Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 376

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH

EXECUTIVE SUMMARIES
OF
COMPLETED PROJECTS
VOLUME II
I
... ..
. GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT & FORESTS
NEWDELffi .
1993
ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
EXECUTIVE SUMMARIES
OF
COMPLETED PROJECTS
VOLUME-II
I
;;g:r"
. ~
, .
. '.. .. j;
_ . .".
. - - ~ ... -
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT & FORESTS
NEW DELHI
1993
SCIENTIFIC STAFF ASSOCIATED WITH THE
PUBLICATION
Smt. Madhu Gupta
Sm!. Santosh Labroo
Shri P. Madeshwaran
Shri P.V. Subba Rao
Sm!. Sujata Khaparde
Dr. S. Satapathy
Dr. J.R. Rhart
Dr. (Mrs) Chhanda Chowdhury
Dr. R.K. Rai
Dr. Subodh K. Sharma
Dr. B.S. Attri
Shri M. Parabrahmarn
II
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Fore",/ord XlX
Introduction
Environment Research Scheme
An overview 23
II
Studies on the Water Pollution of Yamuna River and its
influence on drinking water supply of agra city
K DSIzarma
Effect of pollution on some organisms in the zooplankton
benthos and nekton contributing to the food chain in the
marine environment
A Daniel
Growth of water pollution in asansol - durgapur industrial
belt and its impact on the water quality of damodar river
24
26
AKDe 28
A study into the chemistry and biology of lake sediments
G Seenayya 30
Dispersion pattern of toxic heavy metals in water, sediments
and biomass around bombay
K C Sa/Ill 33
The water quality of selected ponds presently used for
in"caleutta city and introduce
suitable measures for improvement of water quality
with respect to bathing standard
T K Basu 35

Hydrological aspects of waste disposal of upper Hindon
basin, Uttar Pmdesh
B B S Singhal 37
Optimization of rural and urban water supply systems
P Kltl1Jma 39
Biological nitrogen fixati0!l by legume colonizers in
Himalayan Ecosystem
C R Babll
A b ~ t i n g carbon black pollution in smal; scale rubber
proce-ssing industries
41
C K S Pilla; 43
Studies on the environmental aspects of fungal and fern spores
Sallt/fa Delli 45
The effect of air pollutants On marble and sand stone ,ked in
various historic(\l monuments with a view fO preserve our
cultural heritage
PKMair 47
Detoxification of phenol and cyanide b"aring industrial wastes
N /If Parlrad 49
,
Microbial degradation of plastics and other polymers
. . . ' .
PKSeth .' 51
Synthesis of organotin monomers and polymers: applications
in a,;iifoufing.coatings' .
S,K Gupta 53
Control of water pollution by polymeric adsorbeots
IJ /) lJasare
54
Safety evaluation of plastics used in the storage and
packaging of e d i c ~ , e , food and cosmetics
S P Srivastava 56
Evaluation of perfollnance of cook stoves in regard to thennal
efficiency and emissions from combustion
Dilip RAha;a 58
Trace determi.nation of environmentalpo!lutantsby fast
kinetic methods .
PC Nigam 60
Effect of environmental pollutants on,microorganisms
Anjali Mukherjee 62
A study of morbidity and socio-economic conditions of workers
in glass (Bangle) industry at Firozabad
S HClerk 64
Regulation of heme biosynthesis during the development of
pollBlant exposed embryo
Ka . tllri Dalla 67
Investigation and toxicity effects of pcsti"ides on in >'itro system
Mollini Anand 69
Effect of organophosphorus and organochlorine insecticidcs on
reproduction of indian fresh water teleosts
SI,amim Haider 70
._.Use. oLbillmembrnne ... aS.ffiodeLfo.t.exploring.activily .of .....
potentially toxic chemicals
AM Kidwai 72
-
Immobilization of pesticides by soils and soil humus
75
Design of simulated model system for the study of pesticide
on the environment
./ Jayaraman 77
Socia-economic and cultural impact of environmental changes
due to industrialisation in rural areas
A Moses 79
Behaviour of certain insecticides and fungicides in soil
enviromuent with empllasjs on-transport
R Siddaramappa 82
I-Ieavy metal pollution problems in rice and rice soils of india
P K Nayar 84
Analysis of heavy metal ions and gaseous pollutants all
bioenergetic. processes
Prasal1l1G Mo/zul!/y 86
A study of fluoride pollution around a refractory and an
aluminium factory of orissa
B N Naik 88
Studies on phytotoxicity of sulphur dioxide pollution on some
legumiilOus plants
La/mal! 90
Man and Scheme
.. - ..
\1
. '-ii
95
97
Ethnobotanieal studies in Uttar Pradesh Himalayas
R D Gil''' 99
Ethnobiological investigations (If N011h-\Vest Himalayas
A K Bhatia 10 I
Ethnobiologieal investigation of Andhra Pradesh
M P Nayar 103
Ethnobiological investigation of the state of Madhya Pradesh
.I [( Mahesllwari 105
Availability and utilizataion of food resources - an
anthropoecologicai study of Andaman archipelago
V S'll/"no" . 107
Studies on ethnobiology of the tribals of Westem Ghats
N p. Dal1lot/arull 109
Ethnobiology of Kotas
K K Lak:'"/l1ulI.illI.n III
Ethnobiology and floristic investigation of Chandrapur division
M D Padflye 113
Impact of human settlements on the ecology of rural lakes of
Kashmir
1) P Zlltsfli 115
Ecology orthe river ganges - impact of human activities and
conservation of aquatic biota
[( S Bilgrami 116
Assessment of soil deterioration due to in'igation by Saryu canal
project and to find methods of its control
I' P Singh 118
VII
Genetical effects of envirolUllental metal poUutants on
living systems and the study of their antagonistic and synergistic
action in relation to biosphere
Arc/lana .\'''arma 120
Evaluation of the hazards of untreated and treated textiie
dyeing and printing waste on mammals
S M Mohnul
Impact of sami andkoradi thermal poser stations on the
aquatic
K Sankarull Ullni
Ecotoxicological studies of free living protozoa of aquatic
bodies and arable fields of Andhra Pradesh and in vi"o
studies of their physiological respsonses to different loxicants
122
124
M A Khan . 127
Ecology and conservation of lakes in and around Udaipur
(Rajasthan)
129
Ecobehaviollral studies of Hanuman Langur
S M Moil/wi '131
Collectian, assessment and conservation of'cucurbit gennplasm
R P Roy 133
Sl\Jdy and conservation of the plant resources of the proposed
Namdapha biosphere reserve, Tirapdisn'ict. Aruhachal Pradesh
J ,To"",,h , \35
Long ternu:onservation,potential of natural forests in the
Southem Westem Ghats of Kuala
S SiJiish Chandran' Nair
VIII
136
Study of wind erosion in the wet and dly crop lands in the plain dis-
tricts ill Tamil Nadu, its causes, course and prevention, restoration of
fertility to the soil .nd stability to a disturbed mral eeo-system
A l ~ f Mahmood Illl .... sain l37
Algal resources orke,al. coast and their economic utilisation
N lIalukr;,,'/l/la/1 13.9
Reproduction and uehavioural biololgy of some endangered
and economically.important animals of Garhwal Himalaya
A ... ha OWlld"IIJSuklul1j 140,
Floristic, sociology and conservation. of plant resources of
Pir Panjal forest range
ilL SUI'N!" 142
Sea turtle research and conservation
Abdul A Rahman 144
Ecology aild replDduction in fel11s ana fem-allies of Rajasfhan
IJDS,lurl1lo 147
Herbage dynamics of natural and,l11oditicG ecosystems of
Shimla hills
R S TiI"kur
Ecological effects of different landuse and management
practices on Srinagar mountail1s
P Kuchrf)/J
Ecological study of high altitude lakes of Kumaull
S M DIJs
Composition productivity and carrying capacity of high
148
149
151
altitude pastures of Garhwal Himalaya
111 At Srivastava 153
Comparative ecology of river Gandak and Burhi Gandak
S S Prasad 154
Management of urban ecosystem in hot desert biome -
case study of ChulU and Nagaur in Rajasthan
N ,\' ."aini 156
Integrated Action-Oriented Research, Development and
Extension Programme - 'Vestern Ghats
An overview 163
River ecology in relation to man-made changes in the Western
Ghats
N Balakrishnan Nair
River melamoq)hosis due to human intervention
K P Tlrrivilirunwji
Environmental resturr:.tion of Ooty lake
V N Raja Rao
ManagemeIH and conservation of Pookot lake ecosystem in the
Westem Ghats
166
169
t72
P Basak 175
. Physico-chemical and biological analysis of some lakes and
reservoirs of Westem Ghats with special reference to pollution
R K Trivcdy 177
Effect of human activity and industrialization on Patalganga
river ecosystem ..... __ ... _- -.-... ---.. --.. - ........ --...... --.-.. ,
SA Suryawansfli 179
x
Evalualion of the extent of pollution in the Nilgiris
(Western Ghats)
G V Kolhandaral1lull 181
Feasibility survey of micro and mini hydel projects in Kerala
V K DUI1lf}{luran 183
Organic productivity nutrient cycling and small watershed
hydrology of natural forests and monoculture plantations in
Chikmagalur district, Kamataka
H RUl1lchandra Swal1lY -186
Long term environmental and ecological studies of Pooyamkutty
hydro-electric projects, Kerala - pre-construction stage analysis
S Kedamalit 188
Assessment of nutrient potential of soils of Westcrn Ghats and
environmental pollution of soils, plants and river water basIns
A GopaLnvumy 191
Landslips and landslides of Wynad district (Kerala) in the
Western Ghats
L C Kandaswami
Landuse pattern and landuse capability studies in south
Maharashtra - Western Ghats
S C Shinde
Eco-development of selected microcatchments in the Bedthi-
-.-.----- --AgnaIiii-shliii-iiverbasirisofthe-uitarii-Kiriiiada district of
Karnataka state
M a d h ~ v Gadgil
xi
193
195
197
Koyna catchment: an environmenta! perspective
(( Sila 199
Studies on the potentiai and conservation of the re50utceS
of animal origin from Westem Ghats .
.lay S Saman! 20!
Survey and sludies on biology of endangered species of
amphibians and reptiles ofWeslern Ghats Uttar Kan!lada
and Chikmagalur districi
JI B Nadlwmi 204
. The role of fungi and insects (wilh special reference to ants
and lennites) in the ecosystem ofWestcill Ghats
S /Jalill;;appa 205
Regeneration studies on some impOitant trees in a natural
moist deciduous forest ecosystem of Kerala
K SwarupUI1UtuJUIt 207
Peoples' project on agroforestry alternatives for soil
conservation
Pat(.aiy(!ur R Gopillatlwl1 209
Studi.es on selected indigenous species for future plantation
programmes in Kerala
K K N Nair 211
Studies on the sacred groves of Keraia
............ -K.(UliJmr:h.und.!:!!l! ...... .... _ .. _ 213
Study.of plantation crops area expansion, extent of soil erosion
under diferent land uses and effective harvest.ilfrainfalHn
Western Ghats Palni hills (Kadaikanal)
C R STtallmu;;ftam 216
xii
A study of regeneration of vegetation in catchment area of
Panshet reservoirPune diSlrict, Maharashtra
SalaMa Hrahme' 218
Response of plant species to the mining sites situated at pale and
Sirigao, goa
S G Tome 220
Floristic studies on sacred groves in Western Ghat region of
Maharashtra
V D Vartok 222
,Identifying tree and forage cover in steep hill slopes of West em
Ghats for eco-preservation and development
P Cltandra.\ekltarall 224
Preservation of Da/bergia L.G, in Kerala by establishment of a
germplasm bank
:( K N Nair 226
Developmer.t of propagation for suitable plant
species in \Vestel1l Ghats
NSwami Rua
Survey on identification of location - specific environmental
problems in Nilgiris range of West em Ghats
V S SuhramollYltn.
, A study of environmental and socio-economic of
displacement a'nd rehabilitation in Koyana project
SN Pawar
Tribes and other communities of Western Ghat: their
socia-cultural and psychological characteristics.
rehabilitation and development in relation to eeo-system
V S Sllbramanyum
xiii
228
'231
233
237 .
Socio-economic impact of West em Ghat development programme
on tribal women - case study of Wynad district ill Kerala
K R Lak.'imy Devi 239
firnpact of development projects in the \Vestem Ghat region on the
forest-dependent population - a case study of Wynad district io
Keral.
M Mo/wfIllas 242
Integrated action-oriented dcvelopment and
cxten.'Iion programme Eastern Ghats
An overview 247
Project bihang
UN Del' 249
Survey, evabation al)d systematic description of citrus and
mango gennpbsm resources in Eastem Ghats of Orissa
251
Ecological studies of grazing land t!co:;ystem of Eastem
Ghats region
Kaifas" Paliwal 253
Seagrass ecosystem of Coromaodel cm]st
K Ramamurf"y 255
Seagrass ecosystem of Coromande] ccast
Rajes"lV"r; Maitalil1gam ............ _--.... "--'-"'"'' .-........ _" .... _____ 2511... ...... .
A study of the floristic ecology ofSherv.roy hills of Salem
district (Eastern Ghats) .
K V Krishnall/;/rthy 260
xiv
Ecology and distribution pattern of wild rodents of
Eastern Ghats
S K Palllaik 262
Ecologic.al studies on grassland communities of South Orissa
B N Misra 263
An integrated study of assessment of Eastern Ghats for terrain
evaluation and ceo-development .
B Dash 265
Collection and retrieval of the available data on living
resources (plant & animal) wetlands, soil, climatic and earth
resources of Eastern Ghats for preparation of bioclimatic
and the thematic maps between Subarnarekha & Godavari
B N Sinha 267
Integratedaelion Oriented Research, and
Extension Programme - Himalayan
An 273
Gerrnplasm collection and refinement of nursery and plantation
technology of maggar bamboo
o P Sharma 275
An analytical study of the agrarian, socio-economic and
demographic problems for eco-development of Karbi Anglong
district, Assam
.. Choudhury .... :-..... - ..... 277
Optimallanduse for environmental restoration in Kotadun
Ktimaun hiinalaya
D S Jalal '.' 279
Herpetofauna of Kaslunir Himalaya: exploration ecology
and conservation
Deep N Sa(Ji 282
Biogeographic and environmental hazard mapping in the high
altitude zone of Himalaya in Kumaun
Y P S Pangtey 284
Damage potential and control measures for acomwonn
(Calandra selllplllra/a) in the oak forests of Kumaun region
B R Kaushal 287
Improvement of manurial value of pine needles
C MSingh 289
Classification of major ecological sub-regions of the
north-east himalayan system and dctenllination of
their present status of ewlogic,l balance
R S Tripathi 292
Introduction of social forestry through studen:s and people'.,
participation
K PNautiyal
295
Eco-development of Mirik-Sukhna region in Balason-Mahananda
catchment of Darjeeling district
B Bhattacharya 297
Etlmobotanical studies and other facts of sociocultural
aspects of two watersheds in Himachal Pradesh
. SKMann
300
Co-ordinated eco-development programme on some sub-catclunent
area in Sikkim
A KGhosh 302
","vi
Impact of sheep and goats on the economy and environment of
high altitude areas of Himachal Pradesh
--
TV lIIoorti 304
Ecobiologyof the ,eriollsly endangered brow-antlered deer,
Cervlls eldi eldi in the only natural habitat KetbuLLamjao of
Manipur with special reference to its conservation
II Tomhi Sing:1
Genetic conservation and improvement of orchid and bamboo
germ plasm for eco-development
PCDeka
Transfer of propagation technology of maggar bamboo
OPSharma
Ecological studies on forcst ecosystem of Manipur
PS Yudav
Studies on different aspects of barn boo in manipur
L Junmejay Singh
Expansion of the area of fruit trees through exploitation of
indigenous species
MCNuufiyal
Collection, culture and conservation of edible fungi of West em
Himalayas
BMSingh
.. investigations of
landslides in the Kumaun lesser Hliiiai";iya:-iiS-causes-iiiir
preventions
M Joshi
,,-vii
306
309
3 I I
313
315
317
319
321
- . - - . ~ = ' = ~ o = = = = c = = = = = =
Livestock - its economy and impact on ecology: a case study
ofNeen; drainage, Dada district ofJammu and Kashmir
o P Sharma 324
Gennpiasm bank of pasture grasses/legumes at Palampur and
Kukumseri (Lahaui & Spiti) Himachal Pradesh
DC Kmocl. . 326
Study of the impact of social and economic activity on select
micro-watershed - Giri catchment in Himachal Pradesh
SuMaslz Mislzra 328
Eco-development project on Raath Garhwal Himalaya
K P Nautiyal 331
Geomorphic study of limestone topography around Cherrapunji,
Meghalaya
R K Rai 334
.l'ltegiated watershed management oflbe Gumt; river valiey
T BlJal/aciraryu }36
Integrated demographic and socio-ec.onomic studies in Darjeeling
district
B Bhattacharya 339
Appendix
Research projects covered in Volume J 343
xviii
FOREWORD
W. he environmental concern in India aeises from environmental degra-
that'has occurred due to human pressure and .over-exploitation of
resources, deforestation; depiction of wildlife, degradation ofland, soil erosion
and poUution of the air and \Vater. There is a need to know what would be the
best or most stable state of natueal resources. to be part of a sustainable
development scenario.All orihis requires the resource of science and research
capabilities.
In the field of environment, therefore, research is a much required input
and the Ministry has been promoting a number of research projects to take
forward both conservation and environmental protection while also developing
the understanding of causative and moderating factors;' Research activities are
being suppottcd in multi-disciplinary aspects under various schemes and
programmes and through associated agencies of the
The present velume embodie, the executive ,ummaries of the completed
(eseOlch projects supported by this Ministry under the Research Schemes, viz.
Env;runment Research Scheme, Man and Biosphere Programme, Integrated
Action Oriented Research, Development ami Extension Programme in Westem
Ghats, Eastern Ghats lUld Himalayan Region, It brings out infonnation and
knowledge generated as a result of experimentation by the Investigators in multi-
disciplinary aspects of environmental management. Earlier volume in the series
contained 100 such summaries careied out at various institutions in the country.
This volume can'ies 138 summaries of the completed projects under various
schemes. Envirolllnental research results as generated ill these reports are
seldom applied directly.to environmental problems but the 'knowledge' -
including not only theory but also facts, observations, synthesis, and methods of
investigations - has been extremely important in developing approaches to a
wide range of environmental subjects - water pollution, air pollution, develop-
ment of process/system for control of pollution, health and toxicology, manage-
xix
ment of biotic and abiotic resources, survey and d,ocumentation of flora and
fauna, ecologicai effects and illlpact of anthropogenic activities, ethnobiology,
ecological restoration) socio-economic studies and conservation of biological
resources, etc.
The volume does not attempt to coveral1 aspects of environment, Neither
is it a 'cook book' for solving e!lvironmental problems; that would be unpractical.
Rather, it is a docwnentation of efforts to the process of 'cooking' indicating
where useful approaches to particular problems can be found and suggestil'lg
how appropriate knowledge and skills might be integrated for dealing with
complex environmental problems, Accordingly, the present volume is intended
for a broad audience including those who prepare, receive and use environmental
illfonnatioll.
It is hoped that the volume would be useful to al1 who are interested in
environmental issues and involved in creating a more deep consciousness for
better environment
xx
f ~ ~
,""" , ~ - - - - - -
(R. RAJAMANll
INTRODUCTION
XXI
!NTRODUCTION
. ,
, I
Whe destiny of Mankind is inextricably linked with the well being of the
natural resources and the life support systems besides the capability of man to
. them optimally in harmony with nature. .
All development is linked with the well beil)g of natural resources and that
it would require systematic basis of management, there is a need to strengthen
the scientific basis of our understanding of the environment and related manage-
ment.
Environmental science is usually broad and multidisciplinary in its scope,
though not yet always very precise. Its coverage includes the scientific knowl-
edge gained from .the physical, biological, economic and social sciences. It
draws heavily from ecology and the earth sciences. The field of
environmental management must, in addition, depend to an over larger extent
upon disciplines such as the modern management sciences, systems analysis,
overations research, comparative risk assessment, decision theory, stimulation
mcdelling, science, urban design, etc.
According to the National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement
on Environment and Development, Government aflndia (1992};environmental
problems arise essentially from
those arising as negative effects of the-very process of develop-
ment; and . .
those arising from conditions of poverty and development.
..... ____ .. ___ '. __ Io_ .. actiVities would have
to be pursued and the Illlintended impacts of efforts impo'segreatstrain on natural
resources as these are not free from negative impact on envirorunent. An attempt
has been made to depict diagramatically the complexity of the enviroruncntal
issues (Figure 1). . .
1
It would be observed that to pursue ewnomic activities the modification
of natural resources is required and the conservation requires sustainability of
natural resources thus inter-relatedness of one activity with the other. Along the
line ofllle thesis, in order that development be made sustainable, besides various
regulatory and promotional measures, the key io our capabiliiy lie in making
judicious and sustainable use of our natural resources - the maintenance,
conservation of life support system, production, ability to reconstruct and the
like. This capability is inseparably linked and in fact dependent on scientific
knowledge/infonnation base.
Environmental management is the process which, by taking into account
the overall ecological cultural, economic, social, technological and other factors,
attempts to ensure that the human environment i.s developed in an integrated and
systematic manner. It aims at the best use of the existing and pOlential resource
base in such a way as to maintain, for now and in the long-term, the best possible
sustained yield from the biosphere. Its ultimate objective is to provide greater
personal and social opportunities and to improve overall human well-being for
present as well as for generations.
Environmental management is a reiatively new which has
evolved partly in response to the problems of haphazard and I!hbaianced
economic development and in particular, Of the pollution which has resulted
from excessive industrialisation and urbanisation. However, contrary to com-
mon opinion, the concepts of environmental management are even morc
applicable to the soiutio!l of the problems of poor societies. They are, indeed,
simply another but more systematic approach to rational economic and social
development in the context of the requirements of the physical environment.
. .
Sound environmental .managemept attempts to build intl' the normal
activities ofsocio-economic planning the full costs and benefits to society of all
its actions. This requires the planner and the managertohavcaccess to.acc!lfaie,
timely and relevant infonnation on various aspects of enviroiunental quality and
the parameters of development and on the effects of man's actions on them.
2
w
FigureL THEMATIC OF lo:NVIROf\l'MENTAL COro;CERNS ILLUSTRATIVE NOTEXHAUSflVt::
El!onomiaIDevelopmcnt
Activities
"
R!.:sou[Ccs--------- Unintended
Environmental
ConseqUences
Depletion
I
Development
Protection
Conservation
Regeneration
Production
Strong Scientific Base; Ecological
knowledge/information
Development
w""IOfM",::;;:-l
Management/Operational Tasks
_---Assessment & Evaluation of
I
Research Magru.ruae. extent, and
Progranunes. --___ consequences and updauon
I ___ Collection and upctation of infonnalion
__ ____Generation of new information/research
Output
______ ---Understanding various linkages in Ecosysterns
the overall scientific/technological oase
To be successful, envirolUnentall!lanagement requires first availability
of a wealth of baseline data to characterise the existing state of the environment /
and to determine its trends. In fact, it is also useful, where possible, to obtain
'background' data which can help to establish of environmental quality
which would exist in the absence of man's activities. Such data can be obtained
by a monitoring system designed to measure, at different 'points of space alld
time, various selected parameters and these can bc consolidated into appropriate
indices which characterise the quality of the envirorunent.
Secondly, having obtained an idea of the quality of the environment i. e.
the state of the various parameters wh,ich describe it, it is necessary to know next
how changes in this quality will affect various factors of interest to man, such as
health, property, aesthetic'values, and the longterm potential of the resources
base. This in tuni comes from a knowledge of various physical processes, and
their relationships with various economic factors, damage functions, behavioural
responses, etc., which represent the between envirorunental factors
and the human or special response (such as data on tox.icity, corrosion, effects
on ceo-systems, perception. etc.) .
. Thirdly, the physical effects thus identified must then be convelted into
impact variables (which describe the magnitude and extent of the effects) by
studying and where possible, quantifying the extent to which the effects are felt
and reducing them to comparable terms such as criterion. Often, and sometimes
for quite.t>asic reasons, such as envirorunental impact malr\ces must be used to
display in a concise form the subjective weights assigned by to each
irnpactvariable. If they are to for useful inputs to decision making, they
must be evaluated and presented in a convincing manner and justified. Experi-
ence shows that this process of envirorunental impact assessment which attempts
---.---- to.eV<llua
te
the mauy:c..osr.;and benefits of an action requires deep familiarity with
and the pooling together avaciety of d!sciplines.
Present methodology for environmental management requires the con-
scious generation of alternatives at different levels dfphmning (i.e. at the policy,
programme as welll\S the project stage). Appraisa1.ofthe overall social benefits
4
and costs over time, of each altemative must then be made, particularly to
identify the role of each environmental factor and to include a assessment of its
impact. Only if scientific workers arc closely associated with the process from
the very beginning (planning) to the last stages (including decision-making,
implementation and post-audit) environmentally acceptable solution to devel-
opment problems can be fonnd, and environmental planning can then become a
major clemen, in the development process. . -
Since envirOlunental science is relatively new, both in content and in
approach, it is essential to build up a systematic base of knowledge as well as a
body of experts in this field. While individual scientists must be trained who can
cover a variety of disciplines with some competence in each, there is at the same
time no substitute for scientists possessing the in-depth. knowledge which can
only come from detailed and speci;lised work in a particular area of science and
yet arc able to communicate well with scientists of other disciplines. It is for this
reason, in particular, that environmental research has to take a lead in promoting
cross-sectoral, transdisciplinary and multi-institutional research work and to be
designed so as to encourage well coordinated and fntrtful sCientific team work.
The ability of ~ nation to manage its environment well is, therefore,
inltgraJly dependent on the availability of experts posses,ing new kinds of
competence and knowledge which can be gained only from innovative and high
quality research. [t is with an understanding of the need to fulfil the aforesaid
twin objectives that the Govemment of India has recognised the importance of
promoting and funding research in the envirorunental subjects.
5
APPROACH
The Ministty of Environment and Forests .serves as a focal point for
planning, promotion and coordimition of environmental and forestry programmes.
The primary task in dealing with envirolUnental prublem is to protect the
environment from d1gradation. The management and operational tasks have
been depicted (Figure 1).
Research promotion constitutes an important coml?onent of the various
activities oHhe Ministty. and is taken up through research investiga-
tion at Universities/R&D Institutions and Non-Governmental agencies through-
out the countty" Further, research is also undertaken by the various agencies of
the Ministty like Botanical Survey of India, Zoological Survey of India and
associated autonomous institutions of the Ministtysuch as G,B. Pant institute of
Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi, Almora, Wild Life Institute of
India, Dehradun, indian Institute of Forest Management, Bhopal, Indian Council
of Forestry Research and Education alongwith its institutes, Centres of Excel-
lence in Ecology, Mining Education and Ornithology (Figure 2),
Wnile the different agencies of the Ministty carry OU' studies in their
respective areas of Ihrust, research scheines arc supputted by the
through its various programmes viz_ Environment Research Scheme, Man and
Biosphere Programme, Integrated Action Oriented Research Development and
Extension Programme in Western and Eastern Ghats and Himalayan Regions,
Research on Wetlands, Mangroves and Biosphere Reserves,
The National Conservation Strategy and Policy Statement on Environ-
ment and Development of the Government of India released in June 1992
emphasises the need for efficient use of resources guided by the best available
scientific kn owl __ ,_ __,
nature of environmental issues it is difficult to clearly delineate the causes and
consequences of environmental degradation in terms of simple one-to-one
relationships, The causes and effects are often interwoven in complex web of
social, technological and environmental factors,
6
The singular purpose of the environmental research schemes is to
strengthen the base of scientific knowledge whicR is the crucial requirement for
mitigating environmental degradation and provide scientific basis of maoage-
ment.
SCHEMES
In the present treatment, the executive summaries of the com pic ted
research projects in the following research schemes have been provided:
Environment Research Scheme
Mao and Biospherc Programme
Integrated Action Oriented Research, Development and
Extension Programme
Western Gliats
Eastern Ghats
Himalayao Region
In all 138 executive summarie, ha'!e beell provided in this "olume aod
have been arranged in their i espective headings. The scope of each scheme
together with thrust have been provided in vohlme I. The list of projects
covered in volume I are given)n Appendix.
p,>,n analysis of tbe projects included in the two volumes reveal tbat 52
Universities, 31 R&D Institutions, 16 Colleges, 8 NGOs aod 3 State Govern-
ment Departments have participated in research activities (Figure 2) and are
provided in Table I. State-wise distribution of projects is provided in Table II.
One of the significaot contributions the schemes of promotion of research
have made that nuclei of research activities have been created all over the
-_ .. _ .. the present treatment each chapter dealing with the individual
scheme has been provided with ao over view of the subject of the projects
followed by the summary of the individual project. \Vherever feasible site/
. location map has been provided.
7

. - " ~ '
TABLE-I
STATE-WISE LIST OF ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED IN R&D
PROJECTS
VOLUME I & II OF EXECUTIVE SUMMARIES
S.No. statelUf.s
Total No. of
Projects No ofOrganisiltions Involve..l.
VoU VoLU Univcr- R&D In.m- Colleges NOOs Govt.
sities tutions Deptt.
I. AndhcaPradcsh
4 3 2 2
2.
Arunachal Pradesh
3. Assam
I 2 2
4. Bibar 3 3 3
5. Gujarnt 2 2
6. Goa
I 2
7. Hary811a
8. Himachal Pradesh II 8 I
9. Janunu &. Kasbmir 3 .6 2
10. Karnataka 9 7
4 I 2
II. Kerala 12 17 3 6
12. Madhya Pradesh 3 I 2 2
13. Maha=htra 4 12 5 3 I 4
14. Manipur 3 I
15. Megh&!aya 2 I
16. M"17.o:1lI'n
17. Nngal!!nd
18. Orissa 4 8
,
2
19. Punjllb
20. Rajasthan 3 4
3
21. Sildcirn
22. TsmiiNadu II 17 6 4 3
23. Tripura I I
24. Uttar Pradesh 14 24
5 6 5
25. WeslBengal 4 10 3 2
Union Territories:
~
I. Andaman &. Nicobar
2. Chandigarh
3. ~ &: Nagar Haveli
4. Delhi 9 8 2 3
5 . Daman & Diu
6.
. ~ " ' 7 1 ' ........ " .... _ .. __ .'_ ...... __ .::.
T Pondichm"y
-
I
'T
..... __ ........ _-
ToW 100 I3S 52 31 16 8 3
9
i
TABLE-n
STATE-WISE NUMBER OF PROJECTS
S.No. State ERS MAR WG EO lIR Total
VoU Vol.I1 VoU VoUI VoU Val.il Vul.! VotU Vol.! Val.Il VoLl Vol.fi
I. Andhra Pradesh 2 2
4 3
2. Arunar.ihal Pra.:lesh
3.
M"""
2 2
4 ..
Bihar 2 3 3 3
5. Gujarat 1 2
6. Goa
7.
Mary"""
8. Himl1Chal PTadesh 10 7 11 8
9. J&K 4 3 2 3 6
10.
Kama_ 2 J 7 6 9 7
II. Kerala I 2 3 2 8 13
12 17
12. Madhya Pradesh 3 1 3 1
13. Maharashtra 3 4 1 1 7
4 I2
14. Manipur
3 3
15. Meghalay/t 2
2
16. Mizoram
17. Nagaland
18. Orissa 2 2 2 6 4 8
19. Puni,b
20. Rajasthan
)
4 3 4
21. Sikkirn
22. TamHNadu 2 2 3 4 .. 7 2 4 11 17
13. Tripu.--a
1
24. Uttar Pradesh 3 11 7 6 4 7 14 24
25. West Bengal 3 3 4 3 10
Uni.on Territorie5:
I.
Andaman & Nk:obar-
2.
3. Dadra &. Haveli-
4. Delhi . 5 6 4 1
'9
,
5. Daman & Diu
6. Laksh(l\'I.'"eep
7.
Pondicherry
Total 24 33 31 3J 21 34 6 10
I' 2'
100
13'
---_ .. __ .. - ..
ERS EnvirorunClltai Resean:h Scheme
MAE Man and Biosphere
WO WestemGhats
EG
"""""""''''
HR
10
Figure 2.
.-.-.. ---.... - .. --.-...... - .. ---........ - .. - ....... -...................................................... f!I.
II
LEGEND TO FIGURE 2
I. ZOOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA
IleJdquarters Col_
Stations 1. Itanag..1r
2. Shillonll.
" r.,
";/,
,1
I"",,,
4. Dehrndun
'.:
,.
Solar:
6. labaJpur
7. lodhpur
.'
S,
Hy"""'"
, ( ~
9, Madras .
10 . Dighll
II. .....
12,
PO!1Bhuf
13. 24Parg;mas
14.
""''''''''''
IS,
Kozhikode
2. BOTANICAL SURVEY OF INOlA
Helld'1uarter<; CaI_
StatiCl1>'
1. Shilklng
2. Jodhp!ll"
,.
-
4. Coimbaton:
,.
Allahabad
6. Dehrndun
G.K PANI' HIMALAYAN INSTITlITE OF ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
Headquarters Kosi, Almorn
Units
1. Kulhl
2. Slinagat(U.P.)
,.
A"'"..
4. Mokoclccht.zng
13
4. WIl.DUFE INSTI11ITE OF INDIA
Hcadquarters
S. INDIAN COUNCIL OF FORESTRY RESEARCH AND EDUCA nON
HcadqlJlUters 'Ochradlln
1. Forest Rcsell."Ch Institute, Dehradun
2. of Forest Gcnetics and Tree: Breeding, (lFG&TB), Coimbatore
3. Institute of Wood Scicnce Technology (I W5&.1), 8angalore
4. Institute ofDcciduous Forest (IDF),labalpur
S. Institute ofRWn & Moist Deciduous forest (IR&MDFR), lorhart
Institute of Arid ZoITC ForestrY Research (lAZFR), Jodhplll"
7. Conifer Research Centre (CRC), Shimla
8. AdVllnced CClltre for ForestProductivity (lCFP), RnnclIi
6. CENTRES 01: EXCELLENCE
I. Salim Ali Centre forOmithology and Natural History, Coimbatore
2. Cenlrc farMining Envimnment, Indian Schoo!ofMinI!S, Dhanbad
3. Centre rmEnvironmentnl EdiJCllion,AhmedabBu
4. Ecological Research &.: Trainine. C;ntre, llldia.--: !llStiiute
CPR Centre for Environmcntal Educali"n, MadrllS
:
-'!
__ _---.....,ift\J .. ' ... _. _._ .. _.
ullu.x
.I
(:'f.U}l.GsonitB .
i'JlgfffiD .E
gnllrb;l.X';.I.>M
.,
ORGANISATIONS REFERRED TO iN 'fABLE I AND fiGURE 1
Name of State Names of Organisations Invc>lved
R&D Institutions Colleges NGQs State
Go.:
"'pn
I. Andhra i'rade!>01 I. Uaiversity 1.lnslilute of CoM tal
2. Osrr.ania University and Offshore Research
2. Institute of Preventive
Medicine & Food
Authorit{'of AP.


I. Gauhati University
2. Assam Agricultural
University
J. Bihar
I. BhagaJpurUoiversity
2. Patna University
J. Bihar University
4. Guj8f11t I. I.Central Salt and
Univer.;ity Marille Chemical
Re'learch Imtitute
Bhavnagar
2. M.S Univmity of
"""'.
S. Gc!a
1.0hempe
Cottege
2. S.l',OlowguJe
CotreiC Mrg1
J;'(rllJcM.fl!
';'!,U
6. Himachal
Prl!ldesh
Himacl1al Prndesh
",riO .>
University
orin
7. Jammu &
Kashmir 1. Kashmir University I, Regional Research
LabOralory
2. Jammu Univenity mlrtwr.,!r.M,ll
8.Karmrtaka 1. Kam3taka Univer:iity Indian Institute of I. Sl. Aloysius I. Scltoolof
DharWlld Science, Barogalon: Coilege Social Wad.
R6sllni Nijar.
15
Nnmc of State
9. Kcra1a
iO.Madhya
Pr..rlesh
II.MalW'SShtra
NamcsofOrganisations Involved
Universities R&D (nstitutiolls C:>lieges
l. Mysnre Yniversicy
3. Univer.;\ty of Apiculture
Sciences, Dhar\\,'ad
4. Gandhi Krishi Vigyan
Kendnt. 8angaJore
I. Kenda Agricultural
University, Vellllyani
I. KeraJa Forest
Institute, Pccthi
2. Ullivcrsity ofCochin 2. Centre for Earth Sciente
J. KeflI11I University
I. Vikram University
Ujjain
. 2. B/wpaJ Unive"TSil),
Shop.
I. NagputUnivusity
Trivandrum
1. Centre for Water RCSuurces
Development &
Managemel1t
Kozil!!<odc
4. P.cgiooal
Colh:ge,
5. R. Joll11 M;:tlndi
Tri;:hur
6. EnvironmcntCtntre. Kerula
I. Institute of Science,
Bombay
16
2. Sri I.C.RM.
College
Sringeri
I.Holkar
Sdencc
College
Indore
2. Govt P.G
College
Chhincwara
SirP-'.V.
CoJJege1>f
Sciences
Andheti
Ilombay
NGIls State
MangaJore
I.Society
fMclean
Environ-
lilent
Qembur
Go,"
",<>.
"'<>"
of Town
Planning
Trivan-
drum
NImC of State
1-2.M:!nipur
13. Meghalaya
14. Orissa
NJmesofOrgMisations Involved
Univer.;itio:s R&D Institutions Co!!eges NGOs Stale
(]V"
"'pll
2. Poona University 7.. Indinn Institute (If
Technology
Bombay
3. Universily of Bomba) 3. Nationn! Environmental
Research
Institute, Na.gpur
4. Shivaji University
Kolhapur
S. M!hatrrnl: !'hule
, ,rlC\Jltura! University
.ahuri
I. ManipurUni'lersity
(mphal
I.North Eastern Hill
University, Sbillong
L Berb,ampur University
2. UtkaI University
BhubancshwM
3. OriS'S:!. Uaiversity of
Agriculwre &: Tcclmology,
Bhubaneshwar
I.Ccnlral Rice
Institute. Cutlack
17
2. Ecolo-
gical

3. Saneh3r
J:lrahme
Samaj.
Gnrnll>-
alaya

4.Mllhara-
2
shIm
Associa
tion
f"
Cultiva-
tion
of
Science
rune

WildijfG
Conser -
vaLio:!
Society
of
Orissa
I. Ganga Dl;lar I Nature &
Mehnr CoU.ege Wildlife
SambaIpur Conserv.
ation
Sodety

Name of State Names ofOrganislllions
UniVcl3'ilies R&D fnslilulinns Colleges NGOs
1 $. Rajasthan
16. Tnmil Nadu
! 7. Tripll13
18.UttarPrndesh
I. of Jodhpur

2. UdaipU!" University
Udai(l\1I"
3. University ofRajasthon

,
!
Nadu Agri. Univ J. Zoological Survey of
Coimb:llore Madras
2. Annamalai University
Pefllngipetuli
1. International Institute
. I.
3. Bhpiar University
Colffibawre
4. M.adn::: U:Jivrrsirj
M,,",,,
S. Marlurai KamraJ
University, Madunli
6. BharathidllWl. Uni'o'crsity
Tiruchirapa([i
TripllIll University

I. Banarns .Hindu
of AyuJYeda, Coimbnlore
3. A.M.M. Murugappa
Chetlair Res. Cenke
Mairas
4. :ndian ijjstitult of

UnivCBity, Varanasi L Botanical Survey
of India, Dehrad(ln
.. ---.-' .. . 2. Roorlcoe Univcrsil)'
RotY-kee
2. 7..oologiCal Survey
oflndia, Dehrad.ull
3. G.B. PantAgri.
University, Tehri
G ... ""
3. National Bolanical
Rc:scarI::h Institute,
Luckn,?w
18
l.AVVM
Sripushpam

Poondy
2. Marlras
Medical
College
Madras
1 St. Joseph's
College
Tin;chirupll!li
I.GoVli'.G.
College
Kotdwar
2.""M.L.K.
College
8" .......
3. LLR Medica]
Meerut
State
GoY!
D,,,"
Deptt.
of
Fisher-
ies Govt
of T.N.
NamcofStaie
19. West Bengal
Union Territnriu
Universities
4. fr.U"hwal University
Srinagar (U.P.)
5. Kumaon Unh'mity
Nainital
.. University of Calcutta
Calcutta
2. Unrversity ofNonh
Beng31. Darjeeling
J. Bhlllti

!. Andam3n &.
2.0dhi
.3. [>ondicherry
I. Del!:i University
Delhi
2. J.t. Nehru Uaiversity
New Delhi
Salim Ali School of
Ecology
University of
Pondichcrty
Names of Organisations Involved
R&D lru:titutiol15 NGOs
4. Indu:;tria! Toxicology
Centre
Lueknow
5. Central Building
Rese'lfCh Institute
Roorkee
n. Indian [nslitutc of
Technology, K:tnpur
I. Botanical Survey
of India, Calculla
2. Zoological Survey
of Indi"., Calcutta
I. Botanical Survey
of India, Por'. Blair
Tata Energy Research
Insti!ute. New Delili
2. Sri Ram Institute of
Resenrch
Delhi
3. Deptt. oruman &
Regional rboning
-New Delhi
19
4. OAV P.G.
College
Dehl1ldun
5. A",
College, Agl1l
Council of
Social
Development
NcwDelhi
State
(]o"
",ptt
.
politan
Water&:.
Sanitary
Authority
Calcuua
ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH
SCHEME
~ l = = = = ~ ~ = = = = = = = = = = = = ~ v
. 21
ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH SCHEME
;3/Hlith its beginnings in late .evemies in the erstwhile Department of
Science and Technology, ihe scheme is operationai in the MinL<try of
Environment and Forests uS one nfthe major scheme of research promotiun.
So far under the scheme 306 research projects have been supported at various
Universities, R&D institutions and Non-Governmental Organisations
throughout the country.
"
,,'.- '.--
Under this scheme, research activities pertab;ing.li} :'itivirp,l;Imental
management with emphasis on monitoring, development of proce,,;;}ystelns, .... " ,I
instruments, health and toxicology, development of methodology for impact
assessment and general approach to en vironmental management are sup-
ported.
The present volume coll/ains 33 executive summaries of the research
project . funded by the Ministry and deal with bruad subject areas on water
pollution, pollution control, energy and natural rO'OL:Tces
m,magement. In the sector of water pollution the projects have add;essed to
all the five broader thrust areas enumerated in the Ptiorities of Research
Matrix approach with, reference to La d, Air and Water, Energy and Space.
Thestudies on pollution deal with inve1.tigations on rivers and inc/ude
Hindon, Yamuna, Domodar in the State of Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal;
,lakes in Andhra Prudesh; coastal areas in Tamil Nudu and Maharashtra.
iiladdiJion, of waste disposal, control of pollution ill
tnvJ/JiScale,industrje.tiiilicrnh;al.degradation of wastes, polymers, as also
l!/fecJsdl/paUiUlits.<pn:microt/Jrganisms"htwe:beencovered. In the tirea of
" .. . {}f{uilgliJ SpQ)'cs. Si)fe!JI. evalu-
effer;ts-o.f
<ullii, .... ! ,;";
OIDSglO 10 5'llJ,b rlgirl gIlilITIil:noo IIi II 2I!W Ii
Inn510Rd ,aio5q> :'>dT ,III51lwwob brm qu 10 2IlOi1612 5r!1 HB flO noiJuIIoq

