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Chapter 03.04 Newton-Raphson Method of Solving a Nonlinear Equation – More Examples Chemical Engineering

Example 1

You have a spherical storage tank containing oil. The tank has a diameter of

asked to calculate the height h to which a dipstick 8 ft long would be wet with oil when

immersed in the tank when it contains

6 ft . You are

6ft

3

of oil.

Dipstick

Spherical Storage Tank

r

h

Figure 1 Spherical storage tank problem.

The equation that gives the height h of the liquid in the spherical tank for the given volume and radius is given by

f

h

h

3

9

h

2

3.8197

0

Use the Newton-Raphson method of finding roots of equations to find the height

the dipstick is wet with oil. Conduct three iterations to estimate the root of the above equation. Find the absolute relative approximate error at the end of each iteration and the number of significant digits at least correct at the end of each iteration.

h to which

03.04.2

Chapter 03.04

Solution

f

h

f

h

3

3h

2

9

h

h

2

18h

3.8197

Let us take the initial guess of the root of f h0 as

h

0

1

.

Iteration 1 The estimate of the root is

f

h

0

h

1

h

0

f



1

3



h

0

9 1

2

3.8197

 

1

31

2

181

 

1

4.1803

15 1 0.278690.72131 The absolute relative approximate error

h
 h
0
 1
a h
1
0 72131
.
1
0 72131
.

100

100

a

at the end of Iteration 1 is

38.636% The number of significant digits at least correct is 0, as you need an absolute relative approximate error of 5% or less for one significant digit to be correct in your result.

Iteration 2 The estimate of the root is

h

2

h

1

f

h

1

f

h

1

0 72131

.

3

9 0 72131

.

2

3.8197

0 72131

.

0

.

72131

30 7213118 0 721310.48764

.

2

.

11.423

0.72131 0.042690

0.67862

The absolute relative approximate error

 h
h 2
1
a h
2

100

a

at the end of Iteration 2 is

Newton-Raphson Method – More Equations: Chemical Engineering

03.04.3

  0.67862  0 72131 .  100 0 67862 .

6.2907%

The number of significant digits at least correct is 0.

Iteration 3 The estimate of the root is

h

3

f

h

2

h

2

f

h

2

0 67862

.

3

9 0 67862

.

2

3.8197

  0.67862   0 67862 . 

30.6786218 0 678620.012536

2

.

10.834

0.67862 0.00115720.67747

The absolute relative approximate error

h
 h
3
2
100
 a
h
3
0 67747
.
0 67862
.
0 67747
.

0.17081%

100

a

at the end of Iteration 3 is

Hence the number of significant digits at least correct is given by the largest value of which

So

 

a

0.5

10

0.5

10

2

m

2

10

m

0.17081

0.34162

log0.341622 m

m

2 m

2 log0.341622.4665

m 2

m for

The number of significant digits at least correct in the estimated root 0.67747 is 2.

NONLINEAR EQUATIONS

 Topic Newton-Raphson Method-More Examples Examples of Newton-Raphson Method Chemical Engineering Autar Kaw August 7, 2009 Summary Major Authors Date Web Site http://numericalmethods.eng.usf.edu