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# Chapter 2 : The Structure of the Atom A Matter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass.

Matter exists in three states solid, liquid and gas. Matter is made up of tiny and discrete particles. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that can participate in a chemical reaction. An ion is a positively-charged or negatively-charged particle. Particles in matter are in motion. Diffusion occurs when particles of a substance move in between the particles of another subtance. Diffusion of matter occurs most rapidly in gases, slower in liquids and slowest in solids, due to the different arrangement and movement of particles in the three states of matter.

## The kinetic theory of matter. (diagram)

i) ii) iii)

The change in heat changes the state of matter. When a substance is heated, the particles gain kinetic energy and move faster. When a substance is cooled, the particles loss their kinetic energy and move slower. State of Matter Characteristic Solid
are packed closely together in an orderly manner Strong forces Particles vibrate and rotate about their fixed positon - has a fixed volume and shape Cannot be compressed

liquid
are packed closely together but not in orderly manner Strong forces but weaker than the forces in a solid Particles vibrate, rotate and move throughout the liquid. They collide against each other - has a fixed volume and follows the shape of the container Cannot be compressed easily

gas
Very far apart and in a random motion Weak forces Particles vibrate, rotate and move freely. The rate of collision is greater than in liquid Does not have a fixed shape of volume Can be compressed easily

Arrangement of particles

## Forces of attraction Movement of particles

Shape / volume

compressibility

Do it yourself 2.1
1.Figure 1 below shows the heating curve of a pure substance at room temperature and pressure. Temperature/oC S 119 P Time / minute Figure 1 (a)Describe the movement of the particles of the pure substance at stage PQ of the curve ? (b)Draw a diagram to show the arrangement of particles of the substance at stage QR in the box below. Q R U T

## (c)Explain why the pure substance is not water ?

(d)Samples of the pure substance at stage RS and TU are taken. Compare the movement of the particles of the substance at these two stages. (e)After heating at 500oC, the substance is cooled. Draw and label the cooling curve.

2.
Ice

P
water

Q
Salt solution

Apply heat

Apply heat

water

steam

salt

water

## (b)What will occur if matter undergoes a change of state ?.

(c)Compare the intermolecular distance and the packing of particles in the solid state and the liquid state.

## The Atomic Structure

The historical development of atomic models. Scientist 1. John Dalton - imagined the atom as a small indivisible ball similar to a very tiny ball Atomic Models

2.J.J. Thomson

- described the atom as a sphere of positive charge which contains a few negatively-charged particles called electrons.

3. Ernest Rutherford discovered proton the positive charge and most of the mass of the atom are concentrated in a small, central region called the nuclues electrons move in a space that is larger than the space occupied by the nucleus

4.Neils Bohr Subatomic Symbol Relative Charge Location particle mass Proton p 1 +1 In the nucleus proposed that the electrons in an atom move inIn shells around the nucleus orbits around Electron e 1/1840 -1 the nucleus Neutron n 1 0 In the nucleus 5.James Chadwick

proved the existence of neutrons, the neutral particles in the nucleus. Neutrons contribute approximately to half the mass of an atom.

## i) ii) iii) iv)

Atoms are electrically neutral. The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons. The proton number of an element is the number of protons in its atom. The nucleon number of an element is the total number of protons and neutrons in its atom. Therefore,

## Nucleon number = proton number + number of neutrons

v) vi) Each element has its own proton number. Each element is given a name and a symbol Proton number 1 2 3 4 5 Element Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron symbol H He Li Be B Proton number 11 12 13 14 15 Element Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus symbol Na Mg Al Si P

6 7 8 9 10

C N O F Ne X Z

16 17 18 19 20

S Cl Ar K Ca

## An atom of an element can be written as

Where A is the nucleon number, X is the symbol of an element, Z is the proton number.

## Do it yourself 2.2 Complete the table below. 27 Symbol of atom 13

Proton number Nucleon number Number of protons Number of electrons Number of neutrons

19 Al 7 F

23 Na 11

## Element (symbol ) Lithium (Li) Neon (Ne) Zinc (Zn)

number of protons

Number of neutrons

Symbol of atoms

2.3 Isotopes and Their Importance 1. The isotopes of an element are the atoms of that element which contain a same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. 2. Isotopes of some element
Element Hydrogen Isotopes
1 1H 2 1H 3 1H

SPM

## 1 proton 0 neutron Carbon

12 6C

1 proton 1 neutron
13 6C

1 proton 2 neutrons
14 6C

## 6 protons 6 neutrons Oxygen

16 8O

6 protons 7 neutrons
17 8O

6 protons 8 neutrons
18 8O

8 protons

8 protons

8 protons

8 neutrons Sulphur
32 16 S

9 neutrons
34 16 S

10 neutrons -

## 16 protons 16 neutrons Bromine

79 35 Br

16 protons 18 neutrons
81 35 Br

35 protons 44neutrons

35 protons 46 neutrons

3.