STUDIES ON THE WATER POLLUTWN OF
AND ITS INFLUENCE ON DRINKING WATER SUPPL\>:'.1
OFAGRACITY
" !;
, {
KD SHARMA
Mycology Research Laboratory
Department of Botany, Agra College
Agra - 282 002
i amuna river is the main source for drinking and industria;
supply to Agea city. With the rapid urbanisation and industrialisation along the
bank of the river, the water has become severely polluted.
The river was surveyed upstream (15 km) from Mathura towards Agra
and 10 km. down-stream outgoing from Agra onward.
The physical and the chemical examiTJation of the river water from
various stations in the up and downstream reyea:ed mainly organic pollution.
The up'trearn also indicated considerable organic pollution as indicated by
BOD. It ranged between 60-160 mg/l, during 24 monlhs of monitoring. The
average BOD was liD mg/l. The COD ranged between 102-5092 mgll and
average was 1297 mg/1. Appreciable amount of organic, nitrate and nitrite
nitrogen was observed.
No pollution of toxic compounds was found either in npstream or in
downstream, except phenols, which varied from nil-traces in upstream and
0.011-0.171 mg/l in downstream. The maximum pollution load was observed
.... ------fromAprinoJiiliCTneiiiliiitiiUiifjlo1lutionload-msrecordedonPoea Ghaat
station in npstream. Rest of the parameters analysed also indicated increasing
trend towards the down stream. MPN Index in upstream varied from 7-18.0 and
whereas it was 110-2400 in downstream confirming high degree of organic
pollution on alllhe stations of up and downstream. The specific bacterial forms
24
fecal coliform group wereStaphylococus aureus, Shigella sr., Klebsiella sp.,
Escherechia coli, Aerobactor aerogenes, Salmonella paratyphi, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes. Several other unidentified forms
were also recorded.
Out of 64 algal forms recorded from various stations, i.e. in up and
downstream, most of the forms were common in all the stations, but Euglena
sp., Chiarella vlligaris, Oscil/alOria parornata, Aulosira spp, Lyngbya,
Polycystis spp, Fragillaria and Diatoms were present only in downsteam most
abundantly and in the present work, considered as indicator forms for high
organic pollution.
The analysis of drinking water from various points of the city indicated
that effective purification of raw water was not attained in the present water
works. Microscopic observations of drinking water revealed the presence of all
the phytoplanktons which were observed in the raw water including protozo-
ans.
The main sources of pollution were public waste and cattie distur-
bances. In dowIlstream, pollution was mainly through city sewage an,i indus-
trial wastes. Inilustrial waste included di8charge from the metal works (Alumi-
nium, Brass, Iron, Lead and Zinc industries), oil extrection mills, flour and
grain mills, pesticides, dairy, soap and e ~ t h c r manufacturing industries. Three
major drains adjoining the river which discharge 75 percenl city and industrial
waste to the river towards western side besides wastes from grain mills,
pesticides, dairy, soap aud leather manufacturing industries also are drained in
the river.
Period alstudy: October 1978 - September /981
25
EFFECf OF POLLUTION ON SOME ORGANISMS IN THE
ZOOPLANKTON BENTHOS AND NEKTON CONTRIBUTING
TO THE FOOD CHAIN IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT
A DANIEL
Marine Biological Station
Zoological SUYlIey of India
Madras-60002B
QIoasral water is the ultimate recipient of pollutants from point aod non
,
point sources. This study deals with assessment of the effect of pollution on
biota accumulating heavy metals in the Madras Coast.
Studies on planktons and microbiology in relation to nutrient level
confirmed that pollution load had increased during 1985, 1986 aod early part
of ]987 at all stations. The rich diverse interstitial fauna occuriDg in Saothome
and Thiruvanmiyur had disappeared from the polluted regions. Sixteen indica-
tor organisms were recognised; Haltilaimus sp aod FrederiGia bulbosa
(toleIate sewage), Gilhona rigid a, Cemropages orsinii(tderate oil poliution),
Charybdis cn/Giala (for Zn and Cd), Uca lacleus (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn)
Pabhia texlile (Ni) Amussium pleuronectes (Cd), Perna viridis (all 5 metals),
Ficus ficus (Cd). Lit/orina it/orea, L. scabra (sewage), Nassarius faveolalus
(Adyar estuary), Sepia aculeata (Cu) Tilapia mozambica (Ni) and Etroplus
suratensis (Zn). Out of the seC. cn/ciata, N faveolatus, P. textile, T.mozambica
and E. were not considered as indicator organisms, since the metal
concentrations fluctuated much and the values obtained were erratic or
inconsistent.
..
The study ()fmetal accumulation in the indicator organisms - --
pollution level oftIte environ!uent (i.e. sea water and sediments). Concentra-
tion of heavy metals in water gave the fIrst sigl) or signal to take note of its origin
and pathway to marine environment and their subsequent accumulation in
26
sediments and towards primary producers and then on to the piankton, nekton,
benthos and fimllly affecting human health.
The occurrence of high levels of metals above permissible limits in
commercially important marine organisms fonning our food as in S,-ylla
serrato, Pot/llnlls pelagicus. P. sanguino/enllts, .)co/iot/on saraC(}VD, Perna
virdis, Sardineilajimhriala, S. hl'achysol11{J, and samt.: of the 99 species listed
in this study showed that these harf!!fulmetals could cause immense injury to
human welfare. The present study had shown the importance of removing
organs sucl. as gills, liver hepatopancreas and digestive gland, kidneys and
gonad which accumulate high levels of these metals.
High level of nickel was observed in the hepatopancreas of Scylla
serrata (93.225 Perna \lil'dis, Merelrix casla, Thryssa maiabaricllS,
J'Iatycephallis insidialOr and Narcine limlei (120.0 ug/g).
Zinc, though considered an essential metal, can cause various disorders
such as gIYCosllHa.and damaged pancreas when its concentrations are high.
Zinc above permissible limit of 1000 ug/g was observed in I'crna virdis,
Meretrix cas la, J>!alycephaJus insidiat(ll' and 'l'hryssa malabariclts.
The study showed that certain edible sper;ies collet.:tcd from
Thiruvanrniyur. \,-verc Ivldapenac:us dobsoni, cafuf(a, Upenells
n1o/uccensis and 5'to!epho"us C()l1Imet.wl7i aecum ulated 80-100 ng/g of mer-
cury. As far as mercury was eonecmed the coastal marine fauna was still
uncontaminated.
The samples collected from the ten stations during the study period were
analysed and organochlorine pesticides were detected in a few samples (water
and sediment) only. Concenoation of some of the pesticides were above the
permissible level in few samples of biota. [n other samples concentration was
considerably low.
The diesel oil fractions were high in few samples of fish landing
harbour (Cooum and Adyar).
Period a/study: December 198f1-Seplcmber
27
GROWTH OF WATER POLLUTION IN ASANSOL - DURGAPUR
INDUSTRlAL BELT AND ITS IMPACT ON THE WATER QUAL-
ITY OF DAMODAR RIVER
AKDE
Department of Chemistry
Visva Bharali University
Shantiniketaiz-73 1235
mhe Damodar valley from Durgapur to Asansol fOims the largest
industrial complex in West Bengal. This industrial area is known as the 'Ruhr
of India'. Industries located in Asansol, Durgapur and Raniganj, discharge
various type of pollutants (non degradable and persistent) which accumulate in
DanlOdar river barrage water in Durgapur. The aim of the study was to estimate
the overall status of Darnodar river [lollutim., in Asansol-Durgapur belt and
dO\\r'1l Si!eam.
The study revealed that tarmiil-ligniH, phenol, phosph.te, COD, Hg and
sulphide in Durgapur barrage were peresent in the range 0.09, 0.006 to 0.6
to 1.2, ]0 to 232, 0.001 to 0.002 and 0.24 io 1.9 ppm respectively, while
tolerance limit of these pararneiers are; -, 0.002, -, .10,0.001 and 0.5 ppm
respectively. The organic matter, phenol and toxic metals present in barrage
water can not be removed by conventional method of water treatment process
to the safe level. Thus pollutants remain intact and fmd their place in drinking
water. The deterioration of water quality of barrage water was not only due to
L"-e chemical pollutant, but it was aggravated further by sewage from munici-
Ilalities in this region. This was evident from level of E. coli and total bacteria
-._-_ .. - .. m tlretangebf"J800tolO'countsftOOmland' 5.2) x 10' counis/IOO ml
respectively, which were much above Ihe pennissible limit. Tolerance limit of
E. coli and total bacteria were 100 counts/IOO ml and 10' counts/IOO ml
.respectively.
28
On the other hand, the downstream river water was oontaminated by
Tamla Nalah and HFC drain which carried the waste effluent of industries in
Durgapur region. Among the important pollutants, phenol (0.06 - 0.08 ppm),
COD (62 - 259 ppm), s" (0.7 - 10.0 ppm); NH, (3.6 - 19.00 ppm), Hg (0.01 -
0.05 ppm); were present much above the toxic limit.
The sediment at this site (Krishnanagar) was rich in NH, (76 - 135 ppm),
COD (1.2 - 1.9) x la' ppm, mixed oxide ( 1.0 - 2.4) x 10' ppm, total
exchangeable cation (70 - 86.0 ppm), metals As (5 -.7 ppm), Cd (6.5 - 8. 0 ppm),
Cr (85 - 123 ppm), Pb (240 - 340 ppm), Zn (305 - 390 ppm), Cu (27.5 - 33.5
ppm), Ni (90 - 125 ppm) and Hg (1.04 - 8.8 ppm).
Aquatic plants such as PiSlia siralioles, Eichornia crassipes, Hydrilla
veriicillala and Oedogonium areolalum were tested for accumulating toxic
metals and organic matter. Paddy husk had also been explored for removal of
>ome t o ~ i c metals. Toxicological studies of mercwy suggested that PiSlia
slralioles could be utilized for removal of Hg from the polluted water bodies.
!t was observed that the indu'tries of Asansol R"-niga;u region contami-
nate the upstream barr',ge \Vater while Tamla Nalah and HI'C orain in Durgapur
region, a deadly pool of tuxic chemicals, continue tu contaminate the down
stream river water with several toxic poliutants. The Damodar river through-
out its course gets an overdose of pollution which was beyond its capacity for
self purification.
The results were of relevance and interest to the State and Central
Pollution Control Board, State Public Health Dept!. (W.B) and Drinking Water
Mission.
Period of study : January 1982 - December 1984
29
A STUDY INTO THE CHEMISTRY AND BIOLOGY OF
LAKE SEDIMENTS
G SEENAYYA
Department o/Microbiology
Osmania Universily
Hyderabad - 560008
Ii ussain Sagar and Himayath Sagar constitute imp0I1ant water bodies
of Hyderabad city. The objectives of the study was to evaluate bio-geo-
chemical factors effecting release and exchange of essential nutrients between
water profile and surficial sediments ill the two Jakes. Data was collected at
monthly intervals from surface, middle and bottonl strata of lake profile and
surficial sediments at four stations of Ilussain Sagar lake and three stations of
Himayath Sagar lake.
Both the lake waters were alkaline and highly buffered, and [he
fluctuations of hydrogen ion cuncentrations narrow, In Hussain Sagar
lake free ammoni?. and organic phosphate wen: the dominant fOlms of
inorganic nitrogen and phosphates and their C()ilCciltrations increased from
surface to bottom. Lake water was rich in organic Inatter and its concentration
increased from surface to bottom water and in surlicial sediments;.this resulted
a decrease in oxygen concentration from surface to bottom water and in
surficial. .sediments; this resulsted a decrease In oxygen concentration from
surface to bottom and anoxic conditions in bottom water and surficial sedi-
ments. A sulfuratum existed in Hussain Sagar lake water and supported certain
algae whose oxygen liberation in the photosynthetic process was negligible or
absent. Hussain-Sagar..fake..harbaured !:,opulation and
blue-green algae were predominant in both the lakes. Blue - greeniilgai,appeat"--
to have originated at the bottom stratum during winter and moved to surface
during summer. Centric dialoms constituted the major bulk of diatom popula-
tion in both the lakes.
30
In Himayarh Sagar lake water column was oxic, rich in organic
phosphates. The organic. matter content was low and of autochthonous type.
Phosphates and different fOiTI1S of nitrogen content iii lake water decreased
from surface to bottom. The nutrient and pollution potential of Hussain Sagar
lake sediment .. vas high and acted as a source 'lo overlying water column.
Therefore, pollution levels WOLlld continue for more years even after
taking measures for the reclamation of the lake. Improvement of the feeder
channel and frequent flooding ofthe lake may bring dQwn the pollution levels
and reilltroduce oxygen in bottom water and surficial sediments.
The sediments of Himayath Sagar lake coarser and acted as a s,ink
for the nutrients and pollutants.
Period .' Au:;us! 1982 - August 1985
31
DISPERSION PATTERN OF TOXIC HEAVY METALS TN WATER,
SEDIMENTS AND BIOMASS AROVND BOMBAY
KC SAHU
Department 0/ Earth Science
Indian Institute a/Technology
Bombay - 400 076
'(Doxie heavy metals fonn a critical group of pollutants. The aquatic
sediments become the receptacle of these metals. Thane Creek, a. triangular
land locked mass of brackish water and. Vlhas river is a dynamic fluvio-
estuarine system. Both are dominated by tide and polluted to various extent by
industrial emuent discharges.
Samples of surface water, bottom sediments and selected aquatic
organisms were collected along the int."rtidal zone of Thane Creek (19
sampliilg stalioils) and along the coctrse of Ulhas river {II ,ampling stations)
during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods, consecutively for 3 yea,rs
(1984 - 1986) and heavy metal contents (Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and
;Ug) were detennined by standard methods. Suspended solids recovered from
. the water samples were also SUbjected to similar analyses. A few critical
chemical parameters like pH, COD, BOD, salinily,alkalinily, hardness, NO,-
nitrqgen, phosphate, sulphate etc. influencing various aquatic reactions were
d e t ~ n n i n e d on the water samples. Six open sea water samples taken along the
western water front of the city were equally pOliuted with respect to world
ocean water. Heavy metal contaminated soil over the land, which adds metal
contamillants to bays and creeks by lithogenic flux were also analysed from
-"iIiirtY-sanijilmgsites-r6catea-6o'-ilie iiilhismal1ielts.Th-emecal-leveiinthe
respective sample matrices were compared with'dlat of local and global
backgrounds and analysed graphically and statistically to bring out the pattern
and degree of contamination.
33
The water, sediments and suspended solids as well as cel1ain species of
aquatic animals showed mild to extreme degree of contamination by heavy
metals. For water samples contamination relative to background was low for
Fe, Mn, Ni, alld Co, high for ulher iudustrial metals like Ph, Zn, Cu, etc. but vel)'
high in case of Hg. The degree of contamination of v'later, sediments and
suspended solids were high near the mouth of various llischarge channels
reaching into the creek and on the upstream section of Vlhas river near
Kalyan-Ambarnath industrial belt.
Distribution of heavy metals between dissolved and particulate phases
showed that90%ofFe and Mn were palticulate bound; Cd, Znand Pb dominate
in the dissolved phase and Cu, Ni and Co were equally distributed. In Ulhas
river the distribution pattem was disturbed by dredging activities for recover-
ing construction aggregates from river bed. Seasonal changes
to post-monsoon) that were noted in relative metal values in the sediments and
suspended solids for groups of metals included: for Fe and Co lillie or minor
change, for Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb large movement from sediment to suspended solids
and for Mn, Ni and Cr medium rate of movement from suspended solids to
sediments.
Little differences were obsclved in mineralogic.al and major che:nical
composition bet\veen sediments and suspemled solids, but Hg :md Cd were
more in the suspended palticillates, Cu was equally distribute'; and Pb showed
enatic values of distribution.
Among the aquatic animals bivalves seemed to have higher concentra-
tion of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Hg, Co and Pb. The fish and crabs showed higher Cd
and Cr whereas the prawns showed higher concentration of Pb.
Positive c.orrelation ofCu, Ni, Hg, Fe and Ph in sediments to organism
was observed whereas Co, Cd and Mn have no cOITelation, Cr had positive
...... -..... -_ .. -""!Telation only for fish while Zn had negative correlation in crab, prawn,
bivalves, gastropods and polychaetes.
Analyses showed relatively higher metal values in aquatic organisms
compared to earlier published data. For Hg a rough increase inblood levels
was noted anlong fish eaters of Bombay.
Period afStudy : August 1983 - August 1986
34
TilE WATER QUALITY OF SELECTED PONDS PRESENTLY
USF:D FOR BATHING AND SWIMMING IN CALCUTTA CITY
AND INTRODUCE SUITABLE MEASURES FOR
IMPROVEMENT OF WATER QUALITY
WITH RESPECT TO BATHING STANDARD
T K BASU
Ca/crtlta Melropo/itan Water and Sanitary Authority
32 BBD Bag (South)
Ca/el/lta - 70000 I
1:flater bodies, natural and manmade have remained an indispensable
clements of the urban living scenario. Calcutta like all other cities in India have
many slIch ponds or open water bodies under municipal control. Most of these
water bodies provide the scope of swimming arld [cerci-ttional activities by the
swimming club. [11 the long run, absence of adequate and proper sanitation
the watn quality is deteriol?.ting far beyond the standard.
Three ponds of open walerbodies were selected in the city of Calcutta
for investigation of water quality with respect to bathing standard. The main
parameter - total and fecal colifonn exceeded pennissible limit. Over all
bacteriological quality of3 ponds was on the inferior side. High turbidity, dense
and congregated vegetation growth were noticed. Other chemical and physical
parameters were \vell within the n 01111 al range. However, dissolved oxygen
saturation was noticed in some cases.
The status of microbial quality of water
improvement waS necessary. It could be achieved by reducing the microbial
population of the tank feed water with sufficient chlorination. Unauthorised
bathing, washing, cleaning and ablution should be strictly prohibited.
Some recommendations were made to improve ll1e water quality ofll1e
ponds.
The swimming chambers should be separated from the main water
bodies. Filter water should only be permitted as feed water, proper disild"ection
measures may be taken. Besides several management aspects were suggested
to prevent contamination of water. . .
Period of study : May 1984 -May 1986
--. "_ .. -._ .. -._---_._ .. _- - - . ~ -
.. - ....... - ... - ... -... ' ~ ' - ' ' ' - ' . ' ",--- .. -
....... ".-. """'''---------..
36
HYDROLOGiCAL ASPECTS OF WASTE DISPOSAL OF UPPER
HINDON BASIN, UTTAR PRADESH
B B S SINGHAL
Department of Earth Sciences
University of Roarkee
Roorkee - 247667
the vicinity of various indus"tries crist viz. those
related to the card board, paper, dairy products, rubber, steel rolling, electro- .
plating etc. which release effluents into the riverine system. The ma.in effluent
discharged were from the paper mill and the dairics.
The hydrological aspects of waste disposal of upper Hindon
",round Saharanpu. town (Uttar Pradesh) were studied with a view to iIssess the
poiluti.on effects of industrial w",te. emuents orr the quality of Hindon river
waier. Water quality indice, were used to study the synoptic quality
characterisation of the river water. A dissolved oxygen sag model for multi-
phased data in selected stretches of the upper Hindon river polluted by paper .
and dairy wastes was also worked out.
An attempt was made to work out water quality indices for surface water
and ground water of the area using Horton based procedure. Generally in
SUmmer months (May 19 85 and May 1986) water quality index of surface
water was relatively higher than the monsoon months (August 19K5 .and
August 1986) which indicated the dilution effects due to rainfall whereas in
case of ground water, the water quality index was fuund to be generally low.
The dissolved oxygen-sag models developed for September - October,
!986, January - 1987, July - 1987 and November - 1987 for the Hindon river
37
system indicated the influence of organic waste constituents on tht: quality of
these lotic waters.
(" many sizeabie stretc.hes, DO value remained below4.0 mgtL The DO
values in the Dhamola nala were higher as compared with the Hindon - Nagdeo
streams .indicating betlcr quality of water in the Dhamula nala.
The stud)' made available a good data base and a comprehensive idea of
the overall quality arid chemical characteristics of ground water and surface
water.
Period of stUl(r: .Juilltary 1984 - March 1988
OPTIMll,ATAION OF RUR<\L AND URBAN WATIOR
SUPPLY SYSTEMS
P KHANNA
Cenlrefhr Environment Science and Engineering
Indian Ins'i',,'e of Technology
Bombay - 400 076
lLhe rural water supply systems differ substantially from the urban
installation which are mainly looped network and cater to much higher
population densities where as rural systems arc predominantly dead end
distribution catering a small group of population. The cost effective design of
rural water supply system therefore, calls for a different approach than that for
the urban installation.
A rapid assessment of the status of drinking water SUpply and sanitation
programme w[:.s with t!tC objeuives of synthesis of minim:il CQst
rural water supply system; development of efficient analysis and optimization
programme for urban supply system and validation of algorithms with
application to real life rurai and urban water suppiy systems.
An optimization algorithm was developed for multi-branch rural water
supply systems, employing large ranging multiplier technique. The algorithm
delineates a systematic procedure to obtain functional optimal designs in telms
of commercial pipe sizes.
It has been demonstrated that this simplistic design procedure provides
.. _ .. -soIutions tothalcost'effcctive"furat'IVatecsuPl'ly and match well with those
obtained by more rigorous techniques. The optimal design procedure has been
validated through its application to more 200 rural water supply systems
in india and Bhutan resulting in substantial savings (over 20 percent on an
average) over conventional design procedure.
39
With respect to the urban water supply systems, an efficient analysis
programme has been developed based on graph theoretic approach. Newton's
method, which is reported to provide fastest rate of convergence, has been used
for the soiution of non-linear equations involved in analysis. The application
of the programme; to some realli!" medium and large size multiple source
networks, has demonstrated its efficiency in achieving fast convergence.
The optimal design problem for urban water suply system has been
formulated in this work as a costminimiZ<ition problem with only diameters and
pumping head as decision variables. The interior penalty function method has
been used to convert the constrained problem into an ullconstrained one which
was then solved by Davidon - Fletcher - Powell (DFP) technique.
The present study provided optimization algorithms for real life rural
and urban water supply systems in much better way. The use of these
algorithms would facilitate judicious utilization of limited financial resQurces
in meeting the goals ofinteOlational drinking water supply, sanitation as well
as national drinking water supply system.
The report would be ilseful for Central Water Commission and State
Public Health Department and concerned agencies.
Period o/study : March 1979 - December 1984
40
BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION BY LEGUME
COLONIZERS. IN HIMALAYAN ECOSYSTEM
C RBAuu
Department of Botany
Unh'ersity of Delhi
Delhi - 1/0007
Whe study was undertaken (I) to assess the extent of genetic diversity
among Himalayan legumes their associated rhizobia; (2) to understand the
relationships between abiotic factors, particularly the soil characteristics and
niche specialization of legumes (3) to select effective and effIcient legumes -
rhizobium associations (4) to evaluate the performance of chosen legume
. rhizobium association on degraded eco-syste.ms such as open cast lime-stone
.. mine sites, mine spoil heaps and eroded slopes and (5) to evolve an appropriate
legume - rhizobitun technology for revegetation of the derelict Himalayan
ecosystems.
About 100 legume species and 120 rhizobial straius were investigated.
The significant findings in the research projects were, that the taxonomic
characters used for temperate rhizobia were not good markers for classifica-
tion of tropical rhizobia; the concept of acid or alkali production by rhizobia
needs to be re-examined; the genetic variability in tropical rhizobia was
markedly high and there were rhizobia which were tolerant to adverse environ-
mental conditions including salt stress; a new strain of R. fredii - one of the
fastest growing species has been isolated from Shuteria vestita; the intrinsic
antibiotic resistance and poly-i3-hydroxybutyrate content can be used success-
fully rrnzohlal-strainswere
genetically well differentiated; the legume and their associated rhizobia had
genetic potentiai for the enhancement ofN, fixation in terrestrial ecosystems.
Some of the rhizobial isolates in combination with specific legumes can be
utilized in the reclamation of acidic and as well as alkaline soils; the rhizobial
41
isolates (DVT Sil) which have a wide thelmal adaptability, can be successfully
utilized in the Jevelopmcntofinoculants for tropical agricultwallegume crops
su2h as groundl1U1.
The legumes can be utilised as biotic utilizers in forest and in agricul-
tural ecosystem; Ihe resuits presenleJ in the report do provide an insight on Ihe
biology and ecology oftrapical rhizobium and legumes and OftllC process of
symbiosis itself.
Period u.(study : .Iuly 1983 - October /986
42
ABATING CARBON BLACK POLLUTION IN SMALL SCALE
RUBBER PROCESSING INDUSTRIES
C K S PILLAI
Regional Research Laboratory
Trivandrum - 695 00 I
; lI1all scalc rubber processing industriesin Keral. have been contrib-
uting carbon black pollution. Mis SF fndia Limited, Madras had developed an
equipment and it was aimed at to test the efficiency of the equipment in
preventing carbon black pollution.
The equipment cunsists of centriJugal ex.haust fati, bag filter suction
hood and ducting, and these were subjected to test. Since the size ofthe carbon
black pallicle range from 12 to 150 mm, membrane filter and low volume
sampler were used to collect sample.
The study had shown that the above equipment was capable to suck
carbon black particles, cscaping from the mixing mill, and reduced the
emission of carbon black to the atmosphere. The carbon black particles were
sucked into the hood, the workers have a much more congenial atmosphere
... inside the factory.. ....... __ .. ___ .. _.
It was observed that if the machinery worked at about 1/3" capacity by
'controlling the air suction, it controlled maximum pollution whereas at full
capacity the bag filter did not function properly and carbon black particles
'escaped outside and contributed to the pollution. However, this machine was
43
not capable of providing 100% pollution control and a slight escape of carbon
black into the atmosphere through the filters cannot be prevented. These results
were in confonnity with literature reports on the efficiency of bag filters.
It was concluded that the equipment was capable of controlling pollu-
tion to the extent of 80 percent.
This result will be of interest and useful to all rubber industries .and
State/Central Pollution Control Board.
Period of study: February 1980 - July 1982
44
STUDIES ON THE ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF FUNGAL
AND FERN SPORES
SAl'!THA DEVI
Aquaiic Botany Division
National Botanical Research Institute
Lucknow - 226 001
'@he spores of fern and fungi constitute an important aero flora. These
could be hazardous viable particulate pollutants. The main objectives of the
.project were to investigate the response of fungal and fern spores as environ-
mental and ecological hazards, and to investigate the role of such spores as
aeroallergens. Attempts were 'made to appraise the national situation regarding
the significance offern and fhngal spores as air borne allergens and to study h ~
environmental distribution a.. .... d deve!oplment patterns of the [uctors resporl-
sible for eliciting allergenic reactio" i . ~ human. The incidence ~ f spores of 43
taxa of ferns in II different localities in India was quantified on different
seasons. The allergenic nature of many of these spores was established by
clinical allergy testing on human volunteers and patients with allergic history.
Also, the allergenic nature was confirmed by dennalpatch testing on laboratory ,
animal models. This also helped in partial characterization of the allergenic
principles (lipophilic and hydrophilic) on thespore coat.aswell aSon cyto-
plasm.
Detailed characterisation of the topographical and ultrastructunil fea-
.. lures of the different spores through light and fluorescence was done. This
along with the methodology worked out for isolation of the allergenic prin-
ciples will be helpful in developing immunodiagnosticand immunoprophylactic
meaSures. The role of taxonomic and morphological features in the production,
release and transport of fern spores in air was elucidated. Considerable new
45
infonnatlon of basic impo11ance regarding the ultrastructure of fem spor('s,
surface morphology and the developmental pattenlS during spore fonnation,
maturation, gennination and methodological improvisation for such studies
alsO' emerged from these studies.
Further, it was possible todevelop fern spore bioassay for screening the
phytotoxicity of envirorilllental pollutants.
It emerged that spores of 43 species of ferns were prevalent in the
community air of many localities and posing llUman health risks. Similarly,
ambient levels of different fungal spores were quantified in textile and tannery
industry sites and one third of the spores showed potential for eliciting allergic
reactions as evidenced by clinical trials. Taxonomical and morphological
features ofthe fungal spores were studied. A natural association between fern
and fungal spores were encountered in many cases during their eilVironmental
prevalance and transport.
Period ,,(study: .lull' 1983 - .fuly 1987
...... -.... - .... - .... _---.. _- ._ .. - ..... ---._ .. _-
46
THE EFFECT OF AIR POLLUTANTS ON MARBLE AND SAND
STONE USED IN VARIOUS HISTORICAL I\IOi'<Ui\lENTS WITH A
VIEW TO I'RESERVE OUR CULTURAL HERITAGE
PKMAm
Shriram fnslillilelor Industrial Research,
Defhi - 110007
1ii rosion and degradation of stone began with start of civilization and
continues unabated even today. EnvirolUnent and its various agencies play an
impOltant role in the process of decay. However, little progress has been made
towards understanding the degradation mechanism because main emphasis, of
research on stone was given on preservation treatments. There are numerous
pollutants and various parameters responsible for the damage of s'tone. How-
eve'r, SO" NO,. CO, and particulate matters are imponant and mostly present
in the polluted environment. Their etTect as an individual or in various
combinations weie studied by exposing stone samples to the desired atrr.o-
sphere maintained in the laboratolY environment chambers. Variuus
concentratiuns of these pollutants in air were also created in these chambers and
maintained at d!tTerent humidities and temperatures.
The effect of acid rain on stone was also studied hy designing a system
. for continuous flow of the acid (sulfuric, nitric acid and their various combi-
nations and flow-rates) solution over the surface of stone.
The effect of weathering on stone was also studied by performing
accelerated tests -- exposing the stone samples in a weathero meter Xenon
Test-150 where in xenOll arclamp radiator was used .
................... _ ............... .
--,---. __ . _- _._ .. _' ...
_ .. _ ..... _ ... -
;0 I
The field trials of stone damage were also carried out by exposing the
stone sample., on the terrace ofTaj Mahal- Agra and evaluating these samples
at different time intervals.
47
The controlled as well as exposed stone samples were evaiuated for
damage by detennining weight gain, weight loss after washing, water absorp-
tion, whiteness, gloss and mechanical properties of these samples.
Marble was more susceptible to environmental adverse effects than
sahd stone. Stone was degraded by air pollutants at alllevds. However, the
interaction of pollutant marble was minimal when pollutant especially SO,
level was within 30 mg/m'. The whiteness and gloss of marble was least
affected at these low concentrations of pollutants:
The mechanism of stone decay in. polluted environments was studied in
greater details. The SO, gas was the mvor cause of stone cianlage and
synergistics effect of different pollutants like S0, and NO, did not clearly
emerge outdutingthese studies. The absence of nitrate in the already damaged
marble samples has further suggested that NO, did not seem to play any
significant role in stone damage. The pollutants in gaseous fonn had shown
greater damage than in aquous media. The resistivity to further interaction of
the reaction products of polluta.llts and stone was very much evident, but
products by regular cleaning was wa.rranted.
Perwd of study : May 1984 - July 1988
-18
DETOXIFICATiON OF PHENOL AND CYANIDE BEARING
INDUSTRIAL WASTES
N M PARHAD
National Environmental Engineering Research institute
Nagpur - 440020
.. 1!invironmental pollution due to discharge of untreated or partially
treated toxic industrial wastes, such as phenols, cyanide and thiocyanate are
some of the organic pollutants present in coal carbonisation wastes. Cyanide
also emanates from metal plating industry and gold mine ore processing
industry.
The aim of the investigation was to develop a process technology to
detoxify above pollutants t'lrough pilot and prototype models with ~ l . , hel" of
microbial cultures.
Two typical toxic industrial wastes; coa..l carbonization \",ste and
. go!dmine are processing waste were identified for conducting studies on
biological treatment. Coal carbonization (LTC) plant was characterised for its
physico-chemical composition. It contained phenols, as the major organic
pollutant. In addition to phenols, it also contained thiocyanates, ammonia and
other BOD exerting materials. Cyimides were of low concentrations in this
waste. The gold mine are dressil)g waste contained cyanide as well as heavy
metals such as Copper, [ron-and:ZinC';"--'" ._... - - - ' - - ' - " - - " - - - ' - " ' - - ~ ' ' ' ' - ... _' .. --.--'.
Biological treatment of phenoil'nd cyanide bearing industrial waste is
recognized as the cheapest method. Tieatment of these wastes is based on the
selective enrichment of a particular class of micro-organisms that have the
49
capacity to degrade the materials. The 'Acclimatized sludge' is usuaUy
effective in reducing the toxic etfects, but is inactivated due to shock-loading,
overloading and other envirorune"ntaI variations. Use of specific microbial
cultures would overcome the operational difficulties. These were also
considered usef"l in developing updated technologies in waste treatment.
Specific microbial cultures were isolated for biodegradation of phenOl,
cyanide and thiocynate. The cultures were characterized with reference to ihe
kinetics of substTate degradation and influence of other toxicants on the
biodegradation of the substance in question in batch culture experiments.
Suitable bench models were designed, fabricated and operated in the
laboraroty with synthetic as well as live industrial wastes. Seeds for the
preparation of activated sludge were prepared from. the stored cultures as
against the classical 'acclimatization' procedure. The continuously operated
completly mixed activated sludge processes were fed with synthetic waste
containing phenol alone, phenol and thiocyanate, phenol, cyanide and thiocya-
nate. Perfonnance evaluation under steady stalc as well as transient conditions
were made. Based '''' the results obtained in the laboratOIY model, a scaled up
field pilot plant was designed, fabricated and il!>talled at an industrial sileo The
pilot plant was operated over a period of nine months and data ,vere collected
to evolve design parameters. LTC wastewater was used for pilot plap.t
. ,
Studies on the detoxification of L n:: waste revealed that
and cyanide removal was about 50 and 3S.percent in the single stage reactor
. respectively. The influence of phenol and cyanide on thiocyanate oxidation as
well as their biodegradation were studied in tile bench model experiment using
syritllCtic waste: The feasibility study on the biodegradation of cyanide was
carried out in a bench model reactor. .
Period of study : December 1978 - December 1981
50
MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF PLASTICS AND
OTHEU POLYMLHS
P K SErtI
Industrial Toxicology Research Centre
Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg
L"cknow - 226001
. iliI{icrobes degrade complex organic compounds and form inorganic
compounds. In the process they lose the hannful properties. The microbial
degradation of plastics and polymers were attempted with the hope tlmt an
attack on the monOliler and plasticizers by microorganisms facilitate the"
degradation of plastic polymers. Organisms like actinomycetes, bacteria and
some other fungi were isolated from soil. A few fungal strains showed scanty
growth around polymer strips. However, no significant loss in the weight of
the polymer was recorded. The growth of microbes on plastic buried in brois!
soil, was also observed to be insignificant. Phathalate ester used as plasticizers
ill polyvinyl chl0r;de were su"jected to microbd process of degradation. All
the phtldates were degraded in moist soil by the bacteria. Some str.ins could
utilize up to 4000 pPI" oftllese csters as carbon and energy sourccs for growth.
AClylamide used in the manufacture of polymer materials was studied
in a moist garden soil (alkaline). The monomer was found to be completely
hydrolysed within 5 days incubation at 30"C. HPLC analysis indicated that the
mouomer was hydrolysed to aClylic acid and ammouia. Acrylic acid dissipated
slowly and within 60 days reached negligible level in soil. Ammonia were
utilized by soil microbes, speciflcal1YPsclldomol1as within 20 days and nitrate
concentrate was Pseudomondv sp strain C-3 could also utilize di-n
butyl phthalate, di-n-octylphthalate, di-2 ethyl hexylphthalate, adipic acid
methyl meta-acrylate as carbon and energy sources for growth. This strain may
be useful for degradation of these chemical additives of plastic industry .
. The pure culture were found to be unable to degrade polyethylene
polypropylene, polyvinyicWoride, polymers under the conditions ofweather-
ing and exposure to UV light. However some fungal strains were capable of
utilizing some leachable material of plastics,
Nine bacterial strain isolated from three different ecologically rich
(garden soii, river soil and bruist soil) suggested the presence of natural
phthalate degrading microflora in our environment. Similarly acrylamide
degrading bacteria is also present in the environment.
Bacterial strains capable of degrading phthalate acrylamide and oth'er
chemicals have been found wherever these chemicals are present.' These
chemicals may have leached out from the polymer waste left for a long time or
due to wide spread use of plaslics .
.. .!'eriod ofstlldy: February 1980 - June 1984
52
SYNTHESIS OF ORGANOTIN MONOMERS AND POLYMERS:
APPLICATIONS IN ANTIFOULING COATlNGS
S K GUPTA
Centre for Environniental Science and Engineering
Indian Institlite o/Technology
Bombay - 400 076
. mhe objectives of the project included the synthesis of (); new -
halogen substituted monomers [Tributyltina-chloroacrylate (TCA) and Tributyl
a-bromo acrylate (TBA)], four spacer group substituted organotin acrylic
monomers, their homo-polymers and co-polymers with different esters of
acrylic and methacrylic acids. It also envisaged the synthesis of cured copoly-
mers by crosslinking hydroxy functional group of alkyl methacrylates with
aliphatic and aromatic di-isocynates. The study also included the characteriza-
tion and application of organotin compounds in the laboratory and in high sea.
All the organotin compounds could be synthesised sliccessfuily and
characterized. The co-polymers cfTCA showed better a."1ti-fouling activity in
general as compared to the co-polymers dftributyltin methacrylate (TBTMA).
The results of the toxicity tests in the laboratory showed that the toxicity of the
copolynler increases with the increase in triburyltin content in the copolymer:
Based on the results of the panel testing of organotin polymersin high
sea, the fullowing recommendations were made: .
Co-polymers oftributyltin a - chloroacrylate - Co-Methyl methacrylate
having low tin contents (10-12%) have better antifouling activity.
__ ......... _ ........ Cured .. co-polymers of TCA - Co-hydroxypropyl methacrylate can be
used for surface coating. This may increase the life of the coating.
Co-pol}mers having bulky co-monomer should not be used for coating.
Period a/study: September 198J - August 1988
53
CONTROL OF WATER POLLUTION BY POLYMERIC
ADSOIlBENTS
n D DASARE
/leaclive Polymer Division
Central SaIl and Marine Chemical.,: Research Inslil1!le
Bhuvnagar- 364 001
~ ecently environmental pollution due to the rapid urbanisation and
industrialisation has caused a serious concem. Among the various components
of the envirolllnent, water is polluted to a dangerous level, due to organic and
inorganic pollutants. Phenolics and mercury compounds thrown out in efflu-
ents by many industries are exc.eptiollally toxic substances and cause a host of
physiological disorders in living beings. The porous pOlymeric adsorbents/ion-
ex{'.hange resins afe found to be good scallvengers for pollutants and hence have
. been extensively used as regcne!'able adsorbents for water pollution contTo1.
The objective of the projett was to develop porous polymeric
adsorbcnts/ion-exchange resins or to modify the existing one in a suitable
manner, to characterise them and to assess their application potential for the
control of pollution caused by phenolic compounds and mercUly.
During tlle COurse of the synthesis a series of porous polymeric adsorbentsl
ion-exchange resins were developed st31ting from such monomers like sfyrene,
acrylonitrile, methyl methaclylate and methacrylic acid, conditions of sus pen-
sion polymerisation technique adopted forthe synthesis were optimised in such
a manner that a precise control over the particle size achieved. The degree-oL.
cross linking, the extent uf dilution of the monomers with porosogenic agents
and the nature of the porosogenic agents were Vf'-ried over a wide range so as
to have polymeric adsol'bents/ion-exchange resins with a wide spectrum of
characteristic.
54
Various polymeric adsorbcnts/ion-exchange resins thus developed
were exhaustively characterised for the bulk density, solvent uptake, surface
a r e a ~ porosity, pore size distribution, average pore diameter, moisture retention
and ion-exchange capacity wherever it was appropriate. to cany out lhe
evaluations. .
In gencl.'al the porous polymeric adsorbents and anion exchangers
developed showed less bulk density, more solvent uptake, better surface area
and faster kinetics. The polymeric materials developed showed reversible
uptake of phenolics and mercury compounds under static as well as dynamic
conditions under a wide fc.mge of cxpclimental conditions. /
The porous polymeric adsorbents and ion-exchangers werc developed
which showed good dimensional stability, chemical resistance, superior S'Uf-
face characteristics, faster kinetics, non-fouling type of mattix in general and
wide range of adsorption behavious. The uptake of phenolics and the mercury
compounds was found to be reversible and reproducible except in the case of
tannins on a strong base anion exchar,gci.
Period ofstlidy: September 1983 - September 1986
55
SAFETY EVALUATION OF PLASTICS USED IN THE STORAGE
AND PACKAGING OF MEDICINE, FOOD AND COSMETICS'
S P SRIVASTAVA
Industrial Toxicology Research Centre
Lucknow - 226 001
J\ pplication of plastic in packing and storage of food material is
rapidly increasing. Dleir use in medicine., surgery, dentistry, agriculture,
electronics, transport, equipments, telephone, aeroplane, cosmetics and build-
ing is also expanding. It has also been used several other health care purposes.
There is a need to evaluate the safety of the various type of use of plastics; and
to investigate whether it leads to leaching ofhannful substances and to quantifY
the leachable components of plastics.
A nwnber of plastic materials of different makes, subjected to th.e
chemical and biological t ~ s t s , were unable to meet the requireI:lents/perrnis-"
sible limits laid down by Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) and other Interna-
tional Regulatary Agencies. Several physical and chemical factors s!lch as pH,
temperature, sunlight, and storage time were found to effect significantly the
migration of certain chemical components of plastic materials. SurJight was
caused to increase the leaching of heavy metals like Mn, Cd, and Cr, while the
extractants of acidic pH (3.5) and basic pH (12) media increased the migration
of global residue, UV absorbers, oxidisable matters and heavy metals.
Heavy metals are known to be injwious for health and produced large number
of disorders. Experimental studies have shown that some of the UVabsorbing
. compounds and oxidisable matters used in the synthesis of plastic are toxic.
Therefore, it is needed to incorporate the tests of heavy metals; UV absorbing
, materials and oxidisable matters in the BlS specification and to frx their limits
for the plastics used in the storage and packaging of tood, drinking water and
pharmaceuticals to get completely safe plastics.
56
The results of the plastic materials tested indicated that leaching of
heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr, Cu and Zn), UV absorbers and oxidisable matter
to be in concentrations above the pennissibie limits as recommended by
various international regulatory agencies for the plastics used in biomedical
devices. The conceatrations of the Pb, Cd, Cr, and Cu leached out were also
found to. be more than the recommended daily intake values for the human
beings in drinking water. The BIS has recommended metallic salts, oxidisable
matters, UV absorbing chemicals in the synthesis of plastics. The test for the
oxidisable matters and UV absorbing materials ~ v e been recommended by the
various international regulatory agencies for the plastics used in the biomedical
devices. These agencies have also recommended the test for the heavy metals
in plastic used in biomedical devices and in the pacKaging offood.
I t emerged from results that the nature of extracting media affected the
leachability of chemical components of plastics. Therefore, it could be sug-
gested to the general population that plastic materials should be used for only
those purposes for which they have been designed and tested.
n,e studies on the idciltificatif'n and characterization of leachable
components of plastics showed migration of di-ett,ylhexyl phthalate (DEHI:')
from PVC pouches into distilled water, normal saline and dextrose solution in
comparison with other extractants underte.ken in this study.
Period of study: July 1983 - March 1987
57
EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE OF COOKSTOVES.lN RE-
GARD TO THERMAL EFFICIENCY AND EMISSIONS
FROM COMBUSTION
DILIP R AHUJA
Tala Energy Research Institute
Jar Bagh
New Delhi - 110003
1\ method was developled to measure emissions of air pollutants
frolll un vented cook stoves and to i,ncorporate a'measure of these emissions in
the existing way of rating cookstoves by thennal efficiency, Five metal, 2
heavy chimney stoves and 2 kerosene stoves were tested, The fuels used were
Acacia nilolica, mustard stalks, dun);cakes and kerosene. The efficiencies were.
highest for kerosene stoves, followed by stoves bunting wood, crop residues
and dungclkes in that order. For metal stoves the decline in thermal perfo;-
manee was not appreciable when fuels were switched. The environmental
pelformance on all stoves, however, changed mark!edly when fuels were
changed. .
The emission factors (EFs in g kg-I) were the highest for kerosene stoves
estimated 'by us to be between 33-151 for CO and between 1-2 - 8.5 for TSP,
On wood these were 13 - 68 for CO and 1.1 - 3,8 for TSP. Emission faclors
for CO crop residae and dung cakes were inlelIDediate between the values for
kerosene and wood and more for crop residues than for dung cakes. Emission
'factors for TSP were.lhe lowest for wood but were higher and comparable for
_ ... __ ._- ,--'" _ .... 'e_""'" - '-'" _. __ _-- ---, .... -."
It was found that ror any given fuel, the more efficient a Slave, higher
were its emission factors. Hence, it led 10 propose emissions per a well-defir,ed
standard task as a composite measure that combined emissions and fuel

economy in one index. In half the cases it was studied as to the increases in
efficiency. It was observed that the increase in the efficiency were greater than
the increases in emission factors, so that emissions per task were lower.
On emissions per task basis (for both CO and TSP emissions) kerosene
stoves had the lowest values colsely foiiowed by two of the metal stoves
burning wood, other wood stoves and stoves burning crop residues were next,
while stoves burning dungcakes performed the worst.
This method waS also used to study the performance of heavy stoves
with chimneys. On 'Sahyog', a study of the effect of common construction and
operating errors like venting the chimney inside the room (but one of the
breathing zone of the cook), of leaving the 2nd pothole uncovered, of
incorrect dimension in construction, leaving the front damper open (on
Thapoli), etc. was undertaken. Marked deterioration both in thermal and
environmental performance were noticed. Changing fuels for heavy stoves had
more 'profound' impact than on metal stoves with poorer perfonnance with
crop residues and
Period of.<iudy: Mcy 1984 - J.<cbmary 19R7
59
TR>\CE D.ETERMINATJON OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS
BY FAST KINETIC METHODS
PC NIGAM
Department a/Chemistry
Indian Jnslilute a/Technology
Kanpur - 208016
'ill he application of catalysed reactions to the quantitative analysis is
relatively young area of research and recently has become rapidly growing
field, even though the suggested use of catalysts for analysis was found in the
literature many years ago. The employment of catalysed reactions for trace
analysis differs significantly from the standard methods of analysis such as
titrimetric and photometric analysis.
The majo(objeeti'les of the project were to establish kinetic I!lethods for
anaiysis oftrace element; in environment which are specifi(;, sCHsitive, fast 3l1d
inexpensive. The main tluust 'vas on development of kinetic metllCds of trace
analysis for some chosen pollutants by the rate measurement on a dynamic
system through spectrophotometery.
In many homogeneous kinetic reactions involving a substance which
acts as a catalyst, the concentration catalyst is directly (or nearly directly)
proportional to the rate of the reaction. Thus, the rate of these reactions can be
employed for the analysis of the catalytic agents. Such analytical methods are
extremely sensitive in the cases where the catalytic agents are not consumed
during the reaction but participall: .. ia.tru:.lUl;chanismjJl . .l! ... 9Y1O!i.c m __
order to determine the amount of catalyst (pollutants or toxic materials) in
solution by kinetic metllOds, it is necessary to measure the rate of the catalysed
reaction. Hence initial rate measurement has been followed because of its
inherent advantages. In all the detelminations a fixed time procedure has been
followed as a measure of initial rate.
60
EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS
ON MICROORGANISMS
ANJALl MUKHERJEE
School of Environmental Sciences
Jawaharlal Nehru University
New Delhi - 110067
mhere has been a growing concern about the increase in the level of .
the pollutants in our environment. The effect ofthese pollutants on the various
biological system especially Ille micro-organisms also assumes significance.
The work was aimed at to know the effect ofUV radiation and organochlorine
pesticide (ceresan) on Azotobacter vinelandii - a nilrogen fixing bacteria.
The bacteria. exposed to I ppm ceres"n caused ail increase in log phase
and generation time d ~ c r e a s e d from 2.4 h to 1.5 h as compored to control in
nitrogen fret: m.:;diurn. The effect uf ccresan was more profllJunced in case of
nitrogen free medium, that pointed towards the nitrogen fixation process,
which primarily gOl affected due to addition of ceresan. Both UV radiation and
cereS3J1 had deleterious effect on the survival ofthe bacterium. At a lower dose,
Ille repair mechanism was quite ineffective and consequently the survival fell,
in high dose. The viscosity value of native DNA was less affected, whereas in
8 ppm of ceresan 12% increase of viscosity was noticed. It was also noticed Illat
the magni!Ude of the increase in viscosity was smaller than that caused by
ceresan alone. In case of combined treatnient (ceres an = UV radiation), both
acted on DNA in a competitive manner. This in tum was observed that Hg,
moiety present in ceresan was bind srtrongly with Adenine and Thymine (A-
T) base pairs. Whereas UV is known to cause.dimerization ofT (Thymine)
molecules only.
62
The results of the experiments on nitrogenous enzyme a c t h ~ t y had
shown the decrease of the enzyme activity. Pulse - trcatment of bacterial
culture with ceresan on the other hand elevated nitrogenous enzyme activity
markedly and reflected the stimulation of cyclic AMP cascade, which controls
various metabolic activities of the cells which might induce nitrogenous
enzyme. It was also noticed that beyond 2 ppm of concentration binding of
ceresan and protein/DNA molecules reaches at saturation point and thus further
increase in concentration did not lead to any more change. Similar to the above,
UV radialaion also inhibit the enzyme activity. It was established that UV
radiation caused thyamine and dimer formation in DNA molecule, which in
tum change DNA conformation; and affected structural genes of nitrogenous
enzyme ..
Period of study: September 1981 - September 1984
63
A STUDY OF MORBIDITY AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC
CONDITIONS OF WORKERS IN GLASS (BANGLE) INDUSTRY
AT FIROZABAI)
S H CLERK
.Jnduslriai Toxicology Research Cenlre
Lucknow - 226 001
Whe glass bangle industry is an age old industry, which has
been established in Firozabad, A scientific study was undertaken on in two
phases viz, the health hazard and the socio-economic conditions ofthe workers,
The study covered 373 gl<lSs bangle workers and 127 controls, The
population at Firozabad was found to be suffering from a high prevalence of
respiratory morbidity, this was true not only for glass bangle workers but also
for control cases, A high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis and chronic
bronchitis in control populaten was found, Glass bangle workers were found
to be suffering from higher rates of pulmenruy tuberculosis chronic hi onchi'is,
in glass bangle workers seemd to have an OccuFtional aetiology and as sllch
may be called as industrial brenchitis,
Prevalence of occupationallwlg diseases which simulates the radiologi-
cal picture ofpn,eumoconiosis had also been found, As the industrial hygiene
studies did not show presence of free silica silicosis was ruled out. Further the
dust concentrations at work places was also fou!)d to be low, therefore it was
inferred that the pneurnochobiosis was due to the effect of multi metals present
in the work environment and as s'Jeh was labelled as 'Mixed pneumoconiosis'.
In certain sub-occupations of glass workers a high prevalence of
musculo-skeletal disorders were noted, These disorders were mainly subjec-
tive symptoms without any evidence of clinical changes, As these correlated
well with occupation and duration of work experience was considered to be
64

