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A A

Neighbour List & SHO Analysis


The main part of A is to ensure that any strong pilots not in the neighbour list of the serving cell are included. Compare the cluster tuning dominant server plot and scanner measurement result with the data collected from the area tuning.
(Because the UE monitors only those cells included in the neighbour list, the cluster tuning data is required to detect any other possible cells that may have been left out.)

If there are some strong pilots (according to the data from the cluster tuning)have not been included in the neighbour list, then simply include it.

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B B

Neighbour List & SHO Analysis


The purpose of B is to check the SHO conditions and why certain pilots were not added to the active set if they were strong enough and already in the neighbour list. This involves checking the MaxActiveSetSize, AdditionWindow to see if there may be a setting which is preventing a neighbour cell from being added to the Active Set. If we have a full MaxActiveSetSize, check if we have received the ActiveSetUpdate failure message.If yes, report the observation. If the MAxActiveSetSize is not full but still a fail ActiveSetUpdate can be observed, report it , else, go and check the Add_Window setting. These settings are sensitive and will affect the areas other than just the drive route so be careful when changing the values.

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Throughput Analysis

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Throughput Analysis
Throughput of the Packet Switched service is measured by the UE will be the Layer 2 RLC throughput. The reduction of the throughput during drive test can be affected by poor link quality, poor coverage or Ec/No of CPICH. (Under normal loaded network, throughput reduction cannot be considered just as an effect of poor coverage or poor Ec/No as the Admission Control manages the total load of the BTS. If the load target is exceeded, the AC will execute load control actions.) Throughput Performance Indicator can be seen as the symptom of the problem.
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DL THROUGHPUT

Throughput Mean > X?


Yes

No

Throughput Confidence > Y? Yes

No

*Check system messages

*BLER Analysis flow

*Report

Throughput Analysis
Similar to BLER, Throughput will have to meet the Mean and Confidence Interval criteria before it proceeds to the BLER Analysis stage.
DL THROUGHPUT

Throughput Mean > X?


Yes

No

Throughput Confidence > Y? Yes

No

*Check system messages

*BLER Analysis flow

*Report

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Drive Drive Test Test Report Report

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Procedure of Reporting to Nokia


Prepare PrepareReport Reportaccording according to defined format to defined format Submit SubmitDraft Draftto toNokia Nokia Agree? Agree? Yes Yes Submit Submitreport reportto to Customer Customer No No
Visit Visitcustomer customerwith with Partner and Partner and Submit Submitthe thetuning tuning report report

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Structure of Report format


Abbreviation Abbreviation Deliverables Deliverablesof ofAREA AREATuning Tuning General GeneralInformation Information

AREA AREAPerformance PerformanceAnalysis Analysis Analysis AnalysisResult Result Appendix Appendix


Problems Problemsand andSolutions Solutions Proposed ProposedParameter ParameterList List

The TheAREA AREAInformation Informationunder underTuning Tuning General GeneralInformation Informationof ofMeasurement MeasurementTool Tool General GeneralInformation Informationof ofAREA AREAEnvironments Environments

AREA AREADrive DriveTest TestMeasurement MeasurementSummary Summary Site SiteInformation Information


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Structure of Report format


Paper size for plots should be discussed with JP branch by Nokia regional manager Location of legend in the plot is Top Right Font: Gothic for Japanese and font size is 11 The following graphs and distribution plots are shown just after each problem area section
If the event is Call Setup Fail, show Call Setup Fail events on the map including the RSCP, Ec/No and BLER. If event is Call Drop, show Call Drop on map including RSCP, Ec/No,and BLER. If problem is BLER, show BLER on map including RSCP and Ec/No
If problem is Throughput, show Throughput on map including BLER.

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Deliverables
Information of Deliverables

2 copies of AREA tuning report All plots in A3 size (flexible according to each region) and plot files of measurement data All the names of data files and plots should be the same with those of AREA Tuning Report.

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Table of Deliverables (1st DT Report)


Item RF Performance Analysis (note: each UE will have own CPICH RSCP and Ec/No data for the analysis) Detail Problem Area Map Best Server CPICH RSCP Best Server CPICH Ec/No Cumulative Distribution of RSCP Cumulative Distribution of Ec/No Distribution of RSCP and Ec/No Call Set-up Failure Ratio Call Drop Ratio HO Ratio Distribution of MOS Evaluation BLER MOS Call drop point indicated on map

Voice AMR
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AMR Measurement

Call Drop Point Analysis

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Table of Deliverables (2nd DT Report)


Deliverables of 1st DT report + the following
Throughput Cumulative Distribution Average Download time Call Set-up Failure Ratio Call Drop Ratio FTP Throughput BLER Throughput Average Download time Call Set-up Failure Ratio Call Drop Ratio FTP Throughput BLER Throughput PS PS Measurement Coverage Map UDI Coverage Map
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Solution Report Form(1)


Site Sitelist listinvolved involvedin in Problem Area Problem Area Description Descriptionof of surroundings of surroundings of problem problemarea area Cause Causeof ofproblem problem area area

Plot Plotof ofmeasured measureddata dataof ofproblem problemarea, area,which whichisis

highlighted highlightedby bycircle circleor orpolygon. polygon. IfIfthe theproblem problemarea areahas hasmore morethan thanone oneproblem problemat at the same time, all plots related to the problems should the same time, all plots related to the problems should be beplotted plottedtogether. together.

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Solution Report Form(2)


At Atleast leastTwo Twodifferent different tuning solutions tuning solutionsare are needed needed Tuning Tuningsolution solution

Describing Describingthe theexpected expected Good and adverse Good and adverse Effects Effectswhen whenthe theabove above method is applied method is applied Suggestion Suggestionis ismade madehere here when the problems when the problems could couldnot notbe besolved solved
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Explanation Explanationabout aboutthe theimprovement improvementwhen whenthe thesolution solutionis isapplied. applied. To verify the improvement, basically NetActPlanner simulation To verify the improvement, basically NetActPlanner simulationis is referred and sometimes theoretical calculation is also needed. referred and sometimes theoretical calculation is also needed.
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Change Request Form


Get Getapproval approvalfrom fromcustomer customeron onthe theproposed proposedsolution solution

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Change Request Form


In AREA tuning, we recommend to change RAN parameter as well according to the cause of the problems
RAN RANParameters ParametersModification Modification Sector Ran Sector Cell CellID ID RanParameter Parameterto to Change Changecontents contents change change AA 8008 Window_Addition 8008 Window_Addition From From4dB 4dBto to3dB 3dB

Problem Problem Even EvenID ID A1-1 A1-1

BTS BTSName, Name,ID ID JPBTS, JPBTS,1001 1001

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Thank you

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