## The uses of isotopes in daily life

Field Medical

Isotopes applications Gamma rays from cobalt- 60 are used to kill cancer cell without surgery in patient. This treatment is known as radiotherapy. Medical instrument are sterilized using gamma rays. Radioactive materials such as iodide-131 are injected into patients to detect malfunction of thyroid glands. Radioisotope carbon -14 is used to study the age of ancient artifacts. Carbon -14 is used to study the passage of carbon in photosynthesis of green plants. Isotope sodium-24 is used to detect leakage of underground pipes.

Archeology

Agricultural Industrial

4.

The electron arrangement of elements with proton number 1 to 20. ( must know how to memorize)

## First shell: 2 electrons Second shell: 8 electrons Third shell: 8 electrons

Last electron/s in the last outermost shell, we called as valence electron.

## Nucleus ( contains protons and nucleus)

Element Hydrogen Helium Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulphur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Number of neutrons Number of protons Number of electrons Number of nucleon Electron arrangement Number of valence electrons

## Chapter 3: Chemical Formulae and

Equations
How to measure mass of an atom?

Subtitle 3.1: Relative Atomic Mass and Relative Molecular Mass Concept:
We can determine the mass of an atom relative to a standard atom

## Hydrogen as standard atom

helium atom

Standard atom 1. hydrogen 2. oxygen not use any more because gasseous form are difficult to handle

A Helium atom is 4 times heavier compare to a hydrogen atom. Helium is said to have relative atomic mass of 4

3. carbon-12 Solid & easy to handle Also used as standard for mass spectrometer

## 1/12 of one atom carbon-12 Important !!! Define:

How many helium atoms are here????? Check to: page 176 of text book Look at Ar of all elements listed in periodic table from periodic table: Ar of Nitrogen atom is 14. The average mass of a nitrogen atom is 14 times larger than 1/12 of a carbon-12 atom. Mr of Water Molecule is 18 The average mass of one water molecule is 18 times larger than 1/12 of a carbon-12 atom

Relative atomic mass, A r - of an element is the average mass of one atom of the element when compared with 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12

Relative atomic mass of an element = The average mass of one atom of an element 1/12 x the mass of an atom of carbon -12 Define Relative molecular mass, Mr -of a molecule is the average mass of the molecule when compared with 1/12 of the mass of an atom of carbon-12 Relative molecular mass of an element = The average mass of one molecule 1/12 x the mass of an atom of carbon -12 Important!!!!

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Relative mass does not have any unit. Numerical problems A. About Relative Atomic Mass 1. How many times is copper atom heavier than two helium atom? Solution: Mass of a copper atom = Ar of copper Mass of 2 helium atom 2 x Ar of helium = 64 2x4 = 8 times 2. How many magnesium atom have the same mass as two silver atoms ? Solution: Lets the number of magnesium atoms = n Mass of n magnesium atoms = mass of 2 silver atoms So, n x Ar of magnesium = 2 x __________ n x 24 = = Get Ar value from periodic table

Do It Yourself 1. How many times is one atom of silicon heavier than one atom of lithium

2. Calculate the number of atoms of lithium that have the same mass as two atoms of nitrogen

3. The mass of one atom Y is A times larger than the mass of one nitrogen .Calculate the relative atomic mass of Y. Form 4 text book Quick review page 30

## B. About Relative Molecular Mass

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To determine Relative Molecular Mass, Mr Molecular substance Carbon dioxide, CO2 Nitrogen gas, N2 Relative Molecular Mass Ar of C + ( 2 x Ar of O) = 12 + (2 x 16 ) = 44 2 x Ar of N = 2 x 14 = 28

## Get Ar value from periodic table

Relative formula mass is used to replace Mr for ionic substances Ionic substance Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH Relative formula mass Ar of Na + Ar of O + Ar of H = 23 + 16 + 1 = 40 2 x Ar of Al +3 ( Ar of S + 4 x Ar of O ) =

## Hydrated copper(II) sulphate, CuSO4. 5H2O

Ar of Cu + Ar of S + 4 x Ar of O + 5 ( Mr of H2O) =

Do it yourself 1. Calculate the relative molecular mass of a) Bromine, Br2 c) Ammonia, NH3

b) Methane, CH4

d) Glucose, C6H12O6

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2. Calculate relative formula mass of a) Zinc oxide, ZnO c) Copper(II) hydroxide, Cu(OH)2

Na2CO3.10H2O

## Form 4 practical book Try this 3.1 page 17

B. The Mole and the Number of Particles Definition of mole The word pair and dozen represent a fixed number of objects.

In chemistry, we use the unit mole to measure the amount of substance. The symbol of mole is mol. 1 mol of substance = the number of particles in 12 g of carbon-12. = 6.02 x 1023 particles.