occupational, most probably due to wrong working postures. However, the role
of multiple metal interaction needs to be !1lled oul.
Considerable eye morbidity was present ill the study population bllt the
pattern and prevalence was similar in the glass baugle workers and controls.
Trauchoma and defective vision were the chief causes.
Although no clinical sign and symptoms of any metal intoxication were
found, behavioural changes detected in the glass bangle workers inside the
factory gave the evidence that subclinical changes due to effect of multiple-
metal exposure could be present.
Routine lung function tests were carried out in bangle workers and
controls. Healthy bangle workers exposed to dusty envirorunent did not have
any respiratory improvement. Impainnent in lung function values both in
smokers and non-smoking tuberculosis cases was of a mild type. It was
observed that the abnonnalitics observed in pneumoconiosis cases were mild
to moderate since they belonged to simple type.
Head studies showed that oral tCI)1peraturc recorded at 8.00
1
12.00 and 16.00 hours during work, safely average values of orai temperature
were found to be significantly raised only inSikiyas, Pahalwale,and Babalwale
in comparison to values ObSCivcd in controls. The. rise in pulse rate observed
ion fireman, SikiyGS, 1'01101 wale, /Jabalwale, and Bhalliwale "'as highly
significant. All bangle workers and controls showed significantly greater rise
in working pulse in the morning hours in comparison to the observed
in after noon shift.
There was no complete recovery of the pulse rate even aher 5 minutes ..
After one miute of the cessation of work, recovery pulse remained high
ranging from 18.0 beats per min. to 37.3 beat per min. Beianias"f\o-woTked
only for 4 hours showed considerable increase in working pulse.
65
To find out the possible constituents of toxic metals in the glass bangle
manufacturing processes, a pi10t survey was done among the processes carried
out inside the factory. The detailed survey followed later on. The air borne
particulates, their analysis for presenl'<! of various metals and free silica was
done. The metal zinc, lead and nickel were found to higher concentration than
other metals. The air borne dust particulates did not reveal the presence of free
silica. The ",easurement of Sulphur dioxide, relative humidity and temperature
was also done at the sampling points. The sampl1ng of water being consumed
by the workers was done andallalysed for various metals. Metals like Se, Pb,
Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, 'Cd, and Ni were detected.
Workers were co-exposed to different metalS. 'Muthia and Tarkash' had
higher value of these metals in biological samples.
The socio economic study was based on survey 364 workers 38 control
and 12 employer. The samples were taken from both in factories and out side
the factories.
The analysis of different groups of workers had shov,-n the preponder-
ance of men worKer in all age group from middle and lo,ver castes. \Vorkers
working inside the factory were of skilled category, ;vherein, 87'percent of
. them came from urban area and i3 percellt from rural background. Area of
residence and locality-wise distribution pattern of workers showed 73 percent
ofwoikerslived in slum areas.
Other aspects such as conditions of work, working condition, industrial
relations, personal policies and practices trade unionism, living conditions
health and legislation were studied.
Theresults would be of use and interest to Govt. of Uttar Pradesh, State
---andC;;liiT"f"poITiition-t'ontro-l Boar,l"iUi<iWe!tare-OepartiiientsofCentriil'aiid ..
State Governmeljts. '
Period of study: July 1981 - July 1984
66
REGULATION OF HEME BIOSYNTHESIS DURING THE
DEVELOPMENT OF POLLUTANT EXPOSED EMBRYO
KASTURI D A TT A
Bio Chemical Laboratory
School of Environmental Sciences
Jawaharfa! Nehru University
New Delhi - flO 067
mbryos are most susceptible due to 'Iack of proper homeostatic
mechanism, and hence pollutants may cause hazard to embryonic development
, even at sublethal dose.
The chick embryo as model was taken to study the effect of known
quantity of pollutants (e.g. cadmium and styrene). The study revealed
embryotoxicity of cadmium chloride and styrene. The toxicity value are 0.25
- ) I!- mo\e;"Kg egg wt. for cadmium and 0.25 - 50\1- mole/kg egg WI. fcr
styrene. It fHither revealed a newly defined of cadmium to cause
pronoul\<.ed alteration of cellular heme metabolism in chick embryo liver, and
accumulation of Amino levulinic acid, porphyrin whereas hcpatic heme
content is depleted and the same was conflrmed inChanna pllnc/alUs, an edible
fish. Thus the observations indicated that cadmium might impair biological
function which ultimately block the synthesis of heme, and may cause anemia
due to depletion of cytochrome P 450. Further, some enzyme regulatory studies
suggested that the process for heme metabolism is susceptible to alteration of
regulatory heme pool, caused by cadmium. The appearance of inducible
cadmium binding protein metallothiomin was reported, which play the detoxi-
fying role. Thus the existence ofeellular system capable sequestering excess
metals and moving them from intracellular environment could serve to protect
the cells as well as the whole organism from the hannfu! effect of such metals.
A newenz}matic path way was established bywhich amino delta Icvulinic acid
committed precursor of heme systhesis in mamalian system.
67
.";'."
.1 he study continued the embryotox,city of cadmium at sublethal level. .
The elevation of ALA sjolthet"se or symptom for experimental prophyria may
be used as the indicator of pollutants even at low conoentration. The alteration
of heme biosynthesis and histological abberation call be used as indicator to
monitor toxicity of effluent entering the river system. This mechanism of
oiomonitoring can be adopted by industries and pollution control board to
monitor the extent of damage caused to aquatic life, water quality
antena, and maximum allowable concentration of cadmium entering the
aquatic system.
Period of study: October 1982 - October 1986
68
INVESTIGATION AND TOXICITY EHECTS OF PESTICIDES ON
IN VITRO SYSTEM
MOIlINI ANAND
Cardiovalicular Toxicity Division
Industrial Toxicology Research Centre
Luckl10lV - 226 00 I
:ill he large scale pollution of our envirOllment by chemicals released
frolll industrial and other sources has resulted in poisonings of populations.
Pesticides are used on a large scale for agricultural purposes. Pesticide is a
general term uscd for many subst:ii1ces or mixture intended for preventing,
destroying, repelling any pest (insect, rodents, nematodes, fungus, weeds,
viruses etc.). In vitro tests are definitely advantageous in determining the site
of action of pesticides. In vitro experiments conducted with guinea pig auricle
and frog heart to detennine the cardiotoxicity of various pestic!des shQ\'.:ed mat
- parathion was most toxic with lowest L C ~ ~ ) value. The contractibility of rat
uterus was found to increase in vitro exposure to different pesticides. This
suggests that pesticides arc acting mainly on receptors which is responsible for
abortifacient activity.
The pherenic nerve diaphragm preparation was affected most severely
by organophosphorus pesticides. Thus indicate their effect at neuromuscular
junction.
The results of various biochemical experiil1ents conducted with differ-
____ ..entp.,sticides.on.enzymes..indicated-t.hat all.the pesticides tested, chlorinated
. group of pestiCides had the most prominent effect 011 various test systems.
',1
-Period ofslIIdy: May 1983 - December 1986
6?
EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS AND ORGANOCHLORINE
INSECTICIDES ON REpRODUCTION OF INDIAN
FRESH WATER TELEOSTS
SHAMlA! HAIDER
DeparimenlO/Zuology
Banaras Hindu University
Varanasi- 221 005
rganophosphorus and organochlorine insecticides, which are widely
used in agricultural production, find !beirway with run off water and adversely
affect non target organisms including fishes. Organo-phosphates, one of the
major contributors to aquatic pollution, elicit their acute tOxicity by inhibiting
the enzyme acetylcholinesterase which is involved in the synaptic transmission
of nerve impulse. Very little is known aboui the effects of OPIs on the
endocrine glands and reproductive physiology of vertebrates.
Thh study was devoted to uilderstanding the effect of certain organo-
pho,phoms viz. malathion, birlane, gard"na and phosdriu and organo-chlorine
viz. endosulfan on the ovaries and brain acelylcholinesterase (AChE) of some
Indian freshwater fishes Ene Channa punclatus, Myslus vitlaws, Labeo rohila,
Cirrhinus mrigala and Calla calla.
Fishes. having midvitellogenic ovaries were exposed to sublethal
concentrations of comereial [onnulation of 4 OPls such as malathuion, birlane,
gardona and phosdrin and one OCI- endosulfan. The loss of stage lJ and III
oocytes accompanied by a significant decline in gonadosomatic index was
recorded. The vitellogenesis in treated fishes was ceased as the oocyte did not
advance to further stages as evidenced by the absence oflipid yolks and the lack
of a PAS positive follicular layer. Further, brain AChE and overian D5 -3b-
ilydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (D5 - 3B - HSD) and glucose-6 phosphate
dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activities were studied.
70
The absence of 1'.5 - 3\3-.HSD and G-6-PD activity indicating then.
inhibition of steroidogenesis in the OPls and OCI treated fish ovaries was seen.
OPls demonstrated a dose dependent inhibition brain AChE activity, whereas
OCI caused no significant reduction of AChE activity.
The study clearly suggested that insecticides (OPls as well as OCls)
which are used in crop protection severly affect the reproduction of fishes.
Thus, the impact of the insecticides used in crop protection needs to be
monitored.
Period a/study: July 1984 - January 1988
71
USE OF 1ll0M!':l\HlRANE AS MODEL Fon EXl'LOnING
ACTIVITY OF POTENTIALLY TOXIC CHEMICALS
AM KmWAI
Biomembrane TOXicology Project
Industrial Toxicology Research Centre
Lucknow - 226001
Jfr xposure of man and other animals to ilifferent xenobiotics can
profoundly alter the equilibrium of living entities with its environment.
Exposed location, structural complexity, chemical reactivity and physiological
importance of cell membranes in combination makes them the prime targets of
xenobiotic activity. Action of verious environmental toxic substances such as
chaotropic agents (nitrite, nilrate, chlurate, tribromoacetate) detergents (SDS,
DOC, Triton X-lOr), Tween), pesticides (organolins., endosulfan), metal (vana-
dililn, lead), common dlUg (aspirin), which are either illgested invariably or
find their entry into the body system, were studied in detail using different cell
membrane model systems.
The erythrocyte membrane due to its simpler form as a model mem-
brane was investigated for preliminary studies. Furthermore, it is
continuously exposed to an environment of blood circulation 'Yhere
probability of interaction with xenobiotics exists. On the other hand,skeletal
muscle cell membrane has a highly complex structure and also contains
lJiisemeiUmenronmescThestudies on basement membrane were considered to
provide a better understanding of the membrane xenobiotic interaction. Cells
of the GI-tract system were chosen to study the membrane-xenobiotic interac-
tion in detail as the primary sourceoftoxic substances enter in the body thJough
food and drinking water and therefore GI-Iract cell membranes are the fIrst
target of action. The following preliminary conclusions were derived.
72
An attempt was made to establish comparative stability of erythro-
cytes of various species under osmotic and mechanical stress following the
treatment of nitrates. The study also elucidated the effect of nitrates on
membrane fragility using different media. It S!'ggesled that phosphate saline
media containing isoosmotic sucrose not only maintains the osmolasity but
also affects the forces applicd to the cells extemally. [n addition, it also
concluded that fragility characteristics of membranes varies from
species to species under the stress conditions of toxic chemicals.
The binding studies involving erythrocyte membrane provided the
knowledge of the molecular mechanism of action of organotin compounds on
membranes in gerer,,!. The interaction of alkyltine with protein moieties of
Band 3 fraction of erythrocyte membrane indicated the possible effect of these
organotin compounds 011 the ion transport mechanism even at low dose levels.
Studies on young (reticulocytes) and mature (erythrocytes) RBC's
provided significant information regarding the action as well as the extent of
the daniaging potential of toxic !.:hen-:icals.
A simple, reproducible procedure for the isolation of skeletal muscle
basement membrane with its charactcris:ltion studies was established
sacccssfuliy. The interaction of toxicants with basement membrane suggested
its probable role in minimising the toxicity of chemicals to inneriying enzy-
matically active plasma membrane. This sarcolemmal basement as well as
plasma membrane 100dei system could provide significant infOimation in
relation to various toxic chemicals particularly the chemicals entering directly
through the skin absorptioil and effecting the muscle cells inadve.tantly.
Stomach and intestinal sac in silll studies were found significantly"-'- _ .. -... -
useful to assess the damaging potential of toxic chemicals which find their entry
into the GI - tract t1uough food and drinking water. GI-tract cell lining madel
systems could provide valnable informations. on gastrointestinal toxicity
testing.
73
The study also provided the preliminary results for the mechanism of
interaction of some ch.otrophic agents, detergents, metals and commonly used
dl1lg aspirin.
The studies .suggested that erythrocyte membrane, skeletal muscle
plasma and basement membranes and intestinal brush border membrane
systems can be used as model for exploring the activity of potentially toxic
chemicals. ..
Period afstudy: April 1985 - October 1988
...... . _--_.-.. ,.',
- "", ------ -
...... __ ..... -. __ ._ ..... _-_.
/
74
IMMOBILIZATION OF PESTICIDES BY SOILS AND
SOIL HUMUS
MADlUKARl
Department of Agriculture
Calcutta University
35, BaUygunge Circular Road
Calcutta 700 019
lllhemical natur!:" and the solubility of methylparathion was studied io
different soil type and soil conditions.
Soil sa'T\ples were characterised accordiog to physical l!JId chemical
properties from three places i.e. Bigra, Raruipur and Canning. Analysis of
humic acid, have provided the information regarding the nature and distribu-
tion of elements present in it. Elements present ill soils were carhon, hydrogen,
nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen, carboxyl group and phenolic gruup.
The adsorpticn <il1d desorption phenomena in soil was confmed, as
recipient of pollutants like pesticide in complex ecosystem, where dcgladation
had occured.
In this study methyl parathion was taken for, t() know the above
. behaviours ill all these types of soils in relation to hurnic acid. It was observed
from the exprinlents that the amount ofinsecticide adsorbed was dependent on
the nature of inorganic cation present ,vith humic acid, which plays vital role
towards the deactivation of iosecticide, where as clay and silt part of soil have
.;.Iess capaCity to adsorb. The retention of methyl parathion on clay silt and sand
.,.is due tothe presence organic matter and free oxide. These results were also
concentriltio!1 dependent of adsorption of parathion due to humic
w!iS' more whereas clay and silt have a negligibie participation on
,_, adscirplIon.
;.
15
The desorption of methyl parathion from individual soil component was
made with a view to evaluate the degree of interactiion, effect of saturating
cation and reversibility.
Desorption of methyl parathion from humic acid and its catiopjc fOIJIls
exhibited significant relationship at all concentrations. Desorption behaviour
of some by model soil and agronomic soil were also significant. It was
concluded that in all conditions the retention period of the pesticide was more.
Similarly, diuron was also tested.
During the retention period pesticide undergo biodegradation which
was influenced by concentration of pesticides, Soil pH and soil moisture. The
degradation of methyl parathion increased with the increase of its concentra-
tion, time period and temperature in both acidic and alkaline soil with the high
moisture content. Neutra! soil with less moisture content lacks bacterial
population. Therefore, degradatjon did not occur substantially.
Period of study; October 1980
0
September 1985
'-'-" .. ,._- .... _.,,-_._, ... ~ ...
76
DESIGN OF SIMULATElJ MODEL SYSTEM FOR THE STUDY OF
PESTICIDE ON THE ENVlI{ONMENT
J JAYARAMAN
Department of Biochemistry
School of Biological Sciences
Madurai Kamaraj University
Madurai - 625 021 .
Jl!t icro-ecosystems are suitable test system for the a_ssessm.ent of
environmental toxicology. Three types of model ecosystems simulating the
rice field situation are viable and a considerable amount of data are generated
on pesticide (Endosulfan) toxicology and behaviour in soil.
The three experimentS using three different model systems, have given
considerable infonnation about endosulf<lfi. The experiments simulated in rice
field aquatic ecosystem, rice field terrestrial ecosystem and aquatic system
formed from the leech ate from the field.
The results indicated that there was a strong adsorption to soil and the
dissipated more rapidly than the It was noticed that the
latter was strongly adsorbed to the soil. Results of field studies confirmed that
the half life of a-isomer was 10 days and that of the was 30 days .
. ,is> ltwas in
:'!,. tlu:'-soTCail,rihis was more stable. But experiments have shown both vertical
'i.
and
horizontal movement of the compound under flooded conditions, the rate
of the of I - 3 !-'g. day' em:". This difference may be because of
__ type or experimental deSIgns. The breakdown of endosulfan to diol was
c". aiso demonstrated in the soil and the extent varied with conditions.
71
Endosulfan appeared to be metabolised completely in aerobic condition
and r o d u ~ e CO,. A bacterium was isolated which utilised endosulfan as the
sole carbon source. It was found that the bottom layer of soil and percolating
water contained all the lipid soluble derivations. Endosulfan contamination in
water did not appear to be widespread in aquatic environment. The. levels
reported were as low as 0.005 to 0.06 ug/litre. . ...
As a result oflbe biger solubilitY in water ofendosulfan compared with
many other organochlorine pesticides, it does not have the afftnity for liplids.
Consequently biomagnification and accumulation in food chain is less likely
to occur. The typical response for most organisms exposed at below lethal
levels is to accumulate the compound upto a plateau and clear the residues
fairly rapidly once the source of contamination is removed. The plateauing
effect have been observed in earthwonns arid tadpoles. Contrary to expecta
tions, the algae did not accumulate. In plants, the initial residues varied from
1100 ppm. After first week residues generally decrease to 20% or less of the
initial amount.
'rhe study revealed that the enrlosulfan does no; accwnulate in the food
chain, although fish was the most sensitive aquatic organism whereas the levels
found in water were much low to be of any effect
Period of study ,August 1981 - February 1985
78
i
!\C.
j,.
i
SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL IMPACT OF ENVIRON-
MENTAL CHANGES DUE TO INDUSTRIALlSATIONIN
RURAL AREAS
A MOSES
Research Institute
Rajagiri College of Social Sciellces
. Kalamassery - 683 104
has brought in many advantages to the modem
world. While its benefits are manifold, it has also had unpalatable conse-
quences for human population. India is on the threshold of speedy
industrialisation and the process has started extending its wings to the meal
areas, with all its on the populace living there.
This study was an attempt to investigate into the social and envirorunen-
tal impact of industrialisation in rural areas. The region selected for study was
KalamassclY, a leading industrial township ofKerala, which was two decades
ago, a typical village of Kerala. Today the region is marked by many large and
medium scalt industries and has undergone rapid industrialisation inducing
changes in the region. ..
The objeclives included: Study. of the economic development
programmes implbmented in and around Kalarnassery village and to trace the
transformation the society has .. under.gone.;-Assessment -.-
and cultural changes that have taken place in the life of the people of the region;
Assessment of the impact of environmental pollution on the life of people;
l\Ilimals and plants. .
79
-
For the purpose of investigation tile changes observed in the
indnstrialised study area during tile twenty years preceding the study, were
compared with the changes observed in an adjacent non-industrialised village.
The variables of the study were measured a!two levels viz; sociological,
physical and ecological.
The data required for the study were gathered through the survey
research method by collecting first hand information from representative
samples of hOllsel"ilds in the study regions, physical scientists, environmen-
talists, officials of NEERl (National Environmental Engineering Research
Institute), ES[ hospitals, Panchaya! Offices, District Statistical Office and
Census Directorate. .
The fmdings of the study revealed that industrialisation had resulted in
the mobility of population towards Kalamassery area during the period of its
industrialisation. 11 had also led to all round development of the region in terms'
of economic infrastructure and public amenities, accompanied by a
corresponding improvemel't in the standard uf living of the peop!c.
Consequently, the trend in style oflivil1g had changed more to the lI' ben style
due to industrialisation. On the socia-cultural front, data findings reveal"J that
the hasic norms, ethics and values of the people had undergone modernisation
affecting their important social institutions like family, occupation, education,
religion and community relations.
The incidence of diseases such as asthma, bronchities, skin diseases,
frequent cold and cough, teeth diseases, chest pains, bone diseases, lung
diseases and lung cancer etc. were on the increase among human beings ever
___ . __ . " _since the growth of industries in the area.
--- -_ .. - -.---
-. - -- --_ ..... __ .... _ .... " .. -..
Fishes caught from the rivers of the area were reported to have change
of taste and sometimes cause stomach upsets. Massive deaths of fishes were
reported twice Or thrice a year. A small percentage ofthe domestic animals was
i
I
also reported to have suffered from loss of weight, lame, decline in
milk production and, in rare cases death.
Coconut, paddy, plantation, tapioca, fruits and vegetables were ob-
served to have been affected by damage, reduced yield, reduced growth,
decliningqllalityand wilting. Coconut (the leading cultivation in Kerala)is the
most affected of the crops. Under these conditioilS, the residents of the region
were seen to be seriously worried and restless about the whole problem of
pollution.
Period of study : March 1981 - October 1985
81
I
BEHAVIOUR OF CERTAIN INSECTlCWES AND FUNGICIDES IN
SOIL ENVIRONMENT WITH EMPHASIS ON TRANSPORT
R SI!lDARAMAPPA
Universiiyof AgricultlJral Sciences
Bangalore - 560 065
, esticide use has become indispensable for crop protection.
are getting route into soil and persists and pose as an environmental bazard.
Tbis study was aimed to investigate persistence, degradation by microbial
process and in addition to organic amendment on dif'erent pesticides i.e.
Carbaryl, Monuron, P.C.N.B, Parathion, Feuitrothion, Pborate, etc.
The possible side effects of Carbaryl, Monuron and PCNB in the.
preser.ce of urea was noticed to be less in all soils wbere the nitrification was
inhibited"The activity of Nilrosomonas and Nilronactor in pare cultUle was
inhibited by all three pesticides and i"hioition was proportionate to the
concentration.
Pesticides reaching the soil arc acted upon to degrade and the degrada-
tion is guided by different factors such as moisture, temperature, orgamc
matter, fertilizer and surfactant can effect the degradation of pesticides in soil,
Addition of orgame amendment further enhanced the rate of degradation and
reduce the persistence of pesticide in soil. the pattern of behaviour
of pesticides are varying from eacb other in various orgamc amendments.
The
though at slower rate; but increased in Ule flooding condition.
The physico-chemical aspects of interaction, adsorption, leaching al).d
movement ill soil are important and concerning the transfer and transport of
82
chemicals in the environment The loss due to leaching was more in light
textured (red and laterite) soil than in fine/clayey textured (black and saline)
soils. Movement and distribution of insecticides in a!1 soils showed that higher
retention of residue occured in the surface (O-7cms) and decreased with
increase in depth. Both texture oi' the soil and hydraulic activity affect the
leaching loss of the pesticides.
The translocation and absorption of phorate in Sorghum plant showed
that absorption was higher in coars" textured soil and accumulated in the apical
portion of the plant.
The uptake and translocation 01 Carbofuran in rice plant was rapid and
accumulated in the shoot. It a ~ also noticed 'that application pattern contrib-
utes to the persistence and accumulation.of pesticides.
lnfornlation generated in the field would help efficient management of
pesticide application and status of pesticides in the soil, and the rate of
degradation.
Period ofsiudy: April ;982 - M!!rcl, 19i15
81
HEAVY METAL POLLUTION PROBLEMS IN RlCE AND
RICE SOILS OF INDlA
P K NAYAR
Division of Soil Science and Microbiology
Central Rice Research institute
Cuttack-753 006
.;I\ nvesligations were carried out to characterize the polluted soils from
fertilizer factory FACT, Cochin and the waste products from rayon (Mavoor)
and tannery indusbY (Am bur) through a series of laboratory and pot culture
experiments. The soil problems identified in four out of'fifteen locations
studied in the rice growing area around FACT were mainly due to low pH (3-
4.8) associated with high salinity (6.6 - 8.3 dS
m
") and exchangeable aluminium
(3 - 15 mgtlOOg). However, no heavy metal accumulation could be attributed
to the probiem. The liquid waste from rayon factmy was alkaline containing
high oxidisable organic ca,bon (14 mg/1 COml) and low in metal contaminants
whiie the solid wastes from different units an"lysed appreciable quantity of
metals particularly Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr ranging from 5 - 23, 20 - 400, 5 - 17 and
6 - 26 ppm respectively. The polluiants in the liquid wastes from tannery were
soluble salts - 17 dS .1) and high total Cr (40-130 ppm) whereas the
. m.
solid waste contained objectionable level of tannin (200 ppm) and Cr as high
as 2 to 4.5% (chromium oxide).
The phytotoxic effect offreshly added metals particularly Cr (VI) in soil
under flooded condition declined gradually over seasons with
cropping. Rice straw and grain did not contain any Cr in contrast to other
metals, even at very high level of metal addition. Flooding the soils decreased
the extractability of the added metals. The reversion of Cr(VI) to non-
extractable form was more sharp in alluvial and black soils while the laterite
soil continued to maintain the extractable Cr(VI) for a longer period offlooding
84
indicating its potelltial toxicity. Column leaching study with inanent of high Cd
concentration (500 ppm) at a flow rate of 1.4 to 1. 7 em' hr' indicated that even
after passage of9-18 pore volume of the solution, Cd was confined to 0-6 ern
surface layer only.
Period of study: March 198.'1 - March 1986
~ ~ ..... -.. _ ..... _ .. __ ..... :_ .... __ .. _.-.. - .. - ... -........ _ ... -.. , .............. -_ ...... - .-.-... - ... .
x;
ANAYLYSIS OF HEAVY METAL IONS AND GASEOUS
. POLLUTANTS ON BIOENERGETIC PROCESSES
PMSANNA MOHANTY
SchoDI of Life Sciences
Jawahorlal Nehru University
New Delhi - 110 067
'(!there has been continuing concern on the adverse effect of various
pollutants on the plant growth and development. These enVironmental stresses
limits plant productivity. Photosynthetic system is most sllsceptibk to a
variety of environmental stress. Although a large number of studies have been
carried out on the effect of toxic levels of heavy metals, both in higher plants
and algae but scant informatiol1 is available on the immediate effect of low.
concenlration(s) of heavy metals on the primary photoprocesses of plants.
Towards this end, cyanobacteria were. used wllich possess Gxygenic photosyn-
thesis as alsu have specialized light h,<vesting pigment proteins in the form of
aggregates known as phycobilisomes. In this s y ~ t e m s the energy lIansfer
occurs in a sequentiai manner from phycocyanin to Chlg. This euergy trallsfer
is susceptible for several environmental stresses.
The objective of the study was to assess the effect of heavy metals on
the bioeneqietic processes of photosyuthesis in plant systems. Among the
tested four heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Ni and Hg), Hg was found to be potent
inhibitor at low enongh concentrations of both photoelectron transport as well
... - .'" as .. energy transfer in . the . two cyano.bacteria, Spintlina plan/emfs and
Sy/lechococcus 6301. Mercury at low concentrations induced 50% inhibition
in whok chain (H,O-Mv) electron transport activity within 5 min of
incubation in dark. The same concenttation could not induce any inhibition in
Synechococcus intact cells indicating that these cells are not readily accessible
to Hg2' iOllS. Mercury at slightly higher concentration 18 uM) cansed the 50%
86
inhibition in the PSI! catalyzed (H,O-pBQ) Hill reaction both in the
Spiru/ina intact cells and in the spheroplasts of Synechococcus. The
inhibition induced by mercury in PS II at high concentrations (36jJ.M) indicated
that mercury at higher concentrations inhibited the electron transport possibly
acting at the level of P-700, the PSI reaction centre.
The stodyon spectral characteristics of phycocyanin (PC) in intact cells
and in isolated pigment proteins (P Bsomes, PC & APC) suggested that
mercury at low concentration affects only the b-subunit of PC and thereby
stodied the a1terati ons in the energy transport from PC-Chlq in the intact cells
ofSpirulina in short teml studies. In long term, mercury causes the degradation
of Pc. The intact cells ofSynechococcus are resistant to mercury
during short term incubations (I to 2 hr). If the cells are grown in sublethal
concentration (2 of specific degradation of Chi and carotenoids
occured. Mercury at this concentration caused the inhibition in PSI! photo-
chemistry by specifically affecting the polypeptide which is responsible for the
emission aband at 77' K.
The study revealed that cyanobacteria call be used as spectroscopic
probes to assess the early events ofl:eavymetal and other gaseous environmen-
tal pollutions.
Perwd of study: February 1985 - August 1988
87
A STUDY OF FLUORIDE POLLUTION AROUND
A REFRACTORY AND AN ALUMINIUM FACTORY OF ORISSA
BN NAIK
Department 0/ Z.oology & Appiied Research
Gangadhar Mehera College
Samba/pur - 768001
Whe main objectives of the' project were to assess quantitatively the
level of fluoride pollution around a refractory factory at Belpahat and Alumi-
niwn factory at Hirakud.
Effects of fluoride pollution on leaf injury, chlorophyll concentration,
ascorbic acid content and !;rowth reduction were observed. Study also evalu-
ated fluoride toxicosis of herbivores and human beings of the locality with
prevailillg meteomlogical conditions at that time.
Analysis of tluoride levels ill certain biological materials like milk,
blood, teeth, bone, urine and dung samples of cattle and sheep were observed.
Data indicate severe envirorunental health hazards of the area concerned. lhe
effects were severe in Hirakud area around INDAL and no such adverse
symptoms were observed at Belapahar area.
High concentrations of arubientfluoride were found upto 3.0 km . radius
of the INDAL at HirakUd and decreased with increasing distances from the
---factory-whichwas<:Ollected..upto.9knc;,.Itoth effiuent and drinking. water
analysis revealed elevated levels of fluoride greatly in
different sources in the same site. It was found that F-content in the water was
maximwn during the peak season of the aluminium production of the factory.
It was also revealed that the extent of leaf injury' was positively
correlated with fluoride content in it and negatively correlated with distances
88
on the basis of foliar injury. The degree of sensitivity and the plant most
sensitive to fluoride pollution were worked-out. It was observed that fluoride
inhibited ascorbic acid synthesis in plants growing near the factory. The pH
values increased significantly in plant leaves of fluoride-polluted area as
compared to normal.
Cattle check for Hirakud area showed Iypical fluorotic lesions in their
. incisors in the form of staining, mottling, womout and chipped of edges. The
symptoms were more severe in villages nearer to the factory (INDAL).
Biological materials like urine, milk, blood, teeth and bone analysis of effected.
cattle revealed elevated level of fluoride content. .
Sheep foraging within 3 km. radius around factory revealed from mild
to severe fluorotic leisions in their teeth, the percentage of affected animals
was found in the age group of above 7 years.
Analysis of biological samples of cattle and sheep showed elevated
fhJ0ride concentrations and these were correlated with the tigc of
an!mi,1s. Forage samples revealed the maximum fluoride ofJ60 ppm atO.5 km.
North West and 390 ppm at the some distance of South West to factory.
Dental fluorosis in school children and adult villagers in the vicinity of
the Aluminium factory showed mild to severe symptoms in the form- of
variously stained and ruptured teetll with wearing enamel. This toxicosis was
positively associated with the consumption of high fluoride-contaminated
water, vegetation and fluoride polluted atmosphere. Observations on drinking
water and edible vegetation growing from the contaminated soil showed
,: .. ', elevated concentrations of fluoride correlate with high percentage of children
., iI) the area suffered with fluorotic lesion in their teeth.
, . Period o/study : July 198'; - December 1988

.. "\
iL1.!r.':;:
-
89
. STUDIES ON PHYTOTOXICITY OF SULPHURDIOXlDE
POLLLUTION ON SOME LEGUMINOUS PLANTS
LALMAN
Department of Bo/any
MLK College
BaJrampur -271201
dioxide is one of the most potent phytotoxic, gaseous acidic
air pollutant emitted into the environment during combustion of sulphur
containing solid and liquid fuels. It induces toxicity and interferes in physi-
ological and biochemical processes affecting growth and yield of plants.
11,e phytvtoxic int1ucnee of SO, 0<1 two leguminou; 'plants, Vigna
m1lngo L.Var. T.9 (Urad beall) and Trifolium aJexendrium L.Var. Pusa giant
tetraploid (Barsecm) were snldied.
The SO, was fwnigated on potted plants in Standard Fumigation
Chamber. Continuous and intermittent fmnigationwas carried out with 0.25,
0.50 and. LOO ppm SO, for 2 he/day for whole life span ofpIants.
Seed' germination and early seedling growth was inhibited with
increasing conceritration of SO,.gas and merease in exposure time. The
'Berseem' exhibited greater inhibition ill germination and early seedling
growth than the ,'Urad' bean .
... ... -'- ".-_ ........ -.-.. --. "
-._--_ .
. The morphology of plants sueh as lateral spread, heiilht. root and shoot
lengtJi, muuber ofuodes, branches, podslplant and total loaf area were
found to be retarded in SO, fwnigated The retardation in growth
parameters was proportional to inerei<;ing cumulative doses of so . The SO,
fwnigaiion resliltedin poor quantity and quality of yield characteristics like
90
number of podJplant, pod length, number of seedsfpod, weight and volume of
100 seeas, weight of pods/planl and moisture COl\tent of seeds of the two
species. The significant decrease in leaf area ratio, net assimilation rate and
shoot/root ratio co::responded with severity of SO, pollution and exposure
time.
The root nodule formation., an important characteristic of leguminous
plants was significantly reduced in SO, fumigated plants with increasing
cumulative doses. .
The plants e>:posed to SO, showed visible foliar injwy mostly in old
leaves where chlowtic and necrotic lesions developed in acc"rdance with the
coucentration of gas.
The distribution of dry matter in leaf, stem and root as well as total plant
biomass was reduced in resronse to SO, pollution leading to reduction in
productivity. Among the various plant parts the root showed g,eater inhibition
than shoot.
The SO, fumigation the total chloroplJylJ caDient as we!1 as
chlorophyli alb ratio in accordance with the increasing doses of the gas. The
carotenoid pigmeni" also a similar trend of variation was observed. The
decrease in nitrogen and pJotein content of the two species corresponded
with the increasing concentration and exposure time of gas.
In general, it was observed that sulphur dioxide pbytoioxicity was
severe in continuous apj1licati'ln the intermittent fumigatic>n. Among the
two species studied is more sensitive to sulph\\r dioxide than that
of :"!Ierse.em:
.--, -.-.. -- .... ", .".-.. " .. -,-. .- ," --. -.--.. -."
Period ofs/utly: December 1985 - November 1988

MAN AND BIOSPHERE
I . .SCHEME
. ~
'-
o ' ~ '
,.
;:\-.
_ t,-
93
MAN AND BlOPSPHERE PROGRAMME
;JJt is ali interdL.ciplinary programme of research and training
emphasizing ecological approach for studying the inter-relationsllip be-
tween man and his en vironment. The objective of the programme is to
develop a basis wit/tin Ihe fields of nalural and social sciences for Ihe rational
use and conservation of the resources for general improvement of .the
relationships between mim and his environment.,
The MAll Programme is problem-oriented and seeks to provide
scientific basis to solve practical problems of resource management Fur-
ther, the programme seeks to povide scientific knowledge and trained
personnel needed to manage the natl/ral resources in a rational and sus-
tained manner.
The prngramme is supervised and guided by the National MAB
Committee. Under the auspices of the Programme, research projects are
sponsored in mulri-disciplir.qry aspects of environmental conservation with
emphasis on ecosystem'approach, particularly on aspect. of inter-re!ation- '
'ship between man and his er.,ironm<!nL Tlie Inter;!ational MAB Programme
originally defines 14 project areas, the National Programme is designed to
sait the specific needs of the country and its communities.
So far, under the scheme, 194 research projects have been supported
at the various universities, R&D institutions and non-governmental
organisations in selected ecosy.tems with reference to natl/ral resources/
bioresources, their Conservation and management, restoration of degraded
eCosystem, ecological effects and impact of humanaetivities
.. ...... - - - , ~ ..... _.-.. _-_ .. __ ... - ..
Thepresent volume of the executive summaries contain 33 summaries,
ofilhe co,mplet,edprojects of MAll Programme supported by the Ministryand
rm. W.II,,, the broad areas of conservation, management, ecological effeets,
lim,Pat.'t oJrh.,m,rn activities and ethnobiologicalstudies. The highlights of the
95
projects iire summarised in the document which interalia include genitic
diversity of the germplasm of three cucurlJit genera- Luffa, Momordica and
Trichosanlhes, plant resources of the Namdopha Biosphere Reserve of
Arunachal Pradesh and long-term conservation potential of "aturalforests
in tlze Southern Western Ghats of Kerola, algal resOlirces of KeralaCoast
and Pir Panjal Foresti range in Himalayas. The projects oil ecological
effects of differellt lalld use alld management practices on Srir-agar
Mountains, management of urban ecosystem of Churu and Nagaur ill
Rajasthan were undertaken. The ecological studies reported in t/!is volume
deals with lakes of Kashmir, Udaipur, Kumaun and river studies include
Gandak and Burhi Gandak and river Ganga. The impact of human activities
on lakes, soil deterioration, genetical effects on living system,fauna,jlora,
hydrology and aquatic system have been reported.
.. - - - ~ - - -
--. --- ~ - ._-
!
I
ETHNOZOOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION IN [NOlA
P K MAITI
Zoological Survey o/In,,';.,
Ca/clllla - 700 053
'ill he tribal population in India is vast, six percent
of its total population. Living close to nature, the age old culture, knowledge
system and tradition related to animals developed by these true Indians, have
certainly enriched their socio-economic life as wen as our cultural heritage.
Survey, collection of ethhozoological knowledge system of tribal
communities, preparation of inventory of different animals used by tribals for
food, medicine, folklores, myths, totems, domestic and fertiliser use, orna-
ments, religious purposes, identification of potential drugs for assessL.1.g their
medi.)inal potentiality and c"llection and conservation ufthe art ttc;sure were
undertaken.
Ethnozoological data were collected through extensive surveys from
132 tribal communities out of 427 tribal communities inhabiting the entire
country excepting Jammu and Kashmir, and the Island groups of Andaman and
Laccadive.
More than 100 animals, especially wildbore, peacock, 'chital, sambar,
hornbill, dove, vulture, crow, rat, monkey, owl, tortoise, snake etc .. '
invertebrates constitutcd a sound source of tribal food.
The an.imal drugs were obtained from 60 species. Out of this, 16
to invertebrates and 44 belonged to vertebrates. The animal products
egg, milk, urine, faeces etc. were reported utilised for curing many
diseases. Animal fat was reported very effective medici"e in curing all
97
sorts of pains. The body parts of peacock were reported to relieve various
ailments like stomach complaint, bodyache, smallpox, chicken pox, whooping
cough, etc. The fishes and domesticated animals after death, droppings of cow
and buffalo were reported to be used as fertilisers.
The study revealed that the local anin\als were i)1 steady decline,
particularlyblue bull, chitaI, sambar, parrot, peacock, pegion, hare, tortoise etc.
which were used by tribals for food and medicine. The strict enforcement of
Wildlife Protection Act was saving the animals. .
The establishment of small scale industries in the trihal areas for overall
economic development of the tribals was suggested.
Period of study: April 1982 - August 1988
",
98
ETHNOBOTANTCAL STUDIES IN UTTAR PRADESH
HIMALAYAS
RDGAUR
Department ajBa/any
H NB Garhwal University
Srinagar - Garhwal- 210 433
since the existence ofhrnnan race, plants have always remained
in close with the folk life and are still predominantly satisfying the'
needs of human beings. To collect the old herital knowledge, a detailed
ethnobiological investigation in U.P. Himalayas was initiated. The prime aim
of the study was to report the biological resources available in the area, their
mode ot utilization as practised by the aboriginals and how to conserve, utilize
a..fld improve the status or the tribals.
The st..tdy area lies in between 77' 49' E to 81' E and 29 to 31 -28'N
covering the districts of Almora, Chamoli, Dehra DUll, Nainita!, Pauri,
Pithoragarh, Tehri and Uttarkashi in Uttar Pradesh. The vegetation of the area
ranges from sub mountains to alpine types with the maximrnn forestareafa11ing
in temperate climates. Ethnically it is inhabited by the tribals like Bokhsas,
Botiyas, Marchas, Tolchas, Jads, Jaunsaris, Kinnauris, Koltas, Ganwals,
Gaddis, Banganis, Banravi"ats etc. besides mixed' Pabari' population.
The ethnobotanieal survey with reference to plants revealed the rich
, treas\lf.!: !'9c1 and m ed i cine constituted
most impoprtant form,s of uses and were studied in detail. More than 300
:'sp,eci,:s of wild edibles and more than 500 species of medicinal plants were
recnrilerl The number of plant species associated with other commodities were
;10(I<ler-86; tireber-68; beverages-alcoholic-26; non-alcoholic-15; oils-25;
,Sll:,ce,s-2:Z: fibres-90; dyes-30; fishlloisoning-20; art and craft-
99

97; nectar flora and beeforage-SO besides other uses, Several of the lIses were
not knO\\1l or little knoWll,
The study also included details of preparation made by the local,
inhahitants common belief, taboos, proverbs associated with plan'ts, A large
number of ,plants were used in local handicrafts and their resources were
analysed to promote the old herital arts as well as to substantiate the rural
development in harmony with the ecosystems,
The study had revealed Ihat certain plant species were becoming rare
mainly on account of over exploitation, while the other species of similar
potential were virtuaUyuntapped. To eradicale this imbalance in exploitation,
some remedial measures were suggested .
./
Period of study: April 1982 - March 1988
100
ETHNOBIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF NORTH WEST
HIMALAYAS
A K BHATIA
Regional Research Laboratory
, Jammu - 180001
mheprimitive societies exist in the NorthWestern and trans Hima- '
layan region'and are located in the sta'tes of Jammu & Kaslunir and Himachal
Pradesh, They have characteristic dieiary habits. They use wild plant'materials
as food, fodder, medicine, age stabilizers 'and fermented drinks. The plant
materials used by them and the processing technique adopted are not docu-
mented.

,.
,.
"
l ~ .e
LOCATIONS OF AREA EXPLORED
101
The study was an attemptto elQcidate relationship of plants and animals
with ethnic groups of Nortll-West Himalayas and inciuded .inventprisation of
plant resources utiiised by ethnic groups for. various purposes. Effort; were
made to gather all ill-depth knowledge of the etlmo-medicinal and also the
'remedies caseros' (home remedies) as potential ethno-pharmacological re-
sources.
The two states Jammu & Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh were selected'
for the study and the areas explored were reported inhabited by Gujjars,
Bakarwals, Gaddis, Ladakhis, Zanskaris, Padris, Lahulis, Kinars and lndo-
tibetans with little technological develophnent. The subsistence. of these
groups were based entirely on hunting and gathering. The Gujjars, Bakarwals
and Gaddis exploited over large stretches of land. The pattern of movement
between camps was highly variable, depending on the distribution offood and
water. They generally used wild plants arid animals as food, fodder, medicines,
age stabilization and also ferinented drinks. The impact of mba I culture.and the
ecosystem 'vas studied. Continuous pastoralism was reported to lead to
desertification of many areas in Ladakh. They depend exclusively on wood for
their cooking ahd building. The above ground portion was mowed and
collected for burning.
About 152 wild edible plant species were collected. Out of this, 10
species were reported for the first time; Fifteen lesser known and traditional
millets and legumes were collected and cultivated. Further, .127 plant species
having ethnomeqicinal values were recorded. Nutritional evaluation of the
plants and other parts were undertaken. The plant species used for various .
cottage industries were identified and listed. .
Period of study: July 1982 - June 1988
"'-"'-." ........... ', .. _._."._.,,-- ... --_._-" .. _ ....... .
102
ETHNOBIOLOGICA.L INVESTIGATION OF
ANDHRA PRADESH
l\1p NAYAR
Botanical Survey of India
Calculla -.'700 001
W,ribalpopulation constitutes roughly six percent of the total popula-
tion ofIndia. The project aimed at survey, collection, identification, documen-
tation of plants used by tribals/aboriginals for food,. fodder, fiber, dyes,
medicine, contraceptives, anti-snake bite, hunting, game; preparation of an
inventory of folk-lore plants; plants used by tribals for different purposes:
ANOHRA PRADESH
.
,
L
i sto.\i !O\l,,1).<ltf

_"UAIO(" liD
-=
- t"
..
I, ",. ..... I. tI,.l.. ... [ n ..................
.... ,e. Cto<'nooo>. 'iL At.o:r"
" ..... "'''..... ". eU(:!lA...... II. ... R.o.&<oO
'. l.UT U. "'-'''''''''' .."
....... , .. ....-:-. !1. ""U".o.&O"
L ... "'_O<leN"O..... ....... _." .....
L _____ -j: ..
PROJECT S11J[}Y AREA: ANDHRA PRADP.sH
IOJ
impact of tribal culture on the vegetation; studyftte socio-economic conditions
ofthe'tribals, their vocation, present problems,. traditional crafts!sk.iil$ !'!Id
uplifunent of tribe without disturbing their age-old traditions!cultuI3lprdc-
tices.
The in,vestigations were carriG<! out in three regions,(l) upver Godavari
(2) Godavari valleyand (3}Nal\am31ais ofAn<jhia Pradesh where the tribes
commo!ily inhabited. Twenty seven tribal coninturiities bave been reported
. confined to isolated hills,. valleys afidi"ljacent plains. Eighteen tribes-
Bagatas,Chenchus, Gadabas, Gonds, Jatapus, Khonds, Kolams, Konda doras,
Konda kitmmaras, Konda reddis, Koyas, -Lambadis, Naikpods, Nuka doras;
Porjas, Savaras and Va1mikis have been stUdied. In all 575 plant
species of ethnobotanical interest were collected, identified '!lid critically
studied. The data were screened. Twenty three edible and 55 medicinal plant
species have been recorded. Threatened/rare wild plant species have been
identified and listed. Measures were suggested for the conservation of threat-
ened wild plant species/primitive cultivars.
Period of study: August 19i!2 - AI/gl/st /988
104'
ETHNOBIOLOGICAL INVESTlGATION OF THE STATE OF
MADHYA PRADESH
J K MAHESHWARI
National Resea,ch lnstitute
. {Wna Parlap Marg
iucknow - 226001
adhya Pradesh is the largest state of India wi!.t, great physical .
ethnic diversity. The valley of Narmada runs almost through the middle of the
state flanked by the two great mountain ranges - the Vindhyas and the Satpuras.
This valley has been the home of oldest aborigim'l tribes of India. The total
tribal population according to 1981 census was about 12 millions. The rnain
tribes included Bhil, Baiga, Kamar, Bhilala, Gond, Kol, Korku, Pradhan,
Oraon, Korw., Kawar, Muria, Munda, Sahariya etc.
MAP SHOWING TIlE TIUBAL AREAS SURVEYED
105
During the period, ethnobotanical surveys, collections and documenta-.
tion of plants and plant products used by tribes of the state were conducted in
30 districts. More tljan '2300 specimens aud samples of 140 plan( species were
collected and preserved. A deta:led inventory of plants and plant products used
by the tribals for food (129 species), medicine (32 species), cordage (20
species), oils (17 species), gums .and resins (8 species), dyes and tannins (IS
species), narcotics, drinks and intoxica.'1ts{9 species), fish-poison (16 species),
socio and magico-religious beliefs (20 species), crafts (IS species) andmiscel-
laneous uses (18 species) was presented in the report. About 130 plants samples
collected were senlto Central Drug Research Institute,. Lucknow and Regional
Research Laboratory, Jammu for phytochemical and ethno-ph3rmacological
screening for folk-lore claims.
The study brought to light new knowledge on the traditional nses of
several pi ant species which can be of potential use in the Integrated Tribal
Development Programmes.
Priod ofsludy: Nf'vember 1982 - NIlvembet 1988
<
105
AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF FOOD RESOURCES - AN
ANTHROPO-ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF ANDAMAN
ARCHIPELAGO
','
,. V SUOARSEH
Department of AnthropologY'
Universily of Madras
Madras - 600UU I
'j\ndanhlnconstitutes an important study area from anthropological
perspecttve. The study dealt with the patterns of interaction between culturally
homogeneous human groups with the environment, the technology of food
exploitation and their social organisation, The study covered the 'Onge' of
Little Andaman and the 'Shompen' of Great Nicobar as the representatives of
, a hunting and gathering stibsistence, the Nicobarese'ofCar Nicobar repreSent-
ing the horticultural subsistence :md Karen of North Andaman rcpresenlLng
agricultucal subsistence.
The levels of food exploitation under hunting and foraging made by
'Onge' were studied, Four seasons were classified, Local ecological conditions
were reported to have linkages with the patterns of production and seasonal
variations, Marine food resources were exploited more during November-
January while terrestrial food resources were exploited more during May-July
season" The calorific value of the daily per capita food stuff was reported,
The 'Shompen' were reported to have more traditional hunting and
gathering mode of subsistence, The social and territorial organisation were
-cenrerell rOiili,rcolTeclmgPiliidiiiiusfiiiits. Hiiiitilljfffiiiffily'fesmcted to wild-
. bear, monkeys and snakes, A band of25 individuals were reported to allocate
the job of collecting Pandanus fruits to a task force of six adults, The calorific
t .. value of food available per capita/daily recorded higher values than the Indian
" Council of Medical Research suggested levels,
107
The study of Nicobarese which depends on horticultur.a1 subMstence
indicated that their population wasincreasmg While the land available re-
mained the same. They have been responding to the processes ofmodernization
and absorbed the changes without disturbing their traditional way of Uk
The natural population of 'Karen' which depends on agricultural subsis-
tence increased which forced them to clear the forests illegally. The haphazard
clearance and agricultwal practices were reported to effect the environment of
Andarnan Island.
. . The policies being practised towards the communities of Andarnan
were studied in detail. The effect of rehabilitation of 'Onge' and 'Shompen'
were studied. The area of forest for subsistence of inbabiting tribals had'
drastically reduced.
Peri(Jd of study: October 1984 - Februar.v 1988
108
STUDIES ON ETHNOBIOLOGY OF THE TRIBALS OF
WESTERN GHATS
N P DAMODARAN
The international Institute of Ayurveda
Coimbatore 641 046
'(!J; his study was undertaken with a view to generate information about
the nature of social transformation of tribal people and tlieii living environment
and to identify plants, aniinals and biids used by the tribals and other
communities for food, medicine, fodder and for other purposes.
,
The area under study was restricted to northern parts of Western Ghats
covering Palghat region of Kerala and Coimbatoredistrict of Tamil Nadu and
for studying the tribal composition, their life style and customs, Attapadi region
was selecied. The Aitapadi region represented deciduoils forests inhabited by
S8 percent tribals.
The plan' of action dra'!V11 included frequent and actual stay .. It
different tribal hamlets, interviews witt, the elderly called 'Mooppans'
participation in tribal festivals, survey of the forest area for fauna, flora and
collecting speciinens for herbaria, their preservation, identification and record-
ing .. The study revealed three sets of tribals in Attapadi region namely.Irulars,
Mudugars and Kurumbars. lrulars and Mudugars are of Tamil origin which
migrated from Coiinbatore area of Tamil Nadu whereas Kurumbars migrated
from Karnataka region and were in a minority. .
Socia-cultural and socio-economic aspectsufthelifeofthetribalswere- .... -- ."-'.
studied which revealed that Attapadi region which was formerly covered by
dense forests but had changed due to soil erosion and the barren hillocks
<laminated the region.
109
Plants used for medicinal purposes by the tribals of Attapadi
region and few other tribals of Devikulum and Nilumburrange were identified .
. Botanical and tribal nanles of edible plants. plants for making implements and
for construction of shelters were listed.
A comparative study of the uses of selected plants in ethnomedicine
with those of the same ill Ayurvedic system was attempted. Training was
imparted to two batches of ten tribal youths in the identification, collection,
semi-processing and cultivation of medicinal plants.
A preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological screening of
Wedelia calendulacea was undertaken.
Likewise. the biological activity of the essential oil of the planfFoddalia
asiatica was also undertaken, The study suggested development plans for
creation of buffer zones and to utilise forest wealth by harnessing the skill of
tribal people and establishment of ethnobotanical gardens and museums.
Period of study: J:me j985 - June 1988
111i
ETHNOBIOLOGY OF KOTAS
KKLAKsHMANAN
Department of Botany
Bharlhiar University
Coimbatore - 641 046
'<!Lhe Kota tribe of the Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu constitute a small
primitive, localized, biologically isolated' group 'and is characterised by a'
particular blood group.
The study area Nilgiris, lies between 76'27' and 77" 4' of east latitude arid
Ii' 37' and II' 8' of north latitude. M'\ior tribal communities inhabiting 7
villages were studied with respect to their past history, socio-economic status,
occupation, religion, festivals, marriage, funeral etc.
u'

, '''OtU\
...-I:DT .. m1
'.&aI(.L I<DWl\,-t
, lUL

'11m NlLGIRIS D1S'IllJCT
"'
The study revealed that in the field of educ8tion, Kotas vi'ere ahead of
other hill tribes. They were expert artisans, blacksmiths, carpenters and potters.
Agriculture was the main occupation ofKota tribe. More women were reported
in agriculture and were well aware of modern mett'lOds of agriculture.
Annual vegetational crops were reported and Ule crops generally
were recorded. Plants used by Kotas as iood, fodder, fuel, religious
and social purposes were listed: The wild plants used by Kotas for various
medicinal purposes were collected and identified. Out of the 33 plants enumer-
ated 15 were the new records. '
The utility and 'the benefits of Government schemes for the welfare of
the tribal community were studied. .
, The outcome of the project would be of interest to the State Tribal
Welfare Department.
Period 'of study: April 1985 - March 1988
112

ETHNOBIOLOGY AND FLORISTIC INVESTIGATION OF
CHAl"IDRAPUR DIVISION
MDPADHYE
Department of Botany
Nagpur University
Nagpur - 440001
''(lLribal cultures are fast changing due to urbanisation and
industnalisation with the consequent loss of knowledge ani! tradition. Gonds
are the main tribe of Chandrapur and Gadchiroli District of Maharashtra and
constitute 15 percent of total population. Others include Mana, Halbi,
Dhangar, Baiga, Kawar, Ahir, Mannewar and Pardhi.
" .. ....
CHANORAPUR
t."'._
..... ..
_IS_
. .. :.- ... ..... .

"BAIC"
.. OM,,""'"

........ .... !t
t. .... R01'1
. CHANDRAPUR DMSION
113
The project aimed at survey, collection and documentation of tribal life
and folk-lore with specifit reference to their culture.
Information with respect of geographical distribution of u'ibals were
studied. The Gonds were associated with Manas, Mirs, Dhangars andPardhi .
. The Gonds were distributed along tile bank of Godavari whose language is
telegu mixed gon'di. The eariy 'Gonds' were related with ancient Khond tribe.
The cultUre 'or' Gonds were similar to the historical Kaularin and social
complex arose along the bank of Godavari river. Marathi was the principal
language while gondi ranks second. The organisation of family were same with
minor variations. The agricuHural practices, effects oj shifting cultivation were
studied. Along with the cuHivation, the tribe also shift their villages. The
economic output was reported very low.
The crop calendar, irrigations, occupations and dietary habits were
studied. Beside agriculture and Shifting cultivation, tribals were engaged in
honey collection, husbandary, fishing, hUllting, trapping, handicrafts etc. n,e
diet in genera; was unbalHnced. The wild edible plants used by trib3.ls were
identified amI listed. One hundred and fifty medicinal plants were identified
and listed.
The study would be of interest to the State Tribal Welfare Department.
Period of study; December 1986 - Norember 1989
\ 14
it"lPACT OF lIUMAN SETTLEMENTS ON THE ECOLOGY OF
RURAL LAKES OF KASHMIR
D P ZUTSHl
Centre for Research and Development
University of Kashmir
Srinagar - 190001
'(IT he rapid change observed in chemical and biological properties of
water bodies reflect the human influences on the Environment. Increase in
population has resulted in human settlements in t1!e catchment areas,
The project was aimed to study the impact of human settlements on the
ecology of some rural lakes ofKashrnir. The three lakes - Khanpur, Trigam and
Tilwansar situated north wes't of Srinagar were selected for detailed study.
The'morphometry a'ld physical features of the lakes ,"ere studied. The
pesticidecontcnl, Il'acemetals, carbohydrates, sediments, vegeta-
tion, community structure', phytoplankton population and zooplanktop. popu-
lations were investigated.
1he study revealeci that majority of the ,lakes situated in rural area of
,Kashmir were showing defmite and progressive signs of eutrophication. Most
of the lakes have closed basin,.therefore, theoretical water detention period was
much higher, Loweate of water renewal add to 'nutrient accumulation. The
highly erodible nature of soils (Karewa)"ilotonly add large quantity of silts but
, . also pesticide and weedicide residues to the lake water, As a result, the lakes
rapid(\egradatiolb ................ -.-.......................... .
Period of study: June 1981 - June 1984
115
ECOLOGY OF THE RIVER GANGES -IMPACT OF HUMAN
ACTMTIES AND CONSERVATION OF
AQUATIC BIOTA
K S BIl.GRAMl
Department of Botany
Bhagalpur University
Bhagalpur - 812001
2J n view of the deteriorating biological productivity of the river
Ganga owing to civic pollution at Patna, industrial pollution at Mokama and
excessive fishing at Farakka, a study was taken up limited to a stretch of356
kms of the Ganges fromPatna to Farakka. Thiswas because of the fact that the
system being the most productive range and three major tributaries namely
Gandak, Burhi Gandak and Kosi join the river in dus zone.
SMWN COLUlCTION CBNTREs ON RIVER GANGA IN BIHI\a
116
~ :
The observations were made from six different locations from Patua to
Faralli viz. Patna, Mokarha, Munger, Sultanganj, Bhagalpur and Farakka in
addition to the data collected at the points of confluence of Gandak at Hajipur,
Burhi Gandak at Khagaria and Kosi at Kursela. It included ecological
implications of the physico-chemical characterstics of water, concentration of
heterotrophic bacteria and the consequences of juvenile fishing in addition to
the preparation of floristic and faunistic inventory of the river to assess the
impact of human activities. The study was also extended to identify the
organisms which could be used as potential bio-indicators of pollution.
The physico-chemical analysis of water, benthic organisms and soil
were done by standard methods. Thirty five species of algae were recorded.
Phytoplankton density was found to be less in tributaries than in Ganga.'
Many saprophytic fungi were observed to survive on dead floating
twigs, organic matter and remnants of animals. Fifteenspecies of zooplankton
were recorded. Macrophytes were represented by 67 species. A comprehen-
sive faunistic survey along the bank of river was done. Eighty eight teleostean
species belO:tging to 22 different families and single species' of elasmobranchi
were reported. The study suggested reg.,lated and restrained fishing and
restriction on juvenile fishing of major carps fer conserving the diversity offish
fauna. Sensitive species were identified for bio-morituring the water quality
at specified points viz. Patua, Bhagalpur and Mokama. Phytoplankton,
zooplankton and bacterial counts were recorded to judge the water quality.
The gross primary productivity in summer was reported high at all sites,
maximum being at Farakka and minimum at Kursela. Zooplankton production
was, maximum at Patua during summer and minimum at Farakka during
monsoon:'
The study suggested proper treatment of industrial and civic effluents
for protecting and conserving the faunal wealth and diversity. of the Ganga.
Period of study: May 1982 April 1985
117
ASSESSMENT OF SOIL DETERIORATION
DVE TO IRRIGATION BY SARYU CANAL PROJECT
AND TO FIND METHODS OF'ITS CONTROL
P P SINGH
. Department of Chemistry
. Bareilly College
Bareilly - 243001
Ql anal irrigation causes water logging, salinity and rise in water table.
Several thousand hectares of cultivable land has been reported to be water
logged due to Sharda Sahayak and Gandak projects. Therefore, the new
irrigation projects will further add to the problem of seepage, water logging,
rising water table, topography, quality of irrigation water and development of
soil salinity etc. deserve due attention. Thepresenl project was initiated to find
methods of control of soil deterioration due to irrigation by Saryu
project.
V::rious parameters like - rainfall pattern, meteorological parameters,
gro!lnQ water, land use and cropping pattern, soil, quality of irrigation water,
ecological imbalance, seepage and water logging have been studied for two
main branches, side branches and therr command areas.
The resillt indi<;ated that the construction will cause major impact on the
existing wealth. It is reported that around 12,500 ha. area of land will be
. utilized which includes ha.cultivated land, 3250 ba. grazing land and
..... This will cause loss ingrain production, shortage of cattle
f\!eding and defoI-i,-siiition: Thecomiiiin.aareasofBasti:;1iriiathok, Gonda and .
Tarabgang haye sufficient ginfall :l.Ild if .at any stage additional irrigation is
requirl!d> it can be supplemented with the existing resources. The command
_ areas of aU the branches were reported having high water table. The soil was
sandy loam and was vulnerable to s!=eRage,
118
,
,
The study reported that the Rapti Main Canal should be completed as
the water strata is very low. Seepage will not be much because of the clay nature
of soil and the introduction of h ~ canat is likely to increase the production of
. crops.
The various problems faced in the command area of Imamganj were
outlined.
The study would be of mterest and potential use to UP State Irrigation
Department.
Period of study: December 1982 - May 1986 .
119
GENETICAL EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL METAL
POLLUTANTS ON LIVING SYSTEMS AND THE STUDY OF
THEm ANTAGONISTIC AND SYNERGISTIC ACTION IN
RELATION TO BIOSPHERE
ARCHANA SHARMA
Centre for Advanced Study iii CeU & .Chromosome Research
Department of Botany
University of Calcutta
Calcutta - 700053
'ill he overwhelmingly iocreasiog requirement of both toxic and essen-
tial metals io a large variety of iridustries, coupled with ioadequate and
improper disposal of industrial wastes has led to alannipgly high levels of
metal pollutants io human environment. Metallic COmpOUIlds released in. the
biosphere uitimately frod their way ioto t.'le hUman food c h ~ i o :allsiog
genotoxic effects which cuuld lead to carcinogenesis. Effects on cell division
and ioduction of chromosomal abnormalities are used as important criteria for
monitoring the damage to the genetical system.
In the present project, a significant amount of ioformation has b.een
gathered on the. cytotoxic activities of metals. the chemical forms tested were
inorganic salts, both cationic and anionic. The end poiots monitored were
changes io cell and chromosome division io multiple eukaryotic test systems
both in vivo and in vitro. The parameters screened were changes in frequency
. of cell division, alternations iovolviog chromosomestructure, .. beha'lioiu:..in... __ ... __ .
somatic and gem! cells, disturbance iIi spiodle formation, sister chromatid
exchange,alterations io DNA content and histocbemical changes io target.
organs of the animals exposed. An analysis of the data on c1astogenic effects
of most metals on higher organisms iodicated SOUle general trends. Decrease
120
in frequency of cell division and increase in chromosomaJ abnormalities were
usually direcl,ly proportional to the dose applied and duration of treatment,
wit1lln threshold limits following continuous exposure.
In mammals, the clastagenic activity of metals was seen to be directly
proportioruiJ to increase in atomic electro-positivity and solubility of
the metallic cations in water and lipids. In plants, the solubility of the metals
in water was of much greater importance. The catioRS and the degree of
dissociatiOn of metallic salts affected the frequency of aberrations .
cantJy. The interaction between metals to counteract cytotoxic effects through
finding out the effective doses and durations of treatment has been thorough! y
investigated. Plant systems showed a different result from animals in interac- .
tion studies where the effects were mainly additive. .
The effeet of diet in the expression oflhe cytotoxic in animals has been
studied. The effects of the metals as related to cytotoxicity and clastogenicity
were significantly different in the three types, particularly afiertreatment with
heavy metals.
The use of cemin metals, the use of multiple test systems has been
assessed taking into account the nutritional level and presence of other metals
in the test system, which may.synergise and increase their clastogenic or
mutagenic effects. The study will have impact in monitoring the harmful
effects of metallic pollutants .
. Period of study: November 1982 - November 1986
............ _ ... __ ....... _- ... _-.. -.- ....... " ..
121
EVALUATION OF THE HAZARDS OF UI\'TREATED AA,])
TREATED TEXTILE DYEING AND PRINTING WASTE
ON MAMMALS
SM MOHNOT
Deparlmen1 of7.oology
University of Jodhpur
Jodhpur - 342003
. .3'1 ndiscriminate. discharge of pollutants from. domestic, commercial,
m d u ~ ~ i a l and other uses has resulted m water pollul!on.' '
Balotra, Pali and Jodhpur (towns of western Rajasulan) harbour about
1500 dyeing and printing hand processing units. Their polluted water to the
. tune 'of about 15 million litres per day is let out through open drains on to
agriculture fields, scanty pastures and travelling water bodies. The effluent
finds its way even in the potable ,vaters of wells, the main source of drinking
r
COURSE OPDYEING AND PRINTING EFFLUENT FROM JODHPUR INDUSTRIAL AREA TO
RlVERJOJARI
122
water besides irrigation before it reaches to three non-perennial rivers - Luni,
Bandi and Jojari. The project aimed to evaluate thc hazard of these pollutants
using albino rats, albino mice and common house rat as animal model.
Physico-chemical analysis "fthe eftluents were carried Qut by standard
methods. All components of the effluents were found much above permissible
limits. The percentage mortality of experimental'animals have been examined
with different concentration of effluent and duration of exposure. Medium
lethal concentration values for the effluents and dyes have been worked out.
The medium lethal concentration values have a high correlation coefficient
between the mortaJity and the concentration.
Histopathological studies of liver, kidney, lungs and various other
organs have revealed significant changes viz. atrophication, stroma of liver,
degeneration and obstructed vascular supply leading to necrosis and chronic
hepatitis. Glycogen protein and cholesterol have been estimated. The levels
of glycogen, protein and cholesterol were observed to drop in all the three test
aniIru;ls.
The haemotological parameters viz. blood, glucose, haemoglobin,
serum cholesterol and total serum protein wcre estimated. The effect of
effluent was magnified at blood level and diminished at tissue level.
Period oj study: July 1984 - February 1988
.......... _- ..... -.... __ .. _-_ .. __ .... -.
. ..... .. _ .... _--.. -. __ .... __ ._---._-_ .. __ .. _._ . . _. __ . . ,. ,_ ... _ ... -.. _ .. _ ............. -.. __ .. .
123
IMPACT OF SAltN! AND KORADI THERMAL POWER STATIONS
ON THE AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM
K SANKARAN liNN!
Department of Botany
Government Postgratiuale College
Chhindwara - 480 001
m he,e are more than 80 thennal power stations in the country. Many
of these power stations have no adequate pollution control devices. Coal ash
effluents directly reach the river withoutsetlling suspended solids, some heavy
metals and toxic trace elements such as arsenic, cadmium I chromium, nickel,
cobalt, lead in greater amounts. These heavy "and toxic trace elements
accumulate in different trophic levels, enters the food web through fish and
fish-food organisms and create potential healtll hazards to human.
KORADl THERMAL POWER STATION (GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION)
124
r
The project maiJuy dealt with collection of baseline data 011 the physico-
chemical and biological aspects of the source water, effluents, ash bunds,
receiving systems of downstream systems. Koradi Thermal Power Station
(TPS) situated near Nagpur, Maharashtra and Sami Thermal power staUon,
Sami, M.P. were selected for Ule study. NL'le sampling stations were estab-
lished around Koradi TPS and 7 around Sami, in the intake reservoirs, ash
bunds, ash canals, upstream and downstream of the Kolar river and Tawariver
receiving coal ash effluents respectively from Koradi andSami Themtal power
stations. Standard methods were used for analysis of water, sediment and
organisms. Impact of hot water discharge into the intake reservoir at Koradi
with special reference to production of macrophytlc plant 'ljipha, distribution
of plankton, benthos and periphyton were investigated. Twenty one physico-
chemical parameters of water were studied. Heavy metal accumulation. in
sediment, water, submerged and emergent macrophytes, fishes and inverte-
brate organisms were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer.
The values of al\ the physico-chemical parameters were found higher.
The ash bund effluents registered enhanced values in comparison to the
upstream, downstream and intake reservoirs. Specificconductivilyenhanced
100 times inan oil effluent c.anal at Koradi. The pH registered highly alkaline
flamre ranging between 7.5 to 10.5;[1 a,e asheffluenls. SedimentaccumuJated
all element, several times greater in comparison to the overlying water.
Ash effluent discharges, accumulation of heavy metals and toxic trace
metals caused toxicity to number of zooplanktons and eliminated not orily
zooplanktons but oligochates, dipterans, odonates and some species of mol-
luscs. The downstream of Kolar river upto 6 km and Tawa river downstream
uplO 15 km registered a drastic reduction in the biomass of macrophytes and
benthic organisms.
Fishes were reported to accumulate greater quantities of toxic ele-
ments-zinc, copper and manganese ill their tissues. Toxic trace metaTValuesm .. -... -...
the waters of Kolar river downstream and the intake reservoirs exceeded all
the values reported by a number of workers from highly polluted industrial
sites.
125
The sediinent of Tawa reservoir accumulated 35 tiines greater iron, 41
tiines more manganese, 8 times more zinc, 3 times more copper, 50 times more
cobalt and 21 times more nickel than the overlying waters.
The study suggested that ash bund eftluents should not be allowed to get
'./ .. discharged directly into the river. The bottOlIl ash should be settled in holding
.. : ponds to remove the particulate matter. Ash emuent canals which carry ash
directly into the intake reservoirs should be diverti:d to the ash bund.
Period of study: July 1984 June 1987
126
ECOTOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FREE LIVING PROTOZOA
OF AQUATIC BODIES AND ARABLE FIELDS OF ANDHRA
PRADESH A.,"ID IN VITRO STIlDIES OF THEIR PHYSIOLOGICAL
RESPONSES TO DIFFERENT TOXICANTS
MAKRAN
Department of Zoology
Osmania University
Hyderabad - 500007
. J\. number of man-made impoundments have come to existence as
reservoirs, catering. to hydro-electric power, fisheries, drinking water supply
and the most important of all agricultural and industrial needs. In Anilhra
Pradesh a large number of man-made lakes were built by Britishers and the
Government. Although a good amount of ecological data on man-made lakes'
in India are available but there exists some lacunae.
~
" I
' 0 IQ 40U.
-
i' I
,,'
.'
.,' J
',;', "'-t$ oIf""l8!I
' - - - ' - - - - - - - = - - - - - ~ - .
LOCATION -MAP--THE PALAIR RESERVOIR
127
--
The project was aimed to study the ecology of the Pal air lake which is
located in Khammam district of Andhra Pradesh 165 lans. SE of H yderabad
city between 17 10' and 17 IS' north latitude and70 50' al1d 80 east latitude.
The physico-chemical and biological parameters were analysed by standard
procedures. The population dynamics of phyw, zooplanl.:tonalld their seasonal
variations Wert' reported under the influence of morphometry, water flow
regime and littoral vegetation. The phytoplankton composition was studied.
Protozoa was reported as the richest and dominant group of zooplankton
represented by 32 species. A tota! of 47 speciesof rotifers wete recorded.
Definite change in diurnal change of dissolved oxygen was noted. Soil studies
in respect of seasonal fluctuations of active, cystic and total soil amoebae in
relation (0 bacterial population densities and various other factors were
reported. In vitro studies were done using ciliate protozoan and multiple
enzyme system.
The results indicated Ulat fresh water protozoa can be used as bio-
indicator of chemical pollution of water bodies.
Period a/study: July 1984 - July 1988
ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF LAKES IN AND AROUND
UDAIPUR (RAJASTHAN)
LNVYA$
Department of Botany
Sukhadia University
Udaipur - 31300 I
;!Iincontrolled hwnanactivities are responsible for the accelerated flow
of materials from the terrestrial to the acquatic portion of the watershed which
resulted inexcessive growth of micro as well as macro vegetation, high nutrient
load in the water thereby reducing the water retaining capacity of the system,
jeopardizing many life supporting systems and processes of rural and urban
societies.
This investigation was an attempt to study the structural and fu, tional
behaviour of five water bodies - Pichhola, Rang Sagar, Swaroop S'gar. Patch
Sagar, Udai Sagar and wac the main SOI,rces fordrinking and irrigo . The
physico-chemical and biolcgical parameters were analysed by starid" ,Jruce-
dures. The lakcs were observed to be alkaline in nature. The pH valu, "anges
between pH 7.74 to 8.59. .
A collection of 82 species of phytoplankton and algae was made. The
maximum number of species were observed at Swaroop Sagar and minimum
(22) at Pichhola lake. Diurnal variations in phytoplankton population were
recorded. The diel movement of zooplankton depends mainly on light
intensity, oxygen stress, thermal and chemical gradients and feeding urge. The
......... - .-percentecologicaL efficiency_fof.ffiOisLbank,_dry '"
communities were reported to be 0.555%,0.916% and 5.56%. Hydrilla
verticillala and POlamogelOn peclinalus were observed to be the most efficient
trapper of solar energy. The potential ity of aquatic weeds as fertil izer was
tested and showed cnfouraging result.
129
A comparison of all the five lakes was made in respect of nutrient status.
Udai Sagar was reported to req:ive maximum nutrient load and next in order
was Swaroop Sagar lake.
Period of study: September 1983 - August 1986
'.
130
ECOBEH. .... V!OURAL STUDIES OF HANUMAN LANGUR
SMMoHNOT
Department a/Zoology
University a/Jodhpur
Jodhpur 34200]
'ill he Hanuman langur, Presbylis enlellils is the most widespread and
versatile of the Indian non human primate fauna. The distribution ranges from
plains to 4000 m altitude in the Himalayas and from moist deciduous forests
to scrub and open rocky areas like Jodhpur, which constitute the ultimate
western limit of P. entellus in the country and abounds in 1300 langurs
inhabiting in this arid pockets. This population was monitored through 7
censuses and regul'!r surveys. It was observed that the popl!lation was
o'ganised in the 29 troops and 14 bands. The unimo\c bisexual troops dominate
in this habitat followed by ail male bands .. were occasionally
found. The average troop and band size has been reported ;0 be 38 and 11
respectively. Births, deaths, immigrations, emigrations and socia! changes
were the factor responsible for population fluctuations .. Three troops and 3
bands were monitored for troops and band developmenl
The report provided accurate descriptions of reproductive profile, in
particulaton births, maturity, menstruation, conception, gestation, birth inter-
val and postpartum amenorrhea. The average.interbirth interval was found 16.2
months and gestation period 6.6 months.
AB male bands were selected for social 'organisation studies. New
informations on sub-grouping; male tenures, dominaace and fate of ousted
males were coBeeted. The question of "why males kill infants" has been
attempted.
I3l

... _-
, 1_ ... 1
--
---
" ...... -
D __

,I
LOCATlONOFi3ISEXUAt TROOPS AND ALL MALE BANDS AROUND JODHPUR
Considerable data were conected on liie (eedin;) behaviour of the
langurs. The diet has been correlal.:d with the anatomy and physiology of their
alimentary canal. Around 150 species of plants .(various parts) have been
reported to be eaten by langurs in monsoon, while only 18-20 in other seasons.
The annual flowering and fruiting cycles of most common species have been
worked!'!!t. The maximum feeding frequency has been reported for Anogeissus
perulula (40.0%) followed by Prosopisjuliflora (35.0%) and Acacia sanegal
(13.63%). Grew.ia (e/lax is the most common plant wim only 2% feeding
frequency 10 its credit.
_._-" ... " .. - .,,--.T.lJ&.tl!(lY __ that P. enlellus was me highly adaptable
species and could develop new foOdhaiJits avallii.bleiiiilie"riarurainabitat. '.
Period of study: December 1982 - December 1985
132
COLLECTION, ASSESSMENT AND CONSERVATION OF
CUCURBIT GERMPLASM
R P Roy
Department of BOiany
Porno University
PaIno - 800005
. 21 ndia happens to be one of the three important centres of origin of
cultivated cucurbits. About 20 percent of the total number of known species
of the family cucurbitaceae OCcur in this country. It is, therefore, important to
maintain, assess and utilize such a rich assemblage of genetic material.
The project was initiated witl, the specific purpose of assessing the
genetic diversity of the germplasm of three cucurbit genera - Luffa, MonlOrdica
and Triclzosanlizes. The attempt was made to augment the knowledge about the
range of diversity among accession. The assessment included the range of
flower bearing potentia!, disease resista.'lce, cytological make up and fnlit
characters in the cultivated/semi cultivated and related wild species. Morpho-
logical, breeding behaviour, species relationship, protein profile, hybridization
s ~ J d i e s were done on Luffa. A new species L. operculula was reported to
closely resemble hermaphrodite species L.hermaphrodita morphologically
and cytologically. L. operclllatu is reported to be prolific flowering, fruit
bearing and disease resistance species. Hybridization studies indicated thalL.
operclllala could be used as gene donor.
[n the genus MOlllordica two accessions were highlighted. They were
M. balsamina and M. dioica natural triploid and tetraploid cytotypes: .M.
balsamina was a miniature fonnofM. charantia, chromosome number 2n ~ 22
was same asM. charatUia. Attempts to cross the two species have been faiied.
Triploid and tetraploid of M. dioica were studied in detail. The fruit size was
almost double of that in diploid cytotype. Natural and induced tetraploid
readily cross and was full fertile.
133
In the genus Trichasanthes several wild and cultivated species were
collected a',ld investigated. T. diaico showed great genetic diversity, Vines
. with diploid and triploid chromosome 22 and 33 respectively were reported to
grow together. At the initial stage diploid grew faster. If propagated separately,
triploid vines later grew much more faster and bears bigger fruits, T. ailguina
and T.cucumerina were morphologically similar and reported to readily cross
each other and the hybrid was fully fertile.
In the genus Benincasa, B. hispida spp showed great diversity in fruit
shape, size and pulp content. It needs to be collected for all the locations in
India to assess the genetic diversity,
Period of study; January 1983 - JUlie 1988
.. -.. _. __ ._ .. - .. _---
-.. -____ --"_0 .... __ ........ _ ...... _ ..
............. __ ............ __ ._ ..
13-1
STUDY AND CONSERVATION OF THE PLANT RESOURCES OF
TIIE PROPOSED.NAMDAPHA mOPHERE RESERVE,
TIRAP DISTRICT; ARUNACHAL PRAOESH
J .I0S':!'1I
Botanical Slirvey of ["dia
Pastern Circle
Shillong 793003
'(!the Namdapha Biosphere Reserve harbours the most extensive and
wide range of natural primary vegetation. The project was initiated with the
objectives to study the flora and vegetation with emphasis On the conservation
of the plant resources, to ascertain the uniqueness, and to find out plants of
etlmobotanical importance. The study arca lies in U,e northeast corner oflndia
in the Tirap and Lohitdistricts of Arunachal Pradesh. The report covered about
40 percentofthc total proposed Biosphere Reserve area. Mainly the core arca
was explored except small portion of butler arca in Lohit dislrict of Arunachal
Pradesh.
The vegetation of the area was stud:cd which indicated i\ very luxuriar.t
growth. The trupical arId. sub-tropical e".fl:rgreen forests pre-domiuated the
area. Some of the t.'111 trec:s, other trees which fJrm the second storey
forests, third storey of tret:s, large shrubs :;nu cummon herbs. grasses and
hedges cfthearea were reported. Nearly 100 species uforchili> werecollccled.
The orchids of epiphytic habits OUl ilumbered the terrestrial ones. Some
unidentified taxa having novelty were studied and listed. Some ohhe ptants
with the local names in Chakma having ethnobotanical importance were
rcpOited. A number of rare, endallgcred and thrcmellt!d taxa, two ncw genera,
four new specks and three new records for India and fourteen new distribu-
tional records were reported.
The report will be of interest anti potentia! lise for proper management
and conservfltion of lhe plant resources of the Namuapha Biosphere Reserve.
Period a/study: 19113 - Feb/'ltary 1986
LONG TERM CONSEl<VATION POTENTIAL OF NATURAL
FORESTS IN THE SOIJTHERN WESTERN GHATS OF KEAALA
S SA l'lstl CHANDRAN NAIR
Centre jiJr Earth Science Studies
TriVQildrum-69500!
Jli or development of the strategies for conservation of living systems
and natural resources of western ghats of Kerala, the study on the forest
vegetation was initiated with the broad objective of carrying out a
reconnaissance of the forest tracks of the region for identifying areas with
long tenn conservation potential.
The report covered an area of approximately 20,000 sq. km. An
extensive survey of published material was carried out from historical, geo-
graphic, bio-geographic, biological and past exploitation accounts and data.
The topor;raphy and the climate of the region were studied. Various historical,
socia-economic. political ane cultural trends, farest utiiisation anti policy
approach for exploitation of !latural resources were outlined. The tribal mal'
aIld his role in mou:ding the state afforests were boefly stulliecl. 1 he
histary of nature cunservation of existine wildlife sanctuaries and national
parks were traced. An attempt was made to evaluate the value of tl:ese
sanctuaries and national parks towards long tenn consefvation of representa-
tive ecosystems.
The fauna, flora, climate, vegetation, topography and various forest
types were studied. A comprehensive action plan for the conservation of
biological diversity of the southern western ghats was attempted. The remnant
forest areas in the southern western ghats of Kerala have been reported to be
identified for long telm conservation. .
... --.... _ .. _---_._-- --'"
-
The impact of dams on destruction oflhe forests of southern western ghats in
Kerala was outlined,
Period of ';IIdy : JIIly 1984 - Nuvember 1986
136
STUDY Of ';VIND IN TIlE. WET ANI) DRY
CROP LANDS IN TilE PLAIN DISTRICTS IN TAMIL NADU,
ITS CAUSES, COURSE AND PREVENTION,
RESTOR.\TION OF FERTILITY TO TIlE SOIL AND
STAIlILITY TO A nrSTURBED RURAL ECO-SYSTEM
A M MAHMOOD HUSSA'N
Shri A M M MU/1lgappa Cheltiar Research Centre
Tharamani
Madms-6()(j J J 3
erosion caused by wind is a major factor in coastal areas and
deserts are formed which affect the productivity of agricultural crop lands and
human environment. The main objective of the project was to establish the
complete system for shelter belts which could reduce and arrrest the wind
erosion, raise the shelter belt species having some economic value, study
various fat.:tors like wind velocity. direction, humidity, soil and tcmpt"r3ture.
_moisture, soil ,..Iepositioil in relation tv wi'ld belts and the re:;por.ses to
protection of local crops.
The study was restricted to 192.10 ha of worst affected aredS in the
nOlth Devadanam village of Tamil state. During the first year of the
.project, planting of shelter belts was done along the length of5 kms. wh.ich was
followed by second year planting of shelter belts along 6.4 kIns. length.
Meteorological observations were recorded daily. The plantings done dUling
two seasons along I !.4 kms. had raised an adequate coverage of sheltcrbelts
along atarget area of 192.10 !la. ("se studies oflhecross section ofthe targetted
farm land was made. The study revealed that/.la/bel'giCl sis.wo, and TemmeI/o
shelll:!' belts and sugarcane was
reported being the most successful crop forgr0wing IInderlhe shelter belts. The
wind tunnel experiment indicated that the height of the belt was the most
important parameter which affects the shelter area.
131
The project recomnlended t11at fhe ideal land use was to raise economic
tree crops which in turn will protect the soil and the water. The study also
recommended that intensive protection by Revenue and the State Forest
Depart1nents be given \0 the shelter belts.
Period ofslttdy: February 1984 - Fehruary 1987
ALGAL RESOlJRCES OF KERALA COAST AND THEIR
ECONOMIC (rrrLlSATlON
N BALAKRISHNAN
Department of Aquatic Biology
and Fisheries
University ofKeraid
Cochin-68200 I
'([[he unprecedented population growth especially in developing coun-
the unchecked industrial expansion and urbanisation have created crisis
afmw materials, food and environment. Attention is now on the ocean as a
major source offoQ(\ and industrial chemicals.
-rhe study was an attempt to propeily assess the incidence and abun-
dance of littoral algae along Kerala coast including Cape Cornorin.
A detailed survey along the coastline showed the occurrence of 176
fonns of which 136 reported so far b"-en identified upro specics levd which
includes 6 species of sea-grasses. algae and algae on dcnudt:d ruck)'
surfaces were studied for thdr occurrence, rciative abundance, distributions
and sea':lonal variations. Analysis of various physical ano chemical parnmet!::rs
showed peak growth of tn<ljority of algae Juring monsoon and minimum
growth during pre-monsoon season. Hourly distribuiion of variolls physico-
chemical factors and planktons for a 24 hour cycle has been made. Salinity,
nutrients and tidal height was reported to have an influence in the abundance
of certain plankton species .. Mid-tide region sbowed maximum species
composition while high tide regions showed minium species composition. The
red algae was re-ported dqrninatingthe group. Vertical disttibution ofalgae was
studied. Proximate composition of cel1ain common littoral algae were re-
ported .
.. . _-. - ._- .. --... - .. - ......... _ .... _ .. _-_ . _ . __ .- __ ._ . __ ....... _ .. _.N .... _ .. _. _ .. _ ............ __ .N
The study reported information on the algae occuring along the
Kera!a coast which be of potential use as an additional source of protein.
Per",d 'if.,'llldy: Mord, 1981- February 19118
-.
REPRODllCTION AND BEMA VlOURAL BIOLOGY OF SOME
ENDANGERED AND ECONOMICALLV IMPORTANT ANIMALS
OFGARHWAL H1MALAVA
ASHA CHAi-iDOLA Si\KLANI
f)epor/menJ of Zo%K)"
Uarhwa/ lJl1iJJer.'iity
1.(;',inagar-210-l33
<RIarhwal Himalaya abounds in rich faunal wealth and a part of it falls
under the proposed Uttarkhand Biosphere Reserve. lnfonnatiolt on cun'ent
status, disn'ibution and habitats of endangered and game fauna of Garhwal
Himalayas are lacking. The study was aimed to generate base line data on
cutTent stams, ecology, breeding biology and behavioural biology of selected
economically impOltant animals including gall1e and endangered species.
The work was calTied out at various altitudes ranging from 750m to
\, 700 m in Kedanmth Sanctuary and other forests of Gal'hwal Himalaya.
Surveys w ~ r e tarried out and distribution maps were prepared fOI" monal,
koklas, musk deer, white crested !<aleej, red jungle fowl, barking deer 001 the
basis of actual sightings. Other parameter" viz, calls, foot marks, droppings
were also recorded. Data on climatic variables, temperature, rainfall were
recorded. Seasonal monitoring on popUlation size, emergence, roosting,
foraging motor and breeding activities of white crested kaleej, wild quail,
monal pheasant and muskdeerin the wild were recorded, Data on reproduction,
periodicity and reproductive potential of Galllls-gal/lls fowl were collected.
Seasonal monitoring in captivity on pOiJulation size, emergence, roost-
--_"""",_"..i!!g,j9.!:!!1li!'Jl,,'!'.t!>r and breeding activities of barking deer, goral, white crested
kaleej, musk deer:"';;'onal and cheer pheasant were carried out. Reproductive
periodicity and reproductive potential of Gal/us-gal/us were also studied in
captivity,
141l
Environll1ental manipulations VIZ. effect of aititl!dinalliaritudinal shifts
and photoperiodic treatment was studied on the reproductive cycle of weaver
hird and spotted 'munia'.
The study cOl\ld he of interest and lISC for the proper develop-
ment and management plans ofthe f.:1unal resources ofthe Garhwal H imaiayas.
Period o[study: September /984 - March 1988
141
FLORfSTlC, SOCIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION OF PL,O\NT
RESOURCES OF PlR PANJAL FOREST RANGE
8 LSAPROO
/)cparlmem afBolan!,
Uniw:/:\'Uy ofKo.'ihmir
Srinagar-1900()6
Jir a n j ~ 1 constitute an important and botanically rich regioll in tile
Himalayas. The aim of the study was survey and catalo!lucing of the plant
resources of the forest range together with the study of their sociology,
mapping with a view to identify areas for conservation of gellnpJasm and
methods for their preservation.
The study area (about 390 sq. kms) lies in dIe Verinag catchment
situated about 80 km towards south of Srinagar in the district Anantnag.
___ J
PlR PANJAI. FOREST RANGE j)\]'\CTINli STUDY S' rES IN I0\MHI\N PI VISION KASIIMm
142
A detailed floristic composilion, phyto-sociological data were col-
lected. Data were collected on frequency of species, theirdellsities, dominance
in the protected and unpmtected site, degraded sites throughout the year which
indicated wide variation between the sites. The above ground values were
reported - maximum being 83. liS gm/m
2
, :17.287 gm/m' and 54.540 gm/m' for
protected, unprotected and degraded sites Analysis of soils revealed Ihal the
soil was generally neutral to acidic (pH 6.0-6.9).
'rhe land use pattern data indicated that the area in this mountain range
was exploited for the cultivation of rice, maize and, wheat. The general
vegetation pattern was ofa typicallTopieal and subtropical climate and showed
extensive signs of degeneration and denudation.
The study conlains baseline data which could be utilised for a variety of
purposes,
I'm l'ANJAr. RI\NOI: SIIUWINC1 lJlESTIll)Y SITES IN VI:R.IN/\(i 1)!VISiON J & K
Perind nistlldy: February /911-' - February
141
Sf-A TIJRTLE: RESEARCH AND CONSICRVATION
ABOUL A RAHAMAN
!)epa,.tment
A V V M Sri I'lIshpa';J College
PfJondi-6J3503
Thanjal'ur
J\tout 6000 species of reptiles occur in the world, Out oftms 3000
species are ofliZilrd, 2700 species of snakes, 200 species of turtles, 23 species
of crocodilians and one species of Tantara - a lizard like animal.
Of all these there are probably seven or eight species of sea turtle
inhabiting the global waters, The objectives of the project were to make a
survey of sea turtle population particularly on Tamil Nadll coast, their habitats
description and inventory. human impact on sea turtle population, mctllOd of
ttsing standard tecllliiCjllc for tmile conservation, educating th.: pubiic on
sea ttll11c conservation and also captive maintenance of sea turtle in the turtle
reno
Distribution oi'five species of sea turtles such as IJepidocheil's (l/ii.'aCeQ,
("h('/of1;a mydas, I;'rolmochelys hnhJ'icoJa, Carella carcHa and /Jernroche}ya
C(}f'iucea were ducumented on the south east cQastofJnnia in Tamil Nadu state.
A comparative study on the nesting and non-nesting beache" indicated that the
substratum and grain size played an important role in the choice of nesting. It
was observed that vegetati'on was not a factor in the beach selection for nesting
. in the case of L uf iI'occu.
The environmental factors responsibleforcmergence--of-turtl(lS .. fo,,-__
nesting and the factors responsible for hil\her percentage of hatching in the
hatchery were also sIudied.
Hatch lings of 1 . .10 o/ivacea reared in the turtle" pen were gro\Nl1 from 16
gms althe time of head started hatchling to 44 kg (aduit stage) weight in about
144
48 months period. Individual growth rate had also been monitored in the turtle
pen. 'Olive ridley prefer shrimps, crushed crabs and sea fish as diet rather than
trash feed from fish landing centres.
The yeariings ignore to on stored dry fish and preferred to starve.
It was found that reared turtles grow faster on a high protein diet. The
temperature was found to playa role in the growth and upkeeping of the
yearlings.
The biologyofsea turtle under captive conditions was studied. Diseases
were found to be common problem in rearing operations generally being
aggravated by poor water circulation and by wounds resulting from bottom
feeding in the shallow ponds. Due to poor water circulation animals were
reported to suffer from fungal infection in eyes, neck and flippers. Due to
feeding with the fresh water food sources, the tllltle excreted continuously
probably due to diaITohea. During the period, the infected turtle were given
','::.: Nesting beach

'.
NESTING BEACHES OF CAPE COMORIN. TAMIL NADU

'.OLlVE RIOU.'
?. tllEf" TURTLE:
'.lOCGfP IIAO
4. 1..TH[R BACK.
intramuscular injection containing oxytetracycline 2 ml/day. After a
tUltle recovered and feeding became normal.
. Eco-camps were conducted and coastal villagers were infonncd about
the c"nselvation of species of turtles.
Period o/.'Judy,' Februwv 1985 - February 1988
146
ECOLOGY ANI) REPRODUCTION IN FERNS ANI> FEItN-ALLIES
OF RAJASTHAN
B I) Sf],'RMA
f)epartmcnl :>( Hotany
UlUversitr ,,(Jodhpur
- Jodhpllr-3430IJ 1
Jl1 em flora of Rajasthan has been scantly documented_ Not much work
has been dOlle 011 the ecology and reproduction of pteridophytes and specially
on the ferns and fernallies of Rajasthan which make the major ground
vegetation oftllc forests ofAravalii hills_
The objectives of the study were collection and identification of ferns
and femallies, study of ecological parameters, soil pH, moisture. chemical
analaysis. drought resistance, resunection habits, reproductive organs, spores,
and influence uf variolls Oil gamclophytes of fems.
Forty s.ix species belonging to twenty three genf;'ra uf
were collected throllghtout Rajasthan. Majority <?f them were occurring in the
Aravalli range and Chambal ravines. Soil anaiy:;es showed the
pteriodophytes nourished bcst between pH 5.4 to 6_2_ Some were repOIted to
survive even in calcarious soils with pH 8 to 9. Extent of degradation of
pigments were directly related to drought resistance. Relationship between
proline and drought resistance and variations in amino acids, proteins, reducing
sugar, phenols etc. between aquatic and terrestrial species and changes during
stress were established. Influellee of growth regulators on spore gcnnim!tion
and gametophyte development and sex expi'cssion were studied. Low concen-
trations of GA, and IAA act as a weak antheridogcn while higher eoncentni-
tion s induce arc hegonilf"iUl1!'"tton:---MDrl,haetin-was--repeffild-to-de lay_ spore ________ _
gennination and inhibited the activities of gametophytes_
Period ,,[study,' June 1986 - June I98?
141
IlEIU3AGE I)YNAMICS OF NATURAL ANt) MODIFIED
ECOSYSTEMS OF SII!MLA IHLLS
R.S.TIIAKtJR
f)1.:parlmcl1l Hioscienc:es
f1imacilllll
J
radesh Univcrsily
Shimla-! fIIO I
W he exponentiul growth of hum:.m population lli:ls led to increase in
livestock population. This has resulted ill the unplanned exploitation of the
existing grasslands and has degraded the grassland both qualitatively and
quantitHtively.
The study was conducted ncar Shimla (77.4' 0" Nand 71.2'.3" E with
an altitude 0[220111. Six study sites with mixed grassland were selected for the
study. Marked changes between and within the sites were reponed
with regard to tbe noristic composition. Flowering ill the Ycgct:Jtion was
reported during the months of July! August and fl1lit formation by September.
The ,:;tudy sites supported a HflJ hcmiclyptophyi;t: plant dimare
associr:tivJl. j\'JolHl:ly and seasonal changes in the total number of:;pecies and
densities were recorded. All the: six sites were rep()11ed tu be dominated by
grasses and contributed significantly to the biomass production.
The non-iegume species !H-ld apprecia91e contribution in the mitl)' season ilIld
sedges in both rainy (lnd suml1lt!' season. The below ground biomass was
reported to be the main contributor qf biomass and was always hlgller t'han
compared to above ground biomass.
The concentratio!1 of labile, non-labile c.Jergy components were stud-
ied. The calorific content, standing crop of energy and energy capture
....... _ .. was worked out. The N P K yalues for above ground and helow
groulldTiTom'asswe"t7'erecOl'oca:lligfYcst values ofnufTients were reported in soil
as compared tv other plant compartments. The standillg stcltc of nutrients WilS
reported to be dependent upon biotic disturbances, biomass and lIulr;cnl
percentage.
Period olstlidl': Miloi' J?N2 - May 1984

ECOLOGICAL EFI'ECfS OF ()I!'FERt:NT LAN[)IJSE AN[)
MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SRIN,\GAR MOLINTAINS
P KACIIROO
/)epnrllllCl1i ,,(Botany
{il1iversily ..
Sri nagar - J 90006
'illhe study cnvistlgcd idcntifiGation and assessment of the
changes which result frOIllIl1a11 's activities, the effect of these changes on man
to sludy and compare lhe: structure. fUllctioning and dynamics of
natural and Illodificd forest ecosystems, their ,replacement systems and to
develop method to measure changes ill the rorcst environment.
The study arca covers 33.33 <ll1d 34.2" mnlh latilude and 74.28 :wd
74.55 east iongituJe in the south-\\C'st or Kashmir \'alley. 58 kill south of
Sriilagar C!ty.
An i:H.:Cpth study was underlak(.!n Oil plant LOll1lllllnitics all
general phyto-sociologk,::.! ,1specrS in iii: ccosyskm of forest l;!ocks of
Charisharief, knchkl)ra and Orawil.
The life form spectrum hemi-chaemaephytic type of
pbytoclimatc which deviates other ;l1pinc regions of the \vorld and
Ralink iarr' 5 flonna! spectrum. The dOIll ill<lnt 1"b111 i lies reported were Grami ncac
and Compositac equ,dly represented. The phyin-sociological analysis of
variolls character." \vcrc done and natur<.l/ g.ro\\ III of species was reported to
be low to optimum with herbs oUlnwnbcrillg the shrubs. The phenological
phasp.s of the plant-gm\vth, and senescence were studied and found ... _. __ ... -.- .... _.
to be completed within Cl short vegetative period of 9 months. The biomass
valnes have been reported to be tlilctlliiting throughout the vegetative period,
reaching the pe;lk in Junc.
11'1
The photosynthetic arta index, chlorophyll content and cnergy values
have bcen calculated, those were repol1ed to increase Ii'om March to August.
The" energy conserving efficiency ('Yo) values of 2.77 for fenced and 0.89 for
grazed during spring while 10.15 for fenced and 1.23 for grazed were repolted
for summer months. The system tmnsfer functions were studied.
The natural animal communities were studied and the dominant group
recorded were Acarina, Collcmbola, Arthopods as centipedes, millipedes,
arenae, insect larvae and coleoptera.
The calorific values were recorded for protected site litter in Oct. 1978-
79 (3136.61 K Calfgm) and for grazed site during April 1978-79 (534.17 K Call
gill).
Six sites were chosen for llutTient cycling-Yusmarg fenced, Yusmarg
. grazed, ShUmmJf, Drflgtolan. Penzikora and Bargamaidan and with the data for
nutl'ieni poois and fluxes, nutrient cyclillg model was suggested for Abies
pindrO\\! ecosystem. An intensive survey of the physicochcmical propel1ies
of the soil under Ahles cover was Inade.
The infonnation generated ,"viii be of potential use and interest for
fanners, agricultural managers, landscape architects, regibnal planners and
decision makers for scientific and comprehensive evaiuation of the impact of
different land management policies.
Period of study: June 1976 - 198(1
I SO
ECOLOGICAL STUDY OF HIGH ALTITUDE LAKES OF
KUMAUN
SM DAs
I u/Zoology
Kl:maun UJ1iversity
Nainital-263()() 1
1!Rumaun region abounds in it large numberoflakes but the infonnation
on the ecological status, hydrobiology, hydrology, morphometry, pollution
ecology and fishery biology is rather scanty.
The prescnt project aimed to study the ecological status of the Kumallll
lakes (Nainital and Bhimtal), their history, geology, origin along with their
catchment areas, physiography. cartogPlphy. mapping of the Dul1ahas bringing
pollution :nto the lakes. ;\ general SUIVCY of the main eco:ogical
other Kumaun lakes (Naukuchiata:, Sattal <!.nd Khurptai etc.) was also pre-
pared.
The physico-chemical, chemical and biological parameters \vere analysed
by stalldard methods. Spccia! biological indicators of pollution in lake Nainital
were reported. The metallic contcnts in water and sediments of Nainitallake
were analysed. iv1anganese and Lead were reported to be present above the
permissible levels for potable watcrslipply arc inimical to living organisms
including fish and man .
.. _ ........... The bacter;al pollution by colifonns was rcported higher than permis-
sible limit for potable water in the entire lake.E coli was the maiu bacterial
constituent and was usually associated withS'almonella and other pathogenic
bacteria which cause gastroenteritis, typhoid, paratyphaid, dysentry, diar-
rhoea, cholera and urinogenitai disorders.
l.'il
Occunence of mass winter fish mortality \Vas reported to occur during
December-Janu3TY in all the three years of the study. The causes and remedies
of the mnss morta}jty were eillcid'itcd.
Detailed stud'es on identification of !llUd fishes of Kumaun lakes,
feeding, breeding habits of some of them speciaily of7'or sr. revealed causes
of decline of Maha,eer (Ii)!' sp.) in Kumaun lake. Induced breeding was
attempted in Bhimtal to enhance fish production.
The study revealed that the lake Shimtat is oligotrophic and Nainitdl
entrophic and poiluted.
The study could be of potential usc to the Lake Improvement Authority
of Nainital and the remedial measures to prevent mass mortality of tish were
suggested to Lake Improvement Committee.
Period of ."llldy,' April19i7 - Morch 19RJ
152
COMPOSITION PROIHKTIVITY AND CARRYING CAPACITY
OF HIGH ALTlTUOE PASTURES OF GARIIWAL IIIMAL.\ VA
M )\'. SRIVASTAVA
I JepartiflcN of /JOlany
J) A V II' U) Cuilege
Dehradlln-2 -18001
\lIhe study was carried out in a high altitude pasture in Garhwal
Himalaya at Panwali kantha (3963 m) in district Tehri of Garhwal Himalaya
with the main emphasis on comllosition, productivity ilndcan-ying" capacity of
the pasture. Seven sities were selected on the basis of slope, exposure and
aspect. Each site rcprcscni...::J ...:haracleristic plant community. The species
composition, topographic consideration, soil moisture aspect and biotic
interference were found to provide distinct vegetatioll.
Production s[uciics \vcre made ill 3 plots viz. grnzed, protected and
deferred graze-ct. Below ground plant parts were til..:: main contributor or tufal
biomass in the study sites. rvlnxirnutn production was rec(nded 269.0 gill:; in
protected plot, 45.7 gm
2
in plot and 276.2 in del-erred grazed plot.
Observations irJeiicatcd that gmzed plots not only reduce the species diversity
(l4 species) but also the productive potential of these grazing bnd. HO\\'cver,
deferred grazing enhances species diversity (40 species) and production
gm-
2
)_
The existing grazing capacity oftJlc p<lsturc was 1, I cows hir' wh.:rcas
the potential grazing capucity at optimum suitable conditions \Va') 2.5 cOW;)
ha-
I
. Thus, the carrying capacity of the grassland is far below in proportion to
__ CLOOO) ____ --_ --- --_ .-------- --- -------
The study revealed that by anJ. large hi::;h altitudes were in
degrading phase and needed imlllediate ecological attention.
Period oIstlldy: A,tard: IYlU - tHan'lt 1988
\:;,
COMPARATIVE ECOLOGY OF RIVER CANDAK AN!)
BURHICANDAK
S S PI<ASAO
; )epwtnwnl (if'
UniversityafBihar
Muzajji:llp"r-X4200 I
.;nn the deteriorating environmental conditions the importance of clean
water can not be under estimated. The increasing urbanisation and industriCt1-
ization affect the sUlface water. In this study ecological behaviour of the the
two rivers flowing through north BiharnarnelyGandak and Burhi Gandak were
investigated with a view to study their physiochemical and biological charac-
teristics, Gandak river extends to about305 killS, from Balmikinagar to
passing through the districts of west ChamjJaran, east Champaran, Saran and
Vaishali and Burlli Gandak extends to about 41 0 kms ii'om Chautatwa in south
east of Bagha to Khagorca and passing througlr districts of east Champaran,
west Chaluparan. Muzaffarpur, Smllf1SlipUf tind Khagaria. Both the rivers tlov,,'
into the Ganga
..... - - .. i 1 11 e " "
.... ,,.. ...,;'PM1AI>' .! ..
1\ <'"
I \. \\ I /./'-..
1 /'
i.. '-'r/" ....
. _ PUlt81 / SLTAK/t1t
1il
J
,r Ctll .. IPIt. ... (M"OtHIIIA;tl
,,- "t\. 'hoI" '-.
p ( .: ,,": J ...... .. \""""'""'t .........
f' ....... _ .. .. -..... "1' ... _';m' illiff"" t...
"'"' ..... "'.oX "'II \ ""
r/ (""-
..... S I W '" I' ...r" "It'll . ...-_, C"
. - ...... it ' ..... . ... -"l
_