The value of 6.02 x 1023 is called as the Avogadro constant (NA). To determine the number of moles or the number of particles: Number of particles = Number of moles 6.02 x 1023 Practical Book Activity 3.2, page 17

Number of moles =

## Number of particles 6.02 x 10 23

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Example 1: i. 1 mol of iron atom = 6.02 x 1023 iron atoms ii. 1 mol of hydrogen molecule = 6.02 x 1023 hydrogen molecules iii. 1 mol of sodium chloride = 6.02 x 1023 formula units of sodium chloride Example 2: A closed glass bottle contains 0.5 mol of oxygen gas, O 2. i. How many oxygen molecules, O2 are there in the bottle? ii. How many oxygen atoms are there in the bottle? Solution: i. Number of oxygen molecules = 0.5 x 6.02 x 1023 = 3.01 x 1023 ii. 1 oxygen molecule, O2 has 2 oxygen atoms. Therefore, number of oxygen atoms = number of oxygen molecules 2 = 3.01 1023 2 = 6.02 1023

Example 3: Find the number of moles of molecules in a sample containing 9.03 10 23 molecules of carbon dioxide, CO2. Solution: Number of moles =

9.02 10 23

## 6.02 10 23 = 1.5 mol.

Do it yourself [Avogadro constant = mol-1] 1 Define a mole? A mole is the amount of substance which has the same number of particles as there in 12 g carbon -12.

Calculate the number of atoms in 2 mol carbon. Number of atoms = 2 6.02 x 1023 = 1.2 1024 atoms.

How many ions are there in 1.5 mol sodium chloride, NaCl? 1 formula unit sodium chloride, NaCl has 2 ions which are 1 sodium ion and 1 chloride ion. Thus, number of ions = number of formula units x 2 = 1.5 6.02 x 1023 2 = 1.806 1024 ions.

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Calculate the number of moles of bromine molecules which consists 1.5 10 22 of bromine molecules. Number of moles = 1.5 1022 6.02 1023 = 0.025 mol.

How many atoms are there in 2 mol of ammonia, NH3? 1 ammonia molecule, NH3 has 4 atoms which are 1 nitrogen atom and 3 hydrogen atoms. Thus, number of atoms = number of molecules x 4 = 2 6.02 x 1023 4 = 4.8 1024 atoms.

## C. The mole and the mass of substances

Molar mass is Unit of molar mass is g mol-1 or grams per mole. The molar mass of a substance = the mass of 1 mol of the substance = the mass of NA number of particles = the mass of 6.02 x 1023 particles

Example: Element/ Compound Lithium, Li Iron, Fe Magnesium oxide, MgO Carbon dioxide, CO2 Relative mass 7 56 24+16=40 12+16x2=44 Mass of 1 mol 7g 56g Molar mass 7g mol-1 40g mol-1

*122 2222 *2

*1 : The value of molar mass of an element is equal to its relative atomic mass *2 : The value of molar mass of a compound is equal to its relative molecular or formula mass Formula: Number of moles = mass

Relative atomic mass (or relative molecular mass or relative formula mass)

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Example: 1. Calculate the number of moles found in 20g of magnesium oxide, MgO. (Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; O, 16) Solution: Number of moles = = 24 + 16 = 0.5 mol 2. Calculate the mass in gram found in 0.2 mol of magnesium oxide, MgO. (Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; O, 16) Solution: Number of moles = mass Relative formula mass Mass = number of moles x relative formula mass = 0.2 x (24 + 16)g = 8g mass Relative formula mass 20

3. How many magnesium ions are there in 30g of magnesium oxide, MgO. (Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; O, 16. Avogradro constant: 6.02 x 10 23) Solution: The relative formula mass of magnesium oxide, MgO = 24 + 16 = 40 Therefore, the molar mass of magnesium oxide, MgO = 40g mol -1 Number of moles of 30g magnesium oxide, MgO mass of MgO = Relative formula mass of MgO 30g 40 g mol-1 = 0.75 mol = The number of formula units of MgO = 0.75x 6.02 x 10 23 = 4.515 x 1023 Each formula units of MgO has 1 magnesium ions. Therefore, the number of magnesium ions = the number of formula units of MgO x 1 = 4.515 x 1023 x 1 = 4.515 x 1023

4. Calculate the mass in gram of 3 x 1022 units of magnesium oxide, MgO. (Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; O, 16. Avogradro constant: 6.02 x 10 23)

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## Solution: Number of moles

= number of particles NA Mass = number of particles Relative formula mass NA = number of particles x relative formula mass NA Mass of 3x1022 units of magnesium oxide, MgO= 3 x 1022 x (24+16) 6 X 1023 = 0.05 X 40 = 2g Mass

Do It Yourself 1. Calculate the number of moles found in 9.5g of magnesium chloride, MgCl 2. (Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; Cl, 35.5)

2. Calculate the mass in gram found in 0.3 mol of magnesium chloride, MgCl 2. (Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; Cl, 35.5)

3. How many chloride ions are there in 19g of magnesium chloride, MgCl 2. (Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; Cl, 35.5. Avogradro constant: 6.02 x 10 23)

4. Calculate the mass in gram of 3 x 1022 units of magnesium chloride, MgCl2 . (Relative atomic mass: Mg, 24; Cl, 35.5. Avogradro constant: 6.02 x 10 23)

Form 4 TextBook Work This Out 3.2 Page 35 Quick Review C Page 35

E. Chemical Formulae

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A chemical formula is a representation of a chemical substance using letters for atoms and subscript numbers to show the numbers of each type of atoms that are present in the substance. Examples : (a) Glucose Show the symbols for carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

C6 H12O6
Show the numbers of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

(b) Sodium hydroxide Show the symbols for magnesium, oxygen and hydrogen.