\. 1 r_.
"".. 1 i "
"=".> II.rFp",. / <............. I 'r
"-- ' '\ "".
r( \.
,j. ,;-.;-." ............... _____
----:> y==-' ''':.. .-' .
OF RIVER GANIM!.:" AND !;iJRW GANl)AK!N NORTI! iJlllA,t AND SiTE.
154
Eight sampling sites on river Burhi Ganda" three sites on river
Gandak were selected. Only one water sample was collected from the above
sites whereas at two points where effluents from sugar mill and themlal power
station join the rive, Burhi Gandak, three water sample, were collected viz.
,ample al hundred metres upstream, at the point cOilfluence and at 100 meter
downstream. Analysis for physico-chemical characteristics revealed that river
Gandak was characterised by a high pH at Balrr.ikinagar, Rcwaghat and
Hajipur during summer, dissolved 0, was recorded below lSI limits (6 ppm)
at Rewaghat during rainy season, total hardness above the highest desirable
limit of WHO (100 ppm) at Balmikinagar during aU the 3 seasons offrrst year
of project. The pH of river Burhi Gandak was recorded highest during summer,
the levels of free CO, was recorded above the lSI limit during rainy seasons and
dissolved oxygen below the lSI during rainy season. The total hardness was
recorded above the desirable standard of WHO at aU the sites.
The levels of magnesium and chlorides were also recorded above the
highest desirable standard. Iodide was found to he absent in both the rivers, the
reason for wide spread endemic goitre in north Bihar. Presence of high
bacterial density and high-number ofcolifOlm indicated hio!ogic.! degradation
of water quaiity and presence of many pathogenic bactetia in the watei efthese
hvo rivers. The study :-evealed that the water of river Burhi Gandak wa:;
polluted than the water of river Gandak in respect of physico-chemical and
biological characters as per the prescribed limits.
Period of study: July 1985 - June 1988
(5)
MANAGEMENT OF URBi\N ECOSYSTEM IN HOT DESERT
mOME - CASE STUIlY OF CHURlJ ANI) NAGAlJR IN
RA,JASTllAN
N S SAINI
School afPlanning and Archileelure
New Delhi-IIII()()2
Whe objectives of the research were i) Identification of urban eco-
system in terms of population size, extent and quality ofthe urban systems, land
use characteristics, microc1imatic characteristics; ii) ldcntification of critical
co!molable variables of the urban eoosystem which should lead to optimal
conditions if improved upon: iii) Evulution of method of estimating t!rban
development; and iv) lIlustr.tion of a method of nla!labcllmt of the urban
ecosystem keeping in view the neeus of development' and cOhstraints imposed
by the desert eco-system.
The approach adopted for the research included five phases, namely
literature survey, of data colicction and field surveys, analysis of data and its
evaluation, testing of hypotheses, and publication of final rep0<1. Each work
phase was sub-divided into two to four steps. For example, the fOUl1h phase
covered the steps of i) enlisting and description of variuus systems identi fica:
ii) establishment of cause and effect reiationship between the systems; iii)
.i.11 .. of avai lable quanti tati ve rc lati nnship;
and iv) identificat.ion of critical l"n use.
The main observations made during the research were: i) the natural
ecosystem of the arid to semi-arid and hot sand znnes of Rajasthan can
optimally suppon urban centres of specific range of population size ol1ly, ii)
150

I
L
design of the urban services systems should be governed by the dl'sen
ecosystem in order to be iii) the activity jystem of towns in hot desert
biorne reflect the desert conditioins; iv) the characterislics of land use
found in desert towns arc similar to many characteristics oftypir.allndian towns
of similar size; v) the physical form of a town is s[rungly influenced by the
desert conditions, vi) the socia! profile of the inhabitants is the result of their
culttlral background which is strongly influenced by desert conditions; and vii)
the services expected out of the social infrastructure <lnd urball facilities the
same as that of any other indian town comparabll! lU population
Based on the detailed working with n x 11 nr van;lhlcs, it' was
found that top iO sensitive parameters of urbal1 arc technology,
human product goods, built-form. hUIlUlil services. dmracter. human
recreation activity, mode of transportation, human working activity, human
living acti"ity. and human habitat condition, The problems of arid and semi-
arid zones i.e, hot uesert biome were identified 05 shifting movement of sand
Junes; low level vegetations; thrcntcning spread of rodents and insects, shifting
movement of luw productivity 0[' :::oil; l1tl;;..:rtdin and low
damage to vegetation by human Jeep level ground shortage of
drinking water; trcud ofcollve:ltional fanning and intl!stationsol'disel:lses. The
rese<lrch has brought out that 19 out of 3S paramcter3 taken inlhe rl:search
work need to be considefcd for development and managelllent of urban
ecosystem in hot dCSCl1 biome were: surface \vater. ground \vatcr, rain, soil
physical character, economic charm::tcr ofur'xlil settit:lilenls.lanu form, wind.
population social character, spatial climatic phenomena. fuel/energy, technol-
ogy, and human product goods,
The fimling,j of the research were found rdel/ant to hay!: scientific
solutions for planniilg and development at local and regional levels in tenns of
of resources, adoption of integrated approach, evolving an
organisational/legislative frame. An urban area having resources afland. water,
recreational ciimate, human, li.:e-stock, ent::rgy, huiit-fonn. other environrnen-
tai conditions, 'financial and institutional was suggested appropriate resource
conserving modules for which examples were evolved in the research. Till:
157
integrated management is suggested to have integration of different spatial
levels, different temporal horizons, different vaiues systems, different
organisation frames and the available technologies. The guidelines were also
givcn fvr the pattern of organisations with their proper improved working and
appropriate legislative system. The rese,uch lindings were supplied ,with
necessary explanatory note to the relevant plan;;ing and development agencies
at the town level, district level and state level in the Government of Rajasth(lfl
for use. . .
Period of study: July 1986 - June 1988
158
INTEGRATED ACTION
ORIENTED RESEARCH,
DEVELOPMENT AND
EXTENSION PROGRAIv1l\1E j'
159
WESTERN GHATS 1
" " = = = = = = = - = = = = = ' ~
==== - ----=,.,...-,,-=,---
INTEGRA TI<;I) ACTION ORlENTElI RESEARCH,
DEVELOPMENT AND EXTENSION PROGRAMME
- WESTERN GHATS
'illhe Ghtlts running parallc! to tlte west cnastoj1ndlatfront
- tlte river Tapi in the north to Kanyakumari in south, is!l hill chain
importance tf) the of peninsular India. Due to unplanned exploitation of
natural re.\'ources, the region is suffering/rom, destruction ofhahitat o/it\
unique plant and animal life leading to ,\'i1tatioflllnd reduction in the life
river valley projects alld slwr(IJr:e of fodder anti fuel. In vi.ew of this, the
Planning Commission felt tile necessity of reorienting tfte development
proce, ... .';for the !Jill are([s tlte country like tire Western Ghut.'t, If) ensure
sustainable uti/hilltiull and rebuilding of tlte re.wJUrce bqse of soil, water,
plant and animal life wIllIe striving to generate and sustain economic and
socia! well-heinK for the local people.
DurIng 19H2, a progrumme termr!!! as, "Universities and "eco
met!t'" was initi(!!ed fOl':U:;."diiU on the 3 ecological area3 viz tIle
HiltU1!l1Yll, the (,'lJndtl JJ:Jsin (Inti lhe J.}(!,,"tern Ghats.
Tlte programme aims to promote scientific research and extension
through projects and edu.cationaL actil'ilies related to the cco-development of
the region involving focal .... c!wol. ... , colleges, universities and government
agen ci C!'J.
The group COf1 .... titHicdj{Jr Western GltllU.: identifiedpriority areas
lan"d u.,'c ill relution to fund capability aspects, interaction nfhumankindwith ,
forests, de'..e/opment andfodder resources, water resollrces de1'e/op-
ment and utili:ju.lioll, industrial development and its' conser".:' -. -
wJ.tlon l!!'ld deIJe/opmel1t 1)/ biological re ...... OIl:-ces, human settlements and
tribal welfare, J;paith aspect", clllture, extension and education.
163
.4 numher of Researcllllnli /)cI'dOPIUCHt I'rojl::"I .... ' were and
initiated in "ariolls arcas durin;.; 19N3 and /11(1,\'/ of litem were
completed. Tile importallt /ii;.:f1li;.:hls project.\
bUl'e heell slIllImari.\"cll in the documC:llt.
The impact of KlIlImlu am/I\'e.n'llr have been quant{fied
including metal1lOrpho ... ;i.\ of/he riper due to humun inten'cnliom.'. Cau .... '@'
of pol/uti on ofOoty lake /JUl'e heell if1.\,/Jected and enl,ir()nmel1lu/ restorotion
measures su;:;:e ... ted po()JwtlaJic has heell studied ill detail in relation to
physico-chemical properties. Some la/(C!s Iil.e Vellna, Kas, Medha, Khan and
Kotiteerth in AlulwrasIJtra were ;'ll'csti;.:ated il1 relation to thdr physico-
chemical wul biological properties lind measures for tfreir rt!. .. toration
SlIKf:e .... 'tcd. Tile Palal (,'unga riper Itas heen ..... tudied ill re/Cllioll to Ituman
actil'ilicx (Iud impact oj" inl/II!t"lriu/i.'wli1m. The Itutllre of industrial wlIstes
hein;.: Je/ea.-oed in the Th'ers NiI;.:iri di. ... 'tric:I n:cre ilulIntified.
Afier 1I dc/ailed !cu.\'ihility SWI'C.!', 47 localiolls werc found potential
plr micro and min; hydd bi h"cra{u. IVu(er,\l!ed.\' ill C111kmag/(Jor
/Ji.\-(ric( wei"':: .\urI'eyed hI reiatiollt(J III1/ricnt r{!.L:I'l:/illl{ llJ1t1ltydrf){of:j'. A pre-
Cf).'1.\1rllctifJJl o/pro}Joset! project was
undertaken allli possihie impuCl ()Jl I'urir,u.\ of the re;.:ioll was
Riper hU.:";1J oIPlIil!l1i hills H'efC .,1udiell ill de1ail ill relation to soil,
plan!. ... ' and Iw ..... ts. TIre area."" I'nme 10 Imu!. ... Hdes lim! flint/slip .... ill Jf.l't1,lJd
di ..... trict were idcnt{/ied. Lal1d 1I.'le pu((crll lIud It/lid ,\"(udic.\' were
undcrtalien ill 24 Tail/Jills ,HlIlwJ'lJshlrll. An plan
. for .... e1ected mEtro catchment,,,,, ill tllc Ikdlhi-AgJIlH1ashi"i rh'c!" hU."ill wus
prepared bused on ."iciellt(/le lIlIalysis '!/"tflc l'e.WHrces IlllI'e heen tahen
lip hy the State for iml'it!I.Hentlllioll. I 'UriOll.' cl1l'irOllmCJltal prohlems
of Koymw ril'er clIlc/IIIlCIII were identijied .
. --.. - .. ----.. - .. -,_.>-- _____ ____ H._
...... H __ .. _. __ ... __ ._._ "
\'lIrvey amI com;en'utioll melislIres./iJr./lIlIlHlllndjlorll were identi-
fied. The role affilll;:i lind insects 'were fli;.:hliKhlecl.
ReJ;eneralio/l stlulie.\1I1l .rome import/m//rel''\" were under/alit:" fJJui
I'rop{JKUliol1 tedtniijue.'i standardised in naluralmoist deciduous forests
1M
Kero/lI, A;:To-jorestry If/crl1l/live .... were tt!sted Iud impl
in Keralll which fw." HOW hl.!en tllhcn III' hy lucal farmer.",' on their (111'''.
Sui"lable .\jleciex were idcll1flh:d jiJf plan/atioll progrommes iii Aera/a,
.\'acred ::roOl'cs were idclll({icil. Soil crosiolll'roh/em mulcr dij{"ere.III fUlld
uses were .... lUdied lIml restoration !1fi.:(/.",'ttrc:: ..... 'c:cI. '1
Pansbel {'a/cllmc,,: WitS studied lIlId .'"Ii/ahfe. mea ..... ure.' .. su::gcslcd. SlIilLlhle.
plaut ,"'pedcs wcre idelil(Jicd for mini,,;.: site .... ill (,'oa. Floristic of
.,'aCTed ,.;ro(Jve ... of were wlller/uken. Suitah/e tree lI11I1 joruf.{C
species lor hill slopes were itfentUicdfor PlIlglrat and Nilgiri Districts. A
gcrml'fasm UlIll/{ f!l was estahlislled {If K FRI, PeeL'''i. Propaga-
lioll technique .... ' for slIitaMe pimlf .... were standardised plr Han;.:ultJl'e and
K(J(Jr;.: J>i.\1ricl.':
,\'fleio-economic prob/elll.-..- per,\OI1.\uIlI/cr A"oJ'nll projecI
were .... IlIdied IIml "i;.:llIi;.;lIl.'d. ,foNudies in refatiol1 to trihals K (Je/lIifWl1aJ
und NiI{.:iri di ..... /riel ..... were lIuderllll,cn,
RIVER ECOLOGY IN RELATION TO MAN-MAD I': C1fANGf,S iN
TilE WESTERN GHATS.
N BALAKRISHNAN NAIR
Deparlmenl.of Aqualic JJio/()gy
and Fisheries
Universily of Kera/a
Trivandntm-69500 1
;lllI1 ith a view to understand the human impact on the river ecology, a
study was undertaken with the major objectives of analysing lhe physico-
chemical and biological aspects such as temperature, salinity, pH, alkalinity,
hardness, dissolved oxygen, light penetration, river flow, inorganic nutrients,
plankton, benthic invertebrates and industrial effluents in the two rivers
namely, the Kallada and the NeyyaL These two lotic systems are representa-
TIve models to direct human ;nfiuences, the fomler in regard to deforestation,
piant2tion and industrialisation and the latter with respeot to dcfcrestation "nd
impoundment.
. --
. -
'--
L ~ __ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ __
MAP Of KANY AKUMAlU DlSTRiCT
IGG
The length of the Kallada river is about 120 km. The total drainage area
of the river is about 1560 sq. kill. The soil in the basin is usually alluvial in
nature and consists mainly of fine silt. The soil in the hills are loamy in nature
with a great admixture ofltu,,,,,s. The climate is genera!ly hot and moist in the
lowland, withi" the high la"ds, it is cooler and drier, the temperature varying
with elevation. The seasons in the valley were reported to be controiled by the
two periods of rainfall viz., the south-west al,d the north-east monsoons which
precipitate in the months of June to September and October to November
respectively. Coconut oil extractions, Punalur paper mills, cotton industries,
cashew factories, pencil manllfacturing and canning are the main industries in
the basin with cotton weaving, pottery etc. as cottage industries. The emuent
from the Punalur paper mill is discharged into the river and this causes heavy
pollution of water from Punalur to Astamudi.
The Neyyar river originates in the Agastya hills at about 1860 m above
MSL. It is about 56 km long anu the total drainage area is497 sq. km. The " .r
basin is more rural in l(lnduse. The soils in the area of the Ney;. ar
basin has been divided into clayey soil, clayey it,Htn, loamy soil, l .. terite
sandy soil and soil on rucks and pure rock OlltCl'OpS.
From the results of the hydrographical and biological aspects ofthe,,' ,
river systems along the Western Ghats, the foilowing conclusions were dra\\n:
(i) As a result of extensive deforestation, industrializaion, urbanisation and
dam construction, replacement of natural bic.mass by monospecies cultivation
like tapioca, rubber, tea etc was discernible. The investigations showed that the
headwater stream" of Kallada were relatively unperturbed as compared to the
-downstream: ... _ ... _ ..................... _._ .................. _ ................ .
ii) The dam in the master stream of Neyyar had caused considerable distur-
banoes by changing the lotic system into lentic system. The struc'ure ned
funotion of the loti" system tend to shift from one to another caused changes
'67
in the geomorphological and biulogical aspects. i"he illcidence of shredders
and collectors 111 the benthic invertebrates in the head wmer s.treams had
completely changed even in the sr.;cond or third ?rder stream level because of
the dam, the river continuOus5tudy following cO!lccpaniizes the entire 1'luvial
system as a cOI;tinl!ously iniegratil1g series of physical gradients and assoeiated
biotic adJustments and it revccils the holistic approach which has been con-
ducted in s:hafl streruns to large rivers of{wpcr{urbed temperate nehvorks. The
studies on lhe Ncyyar River revealed that the concept was quite petlinentto the
tropical counterparts and the temporal and spatial variations clearly substanti-
ated the i deos.
Period of study: October /9R3 - October /986
RIVER METAMORPHOSIS OUt,; TO IIUMAN INTERVENTION
KP'l'liR1VIKHAMAJI
!)epl!:tmt:nt oj"Geology
Un;IVcl'sily
Karfm'afl()nt r;Y558:
tudies in the Neyyar river basin (418 km'- area). ene of the 41 river
./
basins of Kerala emptying into the Laccadive sea, ill Trivatillrurn district were
undertaken with the basic goal to arrive at well rounded Cfmclusions on the
question of whether or not this river basin, has lI11ucrgoll: any seriolls and
irreversible changes as a result of human activities.
The major types of hum an interventions ill the basi n are .. (a) construction
of an irrigation dam for storage and control h.:d release of \\ al1"rthrough a system
of canals for in-igation of paddy alld other crops. (b) large scale development
of rubber plantations in place of 11(llural and secondary fore51!4 and (c) remuval
of channel s;ll1d for use ill constructioll industry.
The geological and gcomorpllological aspects oftheG:tsin were worked
out by actual field mapping by siudy of ,lcli.11 pholograrMi of the area and
comparison of topographic maps of I :():n60 and I :50,OO()scalcs; alongwith
monitoring of stream discharge at a large number of jumie-ns of tributaries
with the main stream; collection ofwaler samples at the e'gaged" sections for
estimating the suspended and.dissolved rain 6 selected sub-
basins to generate rain fall data; and monitoring of the sedment movement at
the summit slope, mid slope and foot slope, in six sclectedsiopes using "Bed
stead type erosion gauging frame;'.
The slream length shrinkage from 735.7 km (1914 7 km (1%9)
wns due to large scale changes ill (he land use of the area. vcgetati.on
bad given place to orgaliised plantations of ditTcrent sorts. TIle land manage
w
ment and developmcnt activities hnd given rise to climinaion cr the lower
order streams.
The jjHillg arthe reservoir had affected someelements oflhe pbysiospllere
ns well as generated some new elements as part of it. The base level of the
SiTeams upstream of the reservoir underwent' change due to the hac.kwater
effect, whieh resulted in the development of a line of marshes along the coves.
Further, large tongues of sediment also accumulated along the sites_ The
marshes developed on the sub-aerial portions of the Gilbert type deltas, that
developed it! the coves. The under water portions of these deltas grew
considerably in size in the last 2 decades, slowly diminishing the capacity of
the reservoir. During the low water periods, the sediment tongues got exposed
in the reservoir bed. The accelerated sediment production resulting from land
use changes in lower parts of the catclunen! continued to propel large quantifies
of sediment load into the net work, and into the reservoir reducing the life of
the reservoir which is likely to chanl\e depending on landuse ill future.
It was suggested that in addition to adopting afforestation programme
ill the catchment, several oftbe time-tested sedimentation menace steps could
be taken to monitor the sediment coneenn-ation (total load) coming into the
res'7"T'Voir:throug.hthe various major contributOI)' streams. on a regular basis so
that tile rate of sediment input into the reservoir CQu!;J ue estimated and benefits
cf the atTorestation and se<liment control :ncthods be assessed fur further
modification or improvement.
The sand burrowing activity requires attention. The annual off t..ke of
sand has been estimated at j 80,000 tormes per an!1um_ The rate of sand rem ova;
had exceeded even the suspended and dissolved load flux through the
network. The sand burrow.ed from the sectors at Olathalm; and Palayakada etc.
were from the sediments oftate Neogene age. This must be taken as a sign of
depletion of modem sand in the net work as well as the exceedenee or sand
. ___ ,_ .. activity over the quantity of saud annually received_ It had been
. estimatecftiliitClue fOsand removal there is an annuaJ Joss of about one million
rupees by the uprooting of yielding coconut trees that had otherwise lined up
on either banks of the channel.
170
The preferential burrowing activity uf gravdly sand has incr;;!ased the
content offines in the substrate or the material that is leftover in the stream
channel. The spawning ground of the aquatic life been tumc? upside down,
resulting in the reduction of fmIllal diversity. The soil loss from the cultivated
slopes amounted 140,000 tonnes per year
The Neyyar basin has a considerab:e area under different plantation
crops, which was orginally under forest cover The transposing afforest land
into agricultural land resulted in an increase supply of sediment into the
channel neh.'/ork. The rale of erosion of the catcbment had been estimated at
1.0 to 1.5 mm/yr. on the basis of the load.
The reduction of the stage height and frequcncy of bankful or flood
flows, after the commissioning of the dam at Kallikad caused modifications of
the channel of the master stream. In fact. the reduced channel capacity was not
very lIluch visible through out the master channel. The sand burrowing activity
had led to the deepening of the channel or towards increased channel capacity.
Peril)d : /iptil 1983 - April 1986
171
ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION 01' OOTY LAKE
V N RAJA RAo
CA S. ;" B010l1Y
Universily olMadra ...
Madras - 6{)0025
'illhe Ooty lake situated at an altitude of 2500 M in Tamil Nadu is an
artificial lake serving essentially as a recreational facility, Urban sewage
flowing through the stann water cha,mel and runoff from agricultural faonland
constitute the only water source providing the lake with a voluminous load of
silt, organic matter and a wide array of pollutants. Over the years the physico-
chemical and biological characteristics of the lake have been altered to such an
extent as to make it eutrophic and a highly polluted mass of water supporting
a rich alga! flora during the monsoon and a dense bloom of Eichornia crass;"es
(Mart) Solms during the lean period when inflow from the stann water channel
is minimaL
The objectives of the study were to analyze the physico-chem ical
characteristics ofthe stann water channel and the lake in order to evaluate their
impact on growth and productivity of phytoplankton algae and to critically
assess the impact of domestic wastes Oli microbial populations,
Hydrological studies were carried out to assess the water quality of the
storm water channel and the lake. Biotic components were qualitatively and
quantitatively enumerated in order to con'e/ate their OCCUlTence, abundance
and distribution in relation to environmental variables.
'.'-'--"._-. --,- .
.... . .. ----.--.-----.-... ---
-_ .. - ..... _ .. _ ..
The results revealed that phytoplankton counts as
Ihelic organic "reduction were high in the lake all L'1rough the study period
coinciding with high chlorophyll concentration and abundant nutrient supply.
On days when primary prodUCtion was high, dissolved 0, was also high. Water
in the storm water channel registered a vcry high'BOO wilh almost no DO,
'72
pigmcnts and photosynthesis. BOD in the storm water channel progressively
decreased and was the least at the lake outlet, suggesting that sewage on entry
into the lake not only got diluted but abo was mineralized with the available
photosynthtic 0, accounting for the reduced BOD in the iake.
The pI I maxima could be a!tributcd to increased utilization of CO OV
2
phytoplankton during maximum photosynthesis and thus pH cotn:lated in-
versely with free CO
2
in surface waters. Abundant DO in ihe surface waters
of the lake could again be correlated with high phytoplankton counts and high
productivity. NH
4
-N was high in the storm \-vater channel but comparatively
low in the lake showing an inverse correlation with nitrate and nitrite in the
surface waters. The low algal species diversity with only a few dominant
prolific species of green and blue-green algae contributing to the bulk of the
photosynthetic algal population and the sporadic minimal occurrence of
diatoms characteristic of clean waters emphasized the highly eutrophic nature
of the lake.
Standard plate counts did not show mHch variation betv,Iccn the storm
water channd and the lake. TOi";l! colifoHlls cOll.1prised e:ltirel) of faecal due
to heavy dischnrge of domestic sewage intc the stann water channel in the
lake, totai and fael:aJ populations were mm:imum at the p-i1try point and
progressively ckcreascd towards the Dutiet which !ndicHted their poor survival
putential.
Concentration of heavy metals viz., Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn and I Ig both in
the stonn water channel and the lake \vas not high ,1S to be considered
hazardous. Ho'wever, residues of ODT among organocblorine pesticides
exceeded limits of the recommended criteria for clean walers.
\Vith increase in depth, there \vas a fall in pH with a c()ilcnmitant
increase iii free CO
2
, A llecrcase in temperature, DO and Nr-I
4
-N '.vas observed
from surface waters towards deep wrHers. Distribution ofNO,-N and
exhibited an inverse correlation with P04-P and SiO,-Si increased
with depth. Chlorophyll concenlration was comparatively less in waters
ID
which reflected in minimal algal cell counts, Total and faecal califonns also
registered a decrease toward the bottom but standard plate count remained the
same suggesting a poor mixing of surf(lce waler.
As the lake is not stagnatlt with a flow system that allows a substantial
quantum ofwaler to escape out orthe lake to be replaced byfi'esh inflow during
monsoon seasons, this supports a high tum ov,cr rate and an equally rapid
mineralization assisting to a limited exte'nt its self purification, During non-
monsoon period especially during late winter and summer when inflow was
limited only to urban activity, temporary stagnation resulted in build up of
organic matter and conditions atleast in surface waters were quite conducive for
a dramatic increase of phytoplankton blooms and macrophytes, especially the
noxious weed, Eichornia crassipes whose prolitk growth mats over the
surface waters preventing light penetTation reducing, severely the zone of
primary production,
It was suggested that in order to prevent silting. dredging macrophytes,
I'!.)(J(e espec.iaHy the noxiolls water hyacinth: and divelting the city's sewQge to
minimize the organic load Hawing into the laKe are essential. With proper
!JlliI;ning, the inflow through the strom water channel could be regulated to
maintain a flow rate sufficient enough us not to adversely affect the self
puriiic"tion propelties of the lake,
Period of study : November 1987 - November 199{)
1-/4

MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF POOKOT LAKE
ECOSYSTEM IN THE WESTERN GHATS
P BASAl<
Centre j(Jr Water Resources !Jcve/opfiicm and Manugemenl
Kunnamangalam
Kuzhikude 673601
mhe study was undertaken with objective of collecting meteorological,
hydrological, physico-chemical, sedimentation, soil charatenstics in the
catchment and vegetation data, and to suggest scientific management and
conservation measures for the lake.
1
---------
,'. A_ 1a10'
I'
l
u, - .. .__ St.4l.l"
- ... r 'jQ
.
-.
DISTIller "'.JNI),U!'l'
I;AICH....,..:T .00<10"'"
1.,,1((
"0,,0 WI'TI'I 8111100;( .
IUVEIII
LOCAIIUN MAP OF i'O()KOT I./\KE
l75
""
..... ....
The meteorological parameters of the catchment of the Pookot lake
were studied based on the data collected from the field during 1985-1987
pertaining to rainfall, evaporation, humidity, wind and [cmperatme The
hydrological chamcteristics of the catchment were studied maklng use of tile
data collected during the period of the project on stream flow, spring flow,
outflow from the lake, infiltration, soil moisture, lake leve: fluctuations and
ground water level changes. Sedimentation surveys of the lake were conducted
just prior to the project and before closing the project to estimate the sediment
deposition in the lake.
The water quality of the Pookot lake was measured through samples
collected at fOltnightly intervals. For studying the diurnal variation of
plankton, samples were collected at bi-hourly intervals and analysed. Attempts
were made to identify the fish population. Measurement of productivity W'tS
done by light and dark bottle observation method. Benthic samples were also
collected from deepest and the shallowestpoltions ufthe lake for the biological
Soil S8111ples from different locations in the catchment of the
lake under various management practices were collected and an<-llj'sed a5 a pm1
of the study. A survey was conducted on the Pookot lake ',1'ea and
the major species identified.
A detailed analysis of the data has been provided. Based on the results
the management and conservation measures were initiated in the catchment
through persuasion by the investigaiors which included: declaring the catchment
as protected area, providing fencing along the water divide line of the
catchment for about 60% uf the total perimeter, planting the catchment with
indigenous species of trees and plants, providing sediment traps, preventing
application offertilizers in the coffee plantation of government land, disc,)ur-
aging felling of tTecs etc.
Period of study : November 1984 - May 1988
176
PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGiCAL ANALYSIS OF
SOME LAKES AND RESERVOIRS OF WESTERN GHATS
WITH REFERENCE TO POLLUTION
RKTRIVEDY
Y C College of Sciences
Karad-.415IIO
mhe study was undertaken to estimate the current water quality status,
flora and fauna, ecosystem functioning, impact of pollution on water quality
and future changes expected In the 5 water bodies of south western Maharashtra
falling in the districts of Sangli, Satara and Kolhapur.
2:!tM
3. Me..At.
4. Kmm
MAHARASIITRA AND LOCATION OF WAIER BODIES IN VAR..'Ous
177
The climatic conditions of the area were recorded which included rain
fall, temperature, humidity, physico-chemical parameters etc. Important
plants surrounding the reservoirs were listed, Soil characteristics of the
catchments of these lakes were rcpolteu as rcd latel itcs and black cotton soil.
The pollution levels of these lakes were fOlmd'to be very high due to fast
indust"iaJ development. Different aspects like flora, fauna, pollution from
point and non-point source etc, in respecl of lakes like Velma, Kas, Medha,
Khan and Kotiteerth were recorded. Ithas been rep0\1ed that in the absence
of safe source of dlinking water, poeple usc water of these lakes. The survey
indicated that they suffer a lot due to various diseases,
The study revealed that tile human activities like urbanisation. industTi-
alization, tourism, and simultaneous rise in population were respollsible
deterioration ofthe water bodies. Lack of sanitation facilities and potable water
supply had affected the water bodies. The water bodies studied in general had
high pH, low h'ansparency, rich mineral contents, anoxic stage, low dissolved
oxygen, high COD, high ammonia concentT<'Ition, high nitrate nitrogen.
equate phosphorus, high high phyiopianktoi, density ,nd ;,igh heavy
metal contents. These pa!'ar.teteis suggest that eutrophication of these lakes
was taking place very fast.
The study suggested that the fresh water lakes studi,ed were required to
be monitored very regularly using simple parameters, Further, the coordina-
tion among agencies like ilTigation, fisheries, Municipal Corporation and
drinking water establishment waS emphasised.
Peri(}d ofSludy: January 1985 - June 1988
17K
EFFECT OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AND INDUSTRIALIZATION
ON
I'ATALGANGA RIVER ECOSYSTEM
S A SURYA WANSHI
/)eparlmenr ofZO()/ogy
The Instilule of Science
J 5 Madam Cama J/oad
iJombay-.JIJIJ032
Whe Patalganga river originates from the Sahyadri hills, flows more
than 60 kms in Raigad district to join the Arabian sea, The river is polluted due
to the discharge of effluents from industries like petrochemical, organic
chemicals, dyes, insecticides etc.
E' 1\
:!l-tJ l::Ie 5r" ..
E Ch(l.......:r
MAl' I':\TA\ .('AN(iA RIVER ('OI!RSF.

The river water quality was analysed along the river course for a period
of one yt,;ar. The stations studied were: Tata Power House, Khopoli Bridge,
MIDC Bridge and Chawne.
The feal"res studied for assessing the water quality viz., temperature,
pH, dissolved oxygen, carton-dioxide, i.lOD, hardness, silicate, nitrate, phos-
phate and total suspended solids showed that the water at Tata Power House
was almost free from pollution and that of other stations were polluted to
varying degree. Though iron and manganese were present in high concentra-
tions in polluted water, the levels were below th.e WHO standards prescribed
for use of drinking water. Analysis of water for pesticide residues revealed the
presence of malathion, butachlor and DDT at MIDC bridge. Thewater quality
varied with seasons and was found to be related to the flow rate of the river and
the number of industries located on the banks of the river.
The biochemical paramelers (prOlein, glycogen, cholesterol, pyruvic
acid, lactic acid, aspm1ate aminohansferase, alanine aminotransferase, acid
and alkaline phosphatase showed significant variations in the
bivalve and fishes collected from polluted river water T"allsplanlation oflhe
bivalve fl om ttnpolluted to polluteu waters resulted in over 70% mortality and
significant changes in biochemical parameters. Long - telm exposure to iron
and manganese concentrations (highest concentration found in the river water)
and in combination (Fe + Mn) brought abuut alterations in biochemical
components and accumulation of these metals in the tissues. Both the metals
were accumulated in greater concentration in hepatopancreas. Although the
presence of the metals is below the WHO pennissible levels prescribed for
drinking water and is nol lethal to tire anilllals immediately, Ihe long lerm
exposure is certainly inflicting the disorder in physiological activities of these
animals, which lnay lead to ecocide alld death in due course of time.
,. -_ ... _- -_ ... _-_ .. _-" .-......... _ .... __ .,._ .. _ ... _ .. _--.. _----- -.-.. --- ..... _ .. __ .. _._--_.
Period o[study : April 19118 - Marcil 1991

EVALUATION OF THE EXTENT OF POLLUTION IN TilE
NILGIRIS (WESTERN GIIATS)
G V KOTJIANDARAMAN
IJc,naJ'lmem of Soii ,\'i .. ieJwf..' and
Axriclilfural (:hcmislty
Tamil Nadu G.D.Naidu A?,riclIitllrai University
COllnhatorl'-6.J J OW.
'ill he mam of the project \vcre to assess. the nature of
industrial wastes and to study the quality of river waters which can)' the
effluent from the industries in the Nilgiris. Soil. water and effluent samples
were collected Irom Cordite Factory and Hindustan Photo Iilm and uther
raclories ofNilgiris districts. The total suspendcd solid varied rrom 80 to 680
ppm, tht: highest was recordl:d in water snmplcs c.ollected from Glcllll10rgan
Tea ftlctory effluent, while rhe Cordite:: faCIOI)' contained Icwcst
quantity of suspended solid.
There W,15 considerable vari.,lion in the pH values ohvater samples. The
Cordite Factory etlluent was acidic \\o'ilh ct pH vahle of2.8 muJ the Ew.:aIYP'u5
distillary effluent was alkaline with a pH of 8.I.The samples from other
facturies were nearly neutral except in acti\''-1ted siudgc from Protl:in Products
of India fClctory" (PPJ), The electrical condt!ctivily also exhibited variations.
Some of the effluents raw' or activated sludge ofJ>PI factorYlccOJ"ckd EC
in the range of3 to 5.55 dSm'. The Corclite Faclory elIluent also recorded high
...... .J',C..value.of 3.83 dSn\".
The calcium con lent was particularly high. in I)Pf raw effluent possiuly
due to the usc of dicalcium phosphate and hOlle Incal in the manufacturing
process of gelatin.
1.,\1
The calL'Hic soda in case 01 IIPF industry, PPI and Cordite Faclory. lhe
Na content was high in the effluent. The SO, content was pmtieularly high in
needle and Cordite factory efilucnts, lar the tolerance limit of 1000
ppm. The sample collected during I'ebruary, 1989 ant! Deccmber, 1989
showed differences as intlnellccd by scasons. The total solids, BOD and COD
for all the samples wcre high in the samples colleetcd during December, 1989.
The other paramctt:rs like sodium absorption ratio, residual carbonate, poten-
tial salinity and penneability index were within safe limits. There was notmuch
perceptible variation in respect of micro nutrients like Zn, Cu, I'e and Mn and
in respect of other heavy metals such as Ph, Cr, Cd and Ni.
The results of the two potexperilllents indicated that efiluentwaters of
Cordite FactOlY and Hindusl"n Photo I'ilm can be used for irrigation with
proper amelioration. Addition of lime either to effluent or to sailor both was
found to be beneficial.
Period ofs!!ldy: Septemher 1980 - September 19911
lR2
FEASIBILITY SURVEY OF MICRO AND MINI iiYDEL
PROJECTS IN KERALA
V K DAMoDARAN
Calicut Regional Engineering Colle;;e
Knzhikode 673601
'([he feasibility survey of micro and mini hydei potential throughout
the State of Kerala was organised with the involvement of local Panchayats,
selected students and staff of all the Engineering Colleges in the State and
officials and experts unattached as well as belonging to various Departments
and agencies. Thus the main objective has been fulfilled to the maximum extent
,---

). Bhif ..
.......
1. a-..np;
6, Olibr
,.-
..
9. J:nn1l

L1. bmlplnttl
I1.K ........
u.
v
..........

[;.'I'IIIickny

Ol.l'I<duJ:l;;>l
,6. 1Co<uYu1tl1

...
19 Muv:>t\UJ.Oom.
30. Moen.<hI
3t.1ohnimola
" .....
llAchantovil
""""'
... ".K .....

n.Ayl'l<
31. v.,,....upIftm
19.Munom
.... \Unma:'JI
41. Neyyzr
.a lCabIN
._. ___ ..H.lbbc, .. _ ________ .. _ .. _
17. kn:tiyD
1'I.Kabyi
"."-


DRAINAGE MAP OF KERALA
IS>
in this project. All the 44 River catchments were surveyed and the mini
(10 I K W to I OOOK W) and micro (upto I OOKW) hydel potential identified at 57
locations. A systematic presentation of the results is another highlight ofthi"
project work. A third advanlage is that a ready reference for locating and
t:1ppillg the natural resource without any ecologicai disturbance is available and
is thus able to show an alternative route for enviwnment - friendly use of
resources and conservation.
Though 90 sites were inspected, only 57 natural falls with 10 III height
and above (only 3 exceptions) were studied in detail.
The methodology consisted of circulating a questionaire ill local lan-
guage, especially to the Panchayat Presidents. GTP maps were scanned.
Infonnation from Departments such as Forest and PWD and Electricity Board
were gathered. Ninety potential sites were selected f(,r detailed survey by the
students.
The procedural steps consisted of
Reconnais3ance and physical identit'!cation of site
Collection of discharge data andlor rainfali data
Expioration of the catchment area and photographing the site
Contour survey of the location, where project is visualised.,
In the final choic:e, the criteria applied were
Accessibility of site for transpo11ation of consllllction n,"lelial
Nearness to load centres
Remoteness to existing grid supply lines
Environmental considerations
.l\1i,nimum civiJ construction and pcrcnniality
IX4
The report gives a tabular presentation o f . ~ 1 i vital parameters rdated to
the selected sites, and a standardised report pattern of each site as follows:
A sutn!nalY sheet with 22 Itdn of infonnatiop in a fixed order,
A part of the river, indicating the site,
A photograph
An onc page sUlllmary giving location details as to IlOw to reach
the site, hydraulic particulars, details and results of consider-
ations indicated
The report also gives a detailed discussion on the power calculation,
type of equipments availahle, method of their choice and such relevant
information on the technology.
Period o(slllell- : April 1983 March 1986
135
ORGANIC PRODUCTIVITY NIJTRiENT CYCLING AND SMALL
WATERSIUm HYDROLOGY OF NATURAL FORESTS AND
MONOCULTURE i'LANTATIONS IN
CHlKMAGALUR DISTRICT, KAI{NATAKA
H RAM.'CHANDRA SWAMY
Sri J C 13 M College
Sringai 577/J9
collection in the Westem Ghat tract of the district yielded 2,252
angiosperm specimens identified into 824 species belonging to 124 families.
207 species are unreported and are in addition to the f1oraofthe District. Among
the species collected are 319 herbs, 129 climbers, 122 shrubs and 254 trees.
in representative, undisturbed I ha plots of pre-
montane Sh01a, high-altitude evergreen, semi-evergreen and moist deciduous
forests have led to ducidation of for..-:st structure. biomass and
productivity were estimated and found to be at par with those of other tTopical
.ain forests. Measurements in 58-yr Teak, a 22-yrEucllJ)'P!US aad a 13-yr'
Acacia 1J1antation showed that Teak was the most naturalised and Acacia most
productive; Euwlyplus perfonned poorly among the monocultures. Leaf area
indices showed that the evergreens are most able photosynthetically and shola
least among natural forests, and Acacia is found io rank high among monocul-
ture plantations.
Soil studies indicated that top soils were less acidic than the deeper
horizons, and that high-rainfall areas had more acidic soil. CEC's were lower
....... _ ..... _ ... and in monocultures than in natural forests, and, decreasing dowr,
the soil was higher
and better available in high-rainfall areas; irrespective of higher organic C in
these, the CIN ratios in plantations and drier areas were higher indicating a
faster eluviation ofN. K, P, Ca and Mg levels were highef in the low-rainfali
areas. Micronutrient deficiencies were not indicated anywhere.
186
Nutrient cycling was sluuied based lIpun litter dynamics, lIve-tissue
analysis and on standing Nutrient fluxcs were found to be muff!.
Nutrient return') ranged from 62to 88% of nutrient uptJkr.:s, indicating rLason-
ably 'tight' nutrient cycling. Only J of the total inllrgiioic nutrients of the
ecusystems were fm_liid 10 be locked up in the standing blomass. Nutrient
cyding was more efficient in plantations and in Silvia than in natural foresh.
Although nutrient capital of Elica/ypllls plantation wa,; only 29% of that in
natural forests, it was found to be the most efficient nutrient utiliser.
Hydrology ofa small watershed harbouring a semi-evergreen forest (4.6
ha) indicated that surface nlll-off depends not on!y 011 precipitation but also on
its distribution, indicating significant subsurface undcrnow. An avcmge of
42% run-oft: 34% recharge and underflow were obtained tor the period of
study.
Period FebrlllliJ 1986 -If.farc/J 1989
IX,
LONG TERM ENVIRONMENTAL. ANi) STUDIES
Of I'OOYAMKUTTY HYDRO-ELECTRIC I'HOJECT, KERALA-
PRE-CONSTRUCTION STAGE ANAL.YSIS
S KEDAJ<NATH
Keralu Fores! Research Institute
Peechi, Trichur 68IJ653
'QIhe project was taken lip to generate bench-mark data pertaining to
existing land use, vegetational status, soil conditions and properties, wildlife
status and human settlements and their impact.
The hydroelectric project envisages construction of a set of dams for
power generation in two st:1.ges. Stage I involves construction of a dam across
Pooyamkutty river at a place near Pindimedu, situated in the Devicolam Taluk
ofldukki district. Construction of a ;48 m high main dam and 50 m high saddle
dam create a reservoir with an effective storage capacity of i02; mjJIion m).
The catchment area ofd," first phase of the project will cover 272 km' ?nd the
submergible area 28 kill' (2800 ha.) whereas Stage !l envisages harnessing the
streams in the upper reaches of Pooyamkutty and Idamalayor by constructing
a set of 5 additional dams. The study focussed on the area covered by Stage I,
except in the case oflanduse and floristic studies which extended into the upper
reaches.
Landuse studies revealed that 37% area was under mixed forest, 32%
area under reed mixed with other species, 5% area under pure reed, 4% under
teak plantation, 4% area under forest blanks and crops and 18% under other
uses. Vegetation a! in and around the
project site were highly degraded due to repeated annu;1
the flora of the region was prepared and status of each species was recorded.
Ii1 Pindim.edu region 340 species of flowering plants and 171 species in
Anamala region were reported alongwith the economic uses. The soil erosion
study revealed that 3 7% of the basin was subjected to low rate of erosion, 37%
tKK
moderate and 26'Yo soil erosion. A survey of faullrli indicated
presence of elephants (about 50), wild pigs, sambar, gaur, bonnet macaque,
uear, wild dogs and anum ber of birds. The upperreaches of Pooyamkutty were
found to import,lnt frolTl point of forest continuity.
The impact of the Pooyamkutty Hydroeiectric Project were classified
into two major kinds - (i) direct impacts and (2) indirect impacts. The most
obvious direct result oftlte dam is submersion of the natural landscape. Stage
I win result in submersion of about 2800 ha. of land leading to immediate
revenue increase from tree felling but sustained yield oftimber and other forest
products will no longer be available from the area. Altogether there arc 340
species ofangiospcrms (flowering plants) of which 65 endemic to Western
Ghats south of Kamal aka were recorded. Although these endemic species were
reported from outside the study arca earlier, their present population outside the
study area is not known. Limited study on larger mammals revealed that the
area was not rich in wildlife. No evidence was obtained for the occurrence of
tiger and lion tailed macaque. The avifauna was moderately rich. The larger
dQm
P'lolXl'ffl doms
j'()(lYi\i-!Klrny P[{()jECI CO!\lI'LEX
IR'J
1
I
I
mammals and birds are likely to move- to adj.lcent areas. A major impact of the
submergence is the displacement ofhulllan population. The two tribal sdtle-
ments of MlIthuvails at Kurathikudi (59 housdwids, 249 persons)and at
Mettanappara (60 hOLiseholds, 233 pcr::;olls) as wdl as part of the non-tribal
settlement at Anakkulam (G5 household, I pers""s) i.e. a total of 773 persuns
will gl!t displHced if the dam is constructed. Pooyallll:.utty and the sunounding
areas represent a rich habitat of reed. It wa< estimated til'll 23,500 Ions ofreeds
are extracted evelY year from the Pooyamkuuy area meeting 43% of the reed
requirement ofKerala State Bamboo Corporalion and a part of the requirement
of Kerala Newsprint Limited.
The powerhouse proposed at Pinavool' wiil result in displacement of34
households with 152 persons belonging to lVlulhuva, Araya and Ulladan tribes.
In addition, the area contained one oftile few patches (ahout 15 ha.) of/ow lying
dipterocarp forests. If both stage I and II or the proposed Hydroelectric
Projects afe implemented, fragmentation of the forest area will take place. 'fhe
huge labour force introduced into the area for the project work will require
f uelwood. for cooking and \'1i11 r\!SOI1 to incii scrim i nate fei! in,!; of trees and hUllt
wild animais for food. Increased !1lll11an and improved accessibility
will o'igger a series \)fl!ucantrollable landusc changes ii"l and around the project
area. The indirect impacts of Ihe IlydrDclcctric projects are !I1ore detTimental
than the direct impacts.
Pe:iod ofSludy : lU/wary 1985 - Augu . / 19119
ASSESSMICNT OF NUTRlI':NT POTENTIAL OF SOILS OF
WrSTERN GHATS AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTiON OF
SOILS, PLANTS AND RIVER WATER BASINS
A GOPALSWAMY
IJeparlfllent qlSoif S'cience and
Agl'icu/Lliral Chemisfry,
Tamil Nadl/ Agt'icl/ltuml University
Coimhatnre-64 I 003
Xllhis project was undertaken on a Illulti-disciplinary approach and
involved soil science and agricultural chemistry, entomology and plant
pathology as its components. Eleven sub-projects were formulated and re-
search work was taken tip in the Palani hills of Western Ghats.
The work was c(]ITied 0111 with the object to generate dalaon soil fcrtilit:v.
soil morphology, physical and rhcmical prupcrties of soil, pesticide residues
in soH and plant products, quality of water, pesticide and f e r t i l ~ r usc pattern
by the farmers, important inseCT, pests and their !1atural enelllk:s with proper
management tactics and impultant diseases on the major CfOp5. in the PaJani
hill region.
The soils of Palani hill region were found to be acidic, "",,-saline, high
in available nitrogen, low to high in phosphorus and potassium stltus, except-
ing calcium and magnesium. The crop response to addition of fertilizers \vcrc
studied fOf different crops, to fix qptimllm dose and time interval. The soils
were found to be deficient in zinc to a larger extent and copper tulesser extent.
_lTorr-mnI-lmll1ganese-\verefumrdw-be-above1:he-criti1:ll1-limir--_ ...... _ .... _. __ . __ .-.. _-_ .. .
Soil morphology studies revealed the land capability" support allY
type of vegetation. Soil physical environment was found to betonducive for
supporting crop growth_
IYI
Quality appraisal of different water sources revealed that the waters
were exceilent to good but water sampies from region were found
to contain residues ofa-BHC endosulfan and heptachlor. The potato samples
of Kodaikanal regions contained the residues of and contaminated
with colouring agent caHed "Metani1 Yellow," The fanners were advised not
to resOlt to the practice of uSiIig colouring agent.
Coffee green bug, Cuccus viridis could be controlled by mono-
crotophos padding at 1 ml!plant or by carbosulfan 1.5 ml/plant whereas sooty
mould of coffee by spraying maida solution @ 2 Kg of maida l1ourl10 litres
of water on the leaves of coffee.
Furadan 3G @ 25 g/plant at the time of planting and monocrotophos
stem injections diluted with water (I :4) from seventh month onwards and
continued at 45 days interval was found to be effective in controlling the aphid
vector of bunchy-top virus in Banana.
The leafminer (l,nd fruit thrips or. mandarin orauges were coutrolled hy
0.05% carbosulfan spray Soil-fUlTON application of Fllmd"n 30 @3 g/m at
the time of planting and either Rogor(0.C3%) or Coroban spray(0.05%) at45th
and 75th day after planting was adequate for the potato crop.
Monoerotophos padding was not recommended for controlling woolly
aphids on apple trees.
Period ufstltdy: May 1984 - April 1987
In
LANIlSlIl'S AND LANOSLIDES OF WYNAD DISTRICT
(KERALA) IN THE WESTERN GHATS
L C KANDASWAM!
ji)r Waler Resources Development
and Management
Kozhikode 67360 I
mhe study was carried out to identify the causes for lands lips and
landslides in the Wynad district as well as to locate the areas prone to such
phenomena in the region. Studies with special reference to the laws of
drainage, basin composition, shape and fonn, factors to understand the contri-
bution of geomorphology to mass movement, geological characteristics, case
studies, interprelation of satellite imagery and aerial photographs for idcntify-
1 1ll',Yl10N fI.-1J\i' or WYNAD DISTRICT

ipg areas vulnerable to I:mdslip, hydrological and erosiun characteristics to
understand their influence and impact on mass movemtnts in the Wynad
district \-'Jere calTied out.
The project involved collection of past data, instrumentation develop-
ment for collecting hydrological and rnetcorological data as weB as creep
charactelistics. Detailed field inspection/experimentation and collection of
rock and soil samples for laboratory analysis were also earned out.
In an area subjected to a major mass movement (chooralmala), limited
agro-forestlY and agro-enginecring measures were introduced to achieve
stabilization of soil. Though it was practically difficult to identify the major
immediate cause for a landslide/landslip in the Wynad area, it is possible to
identify a host of causes which played a vital role in causing the landslide/
bndslips. Some of the major causes identi fled based on this multidisciplinary
study included (i) unfavourable geological formations such as velY thick soft
lateritic deposit, presence of viscous plastic clay and highly weathered and
fractured rock basement; (ii) large-scale indiscriminate deforestation; (iii)
steep "IQpes; (iv) pr.::senc.e oftensioil cracks; (v) intense ra
1
!1fal!; and (vi) loss
oj shear strength or ovcrlJi!!-den coupled with tampering of the natural
drainage system.
The studies suggested that proper channels could be provided by the
sides of the road to drain out waler; continuous ()nd unfavol!rable undercutting
at the hili slopes for construction works may be minimised; appropriate
roadside afforestation policies may have to be formulated; suitable agro-
forestry and agro:'engineering measures may be taken up immediately in
vulnerable storing of water in stretches of slopes, which were structurally
unstable and weak, may be avoided; existing culvelts should be provided with
sufficient crosssectiona1 area for .. to)..TI1!.S;S.ID9.Y.G:: .. , ..
and awareness programmes with the
help of voluntary organisations should be regu!arly conducted.
Period "f.-tudy : .IUI1UOiY 1985 - April 1988
194 .
LANIHJS PATTERN ANO CAPABILITY STIIOIES IN
SOIJTlll\lA1JARASIlTRA WESTERN G!IATS
S C SJII:-.tflE

Shil'aji {Inil'ersily,
Ko/hapllr .f/6004
1ITand has been considered as an important asset of the nation <llId its
utilization manifests the relationship he tween man and land. The
pressure of population on land has leu to increasing demands for food and olht.:r
materials to be obtained from land. But (he way this precious has been
and is being liS ed, has inevitalJly generated Janduse problems clilminalint! in
serious ecological irnb<lbnces. This situation calls for a sySh:'J1H1til.:
of land resources in their spatin-tcmporal context pinpointing the
areas. It is SLId! areas in which plarllling strategies cnn be adopted for
modlfyiilg. lbc landm:c.
fn the aforesaid f..:ontext ihe project dealt \\"ith the spr..lio-h,. ,iI
distribution of landuse and land capability in p;'lrts td- South ;vlah"i.1
Western Ghat.s Region t\Venty four ti.lluka.s.
The study revealed that arable bnds accounted I"rl," nfl' :li
geographical area. In the !Ion-arabic category abuut I J () \.Jf lilt.! eU,- is
under foresrs which was mllch iess than thai of the state average. Tf lid
capability clr'lssific<-ltion indicntcd thai fldditional ar("":, could be {)I L:_ht
under fon:st. Tlte cultuf;,bic wastelHnds had n.:curdcd a f!"lllll I;'j
to 13.47%. The land capability analysis alsu indicated that 5. lZ%) of the
wastelands could be hrought under tree crops on the windward side oj {he
weste.rn Ghats. Attempts \.'1er<; rnadc to t,ile anJ nature of LJ}-est
in the region. Thirteen percent of the area had a potential for afforestation and
grazing. This called for active participation of the people. The ofticial data in
resp<:cr of ce.tain categories of landuse like forest did not continn the field
situation. As such lhere was a need for micro-level investigation to generate
realistic data by employing modern techniques like aerial photographs and
satellite imageries.
Period of .. tudy: Augw1 1983 - March 1986
"'---',._- .... _._-_ ... _ ... _ .
. ..... ' - ' - " ~ - ~ ' - " - ' - ' - - ' - -
J9h
ECO-DEVELOPMENT OF SELECTED MICROCATCHMENTS IN
THE BEDTHI-AGIlANASH1NI RIVER BASIN OF TilE UTTARA
KANNA()A DISTRICT OF KARNATAKA STATE
MADHAV GADCIL
indian inslilule ol.,)'defJce
Banga/ore - 560 (J 12
'iTIhe project was taken lip to prepare all cco-development plan for
Gangavali and Aghanashini river basins on the basis of resource survey and
with the involvcmclItoflocal agencies and institutions. Fourmicrocatchmcnts
each of around 400 ha, representing different ecological zones in the basin were
identified as focal localities for the programme. These included village clusters
like Masur, Taltikai, Sirsimakki ami rvfalenalli.
I
.. ---. - - - - - - - - ~ ; f
I,
MAP OF tnTARA f\.ANNAUA SllmVIN(i \.(lCATH)N Ill: SI:I.I:crED MICROCATCIIMENTS
Two kinds of activities \vere initiated. first related to
action for gaining contact and h-ust of locals, and the second related to
preparation and implementalion of a ll1ic:rolL:vel for the ii1tegrated devel-
opment. Survey and inventOlying were of the status of the resource like land,
water. cultivated crops. orchards, livestock, natural plants and animal life as
well as the hUlllan population. "The data were collected through intcrviev .. 's of
all the families, survey oflHnd and writers within the catclllllcnt involving local
graduates. Resource base survey gives a static picture. Documentation of folk
knowledge and traditions of resource use were also recorded. Masur-Lukkeri
villagers collect only deadwood and OIY leaves and drift wood floating down
at the time offload. Desilting ofirrigatioll tanks by community eftf.)I"ls lias
stopped for long time leading to problems of siltation. Number of cattles were
repOIted to be more than the carrying capacity of the catchment.
was suggested as live fence. Eco-development task force was set lip in each
micro-catchment involving locals. Case studies were widely circulated and
discussed with state officials 1"01" possible solutioll.
The identified package ofprogra'llfllcs were finalised in October, 1987,
and the document b:::came starting poi;lt for the Govt. of l<.al11ataka and
incorpofating a few !lew ideas, fhe p.ctLiai Govclllment prQgrtl!nmes nrc being
implemented, although there has some further deviation at tile time of
implementation. Despite setting up of district level coordination committees.
each depmtmcnt/agency separately executed with little coordination.
Period O/stlll(V: July 1986 - ./une 19X9
19X
KOYNA CATCHMENT: AN ENVIRONMENTAL PERSPECTIVE
K Sn'A
Deparfment ofGc()graphy
'. l!llir"",-iiy uf/Jomhay
Bombay - 4()U(}{) I
~ iver basins attracted the attention of man initiallydIJe to their fertile
soils arid later as viable units for regional planning', Today", their significance
for planning has been enhanced as they are an importallt components of
watersheds which are undergoing a cdownward spiral of eco.logical degrada-
tion.' It is in this context that an indepth study was undert.alen of the 'Koyna
River Catchment' to focus on environmental problems, their"causative factors
and identification Gf llfca-spccific and people-specific developmental strate-
gies.
KoYNI\ CATCllt-.'IENT - toeA 110N AND SI'ACE RE!.lfIONS
\')9
Th\! study was carrir.:d out in the narrow catchment ofthe Koyna River
encompassingan area of about 2000 s'I.Km. A detailed 'napping of slopes and
ofthe status offorest cover was canicd out together with an an,alysis ofphysicul
and socio-economic t::haracteristics,
It vias ub-sentcd tilat the region comprisillg the upper catchment was
affected by tourism centred on the hill station of Mahabaleshwar. There were
positive gains observed in terms of of agriculture and
economic diversification. The negative impacts arose from increase in
vehicular traffic and the resulting air '1nd noise pollution; intensity of these
varied with location and the local people are co"cemed about the
of land by estate-agents.
The second region alongside the reservoir had suffered due to the half-
hea,ted rehabilitation programmes. These had resulted in the displaced persons
being allotted sites just on the upslope side of their original settlement or far
away from their homeland in an incompatible environment. In the fanner
instance, they had cleared steep slopes and in view of the shallow nature of the
soils, they had to res0rt to shining clillivation which in tum had ret.ultcd in
extensive dt:foreslatioll, In the second case, sonic of them could not assiillilatc
in the main ::m'eam of the new environment and ha(J :'eturned to eke out a
precarious living,
The third region compriSing the lower middle catchment was
characterised by encroachment of cultivation on the moderate and steep slopes
due to population pressure, which was panly due to rehabilitation.
The last region was characteristically the command area of the lower
catchment. The environmental problems existed from poor water management
__ .. _._. __ 'chibdi' soils developing in Imlches.
Some areas also had the problem of soil salinity, As the measures for
conservation are too costly to be undertaken by individuals, no etlcctive
attempts were made to reduce tile severity of the problem.
Period o/_.tudy: December 1987 - March 1991
2011
STUDIES ON THE POTEN'I'IAL AND CONSERVATION OF THE
,RESOURCES OF ANIMAL ORIGIN I"ROM WESTERN GHATS
JAY S SAMANT
,\'duw/ (1'H'il'ironmental Sciences
Shivaji UniversilY
Kolhapllf 4 J 6004
Western Ghats display a wide ecological speCll-um, In the recent years
anthropogenic activities and devdopmental processes have led to gross envi-
ronmental degradation in the hilly forest and riverine ecosystems. The
objectives of the investigations were to study the present slatus of animal
diversity, to study the anthropogenic impact on the environment in-situ, to
monitor Panchaganga River System (PRS) and to study the fish and fisheries
in the river with emphasis on past and present status of fisl\ diversity and
fisheries potential and changing conditions of fishermen community.
nle study area is l\)I;.aled between 16 I 0' to 174-6' North and 735' to
745' East arr: ... of I 084 sq km wh:i,;h includes catchment areas
:)f 4 major dams nameiy Koyna. Warna, Radhanagari hon DOl)dhgallgi:1 and 3
newly declared (1985) wildlife sanctua;'ies viz. Chandoli and
Radhanagari. The investigations were abo carried out on the five tributaries
of Panchganga River System (total length 333 km, catchment 2603 sq km),
Qualitative study of five vertebrate classes, viz. mammals, birds, reptiles,
amphibians and fish was conducted. Reconnaissance type of evaluation of
habitat and fauna was employed. Quantitative studies were restricted to
mammals and fishes Survey of local population, 1999 householq, in 66
viHages was conducted by stratified random sampling technique. Hunters,
poachers and fOiest staff were interviewed seperately. In the PRS 20 physico-
chemical and bio!ogical parameters were studied at 16 stations for
Experimental fishing, 210 nettings at 16 stations, were conducted. Survey
method Was employed in 169 fishermen households from 26 villages, to
;;1Vestigate the past and present fish diversity and fIsheries potential of the PRS. ,
2Ul
A total of 493 species belonging to mammals (68), aves(284), rep-
lilos(73), amphibians(20) and fish(48) were recorded. There is significant
reduction in the arboral mamln:-tliml fauna namely, Uu!(da indica and primates,
FelGuris!a petalltis/s was rare. Density of camivore$ has declined drastically
due to huimlll interaction. Pan/hera has almost heen wjpcd out. Felis
ruhixinasa and Hyaena hyaena were not recorded. Axis (lxis and 1'elracerlls
quadricornis and Hose/Clphu., Ll'agucamelus once reported in the regioll were
absent. There were few records of Python mo/urlls and Varanus hengalcnsis
and no record of hannah. Wild herbivore like Hils Raurus, Sus
semf" and rodent Ify"l!';x indica showed increasing population t.ends and
consequent increase in crop raids were reported. Out ofthe 40 Sacred Groves,
1"0111 the study area, only 28 were intact and just II suppOlted minor wild
animal fonns.
The human impact i.e. dams, weirs, lift inigation, brick kilns, agricul-
ture aiid sugar and paper industry pollution is responsible for aJterations in the
wHter qUality and qmmtiry Ciiusillg degradation lo animal diversity in the PRS.
At least 23 fish species, out ofthe71 recorded in 1956, were absent during tIi.:!
investigations. This has adversly affected the life of the tt:aditional fisher,nen
commiJnity.
Low density and diversity of wild animnls in the study area was a result
of the fTa.gmentatjon and isoiation of habitat due to the ever increasing human
activities in the region. An average consumption of a household of 6
individuals was 11.6 tonnes!year. Shifting cultivation, lopping of trees and soil
baking is a common abFt'icultural practice. Deforestation, ahTficulture encroach-
ment resulting in loss of habitat and foraging sites and reduction in predation
pressure are responsible for change in wildlifecomposition'and increase in crop
pestin.o'deTlttcPoacilillgof+'L'n'!t:ffitfft'ftittr;-t:fflgtlfu,'HHemmimlG,-MwJlifw,'i-._ ........ -
rm.mUak and call1ivores is a cornmoJl practice in the region.
Most of the residents (80%) in the catchments of dams and iii wildlife
sanctuaries prefened relocation outside the area and total rehabilitation and
wanted to be considered as the project aflected people. There is no manage-
202
mentplan for any of the three wildlife sanctuaries, even in the old Dajipur Bison
Sanctuary (declared in 1957), and these areas inspite of their excellent wildlife
potentia! are 'Poorly managed.
The environmental trends recorded during the study iildicated necessity
of stringent protection measures, based on the tield studies and existing !ocal
conditions, for the conservation of both, terrestrial as well as aqloatic ecosystem
in th.c region. Recommendation made at the end of the report are essentially
suitable for the entire Western Ghats of Maharashtra, where similar climatic
and geographical conditions exist with almost uniform landuse patterns and
developmental processes.
Peri{,d ,,[study: .lune 1984 -.lanllary 1988
2 0 . ~
SURVEY ANI> STUDIES ON BIOLOGY OF ENDANGERED
SPECIES OF AMPUJRIANS AND REPTILES OF WESTERN
GHATS - UTTAl{ KANNADA AND CHlKMAGALUR DISTRICT
VB NADKARNI
lJepartmc::ni qrZo%gy
Karnataka University
Dharwad - 580003
'([he studies included survey and distlibution of endangered species of
reptiles and amphibians (apodans) including reproductive cycles in some
amphibian species in relation to environmental conditions, seasonal breeding
cycle of apodans and their embrionic stages. The study area included Sringeri
(136'N; 75 l' E) covering 25 km'ofWestell1 Ghats in Chikmagalur and Uttar
Kannada District locatcd at 750 MSL.
Apod.n amphibians of the region were surveyed. Out of 15 species
known from India, 7 are known from Kamatakit and all these species were also
found in the srudy area, Gegenol'his carnOSl/S was collected from an altitude
of I ao ft. to 5000 ft. lIracolYl'hlms narayani was collected between 300 ft. to
2497 ft. During the study, 5 species ofapodan ar"phibians namely; Ichlhyophis
heddnfJ1ei, /. homhayen ... h, f. malahafiemis I. i."icoiour and U. narayani were
collected aruund Sringeri at all altirude of 750 m MSL. The distribution of
apodaus largely depended on climatic conditions like rainfall, soil temperature,
acidic soil and !tumus. Their breeding biolol,'Y, periods and features of
reproduction were studied in respect of these species. Tnes" species were
successfully reared in the soil brought from the collection site. The adult
apodans preferred earthworms and the young ones preferred termites as food.
The females remained coiled around the egg mass and turned the eggs from
time to time to prevent fungal attack. It is reported that for the first time
successful haiching of!. heddomei and !. malahariemis under the laboratory
conditions was achieved. The results of the investigation would be of interest
to the Zoological Survey oflndia, Wildlife Institute oflnd,a:'WikITireTIepart-"
mcnt of the State GOI1:. and agencies concemed with conservation of animal
species.
Period o[study: October 1984 - October 1987
204
THE ROLE OF FUNGI AND INSECTS iWITII SPECIAL REFER-
ENCE TO ANTS ANi) TER,\lITES) IN Til;;; ECOSYSTEM OF
WESTERN GHATS
S BASALINGAPPA
Ikr){lrlmenl
KOJ'naluka University
J)hurwod - 580003
nts l.md termites are social insects which arc hallnful as well as
beneficial to the mankind. These insects playa pivotal role in the forest
ecosystcm. The study covered survey of areas such as HaliyaL Dandcl i.
Badakanshirda. Kulgi, Ambica Nagar, Bhagavathi, Supa, Berchi and adjacent
selected areas of Uttar Kannada District.
About 39 species of rust fungi belonging to 19 gcncm \vcrc rCI.:{'rdect
fram Uttar annada district. 1-ungus A (!('idilfl1l C(1ssiut: all the hu:;t piallt( '1/\"s10
serichcs was a new record. ;\mong predatory insecls, dragonfly j'ulifa/(1
.fl(I\'CSCC!1S was observed l.ht.: populoLls oeeming in large numlll'l from
6800 to 60003 pel" ha. The ant sp. was ob::.ervcd , to
25,061 tennitcs per day per nest. Tel111ite infestation to trees itt rniX:\ll I'-Csts
and pure teak plantations was frolll 21'i'o to 79'Yo and 17(j-o to 99% . \'L'ly.
Turn over of the soil by termites in the form of covered run ways on \ ') and
the ground was 74 and 310 kg. pcr hectare respectively, Pro.be exp, .:rnts
showed that 100/0,30'%, and 50%) mound soil was supp0l1ting good r Ih or
different types of plants. lent per cent teok ieaf skektonisati,," b) the
lepidopteran lArvae ofHyhlcu PUCI'U was observed. Hymenopteran" .-i/' If/fe/es
\yhieil are
teak leaf skeletonisers, Destroying the teflll ilc mounds and use of the ::.uil as
manure for vegetable and ornamcntal and other plants was found usd'ul.
205
The results obtained suggested
Elaborate studies to unravel the moc/alities to rear and employ
the ant sp. in the conlToi of tennites of Odo1Jlolcrmcs
obeslis and O. wallunensis.
Studies need to ue taken up to find out the efficiency and feasibility of
employing the Hymenopteran parasite Apanteles sp to contain the notorious
teak leaf skeletonisers, the larvae of Hapalia macheeralis_
The results of the investigation would be of interest to the Department
afForest; Forest Research Institutes & Agricultural Universities in general and
of specific interest to the State Governmental Institutions_
Period "fJll/dy: Al/guJ't 1984 -Augm1 1987
2(J6
REGENERATION STUnJES ON SOME IMPORTANT TREES IN A
NATURAL MOIST DECIDUOUS FOREST ECOSYSTEM OF
KERALA
K SWhRUPANANOAN
Keralo Forest Research InsUlate
Peechi 680653
'j1Remla has approximately 4, 100 km' ofmo;.t deciduous forests (MDF)
constitutin)l 43.6 Jlercent of the Slale's lotal forest area. Regeneration is
extremely poor in these forests. The project was undertaken to investigate the
causes of poor regenerations with special reference to the commercially
important trees like Sal, Venteak, Rose Wood, teak etc.
Conventional phenological, demographic and phyto-so.ciological stud-
ies were conducted in the Trichur Forest Division (Kerala). Qualitative
phenological studies were conducted on 172 marked Irees helon)ling to I & tree
species. Regeneration survey was conducted in eight widely distributed 0.6 ha.
sample plots. Variolls parameters oHhe dynamics of seedling poplilations slich
as natality, mortality, survival, etc. were studied in two perr.li:lOcnt plots by
mOtlltoring ovcr4,OOO lagged seedlings for two years 1n addition, the Ilumber
of newly emerging tree scerllil!gs were monitored in ninety 4 at
fortnightly intervals. The role of:;ununer soil m,oisturc depletion on seedling
!nQl1ality was also studied. Performance of900 cm dbh) trees in the two
permanent plots of 2 ha size were monitored for estimation of survival. The
study reveals that actually the reproductive potential of the commercially
important specics is not low but is significantly mutilated by constraints
operating during the movement to establish seedling stage.
From the results of phenological studies, flowering and fruiting
periodicities of the comlllcrc1aHyimpurtant [Ye .. --." .. .-.
regularly circannuta. No gregarious flowering/mast seed years or years
without flowering and fruiting were also apparent for any of the commercially
important trees. Recurring fire, grazing and browsing by goats and sheep, illicit
207
cutting of saplings and poles, charcDal making: etc. are the main reasons for the
paucity of regeneration. Besides the biolic faclors, competition ofrered by
weeds, twiners and the less useful species also otTcr some constraints. In some
species intrinsic constraints also exist. Moist deciduolls forests have lhc
seedling b,Ulks, the substrate required for the process ofsilvigcne.sis to operate.
But the latter gets arrested owing to fire.
The study revealed that protection from biotic factors is the most
important measure to be adopted for augmenting regeneration. These need to
be controlled. In areas which are already degraded, regeneration need to be
augmented by planting. Present studies have shown higher tire survival
(p:0.45) of seedlings in the size class 1- I 0 cm dbh. Hence, standardizatioll of
planting stock and technology with the lower half of this size class would be
a better option in places where ttll11irc protection measures cannot be enforceu.
Period of.,'ludy: JUlie 19NN - May 1991
- - ~ < - - - - - - - - ' ' ' ~ ' - ' ' - ' -
PEOPLES' PRO,lEeT ON AGIWFORESTRY ALTERNAT!VES
FOil SOIL (,O:'l:SER\',HIO:'>
PATII:\IYOOR GOPINATllAN
K.\'.\'/J, Ironment ('entre
1'II1';.I'.I'lIl', - 6S()iI()2
'(!lhe dangers of soil erosion have reached alarming proportion in our
country. ivlassive adoption of intcgrakd techniques blellding agronomic, soil
management and Illcchanicall11cHsures is considered tile on Iy solution to tack Ie
this problem. But 011 f:UIll, efforts cilsming people's participation is still at the
slrIge.
The study was aimed to test Ihe field suitability or selected agroforestlY
measures ofsnil to i.l scI or integrated praeticcs with high
rainfall harvesting ability ilnd 10 cOln'ince lilt:" hlrnH.:rs and mOiivate
! hem for the Illi:ssi ve adoption of! 1It1":f:;fated approadlcs through effect ive field
c.kmonstraliol1s. !i:vestigations were ronducted in farm fields itl
ldllkki, Ermd:lIlalll ,md Thrisstlr
Follmving diagnnslic and c<l!lljJ,tign \vorks cxperimental plots
were l'lid out ill gentle. medium and slCt:p slopt: lands with lugical flexibility
to take care of the ofl-farm complexities. Tilt efficacies of "arious vegetative
lll::dgcs viz., pineapple, \'cliver and fodd'-.'f grasses with and without lcucaena
interspecific protective c<lpabilitcs or !i\'c-Illulching, ridge fanning;
and a rctincd technique caricu V(iCTR (Vegcwbly Guarded Contour
Trenches and Ridges) \\'el"l: investigated' \11 cassava based
Clopping system
Local practice of caSSHva cHlti vntion produced the highest soilless ef
252 r/ha/year amolillting a degrcHlatioll to the exlent of3GO. 90 iwu540
kg/lin/year !os:.; of N. P :md K. respt::ctively. All the vegetal barriers were
capable in b,inging down the erosion effectivelyupto medium slopes. Record-
ing about 95% reduction in soil ioss over the c.ontTol, pineapple hedge was the
most efficient followed by vetiver and fodder gmss hedges. The combined
treatment of pineapple ba1Tier + ridge fanning + live mulching was the
best to control soil erosion in medium VGCTR in conjunction with
ridge fanning and cowpea cover was the most effective in bringing d(lwn the
erosion to less than 2t1halyear even in steep slopes.
More important was the increased rainfall acceptance ability of this
technique. While in other lreaMents the in siru moisture harvest varied
between 60-75%, it was above 85% with VGCTR from the second year
onwards.
When acceptability, profitability and protective capability were taken
together, VGCTR + ridge farming of cassava was found to be the most ideal.
This technique has attracted the attention ofrarmers especially in ldukki arca.
Period o(..-/udy: .fulle 1988 - May 1991
... --.. .. - _.""-----_. -.- .. -<. ,"- "-_ .. _ ... --_."--- ...
210

STUDIES ON SELECTED INDIGENOUS SPF:CIICS FOR FUTURE
PLANTATION PROGRAMMES IN KERALA
K K N NAIR
Kerafa Fores! 1n...,'liIUlC
"eechi - 680653
'ill he study was ean:ied out to investigate the plalltation potcntial and
related aspects orsix species of well known timber value which are indigenous
to the moist deciduous forests of Kerala and to assess their feasibility as
plantation species in the. State, either as monoculture or as mixtures among
them; evolving suitable silvicultural methods for large scale raising of seed-
lings and to assess the performance, ecological studies, utilization aspects and
pest and disease problems and control.
The data generated for six species viz. Alhi::.iu ouorafissimu, (jrr..'H'ia
(ilii/o/ia, f-/a/llina c()l'd!/iJlicf, f.ogersll'ocmil miCI"o(,(If[W, JJ{Cr()COrfms marSl{-
{Jimf;, and )(vlia .\y!ocarpa were presented in the order of nomen cIa tare. type,
local names, taxonomic (.':haractt'ls. phenoi(lgy and distributioll. An exteT,sive
survey was conducted :lIld smnpk Sl1111ds were selected in the State. Regt::ncra-
tioll studies were conducted and data OIl gennillatil)p', growth, establishment
recorded, wood samples were collected and analysed for their variulis ut;liza-
tion potcniial. Germinat.ion trials \vere conducted to assess percentage geiT11i-
nation of different species. Nursery techniques for these species were standard-
ized. Trials \vere carried Dut in pure ;.lIId mixed plantations and data collected
on growth and establishment. Pest infestations in nursery and tria! plantations
were studied and cOlltrol measures after standardization of l:-hcmicals were
suggested. Disease problems related to collection and storage of ser:Js were
studied and conlrol measures recommended .
. _ ... _. __ .... _._It._i.X.<1$ . .JQlHld thnt lllhizia odoralissima is almost free from disease
problems at seed. seedling (lmi plallt:ltiotl trial stages. Belter pcrformance of
the seedlings of these species can also be ensured by Rhizobium application.
FUl1her, log quality or tile timber ofA. oc/o}'olissil!lr.i was found to be uctter as
compared to the other five species investigated. The species, however, Gannot
:!11
be considered as <'rast growll:g" and survivallH:rcentage of seedlings is also
com parativcly low. Pest attack Was severe olllilc st:edlins oftllis species, hoth
in nursery Clntl in the plantation !;xpCrimellls. Ecologically, the species ,"vas
well suited to the moist deciduous trads of the Swtc, where fore;! plantations
Ftre orten raised. The species was recommended to be grown ill mixtures, with
species like (i. liliijhlil/, with proper pest management In case ofGl'ewia
mistletoe attack and dcfcc.tive log qualilY noted in the natural
stands, otherwise, the tree belongs to the cHlegol)' of"nlst growing" ''lith I/cry
high survival rate of out-planted seedlings t-1Il'd resistance to serious pests and
diseases. In addition, the species perfonned very well both aSlllonoculture and
in mixtures among the species considered, even though it pelformed better in
mixtures rathl:"f than ill1l101l0cuhurc. Trial experiment showed that Hajdu trees
Haldilw c(JI'C/Ui)/ia class one plywoorJ spec-ies, was a very potential species for
Kerala, mainly because it proved to be "fast growing" in plantation trial and is
almost free frol1\ seed disorders. seedling dcCects and disease and pest attacks
in plantation. with vcry good log quality. A mixcd plantation of I: marsupium
and H c{Jl'd{!o/ia will be ideal and more productive. Lagel'slrocmio
microc(fl'pa proved to be a disease tiee tree species in seed, nursery and
plantation triClI stages, but with serious pest problems bOlil in the nursery and
in the plantation trial experiment. [1' pest altack c.an be controlled at
a species proved to he 'fast growing' with vcry good log quality.
PtCI'()CUi'PifS /II(I!'SIf/-'itllll in mi.'(turc:-;, espel.;ialiy with H. cord{/f)/h! can be
safely :':;::(;oil1mended for raising plantations in Kerala. Survival percent(lge of
seedlings is quite high in tIle case of field piantcd propagulcs. Polential pests
aud a:seases affecting the seed (lnd seedling stages ohlle species .lre also very
few and those present' can be con(rolled casilyby using pesticides orfungicides.
FUither, Rhizobium application call ensure a better perfonnance of the seed-
lings in plantation. Log quality of the timber is illso promising, Even though
seedling-s of Irul - .(r/iu .n'lllwrp{l o"tplanted in the plantation trial plot at
NiIambur showed \,l:r)' high stll\'ivai rate, their growlh was rather slow and
could not be rank:d as a . fa::; [ growing species'. FtIl1her, a maximum number
of pathogenic microtlora we.n.: seen infesting the seeds of this tree species
c(lusing seed disorders. However, pest attac.k was fare hoth foi' seeds and
seedHngs ill the nurSc.!IY nnd {,rial plantation. as compared to the ather .ul!.e .. __ _
species studied.
Perhu/ ofsludy: AlI/{w.( 19X7 - 1990
212
STUUIES ON TilE SACRED GROVES OF KERALA
K h: RAMCIfAi'iDRAN
Cenlre for Hul"/h Scil'nces ,\'/mlil':s
l'ri"(lndrIl11l - ('Y5fJ3!
'ill he sacred groves arc the fore5t patches, which remained immune
from human interference. The districts Alleppcy and Quilon in the SO lith and
Cannanorc and Kasaragod in tile north register the highest
concentration of sacred groves. The sacred groves arc integral pm1 of the
culture of the la"u.
. .. .. .... .. ,

The study was taken up to precisely locate and map the sacred groves
of Kerala and prepare an inventory; to undertake floristic studic.!) and prepare
an ;nventOlY; to uJHJertakc ilorisl'ic studies and prepare a herbarium; t.o
demarcate the sacred groves based on the avaHability of mre, endemic,
endangered and threatened plants; to suggest ways and mc,ms ofpre.o;erv<:lliol!
and effective management of the threatened groves of floristic importance; to
find out means to preserve those plants that arc on the verge of extinction; and
to study the socia-economic imp0l1ance of the groves.
The sacred groves with a minimum area of5 percent and above covered
by a thick nalural vegetation were studied and 240 of such sacred groves in
Kerala were found w0I1hy of preservation considering the rare flora they
contain. Districts such as Allcppey, Pathanamthitta and Quilon in South and
Kozhikode, Cannanorc and Kasargod in 11011h KeraJa, house Ihe maximum
number of sacred groves (Kav\ls). 'Kavus' of Wynad district have not been
covered fully though intonnatioll is I1Q\V <lvailable that temples such ,IS
Thirllnelli, Plilpalli, ValliyoorkavlI, etc. have associated 'KavlIs'. A rew
"Kavus' that need immediate protection, as tl.H:.:se harbour vafllnbic plant
genetic resources, were ::.eiecteJ for stully. An invent: . .ny of the major
constitutnt elements of each and their herbarium was prepared. It \'.'as
observed that the al'ea of' Kavus' va!"icd f. om a few m
2
to several
l\1ajor 'Kavus' of Kerala are Srcc Dharmasastha (4 ha), Sri Olavara Mur.dya
(4 ha.), Sri Karakka (6 ha.), in Kasamgod district; Kaiyaihu Nagam (7.25 hal,
Neeliarkol1am (10 ha.), Klinnathoorpadi (18 ha.), Theyyottll Kavu (16 ha.) in
Cannanore district; Thllrayil Kavu (4 ha.), Sreepoli KavlI (3.6 hal, PaiHaltu
Kavll (3 ha.) in Kozhikodc district: Pampumekkattumana (3.6 haj in Trichur
district: VallikavlI (3.4 ha.J in AIIcppey districtelc. Howeverthe fringole Kavl!
(20 ha.) in Emakulam district is the largest one that has been noticed so far.
From the view point of floristic diversity, it was more in the' Kavlfs' of
Alleppey and adjoining districts. The same trend was also observed in respect
of endangered plants. This eouid be due to variations in c1imatic and edaphic
factOrs. Those groves with rare pbnls were designated as 'sacred groves of
importance'. A list of important medicinal plants located Iil groves was
214
prepared with their local name, family, important uses and other details.
Occasionally, wood is exlracted for constructing temples, temple carts and
chariots, wood was also collected for temple purpose, Many of the edible
fruits such as those ofAI'I(}CG!PUS, ,\'yZYKiun1, Sulacia, Mangijera.
Buchanonin, Carissa, (.'arcinia etc. often found a place in the diet of the
animals and birds, A list of the commun wild fauna of the sacred groves was
provided, .
The study suggested that the sacred groves under different
- irrespective of whether it belonged [0 individuals, families, trusts, Devaswam
boards or Revenue Department - required protection, A toral han on felling of
trees and poaching of birds from the sacred groves be imposed. Micropropagation
and tissue culture of the fast disappearing plants should bc undertaken,
Per;od f1'Slttdy: May 1987 - Novemher 199f1
215
STUDY OF PL:\NTATlOI" CROPS AREA
EXPANSION, EXTENT OF SOIL EROSION UNIJER f)JFFERENT
LAND USES AND EfFECTIVE HARVEST OF RAINFALL IN
WESTERN GHATS I'ALNIIIlL!.S (KODAIKANAL)
C R SIIANMUCBAM
Krishnamurlhi Inlernalional
AgricuJllIraJ J)eFe/opmenl Founciation
Madms 6000111
Whe study was undertaken to estimate the area expansIon under
plantation crops in selected locations of Palni hills in the past I wo decades and
its implications on soil under different land uses, factors cotltributing to soil
erosion. prevailing landuses, vegetative cover, soil consclvation practices.
cropping pattern, rainfall, soil moisture etc, and suggest alternative strategies
to conserve solI and water in Kodaikanal Taluka. Two agricultural farms at
Pero..i1nalmali - 13 km. from Kodaikannl Wl:tl: chosen for study they arc
private farms "lId pul to variety of lana uses.
Data was collected on climate. soils, vegetatioJl, human environment,
livestock population, occupalional sO'l1cttJre of tile people, land use strategies,
and cropping paltern. Areas which require tTeatment on priority were also
compiled. Investiga60ns and measurements were made on field conditions of
land under various uses, erosional hazards, cropping patten IS etc.
The study revealed Ihat Ihe increase in area of coffee plantation from
2619 ha in 1961 to 7300 ha in 1989 had taken place by replacement of ban an"
.-..... ''''-"ilo whiclt ftrtve- oe<;IHHlo,jccled .. to..huQc.hy top a",1 other
diseases. Extenl of ball'en land had not shown much change in past 29 years.
In the PaIn; hills, area under agriculture was less than 50/0, h0l1iculture 530/0 and
plantation crops occlipicd42%. The study indicllled that Illost ofthe area under
coffee was adequately protecled from soil erosion.
216
The alternative technology suggested for soii conservation to
introduce vegetative barriers on con lours in place of benc;h terracing, conl011r
trenching or contour stone \' ... all cOllstruction. Vcti\'cr (Vefin:,ria ::i::wwidr:.,')
has been suggestcd as vegetative barriers. Study revealed that raising of blue
gum trees on the hill siopes effected a reduction of ofth(,;' water
yield [rom the open grasslands. TWl)-lier plnntatiull crop :.lIld Imnana
and grassland protected fLelds had stored the IlWXilllUIll amount of moisture.
It was recommended that natural rcg,cneration of forests should be
attempted by protecting the area. Soil eOllscn'atioll measures wen: required to
be undertaken in differcnt land lISCS as identified by /\11 India Soil and Land lise
Survey Organisation.
Period Septcmher 1987 - Septemher /99()
217
A STl10Y OF RE(;ENERATION OF VEGETATION IN
CATCHMENT AREA OF I'ANSilET RESEIWOIR PUNE
DISTRICT, MAIIAIV\.SI'THA
SU'LABI'IA BRAIlME
,)'hankar /Jrahme:: SamaJ Vidnyana GraJ1flwlaya
Law (',,/lege Road
Pune - 411004
mhe study was taken up in the catchment area of Panshct Reservoir in
the Western Ghats region, Punc district and was (Iin!ed at the ,lssessment of
llaturaJ regeneration of vegetation in lands cleared earlier for shifting cultiva-
tion, and experimentation with selected local and exotic species to note their
germination perfonnance, survival rate and growth.
The Pallshet reservoir is localed 38 kilometres southwest of Pune eily.
There arc 24 villages located in the catchment area of the reservoir. The
villagers lost their fct1ile rice lands due to submergence and I1I)W depenc for
on shifting cultivation, sale of milk, sale oftrees for maki1lg charcoal
atld sale of firei',ood.
The rainfall in the area ranges between 2000 nuns and 8000 mms.
Natural regeneration is poor because the hill slupes are denuded and exposed,
the salls arc poor, and there is a serious IHenace ofuncontroHed cattle grazing.
I.antana camara shlUb is dominant in the fallow lands. Onlya few tree species
like Elylhrinaslricla, Gmelinoarhon.:a, PO,llgamia pinnolG, TeJ'minaJia a/ala
were able to regenerate under the adverse conditions. It was ohserved that
Carissa congesfa, a deep-rooted large evergreen. shrub armed with spines
created relatively favoun(b1enJh;rcr-climati<:eonditioos-lhathc\j>-r"!leuera1ion
of tree species. The seedlings of 16 commun local species raised in lhe nursery
locally were planted in the faHow shifting Guitivation plots. The survival rate
of seedlings ranged belweell 60 and 80 per cenl but lhe growth was poor exeept
for Melia cOmp(}Sila and Mangifera iudica.
21X
Propagation of bamboo by rhizotrte cutting, culm cutting, rhizome
offsctand culm cutting treated with NAA was tried. The method ofprupagatioll
by rhizume offset \-vas founu 10 be the vest method. })endrocalw111is sll'ic:IIIS
well-suited to the region and its propagation is both from point of
view of econOlllic return and revegetation of denuded hill ranges.
Policy measures with regard to preservation, conservation and devel-
opment of the catchment area have been emunerated and discusst:d.
Period ofsllIdy: Marcil /987 - February /991J
219
RESPONSE Of PLANT SPECIES TO TliE MINING SITES
SITUATE-I) AT PALE AND SIRIGAO, GOA
S G TORNE
,')' }.) Choll'gule College
Mlil'xao GOA - C/()360 J
3illI ining is a major activity in Goa. Attempt was made to identify
suitabic plant species for rehabilitation of disturbed natural sites, rejected
dumps, freely draining tailings (active tailing pOllds) and water saturated
tailings (dead tailing pond). -:-hecxperimcntal sites were selected atChowgule's
iron ore open c<lstmines situated ':It P"lc aud Sirigao villages where mining was
started in 1954 and revegetation programme in 1986.
During the survey of the 1I1Hlisturbed and disturbed mine areas, plant
MId' 01" (j(J:\ SHOWIN(i 1':\11
7.20
species were sekcted based on their pr.rfonl1Jncc. These included native
adapted species (which arc metal tolerant and able to grow in Ilulrient deficient
condition).
The seedlings were raised in small plastic bags, earthen pots nnd alsn in
longer bugs (\ In x U.5 m) with the seedlings of grasses anu kgtHl\C5.
All the bags were treatcd \vith of differcnt species. Site specific
techniques for planting were worked out to suit particular mining waste sites.
The role of Azu{obacler and Mycorrhizae species were studied alongwith
macrofauna like earthwonn which contribute to nutrient cycling in the waste.
Some plants colonize on melalliferous soils only which were idclltified and
listed. During the course of study of undistrurbed areas, 12 threatened plant
species were located which are likely to be cleared for mining activities.
Six species which were planted on iron ore reject dump and their
response studied arc: Acacia ni/o/ic(I, A:::uc/irachla illl/iell, nOl1lhw.: eeihu,
J',wkia hig/cmlitilv.'w, /IUhcce/ohilln1 dulce anu J'ulnurimflJ.'i im'/icli. The
growth cllwlysis of these species showed a stunted but healthy grmvth eXGcpt
Porkia hixiandll/o.m. Chlowpbyl! eontcnl' increased in an the species Impact
ofcarthwonns un the mining rcjct.:l':; and plant growth were studied. introcillc-
tion of t:arthworms !tlt.:n .. 8sed the growih and deVC1tl))tr:ent of plants by 20 to
2YYo.
The sludy suggested that the revegetation and the mining
operation should be integrated from the inirial planning slage. !VIewi tolerant
species could be selected nnd pl;Jlltatiotls may be carried out by devicing
suitable techniques stlited to specific sitellocation.
Period ofSllldy: September 19116 - AlI!!"",1 19119
.- _._ .. _-_ ... _- .-........ -_ .. -.. - .. __ .... - .. __ .. _---- _._ .. _-....... _ .. _ ... - .. ............... - .......... ---..
221
FLORISTIC Sl UOIES ON SACRED GROVES IN WESTERN GIIAT
REGION OF
V D VAR1AK
!)cparlment of Bolany
Maharu.wra AS.\'ociali(JJl Science
MAC', lIesearch /nslilllle,
/'un" iliOM
'Whe objectives of study were to record precise locations of sacred
gw \"I..: S. the religiously preserved forests along the Western Ghats in
!Vlaharash1Ta: (0 study floristics ofsciected sacred groves; to assess the sacred
groves from ethnobotanical view point; and to raise a herbarium of the plant
clements availnblc ill sacred groves.
These objectives were achieved by filling LIp proformas during field
visits to various localities and interviews with village offic.ials. fnnncrs atld
housewivc.::; and others. Thus frequent .. aiO!)' tours were aq'anged aNi
general 110ristic compositioll of J77 sacred gfOves frGJ11 the Westen. Gh.nts in
MahHra:;hlra W::IS studied. Their distric-twise distribution w?os as fo!lows Pane
103: Kolhapllr: 37; .Sindhudurga: 16; Nasik: 4; Raigad: Ahmednagar:
5; Thana: 6 and Satara : 4. Pin point mapping of localities and collection of
other pel1inent detail, on the sacred groves were made for the first lime during
the tenure of this scheme.
A total of 2,926 plant specimens belonging to 352 genera and 792
species were collected. They have been depo,ited in the Herbarium of Botany
.. _-_ ...... _ ... ....llepat'lllellL_lt..Maharashtra Association for the Cultivation of Science,
Research Institute, Pune for future reference work. Speciai were made
to cullect plants of ethnoLotanic.1 interest. They. constituted germplasm of
wild edible plallts, folk medicinal plants and fodder plants. These are valuable
,ince they play IHajunole in the diet, daily life and health care system of Trib a Is
222
and rural inhabitants. Thirty-six species under rare-endangered cateeory and
[l few rnagniiicicnl trees and climbers were "Is() recorded. It was noticed that
only because; of the religious protection, they are sun'j\'ing in natural grandeur
in sacred groves. The unique noristic features of sacred groves in \Vcsfcrn
Maharashtra \\11;:1'\': studied and brought on record. The study -;oncluued with
roHowlng rccmrm1cmlation:. :-
At present, the sacred groves r ~ under different managements with the
result that they are not properly looked after and are on the verge of extinction.
Therefore. all the sacred groves in the State be brought under the purview of the
rarest Department for protection and preservation.
Thorough m<1pping, of remaining sacred groves in the State should be
undertaken.
Awareness for the protection of sllch surviving vegetational patches be
created among masses through publicity media.
The: biological diversity in the ,"Vestem Ghats is under30ing diminution_
Sacred groves form centrC$ of such B<llural hiological divClsity. It is imperative
to identify dii'e sacred groves :md study them in depth tor their present
biolog!cal status. Thi:::. will lead to estnblish a net\\'ork of nature reserves and
thereby' hcip conservation of biological diversity in the area.
Period oIstudy: April 19113 - April 1986
223
IDENTIFYING TREE ANI) FORAGE COVER IN STICEI' 1111.1.
SLOI'ES OF WESTERN GIIATS FOI{ ECO-PRESERVATION
ANI)
., CI-IANf)RASEKIIARAN
Krishnal1lllrli Inferna/irJJ1a! AgricuilIJrai
/Jeve/o{JmeJ1i Fmmdaliu}1
Madras - 600105
::!illcalising the importance of fodder that can be contributed by trees,
grnsscs and legumes and the need to idelll'ify them in different elevations of the
Western Ghats, the project was taken up with major objective to identify the
combination of tree species, both indigenous and exotic and species ofgrasses
and legumes that CHn be grown on intcrcrops; identify fast growing species for
different locations and elevations; and suggest strategies for sylvipaslure
development. The study and trials wen! carried Ollt at Pa!ghat (District
Nelliampathy hill". Kundra 5hola) ill Kerala state ami at Nilgiri
(Udhagamandaiam, Ithalar) in ,he Tamil Nadu State.
Up to 540 m in Neiliampathy hills, Lellcaena leucocef'IICila could be
grown as evident from the yield of green fodder of 7.89 t/ha and 26.28 tlha of
fuel wood from a crop of 28 months growth. Alongwith the first 2 years of
growth of the tree crop grasses like Panicum maximum vaL Hamil or Congo
Signal and legumes likeS/ylosal1/lies hama/a lind tropical Kudzu likel'uera/ia
phase%ides couid be grown. Thinning ofS'uhahul essential, because of
its rapid growth and vlith 2 m x 2 III spaccment, grasses and legumes could be
grown successfully. With timely sowing, proper manuring especially ofN, 40

growing species like dulce, Alhizzia lehheck, AC!.lcia
lellcocephala could stand intercropping for even 5 years. For the
Udhagamandamam region (2250 m) Acacia melal1oxylon, the slow growin!;
species would be ideal. Its spacement being 2m x 2m, it can accommodate
224
grasses and legumes for at least 4 and 5 years and grasses like /,(lllIIm peren,,"
and Fesluca arundi!7{1cea and legume like white clover could oe grown <IS a
mixed crop and 10 to 15 tonnes! ha of green fodder produced ;I cacm
me/anoxY/()1l and Lo/illm perenne can ,stand frost and that would he an
advantage for round the year supply of green fodder. so nec;:s5my for the dairy
industry.
Plantation of Suhahui (Var. Co I) in the study area of the Western Ghats
region was recommended. It is a medium hard wood variety, useful for paper
pulp and fuel wood. However, one grave objection to this species is that in
many parts of the country it has been affected by I'syllid. a crop pest that eats
away young shoots. Its occurrence has not been noted in all the three sites of
NeUiampathy. In the early years of establishment of afforestatioJl progmrnmes,
intcrcropping of grasses like Congo Signal (Hrachiaria rllziziensis) and
legumes like Kudzu (Pueroria phas{]%icles) can easily produce 10 tonncs per
hectare of fodder as a mixture. For elevation above 5--l0 Ill. ('o!liundra
calolhyrslis (lIplO 1050 m) as a tree woulct be useful. In the high hi lis or N i Igi ri s
(2250 m)Acu(.:ia me/anoxy/ol1 is the only t .. ee species useful. lien.:: ,!Jso gra5se5
like perennial Rye gras:o and Fescue and legume like white dover wOiild
enhance the yieid of green fodder to an extent of ~ 0 h} i 5 tonnes pf'r hecl:)rc.
Acacia meianuxy/on can be loppf'd only (ltkr !() years growth and ai least for
the first 5 years grasses and legumes eouid be grown as inter crop.
Period o(study: May 1984 - May 1987
725
PRESERVATION OF DALBERGiA IN KERALA BY
ESTABLISHMENT OF A GERMPLASM BANK
KK N NA::R
Kera/a Forest Research Institute
Peechi 680653
'Q!he work was carried out wtih objective of a gemipiasm
bank of services of Do/bergia found in Kerala_ Studies on geographical
distribution, endemism, cytology, palynology, phenology, uses and conserva-
tion status of Various known taxa from Kerala have also been carried out.
-r-,-=-"-.;------- --- -----------------