Mg (OH)2
Show the numbers of magnesium, oxygen and hydrogen.

(1) Empirical Formulae (i) (ii) The empirical formula of a compound gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in the compound. Steps in determining the empirical formula of a compound. i. find the mass of each element in the compound ii. convert the masses to the numbers of moles of atoms iii. find the simplest ratio of moles of the elements

Example : 2.24 g of iron combines chemically with 0.96g of oxygen to form an oxide. What is the empirical formula of the oxide ? [ Relative atomic mass: O, 16; Fe, 56 ] Element Mass (g) Number of moles of atoms Ratio of moles Simplest ratio of moles Iron, Fe 2.24 2.24 = 0.04 56 0.04 =1 0.04 12=2 Oxygen, O 0.96 0.96 = 0.06 16 0.06 =1.5 0.04 1.5 2 = 3

The empirical formula of the oxide is Fe2O3. Do it Yourself 1. The table below shows the relative atomic mass and the mass of elements V and O in an oxide.

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## Element Relative Atomic Mass Mass(g)

V 56 5.6

O 16 2.4

What is the empirical formula of this compound ? element Mass (g) Number of moles atoms Ratio of moles Simplest ratio of moles The empirical formula of the oxide is 2. Copper (II) iodide constains 20.13% of copper by mass. Find its empirical formula. [ Relative atomic mass : Cu,64 ; I, 127 ] Based on its percentage composition, 100g of copper(II) iodine contains 20.13g of copper. So, taking 100g of the compound. element Mass (g) Number of moles atoms Ratio of moles Simplest ratio of moles The empirical formula of the oxide is . 3. A potassium compound has a percentage composition as the following K, 31.84% ; Cl, 28.8% ; O, 39.18% What is the empirical formula of the potassium compound ? [ Relative atomic mass : O, 16; Cl,35.5; K, 39 ] Based on its percentage composition, 100g of compound contains 31.84g of potassium, 28.98g of chlorine and 39.18g of oxygen. So, by taking 100g of the compound: element Mass (g) Number of moles of atoms Ratio of moles Simplest moles ratio of K Cl O K of Cl V 5.6 of Oxygen, O 2.4

1 mole of potassium atoms combines with 1 mole of chlorine atoms and 3 moles of oxygen atoms.Therefore, the empirical formula of the potassium compound is KClO 3. (2) Molecular Formulae
Form 4 TextBook Work this out 3.7 Page 42

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(i) The molecular formula of a compound gives the actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule of the compound. (ii) The molecular formula of a compound is a multiple of its empirical formula.

## Molecular formula = ( Empirical formula )n

(iii) Relating empirical formula to molecular formula Compound Water Ethene Ethane propane glucose Empirical formula H2O CH2 CH3 CH2 CH2O Molecular formula H2O = (H2O)1 C2H4 = (CH2)2 C2H6 = (CH3)2 C3H9 = (CH3)3 C6H12O6 = (CH2O)2 n 1 2 2 3 6

(iv) Calculation involving molecular formulae Example : The empirical formula of a compound is CH. Its relative molecular mass is 78. Find its molecular formula. [ Relative atomic mass : H, 1; C, 12 ] Let the molecular formula be (CH)n. The relative molecular mass = n[ 12 + 1 ] = 13n However, its molar mass is 78. Therefore, 13n = 78 n = 78/13 =6 Hence, the molecular formula of the compound is (CH) 6 or C6H6.

Do it yourself 1. A carbon compound has an empirical formula of CH2 and a relative molecular mass of 70. Find the molecular formula of the compound. [ Relative atomic mass : H, 1; C, 12 ]

2.

Hence, the molecular formula of the compound is (CH 2)5 or C5H10. 2.07 g of element Z reacts with bromine to form 3.67g of a compound with an empirical formula of ZBr2. Find the relative atomic mass of element Z. [ Relative atomic mass: Br, 80 ]

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element Mass (g) Number of moles of atoms Simplest ratio of moles (from the emp for given)

Br

Based on the empirical formula ZBr2 , the ratio of atoms of Z : Br is 1 : 2 herefore, 2.07 : 0.02 = 1 : 2 z 2.07/0.02z = z = 207 The atomic mass of the element Z is 207. (3) Ionic Formulae (i) (ii) Ionic compounds are compounds consisting of anions and cations. The formulae of some common cations Cation ( positive ion ) Sodium ion Potassium ion Silver ion Hydrogen ion Ammonium ion Copper (II) ion Calcium ion Magnesium ion Zinc ion Barium ion Iron (II) ion Copper (I) ion Tin (II) ion Lead (II) ion Aluminium ion Iron (III) ion Chromium (III) ion Formula of cation Na+ K+ Ag+ H+ NH4+ Cu2+ Ca2+ Mg2+ Zn2+ Ba2+ Fe2+ Cu+ Sn2+ Pb2+ Al3+ Fe3+ Cr3+