DISTRIBUTION OF
226
A totnl of 18 species and one variety of the genus Dalhetxia have been
recorded. Detailed systematic account of aillhe 191axa of the genus with their
up to dale l1omcncbturl', n:viseJ description, illustrations. distribution maps
and a dichotomous key was provided. The species recorded were: f).
aCGf.;ijuliu, D. hedd(}mei. n. hen/hull/ii, n. candena/ensi.\", IJ. c()t1xesla, J).
horrida, n, hartida, var. glahrcsseils, IJ 'aneco/aria, D. ma/uiJaric(f,
D. melanm'y/ol1, n. panic{f'ala, n psclu/ossiss(){), n. nlhigiosa, n. sissoic/cs,
.D. sissf)o, J). spin()sa, D. irovanc()rica and D. pu/abilis. The vegetative parts,
infloresccns, flowers, fmits and seedlings were described and illustrated.
Cytological and palynological studies were also carried out. [,lowering and
fruiting periods of only 13 species could be carried out. Differen! uses of the
genus like wood, medicine, gUill, tannins, oils, manure etc. were given
in detail. Conservation status of different species with specific recommenda-
tions for protection of endemic species WlTl' provided. As a pmt ofex-silll
conservation efforts, Ilurserics were dc\duIJI..:d and rai:-;t'"(! for thest: species.
Out of the 18 species found in Kcrala, six arc of kno\vn medicinal value,
namely, I'>' horriJa, IJ lancco'uril!. n. hl/Ur";",!) S'IS.\/lli/J .. 'pill()sCt ane! D.
vo/uhifis. Seed oil of IJ. IOl1cco'al'ia is lIsed in affc..:-tions arid
of D. siss()() in curing Jiseases. Plant parts of IJ, IUIUiJ'h: '.\ en.:
rec0rded to be useful as st.imulants to ('ure dyspepsia, dian-hoea, icpn1l,y,
obesity and wonn infections. Many other Illcdic:inal values were rcpol'!
Period olsflldy: April 19X3 - March ln6
227
DEVELOPl\IENT OF i'HOPAGATION TECHNiQUES !'OH
SlilTABLE I'LANT SPECIES IN
WESTERN GliAl'S
N SWAMI RAO
J )eparllllcnl Of Farnt Furesl1y
Unil'cJ:\'iJy u/Agricultural Scicm:es
Banga/ol'e-5 (j(){J{J I
Whe aim orthe investigation was to identify suitable pJant species for
propagation by vegetative means, feasibility or different vegetative
propagation methods on rooting of sclcdCd species, dTeet of growth
regulators, effect of intermittant mist 011 rooting of cuttings. seasonal
variation, rooting behaviours and standardisation of propagalion tcchHiqucs
of individual species. thirty five species were selected based on various
constrains and prohlems connected with indi\'idual species.. Trials were
conducted fur de'lc!oping and slanr.lardisin
0
, vegetative propagation
techniques for suilable plant spcci::s in the:: Western Ghats mainly at two
places viz. G.K. V. K. Bangalorc find SHmpaje CDurg District.
Propagation by cuttagc and layerage techniques \""ith growth
regulator treatment were can'jed out. The proptlgation by cuaage was
conducted in open nursery as well as under intennittant mist. The seasonal
variation, effect of growth regulators and the effect of mist on rooting were
studied
Seasonal variation in rooting \vns more pronounced in most of the
species tried. Growth regulators, palticulariy 3-1ndolc Butyric Acid (IBA) and
rBA in combination with NAA (Naphthy I Ace!ic Acid) increased rootin!:
pelfonnance. Intermittent mist favoured rooting even in difficuH to root
species such as 'j'erminalia, /,uKerSf()r:ltl;a and Al'loCarplls Air layering
22"
,
i
technique was found to be more for propagating speclcs like
(Jol'cCllia mUIlIana, Valeria imli<:a (md /)edhcl'giu sis:wo.
The results of the triols conducted indicated that many of the Western
Ghat species could be sliccessfully multiplied llsing vegetative propagation
methods: Cutting method was found to more suitable for many species
and layerage for a few species. Growth regulators such as Indole Butyric
Acid and Naplhyl Acetic Acid and combination of both had pronounced
effect in inducing rooting and increasing percentage of rooting both 'in
cuttings and layers. Seasonal variation was 1l1OfC pronounced ill many
species tried. Species like Tec/orla grandi.\, jJ/erocarpus marsupium,
f/O/OrlCfia illfcgl'ij()/io, C'ciho remaln/ra, f.ogcr,'\(focmia lance-olala,
1'erminl.lliu paniclllala and Da/bcJ'Kia among others successfully
rootcdduringMarch. Intermittcnt In ist had pronollnced effect in inducting early
roolingand increasing rootipg percentage i!l many of the difficult to root
evergreenspecies. Some of the shy rooting species like
f)(I/helxia lalt!i.J!ia (lI1d Arloelll'l}/f,\' hClerophyllus which failed to runt in tbe
enrlicrtrialsrootcd sllccessfully under intcnnittcnt mist when current sensoll
clittil!gand semi hanl wood shoot cllttings were used. ::':asy to rvot species like
Ai/a;-;I!ill.\ lIla/ahC/rica, H%plelia in!e}:,I'{/o/iu ana CIarcenia mIJl7/WlC!,
MiirogVl1a pwvU/ora (imelit1a arhorea can be sacccssfuliy propagated
by plal!ting large sized cuttings directly at the planting site after growth
rcg\liator h'catrnent, Species like Vmeria indira, })alhergia :;isso(), n.
lul[J()/ia, (;arcenia montana, Sell/ejecta IrUuKu, Arloeurpus helerophylfu.'i
and were successfully propagated by air layering as
the branchts of these species were e'asily acccssible for air layering. air
layering was not successful with Greater succeSs was obtaincd with
exogenous application of auxins. Hamhl/sa hrandi.\'ii and Bamhllsu
()runtiinacea were successfully rooted by young culm cuttings. Even small
side branches 'co'lii'a-bC"UtIfi's'cd for .. ..
cuttings. This technique saved large culms which constitute the economical
parts of the Bmo boos.
22')
The results of the investigation are of interest particularly tu Forest
Research Institute, agencies concerned with afforestation, Wasteland
Development Org<misatiolls and Non-GovernentaJ Agencies engaged in
multiplication, disiriuution and implcmcnlation of afforcsl'aiioll schemes.
Period Fehruary 1985 .fulluary 1988
-.. '-"-... '.--- ... " ......... _ ..... _- ... -_.-._ ....... _,
23<1
SIJll.VEY ON IDENTIFICATION OF LOCATiON - SPECIFIC
ENVIRONMENTAL PI{OBLEMS INNILGIlHS RAr,lGE OF
WE.STERN GHATS
v S SUBr{AMAN),AM
IJeparlrnent <d Agriculture I:..);!cnsion
Tamil Nadll Agricultural UniveJ:\ity
Coimbalore - 641003.
'QIhc aim of the study was to identify the location-specificenvironmen-
tal probILlllS and their consequences in the Nilgilis range of West em Ghats region.
The dala were galhered by interviewing 400 rmmers sampled from 40 locations of
Nilgiri district.
Environmental problems were idcnti lied inlhe areas likcfiullling. clilnatology,
soilmanagcmcnt. cattle ll1!lIl<lgcment forestry, energy source and lise, health and
sanitation, migratiGIl and sor:ial <!spccls. Growing vegetable crops 011 steep slopes
\"iith excessive Eillage Opcfi;l!"ions increasecisoil erosion. H was observed tlmt of
fill1ning a-:lu pi:mt tions, indllst:rial gi nwth and sett1elnent of migrators :lEd relJahiates
from Sri Lanka resulted i;l gradual of forcs[ cover. on
steep hmd of multiple cropping with fore::;t species eroded the top soil.
Application of fer!ilizers, fungicides or pesticides hampered the life process of
forest microtlara aIld fanns beside:; pollution of water resouitCs. Increasing live-
stock population and consequent over-grazing had deterring effect on the regene-
ration of natural vegetatiOli and on the maintenance afforest coverage.
As the humall population need of tht: peupleand their dependence
on forest io meet their fuel, fodder Hnd timber rcquiremrnts correspondingly
increased resulting in the deforestation. j\1ost localinhabitann. appeared to be nor-
to be much concerned about the gradual environmental deterioi'ation in this'
region. Poverty coupled with unellIploYllIent llIade the iocal people to depend
more on forest wealth for earning thtir livelihood.
231
In the localities l!nder study, the drHinhge system, rural waste
system, protected water supply system, were all far from sali,faetion leading
to air and waler pollution and to the sprcad of comll1unicable diseases. Local
residents had also !'esolted to the practice of killing forest wild animals as they
damaged the cultivated crops.
Period of Study : September 1985 - Fehruury 1987
... __ .... - _.-._-_ .. - '-... ..... _ ....... __ .. _._ ... _-----_._-- _.- '--'.-.. _-- ... _. __ ....... __ ...... -.-.
232
A STUDY OF ENVmONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC
PRORLEMSOFDISPLACEMEN'IANDRF.HARIUTATION
IN KOVANAPRo.lECf
SN PAWAR
Deparlmenl a/Sociology
Shivaii Univer"it"
Ko/hapur - 416 ()().;
'mhe Koyana Hydro-electric project is situated on the river Koyana at
Helvak in Satam District of Maharashtra. The actual construction of the
dam was started on 16th January 1954 and the first stage was completed
in 1962. The research project "",is carried Ollt with an ohjective to
understand ellvionrnental and socie-economic problems of displacement ann
rehabilitation due to the construction of Koyana Dal11.
Under the study. 146 villages were covered. Out of 6 :.50 dispiaced
families in Satara, Sallgli, Raigad and Thane Distrrcts, 615
interviewed.
Two out of every three respomlent families were'found to be belGw
poverty line. The trend of indebtedness appears to have heen increased
after rehabilitation which is the sole product of displacement. One out of
every three respondent families did not receive any lHnd from the
govem111ent. these families. thus, were left to themselves with no suurce of
___ ._.lillelilwod from agricultural land. A majority of the respondentas were
practising "Kumari"* cultivatioll which has been proved to be harm fill from the
ecological point of view. However, this practice continues even today and
will continue to exist in the future all well.
* "KHm"ri Incal n.\mc fur lI"nr<luality laud

The Konkan people are not willing to have matrimonial relations with
. the people in Koyana catchment due to the lack of transportation facilities. ,
.A majority of the respondents' kinsmen had !!ot arrived with them hut they
were scatterei! in dilTerent places.
Majority of the villages have not been allotted with 'gaothans'*' For "
. majority of the settlements, transportation facility has not been made
available. There was absence of health centre facility in Koyana
rehabiiitated settlements in general and in the catchment area ill particular.
Majority of the respondents were not at all satisfied with the facilities
provided by the government in their settlements.
Vll.LAGES AFFECTED BY KOYNA DAM
* is local name for facilities provided to the colonies
234
The rainfall in Koyana catchement and water level in Koyana reservior
indicated decreasing trend. The Koyana forest had riclj flora and fauna
resources and was being influenced due to shifting cultivation practices and
'tlUnting habits of the people residing in the catchment. The privately owned
. patches in Koyana catchement had hardly any trees. This naturally leads to
; massive erosion and resultant siltation of Koyana darn during the rainy
. season. The contractors had started charcoal making activity on a very
large scale and which resulted the tree felling the the catchment area.
The cash compensation received by the respondents was not adequate
at all. The darn affected people had to pay ten times more amount for
purchasing land at the rehabilitated places.
The people expressed total dissatisfaction over the process of
rehabilitation because they were not properly compensated for the
agricultural land that they had lost, civic amenities were provided to them
by the State Government in their new colonies, their children were deprived
of educational facilities and employment opportunities and they were
isolated from the rest of nati ve villagers.
The suggestions were made in the report which include: holistic
view of the entire policy of rehabilitation consisting of just and proper
rehabilitation of displaced people based on the principles of minimum
displacement, development planning, land for land, some land to the
landless and employment for all. The sub-title holders were totally ignored
during the whole process of rehabilitatiou. Establisrunent of a seperate cell
._._ to .1.()cl!!!, ... ... .. ..JleJ.Jhe.. 1962 ... re.l1enue_.re.cords.oLthe .
government.
The human settlements on the hilltops in tIre'catchment area should
be completely evacuated on priority basis and rehabilitated for protection of
235
wildlife and stopping deforestation. 11\e awareness among local people
against deforestation must be created and the government machinery to
check unlawful aotivities of charcoal making contractors. The govenunent
must pay proper at1ention during the phase of planning itself of the alter-
:tative proposals of displacement and rehabilitation.The government should
consider establishing a separate cell to go into the grievances of Koyana
project affected people.
Period ols/lIdy: August 1984 - Augllst 1987
236
TRIBES AND OTHER COMMUNITiES OF WESTERNGHAT:
THEIR SOCIO-CULTURAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL
CHARACTERISTICS, REHABILITATiON AND
DF:VELOPMENT IN RELATION TO ECO-SYSTEM
v S SUSRAMANYAM
Departmem afAgricultural Extension
Tamil Nadu Agricultural Unviersity
Coimhatore - 641003
'Q1he aim of the study was to analyse the characteristics ofthe inhabitant
of Kodaikanal and Nilgiris regions, their standard of living and interference
with the ec-system. The data were obtained from interview with 1000
respondents sampled from 16 villages of the regions.
In the Kodaikanal region nearly 50% nfthe respondents were illiterate
a ~ d illiteracy was predominant among SCs (68%). More than half ot them
owned radoo sets. About one-sixth and one-eighth were reading news ,,"pers
and magazines respectively. Two-thirds had used improved crop \'(11 ietics
slightly more than applied the recommended dost of fertilizer and about two-
fifths followed plant protection measures. About 33% had shown interest in
cattle rearing and poultry keeping to supplement their income. Inhabitants had
migrated for various purposes, half of the migrants were engaged in agricul-
ture, one-fourth in agricultural labour and one-tenth in non-farm labour. All
villages had the elementarylevel education facility, postal communication and
.... ____ .motorableroad.facilities __ .Theinhabitants .. soldtheir.producesdirectly to the
commission mandis. Majority lived in thatched houses and among them, the
SCs had higher proportion. About 50% respondents had done the wal!
construction with forest resources and roofing materials with leaves and
I grasses. Hunting wild animals and birds was a practice with few.
I ill
In the Nilgiris region illiteracy was much prou(lunced among strand SCs
compared to BCs and OCs. About 50% of families consisted of 4 or 5
members. A highest percentage of families had joint family system.
About 75% had weekly contacts with urban centres. No SCs and STs
subscribe<! for either newspapers or magazines. About 50% STs were
adopters of major farm practices. Purchasing farm lands, providing higher
education to children and early settlement of the marriage to their sons and
daughters were the most three aspirations. Only one-fourth of the
respondent were the migrators and they were SCs or OCs. More than 75%
of the consumption expenditure was spent on food items by the household
of the STs and SCs. And these two communities also spent about 7% of
expenditure on beverages and narcotics which is very high as compared to
other communities. The share of the expenditure On education, health,
recreation etc. was high among BCs and OCs as against STs and SCs.
Regarding the income expenditure pattern, the BCs and DCs had smaller
deficit than the STs and SCs.
Period of Study : May 1984 - May 1987
238
======================.. ~
SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF WESTERN GHAT
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME ON TRIBAL WOMEN -
CASE STUDY OF WYNAD DISTRICT IN KERALA
K R LAKSMY UEVI
Department of Economics
University ofCa/icut
Trichur - 68060 J
'([he objective of the study was to examine the nature and eKtent of
the impact of Western Ghat Development Programme on the socia-economic
condition of tribal women in Wynad District. A brief review of the Western
Ghat Development Programme in Kerala is given along with a description of
the two selected projects, Sugandhagiri Cardamom Project and the Pooket
Lake Project. The sample consisted of 425 households, 375 from
Sugandhagiri and 50 from Pookot Lake project, oath in the Vythiri taluk of
Wynad district.
it was found that the work participation rates for the tribal women in
Wynad was much ILigher than the corresponding slate and national averages,
A large majority of female workers in Wynad were observed to be
agricultural labourers (81.43%). Economic impact was studied in terms of
objectives indices like income, employment, asset !folding etc. While social
impact was analysed in terms of factors like food intake, clothing habits,
footwears, books, magazines and cosmetics, pattern of cooking, leisLUe and
work, awareness of child care, maternity and family planning programmes
and status of women in soc.iety ... _ .... _ .... _ .. _ .. ___ . .... ._._. __ .. __ ... ___ ... _ ...... __ .. _
It was found that for both the projects, women's income constituted
a substantial part of the family's total income. 52.23% of the families
under Sugandhagiri Project and 40% of the families under Pookot Lake
Project had women's income more than 50% of the family's total income_
239
Just solitary family under Sugandhagiri and 2 families in Pookot Lake had
women having no share in the family's total income. upon the
implementation of the Western Ghats Development Programme (WGDP)
projects, while 18.35% had a decrease in income and another 19.10% had
no change in ine-ome. Intra project variations in income were not significant
clearly suggesting that WGDI' had improved the income for the tribal
women. It is found that those who had a decrease in income were the
erstwhile forest dependent population for whom a valuable source of income
was deprived as a result of the implementation of the projects. The
percentage of households below the poverty line was reduced from 77.85%
before the implementation of the projects to 60.9% after the
implementation.
The impact of WGOP on generation of employment was
found to be much more that the impact on income. While only 62.6% of
the women beneficiaries could move upto higher income classes 80.94% of
the women beneficiaries could move upto higher employment classes.
14.R2% had no in employment whilt 4.23% experienced a decline
in employment. 85. 17% of the beneficiaries had an increase in their asset
holdings. While 12.9% did not have any change in their assets a '!ery small
proportion (\.8%) had a decrease in assets. On the basis of changes in
per capita consumer expenditure, it was found that 59.9.% of the househol<ls
in Sugadhagiri and 57.65% of the households in Pookot Lake Project were
poor. In case of 42. II % femaJes frequency of food intake had gone up
after the implementation of the programme but at the same time 33.88%
had a decline in their frequency of food intake. However, there was a
substantial improvement in the quality of food consumed .
.... -- ... _ .. _.---.... _.-
Impre;ve"mentlii'CIotliirig habits was more pronounced. Not a single
woman beneficiary was accustomed to the use of footwears or books and
magazines before the implementation of the project. 8ut24.16% of the women
use footwear and another 4.05% use books and magazines. The most
significant change was found in the use of cosmetics. Not only did the
frequency of cooking change but such food items like vegetables, meat, fis:.
eggs became more common. Changes in these illlproved the l i f e ~ t y l e of
women, dent at the same time resulted in an increase in their working hours.
Infant mortality was reduced considerably and women were more aware of
maternity and child care services. 26.8% of the women were using some form
of contraceptives while 8.3% had undergone laperoscopy session. Women had
a good position in the society of all L'Je tribal communities. The most surprising
revelation of the study perhaps was that 94.2% of the women were not
bothered about issues of 'sexual equality'.
Judged in terms of changes in income, changes in employment and
changes in asset holdings the general impact of the WGDP on tribal women
was favourable. This was more evidenced by other factors like food intake,
clothing habits, pattern of cooking, change in the consumption of foot
wears, bOOKS and magazines and cosmetices. But however, atleast for a
small minority the WGDP has resulted in a decline in their status. These were
the erstwhile forest dependent tribals, who were earlier depending solely on
forests for living. They relt that the implementation of the projects have
reduced them to the status of casual labolJren.
Period of,'/udy - July 198; - July 1986
241
IMPACT OF DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS IN THE WESTERN
GHAT REGION ON THE FOREST-DEPENDENT POPULA nON -
<-\ CASE STUDY OF WYNAD DISTRICT IN KERALA
M MOHANDAS
Department of Economics
Kerala Agricultural University
Mannuthy - 68065 J
mhe main objective of the project was to examine the nature and extent
of the impact of development projects in the Wynad district in Kerala on the
socio-economic conditions of the affected population with special reference to
tribals.
The study involved survey of504 samples chosen according to stratified
random sampling procedure. The t.hree groups of development projects
covered by the study were (I) Forest plantatior. projects (2) Western Ghat
Development projects and (3) Commercial plantations. Since tribals consti-
tuted the entire samples, the parameters selected for the impact study were
income, employment, assets and land holding, collection of minor forest
products, food gatheri...g, fuehvood and timber collectin, frequency and type of
food intake., .
As a result of the development projects covered by the study, 60.3
percent of the samples had moved up to higher income classes, compared to
only 29.7 percent moving to higher employment class. Though 40.5 percent
has. slipped to lower employment classes, corresponding percentage was only
19.7 perceritmrespectofincome, of households
below a poverty line of Rs.1500 per capita per yeadiid'deC1iiiellfrom<76:8
percent prior to the implementation to 60 percent at the time of the study.
There were no perceptible changes in the proportion oflalldless house-
holds, average land holdings, frequency of food intake or even in the
of intake of staple food.
242
i

I
;
i
While two-third of the households had moved up to higher asset classes
only 20.6 percent moved up to higher classes when assets excluding houses
were taken.
The general level of living of the households covered by the study was
very poor even after the implementation of the rlevelopment projects 52
percent ofthe households and 63.5 percent of the population were seen to be
poor according to a per capita expenditure of Rs.125 per month.
While the proportion of income from forest dependence increased for
36 percent households, it had declined in the case of 41. 7 percent. But the
percentage of households deriving principal source of income from forest
dependence went up froII\ 27. 7 percentof35 percent while the principal source
of income remained the same for 55.8 percent.
..
SOL TAN'S BATIERY
WYN ... D DISTP.ICT
VdIoflO:'
. Y..amMilio Stot..-
""..."'--
T<>!uk bo",du, -
vllt.;. .. l>ounOUt)' ., .
5101: H'$:t,.,ny __ -
lJUlIlCtl-l dq<llltet.
VYtlfIRl TAUIlC
1. 1. Kuppt.di1laA 1.

I.Arrlbmnyol 1.PurUbi. II.MIaIQ I:tKuliylmbctto
.-
MAP 0, WYNAD DiSTRlCT
243
On significant impact of development projects was the'steep decline in
direct forest dependence in respect of the coliection ofmi,nor forest products
incillding honey., wild roots and tubers, and forest raw materials for cottage
crafts and fuel wood. The propoltion of household depending on such non-
wage employment on forests for principal source of employment declined by
half from 19,9 percent of) 0.6 percent At the same time due to expansion of'
forest plantations, wage employment went lip singniticantly. There was three-
fold increase in the proportion of households deriving principal source of
employment from 7,9 percent ot 24.4 percenl. But despite the implementation
of Western Ghat Projects initiated by the Government ofIndia, U,e proportion
of households deriving principal sonrce of employment from non-forestry
sector had declined from 72.3 percent at 65.0 percent The dependence on wild
roots and tubers from forests for principal sonrce of income has virtually
disappeared.
The conversion afforest lands into forest plantations had dispossessed
tI,e tribals of all their traditional rights and privilege. at a stroke without any
comrnensurate ben"fit of direct employment as it has necessarily gone to the
'non-tribal, in most oft"e places. Thus it was sugg"sted that such forest labour
should exciusiveiy be reserved to the forest d ~ p e n d e n t tribals by urganising
tribal labour contract societies. Along with tll;S eftorts for ecological
upgradation of existing forests and forest plantations may be lmdertaken on a
war footing as also the development of crafts based on MFP for eliminating the
adverse impact on them and to ameliorate dleir miserable living conditions,
Since the loss of forest area as well ecological degradation from the
projects have been far outweighed by encroaclunent and deforestation by the
greedy settlers, it was inferred that it was necess",), to prohibit immigration,
settlement and economic activity in and around the project sites in the
ecologically sensitive areas of the Western Ghat Region.
Perwd of study: September} 983 ~ September 1986
244
EASTERN GHATS
-.- - ... ._-_ .. -----_ .. - .. --_.,--".,-- _ ... -'" ... -' ... _ ....... _ .. -'-' ........ _ .. -.. .
._.- .. _--, .. _ ..... -., ..... _.- .. - .' ... ,.
2 .. 5

I
INTEGRATED ACTION-ORIENTED RESEARCH, DEVELOP-
MENT AND EXTENSION PROGRAMME - EASTERN GHATS
J!i aslern Gizals Programme was initialed in 1984 by Ilze Minislry of
Enl'uonmcnl ulzd Forests/or development of the region 011 sound ecolDgical
basis. It was realised that exploitative pattern of in the region
has led 10 the depiction of Ihe capital slock of natural resources on whiclz all
economic development ultimalely depends. As a consequence of unplanned
developmenlal aclivities, Ihe region is sufferingfrom deSlruclion of habitats
of ils unique plant and animal life, tlze damagefromfloods, sillation and
reduction in Ihe life of river valley project<, deforeslalion and shortageof
food, fodder and fuel for the rural population and raw material for tI,e
industries.
The mountain ranges which lie on the eastern side of the Deccan
Plateau are called tlze Easlern Gizats. The Gizats form a scries of delached
hill ranges and traverse through 3 States namely Orissa, Andhra Pradesh
and Tamil nadll. The Eastern G'hals are cut by rivers namely, Krishna,
Godavari and Mahan.adi and several other smaller rivers and tribldaries.
The Eastern Ghats span 6 dislricts of Orissa, /3 districls of Andhra Pradesh
and 6 districts of Tamil Iladu.
The programme aims to ensure sustainable utilisation and rebuilding
of resource base of soil, waler, plant and animal life while slriving to generale
and sllslain economic and social wellbeing of Ihe people of Ihe hilly areas.
The thrllst areas broadly includes land use pattern ill relation to /Iltmait
activities, en l?ifonmental impact of mining, ecodeve/opmCllt of genetic diver-
sity and human heallh and environmenlallinkages. ... .. -- .
Sofor 36 research projects IIave been sanclioned and21 projects have
been completed. The iI/formation generated from the completedprojects has
been useful in identifying Ihe biologically rich areas where Ihe wildlife is
dlVindiling, delermining Ihe slalllS of pollution and degradation of Ihe
. wetlund resOllrces name(v, Ihe Chilka, Kol/era & PuWcallakes.
247
The completed research projects wilic/, Irave been ineluded in tltis
v(}iume relate to curd conservation of flora iii1d fauna, ecological
impact (1'mining activities, reclamation of mitled areas and degraded lallqs,
land useplunning, grassicmd management, lukes and estuaries, ornithologi-
cal and socio-economic ..
- -.- --- -
...... -........ '-'-
"., '--".-.
,-, ---"'--' .....
24R
PROJECT B1HANG
UN DEV
Nature & Wildlife ConSCI11Glion S'ociely (d' Orissa
Sahee" Nagar
Bhubaneswar- '5 f007
jlilihang in Oriya language means the bird. TIle objective of the study
was to update the check-list of the birds of the study was to update the check-
list of the birds of Orissa part of the Eastern Ghats by undertaking a fresh
survey including population dynamics and bird migration studies. Italso aimed
at identifiying the factors leading to habitat destruction and conservation
measures.
- ~
ORNtTIIOGEOGRAl'IUC ZONE IN "1l1E SURVEY ARE/\. OF PROJECT BIl-lANG
249
The avifauna of the area included 427 species, both resident and
migratory. In Chilka area (1130 sq kms) alone, 143 species were recorded out
of which 93 were migrato!)'. The local migration range was recorded to be not
exceeding 50 kms radius. Faunal changes were recorded due to deforestation,
construction of man-made water bodies and esta1islunents of new townships.
Studies have revealed that due to habitat alterations, the population of the
following species of birds was dwindling very fast: (i) Malabar Pied Hombill
(Anrhraco sarus coronatus), (ii) Indian Pied Bornbill (;!nrhraco sarus
malabaricus), (iii) Brahminy Kites (Heliasrur indil:'l, (iv) common Cranes
(Orus grus liljordi), (v) Blacknecked Cranes (Ephippiorhynchus asialricus
asialiclis), (vi) Smew Duck (Mergus albellus), (vii) Black Vulture (Sarcogyps
ca/vus), (viii) Scavenger Vulture (Neopheron percnopterus). In case of
Vultures, the population decline was due to chick mortality, the real cause for
which is yet to be established. The findings emphasize the need for adoption
of special measure for conservation of these species.
Period of study : September 1985 - March 1988
, ......... -, .. - ... ,--.... _-, ... _, .. .
250
SURVEY, EVALUATION AND SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTION OF
CITRUS AND MANGO GERMPLASM RESOURCES
IN EASTERN GHATS OF ORISSA
D P RAy
Department of Horticulture
Orissa University of Agricultural and Technology
Bhuhaneswar- 751003
~ a s t e m Ghats abound in enonnous plant wealth which include local
varieties of edible fruits. The objectives of the study were to survey the local
types of mango and citTlls with a view to find out outstanding local elites and
wild types having special attributes worth maintaining for using as material for
future breeding work and root-stock trials from among the surveyed types.
MANGO: Snrveywork was undertaken in the districts ofPuri, Cuttack,
Kalahandi, Ganjam, Dhenkanal, Sambalpur, Korapu:, Sl!l1dergarh, Keonjhar,
Mayurbhanj, Balasore, Bolangir and Phulbani during 1987 to 1989. Five
hundred and forty eight of local mangoes and 94 species of citnls gennplasm
were collected during the project period. Detailed characteristics of fruits of
548 types such as' size, shape, weight alongwith external appearance and
,
internal structure:inc!uding qualitative aspects and stone characters have been
recorded. After proper screening of 548 types, finally 51 varieties, namely
pahipati, Naki (I), Lambri, Sukra, Mohan Basai, Nilgiri local, Kajbhog (I),
Rajbhog (2), Nakei (1), Kalei, Kadalia, Kanchasuadi, Sumdari, Nazngalmundia,
Naket (2), Silpua, Bela, Kanghuneth Ballav, Krishna Ballav, kundamulia,
,._ .. -sunakhai,Chamcitakata:;Nakua;Kai (2), Icecrearn, Kadalia (I), Kadalia (2),
Chandini, Kalua, Mendamunda, Gandari, Manisa, Akhuras, Sita, Kirasini,
Jhatei, Janaki Pas and, Habeligaja, Patali, Belagaja, Baramasi, Lori, Paninandi,
Rasgola and Lata were selected. These varieties are excellent and possess
comparable qualities with other commercial mangoes of the country.
251
r
"
3- fHA.IotGIRI SUT
4- S1M1LtPAL BELT
N
t
5- MALKANG1Rl BELT
6. kH .... PARM010l BEt.l
u nws tvlJ\J' V(
CITRUS: Fifty two species of cilrus such as Citron, Pumelio, Sweet
Lime, Karana Khatta, Hi:! lemon, Grape Fruit, Jambery, Kegzilirne, Sweet
Orange, Mandarins we"e collecied frum different district, of the State,
Besides, certain peculiar features of the species, the fruit and tree characters
have been studied, The detailed description and also the places from which
collected were mentioned,
Systematic steps were initiated for maintainIng all the selected types of
mango and citrus gennplasm at the Honicultural Research Station of Orissa
University of Agriculture and Teclmology, Bhubaneswar. The Director of
Horticulture, Government of Orissa was requested to preserve and maintain
one additional set of selected gennplasm in their own Research Station
situated at Ekamra Kanan of Bhubaneswat,
Period olstad)': March 1987 - October 1989
252

I
ECOLOGICAL STUOIES Of GRAZING LAND ECOSYSTEM OF
EASTERN GHATS REGLON
KAILASH PALiWAL
School of Biologica! Sciences
MadHrai Kamaraj University
Madurai - 62502/
'[[he grazing lands of Eastern Ghats are not very rich in species
diversity. The study dealt with understanding the structure and composition of
grazing land, productivity factors affecting the production potentials of these
grazing lands, their physiological aspects, nutrient dynamics and socio-
ecological aspects. The investigation revealed that the grazing lands were
mostly dominated by Heleropogon, Themeda, Chrysopogon and Panicum.
Among all the localities, maximum above-ground Ii vo biomass was
found at Sirumalai (918.9 gm ") followed byYercaud (659.2 gm"), Hogenakel
(43R.2 gm ") and Thoppur (306.9 gm")' It was found that productivity oflhese
grasslands depended upon rainfall, floristic composition, grazing and anthro-
pogenic pressure.
Studies on effects of fires indicated that frequent fires kad to deterio-
ration of soil condition due to compacting and removal of palatable species. In
the fire area, the input was higher than the control grazingorea. In this area the
input and output was in the stated order of Sirumalai > Yercaud> Hogenakel
for input and Hogenakel > Yercaud> Sirumalai for output By and large soil
of these grasslands was found to be poor in nitrogen, suggesting thereby that
nitrogenous fertilizer would substantially increase the gnss yield.
__ .... _________ .It was .. concluded-that--therewas--serious--imbalan4%lle!:Weeri 'sporiidiC'
fodder production (closely dependent on climatic conditi_) and the need for
regular fodder supplies. This imbalance assured the foon of a substantial
fodder deficit at the end of the dry season which becolWS castastrophic in
drought years.
253
it was also concluded that the overgrazing, frequent fires and poor
genetic diversity were the main reasons of deteriorating state of grasslands. It
was recommended that controlled grazing, introduction of silvi-pastoral sys:
tom for fodder production, introduction of nitrogen fixing and more nutritious
grass species, fire control, regulation oflive stock population not to exceed the
carrying capacily, and peojlle'Sparticipation could be promoted to improve the
grasslands
Period of study: Oclober 1985 - January 1989
..... _ .... _"_.-........... _-_ ..... , ... , ...
254

SEAGRASS ECOSYSTEM OF COROMANDEL COAST
K RAMAMURTHY
Botanical Survey of India
Southern Circle
COimbalore - 641003
play an important role in major food chains. These have
a high growth rate, producing on the average about 300 - 600g dry weigntlm'/
year, not including root production. The leaves of seagrasses support a large
number of epiphytic organisms with a total biomass, perhaps approaching that
of the grass itself. The study was undtaken for (i) extensive survey and
rrID
" "-
, ---
VALUES FOR SEJ\GRASSf.S
255
collection of seagrasses along the Coromandcl coast of peninsular India; (ii)
complete systematic study including identification, critical re-evaluation,
detailed species - wise taxonomic description and illustration, and (iii) estima-
tion of species-wise biomass values of seagrasses.
Based on richness of seagrasses, 7 districts m Andhra Pradesh, 9
districts in Tamil Nadu; and Trivandrum district of Kerala were chosen for
exploration.
The biomass studies revealed tl,at illlhe marine ellvirorunentthe higher
biomass was contributed by Enhalus acaroide .. , Thalassia hemprichii,
Cymodocea rolandala, Cymodocea serri/ala andSyringodilinJ isoeli(o/illm. It
was observed that in the Gulf ofMannar and Palk Bay these plants were adding
heavy biomass to their ellyirumnent by fOllning vast continuous meadows_
------
- .. """<""'m_l.cO ... I .. "
["""!vi o<arV"& It
!!mtWJ ......... <.hI,
fI,!op!ll.! /!OgF;f!!1
s .. ....., ... "",,""' ..
!jg!pJ>!!tt!od2lr .. '"
Htk?RhII, ... 111 'Q: ".191M!. '11'101>.

H.I9oi!!'a ",,,,Ips!! *' irlM9t! 1000001follm t
SPECIES OlvEH.SIIT Of .sEAtiRA5SL;:S AlONG CU(HJMANDEL COAST
2;6
Intensive study in phenology of se.grasses revealed that flowering was
frequent, even though they last only for a short time. However, the day length,
temperature, salinity, tidal rhythm etc. played a meior role in the flowering
physiology of seagrasses.
It also revealed the fact that Ha/opiIila {)valis, l-f. beccarii, H. ova/a,
Halodula pinijoliaand H. Iminervis were distributed throughout the Coroman-
del coast.
The occurrence' of Ha/ophila dedpiens, a rare pantropic-al seagrass
known so far from Bombay coast was discovered from Tuticorin coast. Its
floral biology and ecology were also studied in detail.
Monoecism and protogyny, new phenomena 11\ floral biology or
Halophila beccarii were observed for the first time.
A IlC\Y sub-species Ha/uphila (lvalis sub-sp. ramamurlhyi \\'as col-
lected and described from Marakkanmn backwaters, south Areot district. A
nc,\- species of SfericlJliaceac, A;fdhania ba/akrisiu1L1niana, a coasta! plant
was co1iected and described from Tuticorin coast.
Period of,\lttdy : JlIIlIlllry /9117 - Jalluary 1989
257
SEAGRASS ECOSYSTEM OF COROMANDEL COAST
RAJESHWARI MAHALINGAM
Departmenl a/Chemical Engineering
indian Inslitule a/Technology
Madras-G00025
are the marine flowering plants inhabiting the shallow
coastal waters in tropical and temperate zones. Of the 12 genera and 50 species
about 6 genera and II species are distributed in India.
The study dealt with distribution, community structure, habitat values,
role of effluents and nutrient values of Seagrass. The material was collected
from Gulf ofMannar in Tamil Nadu and selected sites in Andhra Pradesh and
Orissa.

" ..
,

tIr H_ ... ........ Ix ...

..
HALOllHILA BEDS IN GODAVATU DELTA
258
The ecological distribution of different species in different habitats
were reporte<\. Species such as Thalassia hemprichii and Halophila
decipiens were reported for the first time. About 40 different ecotypes of
Halophila were reported and the ecological stability of such ecoty-pes were
discussed. The productivity of se.grass was measured tlHough C:N ratio in
different species of seagrass. The productivity of seagrass in tropical and
temperate regions was discussed to provide the useful information with regard
to the better undcrstanding of seagrass ecosystems as a chief function element
in the near-shore environment.
The siting of industries and status of seagrass system was observed as
the major threat to the shallow water communities. Temperature of 23 - 35C
and salinity.of24 - 35 % was observed to be suited for different species. The
heavy melal analysis in the sediment and the six fractions of particles sizes 150
- 2000 parts per thousand was analysed. Heavy metal such as Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu
and Pb were analysed.
Phenolic acids and the flavonoid composition in different species were
analysed. The amino acids and sugar in seagrasses were analysed to focus the
ability of such systems for supplying metabolic reserves.
The exploitation of the life supporting systems such as mangroves,
seagrasses and coral reefs and the management needs for conservation,
evaluation and utilisation for sustainable management through an integrated
approach were suggested.
Period of study : February 1986 - October 1989
---_ . .--- -.- .-... , ~ . - ... -.- .. - . - ~ - .. , " ... -'" ------_ ... __ .. --_ ..... __ ...
259
A STUDY OF THE FLORISTIC ECOLOGY OF SHERVARO'l
HILLS OF SALEM DISTRICT (EASTERN GHATS)
K V KRISHNAOWRTH\'
School oj Life Sciences
Bharalhidasan Unil'ersity
Tin/chi rapalli-6 200 2-1
'<lIhe Shervaroys are a major bill range of Eastern Ghats sinlated to the
north east of Salem (Tamil Nadu) at a distance of 26 kms. It lies between 11
0
45' and II 55' N latitude and 78 10' and 78 20' Elongitude and covers an area
of 470 Jim. The altinlde ranges from 400m to 160m, The following vegeta-
tional types occur in the Shervaroys; Scrub Savanna at altitudes of 400 - 700m,
deciduous forests between 800 and 1200m, semi-evergreen forest between
1300 and 1600m,
The objectives of tile project included the census of vegetation from all
the localities ofShervaroy hi!:s, enumeration of exotic, cultivated or introduced
eleme"ts, study of factors affecting vegetation ph)1ogeugraphical analysis of
the flora and floral elements, flowering, frui!ing& soil phcno!ogyofShervaroys
and study oflichcn flora.
MAP OF TAr-tiL r';AotJ sH0WrNG THE S:\I ri\f ANU SIlERVAROY HILtS
A lotal lIO. of lto3 spp of flowering plants belonging to 649 genera
under 149 families were recorded.
The list of plants occuring in Shervaroys from the year 1853 onwards
was compared with the collection made. A study of the collection led to
conclude wide variation in the flora. The list on newly recorded species in this
region are: Trifolium dubiunt Smith, Vieiasativa Linn., Rhodomyrtlls tomenlosa
Wight, Corbiehonia decclImbens (Forsskal) Excell., Hydrocotyl javaniea
Thunb., Ja,minum angustifolillm (L.) Wild., Braehystelma elenaduensis,
Exacum pedunculatum L. Euphorbia prostrata Aiuton, Grewia nud{pora L.
and PancrelillnJ.iongijlorum Roxb. The species which have become extinct
and endangered were recorded.
Species which had become extinct in the region were !lex dentielliata
Wall. ex Wight, Vernonia shervaroyensis Gamble and Lilillm walliehianum
S&S F.
The endangered species recorded were Pillosporum da.\ycalllon Miq.,
Grewia abUlilifolia Juss., Impaliens aeaulis Arm. Crotalaria longipes Wight
& Am., Crotalaria shervaroyensis Gamble, C. slIpelfoliata Wight ex Wight
& Am., Delonix elala (L) Gamble, NeanOlis indica (DC). W. Lewis var.
deltoidea(Wight&Am) W. Lewis, Vernonia arboreaBuch.- Ham,Caralluma
adseendens (Roxb) Haw. and Siereospermum personailim (Hasak.), Dchna
obtusa DC var gamblei and Ximemia americana.
The phytogeographical analysis of the flora revealed 17 types of floral
elements in this area. Phenological data relating to flowering & fruiting were
recorded for 823 plants. Phenology of plants was correlated with climatic and
other factors. A study of soil phenology in six different locations with different
types of vegetation namely, scrub jungle deciduous forests, semi-evergreen
forests, grasslands, cultivated fields & coffee plantations was done.
Lichen texa of the Shervaroys were collected & studied. A total of
about 270 spcciesofTichcnswerecollcctea:Afe\voCtheselik<L'(Jeniig,j"hiiii-
sp., Leptogium cyanescens Ny!., L. dendieliialum Ny!., Lempholemma sp. and
Slifearia sufcaia were repolted for the first time.
Period ofstlldy: October 1987 - September 1989
261
ECOLOGY AND orSTRlHUTlON PA'ITERN OFWILD RODENTS
OF EASTERN GHATS
S K PATNAnc
Nowre and Wildlife Conservation
Society of Orissa, Janparh
Sahecd Nagar
Bhubaneswar-75JOOl
'(IThe rodents, popularly known as gnawing animals (Rodentia) consti-
tute the largest group of mammals. About half of the mammalian species alive
today belong to the order Rodentia.
The study was undertaken with a view to understand the ecology and the
dislTibutioll pattems of wild rodents in Orissa. The various siles selected for
the study included- Usha Kothi, Dehrigarh, Deogarh, Tikarpara, Kapilas,
Simlipal, Barg!:ipani water fall, lamBda water fall, Dhudm Champa, lenaba!;,
ShawarJ Patna Phulbani, Khajuriparha, Koraput, Rayagada & Gunupur,
Malkangiri and Anandpur.
The members of the sub-order Caviomorpha were noted in all the
dislTicts of Orissa. The biological and ecological studies included Rall"s
rartus, Rallus norvegicus, Mus mascu/us, Mus booduga, Bandicota benga/ensis,
Bondicota indica, Ta/ero indica, Vande/enrico o/arecea, lIot.ifo indica,
Funambu/us paJi110YllI1l, and Hystrix indica, F.mambu/as pa/marum,
Petouris/o petal/risto, Hystrix indica .
.. -YhestuaY-iilSii-iiiCliiikotliedescription on the storing habits, instinct
and intelligence in the rodents. Different methods which were practised for
conlTol of rodents wete discusssed in the report.
Period oJ study: January 1988 - December 1989
262
. ECOLOGICAL STUDIES ON GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES OF
SOUTH ORISSA
B N MISRA
Department of Botany
Berhampur University
Berhampur-760007
. rasses are the important plant communities that maintain the survival
of the herbivore plant relationship. Besides to rage resource, the perennial
grass can promptly reduce soil erosion and improve soil structure.
The present study was initiated in the Southern parts of Orissa on the
Eastern Ghats. Three experimental stations were selected at 3 different
The experimental sites were Ramachandrapalli (Site-I), Saukeswari
(Site-II) and Udaygiri (Site-Ill) in Ganjam, Koraput and Phulabani Districts,
respectively.
MAP OF UKISSA SIIOWING 'IIIE I.OCJ\TIUNSOF EXI'EIUMENTAL SITES
263
Fluctuation in soil moisture content was measured and the highest
values were recorded in the rainy season. Summation of positive increments
of biomass was chosen to find out net production. Grasses contributed the
maximum to the total net production (TNP). Udayagiri showed thc highest
anllllal production compared to other two sites. The increase in net below-
ground productio,\ at Udaya!)i .. i was responsible for the increase, in TNP.
Above-ground net production (ANP) was detennined by summing the positive
increments in all the compartmentS. Net Community Production (NCP) was
found to be 584 gm" Y..-', 483 gm
2
Y..-' and 689 gm"Y,,-' sites I,ll and III
respectively.
The nutrient contents pertaining to N, P, Na and K were analysed for
different cornpanrnents of the community in all sites. A budget ofthe nutrient
was also prepared. The caloric content of all the compartments (Jive-green,
standing dead litter and below ground) were detennined periodically on dry
weight basis in all experimental sites. Site III (Udayagiri) showed higher
caloric value per gram dry weight. The energy flow model was prepared to
show various inputs and outputs.
There were altogetl\er28 species of grasses recorded at Rarnachaiidrapalli
and SoukeshwaJi and 23 species at Udaygiri. The phyla sociological characters
like frequency, density abundance and dominance of the different species were
detem1ined in all the three sites. The grass speciesHeleropogon conlorrus
dominated in Rarnachandrapalli and Udaygiri, whereas Erogroslis lenella
dominated in Soukeshwari. Among non-grasses,Pesmodium triflorum domi-
nated in all the sites. Periodic production and net community production were
found to be significantly different in ti,e three sites, Highest below-ground I
above-ground biomass ratio were found to be 2.5,2.1 and 1.2 in sites I, II and
III, .respcctillely ......... __ ..... _ ... _ ..... .
. - . - - - . - . ~ - - - .... ,,- "'- ... -.-.... ,.- ----"'-""'-- ............. -..... _ ..
The ecological efficiency values of the three sites were found to be
57%, 59% arid 68% at site I,ll, and Ill, respectively.
Period oJstudy.' July 1988 - June 1991
264
AN INTEGRATED STUDY OF ASSESSMENT OF
EASTERN GHATS FOR TERRAIN EV ALUA TlON AND
ECO-DEVELOPMENT
BOMB
P G Department of Geology
Utkal University, Va7ii Vihar
Bhuballeswar-7510 I 2
ith a view to study the state of earth surface the natural
resources and their geological connection in a large tract of the Eastern Ghat
region (about 45,000 sq. km.) along the Mahanadi valley, a study was
undertaken by employing remote sensing techniques.
It was observed that certain impOltantrocks such as iron ore super group
and the Gondwana super group had produced a variety of distinctive geomor-
phological features with typkal soil association which control terrain r.Ve