## FORM 4 Textbook Work this out 3.8 Page 44

Charge of cation +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +2 +1 +2 +2 +3 +3 +3

(iii)

The formulae of some common anions Anion ( negative ion ) Formula of anion Charge of anion

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Fluoride ion Chloride ion Bromide ion Iodide ion Hydroxide ion Nitrate ion Nitrite ion Hydride ion Oxide ion Phosphate ion Carbonate ion Sulphate ion Chromate (VI) ion (iv) (v)

FClBrIOHNO3NO2HO2PO43CO32SO42Cr2O72-

-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -2 -3 -2 -2 -2

The chemical formulae of ionic compounds are electrically neutral because the total of positive charges are equal to the total of negative charges The chemical formula of an ionic compound can be constructed as the following : i. identify and write down the formula of its cation and anion ii. determine the number of cations and anions by balancing the positive and negative charges. iii. Write the formula of the compound iv. The number of cations and anions are written as subscript numbers.

Magnesium chloride

MgCl2

## Do it yourself 1. magnesium chloride

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2. aluminium oxide 3. aluminiuim hydroxide 4. sodium sulphate (4) Naming of chemical compounds 1. Chemical compounds are named systematically according to the guidelines given by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). 2. For ionic compounds, the name of the cation comes first, followed by the name of anion. cation Sodium ion Magnesium ion Aluminium ion Zinc ion 3. anion Chloride ion Oxide ion Oxide ion Sulphate ion Name of ionic compound Sodium chloride Megnesium oxide Aluminium oxide Zinc sulphate Form 4 Textbook Work This Out 3.9 Page 46

Transition metals can form more than one ions, Roman numerals ( such as I, II, III ) are used to differentiate the ions. Fe2+ - iron (II) ion Fe3+ - iron (III) ion

4. For simple molecular compounds, the name of the first element is maintained. However, the name of the second element is added with an ide . Examples : HCl hydrogen chloride HF - hydrogen flouride 5. Greek prefixes are used to show the number of atoms of each element in a compound. Examples : CO carbon monoxide CO2 carbon dioxide CCl4 carbon tetrachloride / tetrachloromethane SO3 sulphur trioxide

6. Table below shows the meaning of the prefixes. prefix MonodiTriTetraPentameaning 1 2 3 4 5 prefix HexaHeptaOctaNonaDecameaning 6 7 8 9 10 Form 4 Textbook Work This Out 3.10 Page 47 F. CHEMICAL EQUATION A) Qualitative aspect of chemical equation A chemical equation is a shorthand description of a chemical reaction.

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The starting substances are called reactants. The new substances formed are called products. The reactants are written at the left-hand side of the equation. The products are written at the right-hand side of the equation. A chemical equation also shows the states of each substance. Physical states of substances Solid Liquid Gas Aqueous solution

## Products CO2 (g) ZnCl2 (s)

Do It Yourself 3f Identify the reactants, products and the state of each substance. Present your answer in the form of a table. 1. HCl (aq) 2. CuCO3 (s) 3. HCl (g) Solution : Reactants 1 2 3 Products
Form 4 Textbook Work This Out 3.11 Page 49

## NaCl (aq) CO2 (g) NH4Cl (s)

H2O (i)

NH3 (g)

B) Writing chemical equation A chemical equation must be balanced. There must always be the same number of atom of each element on each side of the equation.

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Example : Magnesium reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid, HCl to produce magnesium chloride, MgCl 2 and hydrogen gas, H2. Write an equation to represent the reaction. STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 Solution : STEP 1 Magnesium + hydrochloric acid Magnesium chloride + hydrogen gas Products MgCl2 MgCl 2 MgCl2(aq) + + + H2 H2 H2(g) Write the equation in words. The reactants are written on the left whereas the products are written on the right. Write the correct chemical formula for each reactants and products. Balance the equation. You just need to adjust the coefficients in front of the chemical formulae and not the subscripts in the formulae. Put the state symbols in the equation.

## Reactants STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 Mg Mg Mg(s) + + + HCl 2HCl 2HCl(aq)

Do It Yourself 3.f B Write a chemical equation for each of the following reactions. 1. A solution of silver nitrate is added to a solution of sodium chloride. A precipitate of silver chloride and a solution of sodium nitrate are produced.

## 2. Nitrogen gas reacts with hydrogen gas to produce ammonia gas.

3. When solid lead (II) carbonate is heated strongly, it decomposes into solid lead (II) oxide and carbon dioxide gas is released. C) Quantitative aspect of chemical equation

## Form 4 Textbook Work This Out 3.12 Page 50

The coefficients in a balanced equation tell us the exact proportions of reactants and products in a chemical reaction.

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## Example : 2H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2H2O (l)

The equation tell us that 2 moles of hydrogen reacts with 1 mole of oxygen to produce 2 moles of water. Or The equation tell us that 2 molecules of hydrogen reacts with 1 molecule of oxygen to produce 2 molecules of water. D) Numerical problems involving chemical equation Stoichiometry is a study of quantitative composition of substances involved in chemical reactions. We can always make use of the stoichiometric coefficients in a chemical equation to solve various numerical problems. Generally the steps involved in stoichiometric calculations are as follows. STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 STEP 4 Example : Copper (II) oxide, CuO reacts with aluminium according to the following equation. 3CuO (s) + 2Al (s) Al2O3 (s) + 3Cu (s) Write the balanced equation of the reaction. Compare the mole ratio. Identify the information given and you want to find. Calculate the number of moles.

Calculate the mass of aluminium required to react completely with 12 g of copper (II) oxide, CuO. [Relative atomic mass : O, 16 ; Al, 27 ; Cu, 64] Solution : 3CuO (s)
3 mole

2Al (s)
2 mole

Al2O3 (s)

3Cu (s)

## 12 g (64 + 16) g mol-1 12 g 80 g mol-1

= 0.15 mol

Based on the chemical equation, 3 mole of Copper (II) oxide, CuO requires 2 mole of aluminium. Therefore, the number of aluminium required by 0.15 mole of Copper (II) oxide, CuO = 0.15 mole x 2 mole = 2 mole

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3 mole Thus the mass of aluminium required = 0.1 mol x 29 g mol-1 = 2.7 g

## Do It Yourself 3f (D) 1. 2K (s) + Br2 (g)

2KBr (s)

How many moles of potassium are needed to reacts with 0.5 mole of bromine gas ? Solution : 2K (s)
2 mole

Br2 (g)
1 mole

2KBr (s)

Information : ? mole

0.5 mole

Based on the equation, 1 mole of bromine gas reacts with 2 moles of potassium. Therefore, 0.5 mole of bromine gas will react with 2 x 0.5 = 1 mole of potassium. 2. 1.35 g of aluminium reacts with excessive copper (II) oxide powder to produce aluminium oxide powder and copper. Find the number of copper atoms produced. [Relative atomic mass : Al, 27 ; Avogadro constant : 6.02 x 1023 mol-1]

3. Zn (s)

2HNO3 (aq)

Zn(NO3)2 (aq)

H2 (g)

What is the mass of zinc needed to produce 2.4 dm3 of hydrogen gas at room conditions ? [Relative atomic mass : Zn, 65 ; Molar volume 24 dm3 mol-1 at room conditions]

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## More Exercises: 1. CuCO3 CuO + CO2

In this reaction, 3.1 g of copper(II) carbonate are heated in a laboratory. Find : (a) the mass of copper (II) oxide that being produced. (b) the volume of carbon dioxide gas produced at s.t.p

2.

CaCO3

CaO

CO2

In this reaction, 300 cm3 gas carbon dioxide are produced at room temperature, when calcium carbonate are heated. Find: (a) the mass of calcium carbonate used. (b) mass of calcium oxide produced.

3.

2Na

2H2O

2NaOH

H2

When 0.23 g of sodium is added to water, the metal will react vigorously at the surface of the water, find (a) the mass sodium hydroxide produced. (b) volume of hydrogen gasses being produced at temperature room. 4. 2Mg + O2 2MgO

A strip of magnesium has a weight of 1.2 g are being burn with sufficient oxygen to produced magnesium oxide. Find: (a) the mass magnesium oxide being produced. (b) the mass of oxygen that needed for this reaction.

5.

C3H8

5O2

3CO2

4H2O

Propane gas was burned in oxygen follow as equation above. If 3.36 dm 3 of carbon dioxide gas are produced in this reaction at s.t.p, find

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(a) the mass of propane burned (b) volume of oxygen gas that reacted 6. 2Al + 3CuO Al2O3 + 3Cu

1.35g of aluminium powder and copper (II) oxide was heated strongly in laboratory to produced aluminium oxide and copper. Find (a) the mass of copper (II) oxide reacted (b) the mass of aluminium oxide produced. (c) the mass of copper produced.

## Chapter 4. PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS A. Historical Development of the Periodic Table

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Scientist like to find patterns. In the 18th and 19th centuries, scientist discovered many elements. The elements found were classified through many stages of hard work by scientist. This led to the development of the Periodic Table of Elements that we use today.

## Here is the history of Periodic Table of Elements.

Antoine Lavoisier First chemist who classify the element into 4 group. The 4 group consisted of gases, metal, non-metal and metal oxide. Element in the group is classify into metal and non-metal.

## Group II Sulphur Phosporus Carbon Chlorin Fluorin

Group III Arsenic Bismut Cobalt Lead Zinc Nikel Stanum Argentum

Group IV Potassium oxide Barium oxide Silicon(IV) oxside Magnesium oxide Aluminium oxide

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Johann W. Dobereiner Classify the element with same chemical properties into a few group Each of group consisted from 3 element called triad. He found that the relative atomic mass of the element in the middle of each triad is approximately equal to the average atomic mass of other two elements. Triad law show the relationship between the relative atomic mass of elements with it chemicals properties. This law cannot be use to most of the other element.

Lithium Li 7

Sodium Na 23

Potassium K 39

Chlorine Cl 35

Bromine Br 80

Iodine I 127

## Average atomic mass Li and K 35 + 127 = 2 81

Ca Sr Ba (40 + 137) 2 = 88 Li Na K Cl Br I 7 23 39 35 80 127 John Newlands Arranged 62 known elements in order of increasing nucleon number (atomic weights ) in horizontal rows. He noted that after interval of eight elements similar physical/chemical properties reappeared. He was the first to formulate the concept of periodicity in the properties of the chemical elements. He proposed the Law of Octaves: Elements exhibit similar behavior to the eighth element following it in the table. He was not successful because; i. Was only accurate for the first 16 elements (from hydrogen to potassium) ii. There were no gaps allocated from the elements yet to be discovered.

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Lothar Meyer Determine the volume of an atom of an element. Formula; Volume of an atom = mass of one mole-atom of the element Density of the element He plotted a graph of volume of atoms of elements against their relative atomic masses to produce meyers atomic volume curve. From the graph he found elements occupying the corresponding positions of the curve exhibit similar chemical properties. example (a) (b) Li, Na, K, Rb : located at the peak of the curve

## Be, Mg, Ca, Sr : located after the maximum point

Like Newlands, Meyer showed the properties of the elements recured periodically.

Dimitri Mendeleev Arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic weights and properties. He left gaps for elements yet to be discovered. He arranged the element that have the same properties in group.

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Henry Mosely He was able to derive the relationship between x-ray frequency and number of protons. and obtained a straight line graph.

When Moseley arranged the elements according to increasing atomic numbers and not atomic masses, some of the inconsistencies associated with Mendeleev's table were eliminated. The modern periodic table is based on Moseley's Periodic Law (atomic numbers/proton number). He suggest proton number determine the position of elements in periodic table. He arranged elements in periodic table in order of increasing proton number. He also left gaps for the elements yet to be discovered.

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## Henry Mosely Periodic Table

What is the basic principle applied in arranging the elements in the Periodic Table today?
Arrangements of elements in the Periodic Table

Elements in the Periodic Table are arranged in an increasing order of proton number.

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Elements with similar chemical properties are placed in the same vertical column. There are 18 vertical column of elements in the Periodic Table. Each column is called group. The vertical columns are known as Group 1 to Group 18. There are 7 horizontal rows of elements in the Periodic Table. Each of these horizontal rows of elements is called a period. The horizontal rows are known as Period 1 to Period 7.

Do you know how the electron arrangement of the atom of an element related to its group and period?????
1. The number of valence electrons in an atom decides the position of the group of an element. The number of valence electron Group in The Periodic Table 1 1 2 2 3+10 13 4+10 14 5+10 15 6+10 16 7+10 17 8+10 18

2. The number of shells occupied with electrons in its atom decides the period number of an element. Example 1;

Number of proton = 20 Number of electron = 20 20 Number neutron = 20 Electron arrangement = 2.8.8.2 The number of valence electrons = 2 The number of shells =4

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Example 2;

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16 8

## Number of proton =8 Number of electron = 8 Number neutron =8

Electron arrangement = 2.6 The number of valence electrons = 6 The number of shells =2 Group in the Periodic Table = 16 Period in the Periodic Table = 2

Example 3;

Number of proton = 18 Number of electron = 18 18 Number neutron = 22 Electron arrangement = The number of valence electrons = The number of shells =

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## Group in the Periodic Table = Period in the Periodic Table =

Hw: WTO 4.3 pg. 62 no. 1,2,3

## PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS B. GROUP 18 ELEMENTS

GROUP 18

http://periodictable.com/

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1.The elements in Group 18 are Helium 2 Neon 2.8 Argon 2.8.8 Krypton 2.8.18.8 Xenon 2.8.18.18.8 Radon2.8.18.32.18.8 1. They are also known as noble gases, which are chemically unreactive. Noble gases are monoatomic. 2. Helium has two valence electrons. This is called duplet electron arrangement. 3. Other noble gases have eight valence electrons. This is called octet electron arrangement. 4. Duplet and octet electron arrangements are very stable because the outermost occupied shells are full. 5. All nobles gases are inert which means chemically unreactive.

Why noble gases exist as monoatomic gases and are chemically unreactive?

BECAUSE THE OUTERMOST OCCUPIED SHELLS ARE FULL Physical Properties of Group 18 Elements 1. Group 18 elements have very small atom. 2. 3. They are colourless gases a room temperature and pressure. They have low melting and boiling point. Atomic radius (nm) Melting points (C) Boiling points (C) -269 -246 -186 -152 -107 -62 Density (g cm-3) 0.17 0.84 1.66 3.45 5.45 -

4. They have low densities. Elements/ Electron symbol arrangement Helium Neon Radon Krypton Xenon Radon

2 0.050 -270 2.8 0.070 -248 2.8.8 0.094 -189 2.8.18.8 0.109 -156 2.8.18.18.8 0.130 -112 2.8.18.32.18.8 -71 Table 1: Physical Properties of Group 1 Elements

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4. From Table 1, when going down the group, atomic size and density increase. 5. When going down the group, melting points and boiling points decrease Uses of Group 18 elements Helium Neon Argon Krypton Radon Xenon Used to fill airships and weather balloons, because the gas is very light. The divers oxygen tank contains a mixture of helium (80%) and oxygen (20%). Advertising lights. Television tubes. Airport landing bulb to help aero plane landing safely. To fill light bulbs, it can last longer To provide inert atmosphere for welding at high temperature. Used in lasers to repair the retina of the eye. To fill photographic flash lamps. Used in treatment of cancer. Used in bubble chambers in atomic energy reactors.

## Hw: QR B pg. 65 no. 1,2 C. GROUP 1 ELEMENTS

GROUP 1

http://periodictable.com/ 38

6. The elements in Group 1 are Lithium Sodium Potassium Rubidium Caesium Francium 2.1 2.8.1 2.8.8.1 2.8.18.8.1 2.8.18.18.8.1 2.8.18.32.18.8.1 which react with water to form alkaline

## 7. They are also known as alkali metals solutions.

8. All Group 1 elements have one valence electron in their outermost occupied shells. Physical Properties of Group 1 Elements 1. Group 1 elements are soft metals with low densities and low melting points as compared to other metals such as iron and copper. 2. They have silvery and shiny surfaces. 3. They are good conductor of heat and electricity. Elements/ symbol Lithium, Li Sodium, Na Potassium, K Rubidium, Rb Electron arrangement 2.1 2.8.1 2.8.8.1 2.8.18.8.1 Atomic radius (nm) 0.15 0.19 0.23 0.25 Melting points (C) 180 98 64 39 Boiling points (C) 1336 883 756 701 Density (g cm-3) 0.57 0.97 0.86 1.53

Table 1: Physical Properties of Group 1 Elements 6. From Table 1, when going down the group, atomic size and density increase. 7. When going down the group, melting points and boiling points decrease Chemical Properties of Group 1 Elements Lithium, sodium and potassium have similar chemical properties but differ in reactivity.

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Let us carry out this Experiment! Practical Book Experiment 4.1, page 35 Activity 4.3, page 38 1. Alkali metals react vigorously with water to produce alkaline metal hydroxide solutions and hydrogen gas. [Video]

Chemical equation; 2Li + 2H2O Lithium Water 2Na + Sodium 2H2O Water 2LiOH + Lithium Hydrogen hydroxide gas 2NaOH Sodium hydroxide 2KOH Potassium hydroxide H2

+ H2 Hydrogen gas

## + H2 Hydrogen gas metal oxides.

2. Alkali metals react rapidly with oxygen gas, to produce white solid Chemical equations; 4Li + Lithium O2 Oxygen 2Li2O Lithium

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4Na + Sodium

## 4K + O2 Potassium Oxygen gas 3.

Alkali metals burn in chlorine gas to form white solid metal chlorides. Chemical reaction; 2Li + Lithium 2Na + Sodium Cl2 Chlorine gas Cl2 Chlorine gas 2LiCl Lithium chloride 2NaCl Sodium chloride 2KCl Lithium chloride

## 2K + Cl2 Potassium Chlorine gas 4.

Alkali metals burn in bromine gas to form metal bromides. For example, 2Li + Lithium 2Na + Sodium Br2 Bromine gas Br2 Bromine gas 2LiBr Lithium bromide 2NaBr Sodium bromide 2LiBr Potassium bromide

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## Why alkali metals have similar chemical properties?

Alkali metals have one valence electron in their outermost occupied shells. Each of them reacts by donating one electron from its outermost occupied shell to form an ion with a charge of +1, thus achieving the stable electron arrangement of the atom of noble gas. Li 2.1 Na 2.8.1 K 2.8.8.1 Na+ K+ Li+ 2 + 2.8 + 1e1e-

+ 1e2.8.8

## Why The reactivity of Group 1 elements increases down the group?

Going down Group 1, the atomic size (atomic radius) increases. The single valence electron in the outermost occupied shell becomes further away from the nucleus Hence, the attraction between the nucleus and the valence electron becomes weaker Therefore, it is easier for the atom to donate the single valence electron to achieve the stable electron arrangement.

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Safety precautions in handling Group 1 elements Alkali metals are very reactive. Safety precautions must be taken when handling alkali metals. The elements must be stored in paraffin oil in bottles Do not hold alkali metals with your bare hands Use forceps to handle them Wear safety goggles Wear safety gloves Use a small piece of alkali metal when conducting experiments Hw: QR C pg. 69 no. 1,2,3

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