....,.,.., -- u.-
-.---':::3--
m---..
f

I
'" I G"'._'_ (2)- L<\NDUSE MAP

water resources and land use. A distinct geological connection was established
between lithology, structure, geomorphology, soil type, ground water condi-
tion, forest cover, agriculture and landuses. The results of the work were
displayed in tbc main report through a number of regional maps such as
lithological, stmclllral, geomorphological, relief, drainage, soil type, surface
and growld waler resources, industrial and mining actiVlties, terrain types and
landuse.
It was observed that population explosion and infrastructure and indus-
trial development had resulted in steady degradation of the ceo-system. The
forcst cover was dwindling mostly due to human consumption through
urbanisation, industrial establishment, mining, communication network, irri-
gation and power projects. Deforestation had given rise to many adverse
effects such as loss of fauna, soil erosion, reduction in soil productivity,
siltation of water courses and water bodies, promotion of aridity, flash floods,
etc. Establislunenl of industries and mining contributed to pollution of land,
water and air in the surrounding regions. .
These maps would be of interest and for the regional env;ronmental
manage,ment.
Period a/study: a n l l a ~ v 1987 - December 1989
266
COLLECTION AND RETRIEVAL OF THE A V AILABLE DATA
ON LIVING RESOURCES (PLANT & ANIMAL) WETLANDS,
SOIL, CLIMATIC AND EARTH RESOURCES OF EASTERN
GHATS FOR PREPARATION OF BIOCLIMATIC AND THE
THEMATIC MAPS BETWEEN SUBARNAREKHA & GODA VARI
B N SINHA
Department (!fGeugraphy
Utkal University
Bhubaneswar, 75 I Ii I 2
'IDhe aim of the study was to prepare maps on all the aspects of Eastern
Ghats which control the environment and ecosystem of the region. The area of
mapping of Eastern Ghats extended from Subarnarekha inthe North East to the
end ofKoraputdistrict in the South-West i.c. Orissa portion of Eastern Ghats.
This secti!;n of the Eastem Ghats wa!) most inaccessible and has five
higher peaks of the Eastern Ghats. Detailed field survey was undertaken by
SOIl. RE'(;IONS OF
267
covering various aspects i.e. teo'ain geology, structure, flora, fauna, drainage
pattern; cultivated area and auea; affected by shifting cultivation and soil
erosion etc. Satellite imageries of 1975 and 1982 were compared to assess the
changes on various themes of the regions. One hundred maps were prepared
covering these aspects.
Two specific sample area were surveyed in detail in the a{ I: I
miles'and reproduced in the scale of 1:4 miles. Simlipal hills and Chilka lake
were sample area of the project. Simlipal hill depicted the ecosystem and its
degradation of dense forests region, whiie Chilka lake depicted a brackish
water eco-system. It was observed that the Simlipal hill was !lot very
extensively disturbed, whereas lake Chilkahad been greatly disturbed because
of the eco-system degradation in the Eastern Ghats. It was noted that Chilka
lake was being silted up at an increasing rate, weeds were encoraching the lake
beds, fish population was declining ahd the crabs catch was also declining.
The project report consisted of three parts. Part-A included maps
pertaining to the Eastem Ghats as" whole and in all 48 mops were provided in
.'-
AsTtRN (,IIATS (OIu:lSA S&'T19!!l
20&
this section. These cover all the aspect of Eastern Ghats. Part- B dealt with the
detailed study of the lake Chilka. In all 32 maps were prepared covering
physical, climatic, economic and various aspects of fauna whereas Part- C
dealt with the specialised detailed study of the Simlipal hills for which 18 maps'
were prepared based on the field study and the analysis of the satellite
imageries.
Period of study: April 1986 - Marc" 1988
269.
=========--
HIMALA Y AN REGION
I
..... ----.... -.. . " ... - . ~ .... -... -- ... _ .... -...
INTEGRATED ACTION ORIENTED RESEARCH,
DEVELOPMENT AND EXTENSION PROGRAMME
- HIMALAYAN REGION
'(J]j,e Himalayas form a part of complex system of folded mountain
chains extendingfor a length of about 2400 kms covering an area of approx.
';97427 sq.km
The Himalayas lie within India, .Nepal, Bhutail and Tibet The
Ranges of Himalaya extendfrom north to the north east oflhe country and
are spread over states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar
Pradesh, Sikkim, West Bengal, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Meghalaya,
Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh and MizoranL
This complex mountain system consists ornarrow and deep valleys,
glaciers, fertile terrains formed by rivers and forests. It e.xperiences a wide
variety of climatic conditions rangingfrom the very high rainfall areas(north-
east) to temperate(north-wcst) and tropical regions andfinal(v to cold deserts
in the trans-Himalayan Region. The Himalayan Region has very rich/orests
which comprife thousands afspecies of trees, herbs, slirubs and richlaunal
diversity.
Population pressure, deforestation, soil erosion, migration, tourbim
and social change are the major issues which a r ~ placing a man-mounta.in
partnership and harmonious equilibrium in jeopardy. In recognition of
these concerns in Himalaya, the Ministry has undertaken a number of
initiatittes for preseTldng these unique, young and fragile.mountains in their
pristine state .
..... -lno.derto.havea.constant R&D focus on the Himalayan environ-
ment, an Integrated Action Orie!,ted Research Development and Extension
Programme in the Himalayan Region had been launched. In this volume,
executive summaries of 33 completed projects of the Himalayan Region have
273
been embodied. MultidL<ciplinary approaches linking natural and social
sciences for environmentally sound del'elop:nent in the Himalayas are the
focus of the various projects which range from propagation technology of
maggaT hamboo(for ensuring ready availability of planting material:,j,.
watershed and pasture management, Coordinated eeo-development projects
in different parts of Himalaya's, ecubi%gy on brown antlered deer and
illtensijicaion of research on fruit trees in U. P. Hima/ayas and edible fungi
in Wester" Himalayas.
274
GERMPLASM COLLECTION AND REFINEMENT OF NURSERY
AND PLANTATlON TECHNOLOGY OF
MAGGAR BAMBOO
o P SHARMA
Department of Basic Sciences
Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya
Palampur 176061
JElendrocalamus hamilionii, a bamboo, native of tropical Eastern
Himalaya and Nepal is part and parcel of the daily life of local people. Lack
of an inexpensive and simple method of propagation limits the realization of
its full potential.
The objectives of the study were: (i) to build gennplasm collection
which would serve as a documented source for multiplication by the new
method, and (ii) 'refine the propagation technology further.
Gennplasm accessions from seed include plants raised from (i) seed
of individual clumps, and (ii) mixe<!. seed. Thirteen seedlings with outstanding
perfonnance were selected as elite individuals. From amongst the gennplasm
accessions of clonal origin, two giant clones - STGC and PRGC were identified
and defined for future multiplication. Gennplasm ofD. hookeri, a promising
fodder bamboo for introduction in Himachal Pradesh, has been ad<\ed from
Meghalaya. . Populations of D. hamiltonii under cultivation fall under
'Maggar' and 'Phargalu Maggar'. Based on actual evaluation, Maggar is
eminently suited for both fine and coarse bamboo craft, whereas 'Phargalu' is
suitable for coarse craft alone.
The new technology exploits principal primary branches (with latent
root,) of partially juvenile culms. The initial I-node culm-cutting with the
minor length of distal and major of basal internode, was refined to minor length
of internode on either side of the cutting. One-!lode cuttings of (i) partially
275
juvenile culms but branched in second season perform equally well, and (ii)
partially juvenile primary branches could also be used. One-year-old nursery
plants raised fTom cllttings are fIrst transfen'ed to polythene bags in February-
M a r ~ h . With the fIrst heavy rai.n of the season in June-July, they are transferred
to the permanent site in 60 x 60 x 60 em. pits with 6 x 6 m spacing, 285 plants
per hectare. Maggar bamboo gave best response to nitrogen in the form of
ammonium snlphate.
The study suggested that as a short-term measure the existing superior
clones under cultivation could be used for raising planting material, while elite
seedlings utilised for raising planting stocks for rejuvenating the clump
populations, as a long-term strategy. It was also recommended that the
utilisation of the initial fInding reported will require scaling up of the sample
size, collection of data over longer periods, examination of rooting response
and yield estimation from different provenances.
Period oj study: March 1985 -March 1988
276
AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF THE AGRARIAN;
SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC PROBLEMS
FOR ECO-DEVELOPMENT OF KARBl ANGLONG DISTRICT,
ASSAM
HCHOUDHURV
Department oj Statistics
Gauhati University
Guwahati 781001
'!!Rarbi Anglong, fomlerly known as the Mikir Hills, is one of the two
hill districts in Assam. During the last four decades as a result of various
'developmental activities of Karbi society, in particular, has undergone rapid
changes in every sphere of its traditional life style which mainly centres on
jhum cultivation.
In this study, it was attempted to examine some socio-economic and
demographic aspects of the people in the district, more particularly of the
'Karbis' with the help of primary and secondary data. The primary data was
collected from households relating to economic, socio-demographic, and
agricultural aspects, more particularly regarding Jhum cultivation, steps
underte:tken to combat Jhum and its con:;equt!nces, attitude towards forest and
environment, age-sex composition, occupation and literacy, pattern of con-
sumption, health and family welfare and sanitation, etc. were also included in
data collection.
Age-sex structures of the popUlation in the district for 1971 census and
the sample data were obtained and examined with the help of demographic
indices, such as population pyramids, ageing index, median age, dependency.
ratio and proportion of population by broad age groups. .
Further, an attempt was made to identifiythi:-'areas ofdiffeiefiffesouicc .. -----
potentialities in the district as observed from the land use and hydro-geo-
morphological maps prepared by the Assam Remole Sensing Applicalion
Centre.
277
A study was also made to obtain the production and productivity of
'Thurn' paddy and wet paddy per unit land under cultivation, Various Thum
control schemes were undertaken so far to combat Jhum ill the district and its
extent of successes or failures were discussed and measures suggested for
improvement.
Inequalities in the income distribution were examined 'by means of
Lorenz ratio and Thiel's infonnation indices for Per Capita Expenditure
(peE) distribution, Specific concentration ratios for peE distributions for
some items of household consumption were also obtained,
The income(expenditure) shares of the lowest 40 per cent, middle 30
percent and the top 30 percent of the population were obtained. Engel
elasticities of some important items of consumption were estimated. Besides,
distribution of house-holds and persons and their shares of income
(expenditure) in various expenditure classes were presented as the sample data,
A poverty line was drawn for the district based on 1985-86 prices and fmally
by using long nonnal distribution and estimate of poverty was obtained for the
district.
Va.'ious family welfare programmes and their impact in the district were
analysed in t.'1e light of sample data and ways for improvement were suggested,
Period of study: February 1985 - September 1988
..... " .... " - . - ...... -- ..... _._-- -_.,"
...... -.. -.-.. "-" .. . - . - . - . " - ~ - . - - .. - .-.-... , ...... _ .... _ ... _._ ....
278
OPTIMAL LANDUSE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION IN
KOTADUN KUMAUN HIMALAY.<\.
D S JALAL
Departnwnt of Geography
KIlmaun Univeristy
Nainital263002
(!lomplex and intricate problems arising from lam degradation in
Himalaya necessitate an optimal use of the land resources. The project aimed
at accomplishing a comprehensive landuse and land ca,ability survey in
Kotadun, Kumaun Himalaya with a view to formulate a sd\eme for optimal
landuse taking into account the land capability, ecologic" imperatives and
economic needs. For educating local people in implementa"'n of the optimal
landuse scheme a demonstration and action programme at hIo sites selected in
Palkot and one in Saunjala was also attempted.
The methodology embodied collection anda!'.alysis ({soil ,amples and
meteorological data. It also included me of revenue maps .. d obtainment of
primary daia pertaining to landuse, population, livestock, zgriculturc, nutri-
tional status and infrastructure through questionnaires.
The important fmdings or the project were:-
A new model of determining land capability was finnulated in this
project which classified it into six categorics which w",,:- (i) area under
intensive cultivation. with multi-cropping system; (Ii) area under
extensive cultivation with double cropping s y s t e ~ (iii) area under
partial cultivation with mono-cropping system inclu<ilg horticultural
activities; (iv) area not available for cultivation as it isunderuses other
than cultivation, settlement, transport and commun&mon net-work,
quarrying and mining industries, commercial and recrational centres,
water bodies and banen lands; (v) area under psloral activities,
279
grazing grounds, grass fields, shrub and bushes producing fuel and
fodder and (vi) arca under arboreal vegetation including civil, pancha-
yati and reserved forests.
Tl>.ree densities - aritlunetic, physiological and agricultural- computed
in the present investigation, were 206, 584 and 165 person! sq. km. respec-
tively.
The population of the regIOn bad a remarkabe increase of22. 72% in the
decade of 1971-81. The area comprised of more male population than the
females. The number offemale population was 970 in 1971 and 936 in 1981
against 1000 males.
The literacy of the area was 46.36%. - 15.38% offemales and 30.98%
of males - in 1981 while it was 34.40% in 1971. Net 85.39% population was
engaged in the agricultural activities. The size of settlement largely depended
upon the means of nourishing and economic conditions of the inhabitants
therefore, densely populated large and compact settlements were situated in
dun floor while sparsely populated small villages in the mountainous tract of the
.. Size distribution of settlement revealed tllat 29.56%. population cr 6106
persons were concentrated in about 70% area or 67 villages while more than
two thirds or 70.44% of the popnlation resided in 30.21% area or 29 villages
large proportion of the poputation was concentrated in few villages and a small
proportion of that resided in many villages. Average population size of
settlement in 1981 was 215 persons. There are linear, checkerboard and
irregular patterns of settlemnt. The animal population of the area was grouped
in four categories of bovine (67.41%), ovine (16.21%), equine (7.93%) and
poultry (8.45%). The infrastructural facilities were more in dunfloor in relation
to the hills. The development of services and facilities of basic physical and
institutional infrastructure was far below the adequate. More than 60% of the
villages fel! more than 4 km away.fr9.!n of these services.
_ ... -.... . ...,--_.,. -, --.. _ ... _ .. _- ---------- -----
The agricultural efficiency or productivity index was higher in dunfloor
and lower in the mountainous Units. Phosphorous, thiamine and niacine were
sufficiently available ill the diet of tlie villagers while calcium, fat,
carbohydrate, carotene, riboflavin, iron and vitamic Cwere below the
280
standard requirement. As a result 10.38% people suffered from various
deficiency diseases. The range of mortality was from 10 to 20 percent showing
an increasing order from dun floor uplands.
The study recommended that the sensitive and fragile zone of Muin
Boundary Fault should be restricted for anthropogenic activities such as
grazing, agriculture; mining and quarrying and construction of roads, canals,
buildings and darns. It should be preserved exclusively for growing and
developing of this vegetative cover. Activities of planting fuel, fodder and fruit
bearing trees and grasses should also be intensified in this zone. The water of
the main streams - Bangajala, Masani, Oabka and Baur should be harnessed
at the foot hill zone. .
Period of study: October 1985 - October 1988
2Rl
HERPETOFAVNA OF KASHMIR llIMALAYA: EXPLORATION
ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION
DEEP N SAHl
Department of Bio-Sciences
Jammu University
Jammu-JSOOO 1
'ill he project aimed at studying herpetofauna of the state of Jammu and
Kashmir, with special emphasis on surveying their regional distribution,
ecology and natural history so as to detennine their dominance status and
identifying amongst them such herptiles which need the immediate protection
and conservation. The project also aimed.at studying the reproductive biology
especially of fresh water turtles of the area so as to suggest measures for their
management on a scientific basis.
The main approach ,luring the study ~ a s personal observation through
field collections and capt\!re and release techniques. Laboratory stuuies were
also undertaken whenever there was a need for a positive determination of the
systematic position of a specimen sighted in the field was not readily identifi-
able or whenever study of the food and feeding habits of these herptiles in
captivity was required. Past data on herptiles of the state available through
published 'Iiterature was used as additional source for collating information on
these important vertebrates of the state. An ecological assessment of the habitat
was attempted by desclibing the topography, stream system, climate and
vegetation.
Forty five amphibian and reptilian species were recorded of which 28
species were well spread throughout the country, 7 mountain species were
endemic in the Himalayan range, 4 species endemic to Kashmir Himalaya and
4 represented in neighbouring plains of Kashmir Himalaya. There were 2 "ide
282
spread European species which were more or less confined to the state of
Jammu and Kashmir.
Of the 45 species recorded from Kashmir Himalaya, 6 species namely,
Trionyx gangelicus, T. hurum, Lissemys punclala, Kachuga lecla-Iecta,
Varanus bengalensis and V. ftavescens were recorded in the study area and
stand listed in schedule I (Part II, Amphibians and Reptiles) of Wildlife
(Protection) Act, 1982.
Ananalysis of the available habitats occupied or known to have been
occupied by amphibians and reptiles in the state indicated a definite progressive
degradation which calls for immediate attention for restoration and reclama-
tion of these habitats so that better management of these animals is practised.
Lake Mansar, which is a sub-tropical fresh water lake in the province
of Jammu appeared to be a natural repository of the two most endangered
chelonian species namely: Trionyx gangelieus and Lissemys punclala.
Although the population density of these two turtles in the lake was high and
to ellsure that their number dwindle to threatened level through biotic and
recreational interference, that lako requires to be fully protected under the
provision of Wildlife (Protection) Act, i 972.
The report would be of intercst to the Zoological Survey of India, Wild
Life Institute of India and agencies concerned with the conservation and
management of wetlands at the state Government level
Period of study : December 1988 - December. 1991
283
BIOGEOGR-\PHIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL I-IAZARD MAPPING
IN THE HIGH ALTITUDE ZONE OF
HIMALAYA IN KUMAUN
Y P S PANGTEY
Deparfmelll of Botany
D S B Campus Kumalln Univeristy
Nainital - 263002
mhe major' objectives of the study were to bring out the ecological
relationships between the landfonns, climate, soil and vegetation, as also to
assess the nature and scale of enviromental problems through a hitherto less
recognised method of biogeographic and environmental hazard mapping. The
project also laid emphasis on the identification of the problems of the most
serious environmental concern in this zone.
Tile study sites consisted iil a total area of 497 sq km in the western
section of the Greater Himalayan region in Kumal!n, and situated particularly
within the source region and the upperreaches ofthIee rivers i.e. the Pindar, the
Sarju and the E.Ramganga. Altitude varied from 2000-5000 m and, therefore,
fanned a characteristic high altitude environ. In confonning with the major
objectives, the mapping was carried out in a sizeable part of study area i.e. the
Pindar and the Sarju catchments.
Various environmental and biogeographic hazards operating at this
zone were identified and studied for their nature, pattern of distribution and
degree of risks potentialities. The hazan! maps were prepared for the Pindar
'-'-iiiidtneSar]u caidiiiieiiis'; providing details about many of the potential dangers
alongwith degree of risk that the communities of this zone were facing.
From a detailed vegetation survey and analysis certain long tenn
possible changes in natural vegetation were also predicted on the basis of
284
population dynamics and inter relations ofa few disturbing elements. SUCCeSS-
ful attempts were madt to interrelate the existing forest/community types with
altitudinal and environmental zones through large scale (1:35000) maps.
,.,
. " '.' ",l
MAP SHOWLNG STUDY R E . ~
Ecology of "timber line' ecotone were worked out for.the first time in
Indian Himalaya. The biophysical properties and certain structural/functiona!
uniqueness of timber line at this zone of Himalaya were studied. The study
highlighted the immediate importance of this ecotone as a special habitat for
some rare-endangered and useful taxa. However. various conditions have been
responsible for the potential lowering of natural timber line as well as other
hazardous situations like habitat degradation, habitat isolation, biodiversity
loss and the loss of regeneration potentiality were identified. Thedetailed._.
phenological studies on the sub-alpine and alpine vegetation were also carried
out.
Assessment of the total biodiversity in the Pindar valley were com-
pleted in the form of collection or identification of valious existing plant and
2 ~ 5
animal taxa. Study concluded that a considerable number of taxa recorded
earlier were either disappearing or on the verge of extinction from this area.
The natural caliunities and biotic interferences including expansion ofagricul-
ture lands, ruthless clearing of forests, over exploitation of useful forest
products, unmanaged pasturing and increasing tourist activities etc. were
identified as the causative factors for the possible loss in existing biodiversity.
The identification of hl\?ards and .their proper depiction in maps
alongwith their degree of risk willbe of great help in the preparation of various
environmental mangementpoiides to reduce the impact of catastrophic events.
Period of study: January 1988 - December 1990
2&6
DAMAGE POTENTIAL AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR
ACORNWORM(C4LANDRA SCULPTURATAj IN THE OAK
. FORESTS OF KU\vlAUN REGION
BR KAUSHAL
Department of Zoology
Kumaun University
Nainital-263002
Whe project was taken up with the main objectives of studying the
identification of weevil species; their ecology and biology; control measures
for the weevil species; and dIe cxtent of damage caused in an acorn by
constructing energy budget of the larval stages of the weevils.
Two weevil species Le.Dicranognathus nebulosus Redt.(Coleoplera:
Attelabidae) and SilOphilo!ls giandium Msht. (previously known a,Calandra
scuiptu,pta (Ceieoptera : were found to be infesting acnrns of
Quercus leucotrichophcra andQucrcusj!oribunda in the s\x study sites in and
aroWld Nainital.
The life-history of the acorn weevils was found to be well synchro,,",cd
with the hosts. The environmental factors ofresi,tance were high in the field.
Infertility of dIe eggs; birds, shrews and monkeys; dessication; and three
species of fungi namely, Asperigillus niger van tieghem, Cordana IIIlls"e
zimm. Hohnel,Penieillum chrysogenum Thorn, were responsible for control-
ling the population of the weevils and only small percentage of them sun';ved
to continue the cycle. .
Studies on damage to acorns showed that of Quercus
leucotrichophora in the study sites were frequently highJy damaged (83.7%),
while damage 10 acoms ofQuerclIS floribunda was very low (5.6%).
287
'"
""'.
The efficacy of hydro\hermal treatme"t of infested acorns of
Q.lwcotrichophora with increasing temperature and durations was carried out
in germination experiments to determine a temperature and duration which
would kill the larvae but cause no damage to the developing endosperm.
Maximum percentage germination and radicle length were obtained in acorns
treated at 45'C for 20 min. Treatment at higher temperature and duration had
a severe 'effect on acorn germination. The efficiencies of food utilization of the
two acorns weevils in the present study fell in the established ranges ..
The study suggested that nurselymen should routinely soak infested
acornsiti water for 20 min. at45'C to kill weevil larvae before planting the seed.
Population of weevils could be checked by destroying.acorns.when.there.was ....
a poor acorn crop.
Period of study : April 1984 .. March 1988
288
IMPROVEMENT OF MANURIAL VALUE OF PINE NEEDLES
eM SINGH
Department of Agronomy and Agrometeorology
Himachal Pradesh KrishiYishva Vidyaiaya
Palampur-176062
'ffi he pine needles are available in the hills in plenty. These are at
present not under any productive usc. The efforts have been made to use these
needles, as much to protect the loss of soil moisture but the practice being very
cumbersome does not seem to be quite practical.
In Himachal Pradesh the pine needles are collected by villagers and used
as cattle litter. This litter alongwith dung is compos ted and used in fields. The
project was undertaken with the to study the effects of methods of
compesting the pine needles and develop a data-base all the effectiveness of
pine needles compost on crop yields in comparison wirh other sources of
manures and fertilizers.
The compost pits were dug in June, 1982. The size of pits was
approximately 5'x3'x3'. Pine needles were collected from the adjoining pine
grooves near the college and also from the road side. For each treatment, two
pits were filled. There were five treatment combinations:
i) Pine needles alone
ii) Pine needles + 200 gm single super phosphate applied at each
layer of 50 kg pine needles.
iii) Pine ileedles + FYM - I: I ratio on Weight basis applied in
alternate layers of each wei);hing 50 kg.
2X9
iv) Pine needles + wheat straw - 1:2 ratio on weight basis applied in
alten.late layers of each weighing 50 kg .
. '.
v) Pille needles + wheat straW + FYM -I: I: I ratio on weight basis
applied in alternate layers of each weighing 50 kg.
The pits were filled on June 24, 1982 and covered with 4" layers of soil
after applying some water.
First opening was done in November 1982, Colour - Brownish, not
decomposed but needles become brittle. Second opening was in July, 1983,
colour-dark-brown partially decomposed. Third-opening was in November,
1983, colour dark-brown, partially decomposed. After taking the required
quantity of partially decomposed' compost for each experiment, remaining
material was turned thoroughly with spade. The contents of the pits were
mixed. After second opening 500 gm urealpit was mixed to enhance the
process of decomposition. Water was sprinkled and the pits were covered with
soil., Then the compost was taken out in each season for experimentation.
field were conducted in rabi 1982-83, kharif 1983, rab; 1983-84,
kharifl984 and rabi 1984-85. !:trabi wheat was the test crop, whereas in kharif
it waS lnaize. The varieties of wheat and maize used were VL-42 I, and early
composite, respectively.
The study established that the pine needles were hard to decompose due
to presence of lignified material in it. It took long time to decompose to the
stage that it could be used as manure. Compo sting of pine needles a10ngwith
FYM and super phosphate, enhanced the decomposition to some extent but did
not show conspicuous reduction in time requirement for decomposition. The
material composted for two years when used in field as manure did not seem
to exert any harmful effect on soil and crop. The yields of crops were
comparable to that of chemical fertilizers and FYI ... r compost. There was
increase in organic carbon of the soil after harvest of the last wheat crop. The
application of lime a10ngwith pine needles compost did not exert any advan-
tageous effect. .
290
The findings of the project scientifically proved that the pine needles
traditionally used by fanners as litter and used in their fields alongwith farm
yard manure did not have ahy adverse effect on soil health and crop perfor-
mance.
The study also proved that the empirical. use of pine needles was
beneficial in maintaining sdjl productivity.
Period of stiidy : May 1982 - March 1986
291
CLASSIFICATION OF MAJOR ECOLOGICAL SUB-REGIONS
OFTHE NORTH-EAST HIMALAYAN SYSTEM
AND OF THEIR PRESENT STATUS OF
ECOLOGICAL BALANCE
R S TIUPATHI
DepaNment a/BatallY
NOrlh-lia.l'lern Hill Ullil'er.rily
S/7illong-79 3014
'Whe North Eastern region of India is endowed with vast forest
,-
resources which comprise H wide: range of diverse plant species. The objectives
of the study were to survey the forests with a view to understand their
regeneration status, age structure including survivorship of tree seedlings and
sprouts in the disturbed and undisturbed forest stands. It also included studies
on the effect of diameter and height of tree stumps' on sprouting and survival
ofthe sprouts. The effect ofourning and sprout densityon the growth ofsprouts
emerged from the stumps of different diameter height. Seed gcnnination,
and survival growth 'Jf the seedlings in controlled and field c.mditions .
Further tbe effect of reactors such as soil texture, soil moisture and light regimes
on the emerg.ence, survival and growth of seedlings. survival and growth afthe
transplants (nurse.), grown seedlings) under different ecologIcal conditions
were also studied.
The study was conducted in the natural forests occuning at Upper
Shillong, Mawphlang and BUI11i1",t in Meghalaya (lat. 25 15'- 2605' N long.
8956'-9247'E). Species cOlnposition and regeneration status of n'ee
species Was studied at all three sites while detailed stuuies on regeneration were
can'ied out in disturbed forest at Upper Shillong and protccted forest at
-- '-Ma;vj:iiJang-"'--- .... -......... .
The forest communities were analysed through quadrat method and the
data on density and abundance of various n'ee species were collected. The
. ,
forests at BUlllihat and at Upper Shillong comprised ten tree species each,
2')2
r
1,.-
!'
i
',-0--- -
".
.
MAP Of MEGHALAYA SHOWING SruDV srrns .
while the protected torest at Mawphlang had 14 species. Seven species were
common ir. Upper Shillong and Mawphlang forests whereas species present at
Burnihat were different from those at Upper Shillong and Mawphlr.ng forests.
The srudy showed that at Upper Shillong end Burnihat 40% of the tree
species regenerated through both seedlings and sprouts, whereas the percent-
age of such trees ill the undisturbed forest at Mawphlang was about 22%. Age
structure (based on bole DBH) of five impol1ant tree species viz. Manglieria
insignis, MyricaesclI/enra, QuerclIs doa/bma, Q. grifjirhiiandSchima khasiana
was studied in thc disturbed forest at Upper Shillong and protected forest at
Mawphlang. All the five species and whole stand exhibited an inverted
pyramidal structure in Mawphlang forest indicating that seedling population
sizc was relatively smaller than the populations of older individuals, while the
converse was true for the disturbed forests at upper Shillong.
The study revealed that the regeneration was better in disturbed forests
at Upper Shillong and Bumihat than in undisturbed "sacred grove" forest at
Mawphlang. The regeneration of trees through seedlings and sprouts was also
better in the disturbed forests. Greater seedling recruitment and sprol<ting of
the stumps in the disturbed forest stands may be attributed to the availability of
large number of microsites caused uy tree felling and forest burning. Tree
seet:\ling populations were found to be largely regulated by overhead canopy,
ground vegetation,litter accumulation, so it moisture and temperature. Spriiut-
ing, survivaland growth of the sprouts were observed to be directly related to
diameter and height of the stumps.
Period of study : April 1983 - January 1987
294
INTRODUCTION OF SOCIAL FORESTRY THROUGH
STUDENTS ANP PEOPLE'S PARTICIPATION
K P NAUTIYAL
Department of Foreslly
H N B Garhwal University
Srinagar 246176
, ,Ieople's participation and inculcation of environmental awareness
among local people are twin key approaches to make social forestry
programmes productive and useful. In this project, under social forestry
programme, attention was paid to motivate the rural folks to practice tree
plantations 'and their utilisation. It was also, simultaneously made known to the
people the significance of the balanced ecosystem trails. An energy conserva-
tion programme was initiated in which gobar gas system was demonstrated.
The village folks envinced their keen interest and prepared the gobar gas and
smokeless chulha.
A survey of about 40 villages showed that in about 70% villages waste
forest land was changed to agricultural land. Horticulture had remained in its
infancy ill this partofGarhwal Hin.alaya. Attempts were made to guide people
to plant trees of fruits suitable for different climatic zones (Guava, citrus,
mango, StraWberry and Peach, Plum, Apricot and Pear, Cherry and Apple). [t
was also explained that by adoption ofagro-forestry, the eco-restoration of tile
area could be achieved. Important spccies like Adina cordi/alia (Raldu),
Bombax maiabaricllm (Semal), Dalbergia sissoo (Sheesham), Grewia optiva
(Bhumal\ Juglans regia (Arkot), Melia azadirachta (Bakuin), Mangifera
'ndica(Aam) t ~ ~ e r e suggested to the people for agro-forestry.
About 220 Kg. ripened seeds of about 25 important tree species from
different parts of Garhwal were collected and a seed bank was established.
295
Three nurseries were prepared for demonstration and for the establishment of
self supporting system in social forestry.
According 10 survey carried out, the per capita firewood consumplion
was found to be 5.8 quintals. Keeping the socio-economic conditions of Rath
area, a smokeless chulha was designed which is the modification of Junagarh
and Kunjwalmodel. This ehulha was demonsn-ated at Ufrainkhal and Naithana
villages. This modified chulha gave very good results and was appreciated.
The ehulha lVas named as 'Uttarakhand ehulha'. It saved about 2.5 Kg
firewood per day ill an a v c r a ~ e size family of 5 to 6 persons.
Through this study ecological awareness was generated among Rath
people and ,m understanding of environmental constituents and their proper
utilisation was inculcated among them.
Period ofstudy: .Iulle 1982 - Murch 1986
2%
ECO-DEVELOPMENT OF MIRIK-SUKHNA REGION IN
BALASON-MAHANANDA CATCHMENT OF
DARJEELING DISTRICT
I B BIIA'ITACHARYA
Department o.fGeography and Applied Geography
University of North Bengal
Darjeeling-734430
mhis project on the Oarjeeling Hills (West Bengal) had two major
objectives: (a) detection of causes leading to environmental degradation and
, scope of remedial measures; (b) an assessment of environmental potential in
.terms of future development.
TItree landslide prone areas were identified in the region where defor-
. estation, ill-planned construction activities, and heavy rains eombined with the
immature geological formations to dislodge the rocky slopes_ .Construction of
---,-- 1liiie _0_
-.-.--
SllbDirilicanol:_._._
-------.
'-"
............. -
tmr ....
MAP OF DARJEELlNG DISTIUCT SHOWING THE AREA tiNDER INVESTIGATION FOR ECO-
.
297
retaining w a l l ~ with gentle gradient at the bases of landslides with adequate
drainage facilities followed by afforestation to reduce run-off and check soil
erosion may have a stabilising effect
The study on fluvial terrain evaluation revealed that the phases of
instahilitythe tenain was passing through giving rise to excessive load of sands
and gravels for the rivers and causing' h'feat havoc in the lower reaches.
An analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of soils confmned
their acidic nature, the percentage of organic matter increasing with increase
in altitude and except Iron and Copper, the soils were found to be deficient in
Potassium, Phosphorus, Zinc and Manganese which make them poor for
agricultural purpose. The deficiency rectified through proper fertilization and
adequate inigation, may increase agricultural potential to a considerable
extent.
In assessing the plant resources of the region, about 25% of the trees out
of65 species of timber-yielding varieties studied for this purpose, havc been
found to be not appropriately distributed at various elevations resulting from
a defectl'!c plantati<lo process least concerned about their habitat conditiGns.
Besides, 24 endangered species were identified. In a!l effort to check fertility
drain and improvement of the production capacity of soil, Tephro .... ia canu"ida
was found through investigation as capable of changing pH from 'acid to
neutral or alkaline condition. Besides, equipped with a long tap root and a
lateraliy spreading root system, the plant having a high tolerance for drought
or wet conditions and thriving well upto 2000 m, is highly suitable for checking
soil erosion. Further, Cryptomeriajaponica, adominantplanted species ofthe
higher altitudes, had an allelopathic effect on soil undemeath, causing much
of soil erosion to counteract which leguminous plants with soil-binding
capacity.
The indiscriminate use of pesticides has proved to be a hannful practice
.. since besides pathogens, pests and weeds, many other organisms have fallen
victim to their application with serious effect on the lives offish, hirds, halley
29,1{
bees and different soil insects and microorganisms. Deleterious side effects
had also been detected in various domestic aniuuils. A number of chemicals
- dosage were recommended for particular crops along with strict adoption of
certain methods for rniniwising the toxic effcct on non-target organisms.
The study of the different agricultural practices and their role in
environmental deprediations brings out terracing as the dominating practice,
giving a greater variety of crops with higher yields as compared with slope
cultivation which makes land susceptible to high rate of erosion though
important crops like cardamon, orange and maize were obtained from slope
cultivation. Apart from afforestation in general, mixed cultivation of trees and
shrubs in particular, was recommended as an effective way of restoring
envirorunental health and ecological processes on the one hand while on the
other introduction of two to thrce crops sequences based on irrigation, better
water management, weed control, crop selcction, parthenocarpy etc. were
considered some of the ways ofrevitalizing the local economy.
Period of study: September 1983 - March 1988
299
ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIeS AND OTHER FACTS OF
SOCIOCULTURAL ASPECTS OF TWO WATERSHEDS IN
HIMACHAL PRADESH
S KMANN
peparlmenl of Biusciences
Himachal Pradesh Universliy
Shimla - 171005
'QIhe study envisaged extensive survey and exploitation of the eco-
nomically important plant species used by the different tribeslnative people of
the two watersheds(Garnrola in Bilaspur and Solan districts and Matiana in
Shimla district}. The ethnollotanical information was collected by contacting
knowledgeable and old persons living in these two watershed areas of the state
as also infonnation about the distribution and the cultivation of these economi-
cally important plant species with a view to prepare a consolidated list offlora.
A survey was conducted on the use of wild plants in these two
watersheds. Listing of the wild economically important plant species used by
the native people in their daily life in various ways such as food. fodder, fuel.
fibre, medicines, timber and for other household utensils etc. was made during
the survey.
A survey was conducted on the use of wild plants in these areas to know
the social and economic status of the local people. The survey dealt with the
consumption of the wild plants with their annual income and the consumption
of the wild plants with their approach to main road or distance of the village
........ __from motor-road:""Maximtiiiflifility iifiliewlld'plaiiis'was done by poor cl",s.
like labourers or farmers working in the fields;
Chemotaxonomical studies were also canied out in some wild economi-
cally important plants e.g.Pyrus phasia. Rubus el/ipticus and Fragaria indica.
300
Dry fruit analysis of the above plants showed an average protein cuntentof9%.
Percentage of ascorbic acid wa, determined in fruits at three di fferent stages of
maturity, that is, unripe, half-ripe and fully-ripe. Percentage of full ascorbic
acid in fully-ripe fruits of above three plants is given:Pyruspashia 2.40 to 6.00;
Rubus elliplicus 45.8 to 51.0 and Fragaria indica 22.0 to 25.0. Berberis was
another plant, which occurred mostly on. the exposed slopes and it helped in
binding the soil or prevent soil erosion. The drug 'berberine' was extracted
from this plant which is commonly used for the case of eye diseases. The
quantitative analysis of the 'berberine' was assayed and found to range between
1.5 and 3.05 gm.lKg. of the root material.
Period of study: April 1983 - September 1987
301
CO-ORDINA TED ECO-DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME ON
SOME SUB-CATCHMENT AREA IN SIKKIM
A K GHOSH
Departmem ofChemi3try
North Bengal University
DDljeeling-734430
'([he project w.s carried out in South Sikkim, West of river Teest. at
elevations of about 400m(Narakjhora - Mamring) and around
I 550m.(Namthang-Nagi). The investigations included survey of plant re-
sources from Manuing to Namthang region as also systematic soil analysis
including the nature ofmicroconstitueIlls, organic components and soil water
relationship. Soils of this region were acidic (pH, 4.92-5.63) and contained
adequate micronutrients except in Namthang-Nagi region, there was a mar-
ginal zinc deficiency. In Namthang-Nagi region, the soil retained inadequate
amount of moisture except in rainy seasons.
Experimental afforestation progranunes were.carried at Mamring (400m),
Narakjhora (550m) and Namthang Nagi(1550m). In the lower region wixed
plantation of a number of species were carried out. Notable among these are
Dalbergia sissoo, Melia azadirachla, Albizzia Spp., Ailanthus SPl',
Lagerastromia indica, Shorea rabusta, Chickrassia tabularis, Spondias
axillari;' etc. Dalbergia si.5;oo which is not common in South Sikkim was
grown velY successfulIy, after controlling a fungal' disease of young planted
seedlings. In Narnthang-Nagi area, a drought prone area,Alnu.I' nepalensi.l' (a
local plant), was found to be more suitable. In all these areas, more than
1,00,000 seedlings were planted and more than ninety percent survived even
after four years and showedexcelleiifgroWih:l'iacticaIlY-iiUseeaIiiigswere-- ...
raised in project nurseries, for which adequate seedling protection measures
were taken. In addition to experimental afforestation work, thousands of
seedlings were distributed free to the local people, YOl.th clubs, and Sikkim
Govt. agencies each year. The experimental afforestation programme was
302
highly successful because of post plantation care taken against cattle grazing,
occassional drought, pest and insect attacks etc. It was felt that the agricultural
activities in high slope hill areas should be replaced by alternate economic
hOlticultural and foresi product plantation programme in order to check
alarming landsiide problem of the region.
Efficacy of some insecticides in controlling insect pests of potato and
orange was investigated. Effectiveness of some fungicides in controlling the
seed piece decay of potato has been established. The preservation time of post
harvest oranges was enhanced by using some fungicides in velY small concen-
trations. Laboratory evaluation of some new organotin coordination com:
pounds on different mites were found to be successful.
The study recommended utilisation of local leguminous plants like
Tephro.l"ia candida for reforestation, avoidance of faulty terracing methods,
encouragement of polyculture and replacement of agricultural activities in
high slope hill areas by alternate viable horticultural and forestry practices.
During the project an expcrimental afforestation programme was undertaken
in some landslide and drought prone areas 10 Sikkim and over on.e lakh
seedlings were planted with a view to enhance the plant based resource
economy of the region.
Period o.(study: February 1985 - January 1989
303
IMPACT OF SHEEP AND GOATS ON THE ECONOMY AND
ENVIRONMENT OF HIGH ALTItUDE AREAS OF
HIMACHAL PRADESH
TV MOORTI
Department of Agricultural Ecunomics
Himachal pradesh Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Palampur - 176062
oats were domesticated as early.as 6700 B.C. and through ages they
. have been well-known as poor man's cow. Sheep are reared for wool, skin and
meat and goats for meat, milk', hair and skin. Goats and sheep nonnally thrive
where any other animal would nonnally starve.
The study was conducted on high altitude area from &,000 feetto 13,000
feet above mean sea level in Lahul and Spiti, Kinnaur, Dodra Kawar, BhannaUf,
wmucr
"""
OJ""", BJL\k)'IAUll
KANGRII BARA BHNGHAL
Io:.lNNAUI< .w.
l.AliUi.1t J;pm
u.HUI.
SHlMtJ.
Ixmi U;W AA
MAP OF HIMACHAL PRADESH SHOWING THE STIIDY AREA
304
and Bara Banghal of Himachal Pradesh. These regions provide good nutritive
and luxuriant grazing facilities to sheep and goats. Rearing of sheep and goats
is one of the most important enterprises in these regions. The study examined
the cropping pattern, growth rates and investment pattern for sheep and goats,
to study the impact of rearing sheep and goats on social forestry as a result of
this enterprise. Both primary and secondary data were collected to meet the
objectives.
The study indicated the predominance of food grains accounting for
about 70% of the cropped area. The household income was dominanted by the
income from sheep and goats which accounted nearly 60% of the total income.
The shepherds were mostlymigratOlY and nomadic innature. The sale of sheep
and goats account for about 37% of the total earnings. The income from an
individual goat was Rs. 270 and that from a sheep was Rs. 160. rearing of sheep
and goats was a labour intensive enterprise. The net income from sheep and
goats varied from about Rs. 14,000 on small fanns to about Rs. 68,000 on large
fanns, the overall average being Rs. 30,000. The enterprise employed 182
man-days on small fanns and 571 man-days on large fanns. The regression
analysis indicated that the flock size had signiftcaut impact on the income of
shepherds.
About 70% of the total wool produced was morketed and the remaining
was consumed on the farm. The rearing of sheep and goats had b0th positive
and negative impact on ecology and environment. They consume ak\lt S Lakh
tonnes of tree fodder, 271akh tonnes of pasture todder. On the POSil i\C side the
sheep and goats added about 3 lakh tonnes of droppings and ti"" "elped in
natural fertilizatioll of pasture lands. The total losses from the sh" " and goats
in Himachal Pradesh was estimated at about Rs. 26 crores as agail"11"ta1 gains
of about Rs. 37 crores, thereby demonstrating that the sheep and goat keeping
enterprise is an economically viable proposition .
.. _ ... _--" . __ ... . __ . ....... _-_._-----_ .. _ .. -_._-_ ..... _ ....... -. , .. __ .. _._, ... - '-"-'-"
Period of study: November 1987 - January 1990
305
ECODIOLOGY OF THE SERiOUSLY ENDANGERED
BROW-ANTLERED DEER, CERVUS ELDl ELDI IN THE ONLY
NATURAL HABITAT KETBUL LAMJAO OF MANIPUR WITH
SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS CONSERVA nON
H. TOMBI SINGH
lJepartmen! of Life Science
Manipur Universiry. Imphal 795003
Manipur
'ill,he Brow Antlered Deer (Cervus eldi eldi) locally known as 'Sangai'
is one of the most seriously endangered species of mammals inhabiting the
Keibul Lamjao Wildlife National Park of Manipur which is its only natural
habitat. Despite various efforts for the protection and conservation of the deer
in the park, the population of Sangai was not viable (51 only as recorded in
1984). Hence, the project had been carried out to study the bio-ecology of the
Deerin the National park ofManipur, with special reference to its conservation.
The National Park covering a.'1 area of 40.15 sq. km has an unique
feature in that it is composed of float;.ng mass of organic debris commody
known as "Phumdi" in the south-eastern comer of Loktak Lake. It has been
observed that 'Sangai' has a special adaptation for existence in the floating
Phurndi, since they (i) can walk better than other animals with the help of their
divided hooves and greatly elongated pasterns; (ii) get theif'food, sheller and
breeding ground il) the vegetations of 'Phumdi'; (iii) get natural protection
from the poachers, 'carnivorous animals (enemies) and herbivorous competi-
tors, who could not easily enter the floating park.
______ .. _ .. IhHt;!!SOl\al sinking of the floating 'Phumdi' during the dry season with
the falling of water level was a special device for collecting nutrients by the
vegetation of the park from the bottom soil of the lake. However, during the
last few years after the maintenance of conslant water level for the Loktak
National Hydro-Electric Project, there has been no seasonal sinking of the
306
.- - - ----,"--""--'
floating 'Phumdi' thereby reducing the growth of vegetations, affecting the
food shelter and breeding ground of ' Sang ai'.
The flora and fauna of the park was studied in detail. The flora included
237 spp. ofpl.nts out of which 34 spp. have been identified as food plants of
'Sangai' including 13 favourite food plants. The fauna include 65 spp. of
invertebrates (4 annelids, 9 molluscs, and 52 arthropods) and 184 spp. of
vertebrates (51 fishes, 5 amphibians, 25 reptiles, 81 birds and 22 mammals).
These include 12 spp. of birds migrated from far off countries of Asia, Europe
and America.
The physico-chemical characteristics of the water and soil of the park
were also studied with special reference to its temperature, pH,
dissolv.ed oxygen, dissolved CO" alkalinity, specific conductance, H,S, total
hardness, total P, N" silicates and biomass content. A profound hetrogenity
was observed in the physico-chemical regime in different parts of the park. The
soil of'Phumdi' was found to be slightly acidic (pH 5.4 - 6.6.).
1 he general morphology and behaviour of the deer with regard to its
distinctive physical features, fQod and feeding habits, social and reprodu,"tive
habits inciuding grooming. courtship, breeding 3.nd parental care were studied.
The animal appeared to have lesser herding tendency usually appearing in
groups of about 2-10. They have a short home range. The actual area 0' upied
by 'Sanga)' is only about 15 sq. km. out of the total area of 40 sq. kII, .,f the
park. Observations on the aggresive activity, defensive activity and gl ,.,,,,ing
activity (by male and female, mother and fawn) etc. exhibited by 'Saof''';' were
described.
Ground census of'Sangai' population in the National Park was carried
out by the project staff in Febmary 1987, 1990 and 199 (-'["iI-ose indieatecta .... _-_.-
gradual increase in the 'Sangai' population (although not satisfactory) from a
dangerous level of 14 only in 1974 to a viable number of 60 in 1995; 82 in
1987,98 in 1990 and 106 in 1991 (54 female, 42 male, 10 fawns).
3m
The interspecific relationship of' Sangai' in the Park with the Hog deer,
Cervus procinus and wild boars, Sus scurfa (having 2 times and 4 times the
population of' Sangai' respectively) and domestic canle entering the peripheral
area of the park appeared to be nom,al association uptil now. The wild boars
usuaUy destory the food plants of 'Sangai' by removing their roots. Intra-
specific struggle among the same species of' Sangai' was not observed except
occasional fighting of the male deers during the rutting season probably for
possession of the receptive doe.
The general and reproductive behaviour of 'Sangai' were also studied.
They needed a drier resting place although they spent several hours in the wet
'phumdies'. Their reproductive behaviour was studied both in the wild animals
of the park and captive animals ofthe zoological garden at lroisemba, Manipur.
It was observed that 'Sangai' get sexual maturity after completion of 4 years and
they could survive for 16 years. The rutting season is from FebnIary to May
and the breed'ing season is from September to December with a gestation
period of213 days. They breed only once a year giving birth to one fawn at a
time. Parental care of the young ones was exhibited by the mother till it start
walking independently.
The possible ways and means to stop the unwanted human activities for
conservation and protection of , Sang ai' in the park were discussed. Collection
of 'Phumdi'. from other parts of Loktak Lake and accuIDulate them in the park
area to increase the carrying capacity for 'Sangai'in the park was suggested.
Period of study: April 1985 - December 1990
____ .. _." ._ ...... . . . . . . , ~ _ ... _ ... _. __ . __ . ________ . __ ._ .. __ ..... _ ... _ ............... , ......... ___ ......... _ .... '--'.'0- .. ,_ ..
30&
GENETIC CONSERVATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF ORCIJID
AND BAMBOO GERl\tPLASM FOR ECO DEVELOPMENT
PC DEKA
Agricultural Biotechnology Programme
Assam Agricultural University
Jorl/at - 7850/3
mhe objectives of the project were to determine the extent of enda-
ngered orchid and bamboo specics of North East India, collection and mainte-
nance of economically important and endangered specias and development of
alternative and improved propagation techniques.
Detailed survey was carried out on specific locations (natura! forest)
within Assam, Meghalaya, Anmacha! Pradesh and Nagaland and 14 species of
orchids and B species of bamboo were fuund to be rare or endangered. The
orchid species identified to be fOre and endangered were: Acanlhephipoium
sylhe/ense, An/hogonium gracile, Cy:nbiJillm elegan.\, Del'drobium moschalllm,
D. Er;a convallaroidcs, /,ipa ... is pusi/la, ?halanoepsis mannii,
Paphiopedilum vil/oslIm, Renan/hera imschooliana, Vani/a pilejera, Vanda
coerlllea, V cristala, V slangeara, and V parviJlora. The bamboo species
identified to be rare and endangered were: ArlinJinariadensifolia, A. griffithiana,
A. callosa, A. Khasiana, Bambusa maslcl'sii, BamjJUsa nana, Dendrocalamu5;
giganteus, D. membranacells, A1elocanna humi!i.\", Pseudeoslachyum
Polymorphum, Phylloslachys babllsoides, Teinestachllm helfel'i, l' griJ]i/hii.
Altogether 136 species of orchids and 27 species of bamboo were collected and
are being maintained at the Assam Agricultural University.
Techniques for propagation thJough embryo and seed culture were
standardized for 15 rare and endangered orchid species. Techniques were also
standardized for micro-propagation of three Cymbidillm species.
309
Several diseases of orchid namely, black spa! of Arundina
graminifolia, Brown rot of Cymbidium longijolium, Brown spot of
Dendrobium densif/vnJnJ and Black spot of Dendrobium fimbriallllll were
identitied alld their operational control measures were developed.
Several diseases of bamboo namely, Gray leafspot ofB. mllans, Brown
spot of Meiocanna humilis, chlorosis of Dendrocalamus hamillonii and
Fusarium leafspo! ofTeinoslachyul7I dul/ooa were identified and their control
measures were developed. Methods were standardised for propagation of 6 .
bamboo species from callus cuttings. In vitro methods were developed for
inducing callus from meristem of 3 bamboo species.
The study recommended restrictions on indiscriminate collection of
orchid and bamboo species from their natural habitat and prevent their mass
commercial export.
Period of study: Octoher 1983 - Octoher 1986
310
TRANSFER OF PROPAGATION TECHNOLOGY OF
MAGGAR BAMROO
o P SHARMA
Deparlmenl oj Ba"ic Sciences
Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya
Palampur - 176062
'lliike many other bamboos, Maggar (Dendrocalamus hamillOnii) is
fast-growing, high-yielding and multipurpose combining fodder of excellent
quality with valuable culms.
The objectives were to (i) transfer the propagation and plantation
technology developed in the university to the fanner and forester, and (ii)
promote Maggar as a fan11 and social forestry species.
Two demonstration nurseries in an area of 0.5 hecrare were established
in the university at Palampur. Tney are used for raising the planting stock, and
for demonstrating the propagation technique to the trainees, fanners, [oresters,
village youth and other visitors. 1'1 collaboration with the State Forest
Depanment (SFD) six extension nurseries were also set up.
Covering an area of 18 hectares, five demonstration plots were laid out
in different localities. In these plots, tree species, both leguminous (Albizia
chinesis, Robinia pseudoacacia, Dalbergia sissoo) and
(Salix alba, S. baoylonica. Populus de/to ides, Pmnlls ce,asoiaes, Cellis
australis, Artocarplis lakoocha. Moms alba) were integrated with Maggar.
Besides, Dendrocalamus hookeri was successfully introduced in Dehra Forest
Division. Site planting mate,i_<\l.:,yl!.sdistributed .to 250 fanners and three
--'DivisioiiiiHorest Officer; - ..
In collaboration with State Forest Departmeiu, extension education
lectures on the technology were delivered to forest officers and omcial,. The
lectures were followed by visits to nurseries and plantations.
311
Extension leaflets entitled 'Propagation and Plantation Technology of
Maggar Bamboo', printed both in Hindi and Engligh, and 'Dendroculamlls
hamillunii the Himalayan Miracle Bamboo' were distributed to farmers,
foresters and other visitors.
It was recommended that as a scientifically sound measures
must make elite seedling selections, multiply them and release the clitt
clones for general planting. Once raised, such plantations will be harVestable
for 50-60 years.
Period ofslIIdy: Oc/ober, 1987 - September, J99()
3i2
E:COLOGICAL STlJOIF:S ON FOREST ECOSYSTEM OF
MANIPUR
p S Y II.DII.V
Department of Life Sciences
Manipur University
Imphal - 795003
'Whe major objectives of the proposed study were the preparation of
inventory of plant and animal resources, etlmobotanical study of Tangkhul
Nagatribe ofUkhml Distt., phyto-sociological studies and vegetation analysis,
biomass and mineral content of primary producer components and population,
biomass and secondary production of consumer groups and process studies like
litter decomposition, soil respiration, food consumption and ecological effi-
ciencies of few consumer groups.
The inventory (If plant and animal rc,ources were prepared and it
comprised 46 species of forest trees, IS species of shrubs, 76 species of herbs
and 22 species of orchids. Besides this, 7 species of mammals, 10 species of
birds and insects belonging to 37 families were recorded. Ethnobotanical
survey revealed usc of 37 plant species for medicine, food, fibre and 'shclter
purposes. Phytosociological data showed the dominance ofQuerclIsjinnestrala,
Q.lealbala, Q.griffithii and Rhododendron arboreum.
Litter production .nd decomposition ofle.flitter studied through litter
bag technique revealed that 55% 'to 88% of leaf litter got decomposed and
mineralised into.:soil .system, bitler decomposition-and-;foit'fesjiiiiltioiiwere"
found maximum in winter owing to large amount of substrata availability and
also of microbial activity. About 500 insects belonging to 37 families were
recorded. The total density of insect population ranged from 0.6 insect/tn.' to
4.0 insect/m' in the forest area. The biomass of total insect varied from 3.7 mg
dry wtlm'to 291.10 mg. d,y \V1.1m' L'J.rough-out the year. Secondary productiv-
313
ity of insects were computed and values varied from 208.7 mg/m' to 457.9 mg!
m'. Seasonal and monthly changes in population density of soil micro-
anthropodswere sludiedand four major groups, viz. Collembola. Crptosligmata
Mesostigmata and Astigmata pillS Prostigmata were recorded. Collembola
contributed highest percentage (54-60%) to the total soilmicro-anithropods.
The work done under the project would help to understand the ecologi-
cal processes of the least disturbed natural ecosystems from this part of the
country. The data and knowledge generated on till; structure and dynamics of
sub-tropical ecosystem would be helpful in tile rational and scientific manage-
ment of the forest ecosystems_
Period ofstutly: October 19/i2 - November 1986-
314
STUDIES ON DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF BAMBOO
IN MANIPUR
L JANMEJAY SINGH
Deparlment Of Life Sciences.
Manipur Universily
lmphal- 795003
situated in the north-eastern boundary of India (93.6E to
94.2'E and 24.2N to 2S.so.N) having an area of about 22,266 sq. km. has a
beautiful valley with an area of 1,813 sq. km. and altitude of793 m. above sea
level. Over twentysix different species of bamboo are available in the state.
Bamboo is indispensable for the people ofManipur and is intricately embodied
in their social, cultural and religious aspects oflife. It is used as food, medicine,
fodder, fencing and binding material, boat making, house construction, house,
hold containers like baskets and bags. The fermented bamboo known as
'.miblllll' is a delicious food forthe people. It is prepared from the slices of soft
and young succuknt shoot just emerged from the soiL
The study inciuded the distribution, identification listing of
Bamboo in Manipur, bio-chemical aspects, microbes involve,nu fermenta-
tion, analysis of the fermented shoots and investigations of the nutritive value
of unfermented and fermented bamboo shoots.
Twentysix bamboo species were collected from different areas. The
species Ale/ocana bambusoides is a dominant species in the hill area and
Bambllsa arundinacea is the dominant species in plains. Majority of the
different bamboo species are found distributed in the valley.
Analysis of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose of the stern showed
fairly good quantities ofthese compounds. The ascorbic acid was also fOllnd
high ill the leaves. The study indicated higher quantity of chlorophyll-b over
chlorphyil-a in the leaves. The biochemical analysis of the edible young and
315
soft shoots was made and significant quantity of ascorbic acid and carbohydrate
were detected while the protein percentage was found to be low.
The phyto-sociological study sho\ved stable habit and colonisation
ability of the b",,,boo species over other plant species. During the investiga-
tions it was found that 56 common plant species (herbs-I 6, cHmbers-6,shrubs-
10 and trees-24) were growing with the bamboo vegetation.
Detailed analysis of the fennented bamboo shoots indicated fluctua-
tions in the level of organic compounds like hydrocyanic acid, phenolic
compounds, lactic acid, malic acid, citric acid, acetic acid, glycerol, 2-3-but-
anodol, acetaldehyde etc. Micro-organisms like bacteria ([,ellcanastac
dextranicum and Streptacoeu;- laelis) fungi and yeasts were observed to be
iuvolved in the fermentation process.
Period a/study: Oc/ober 1982 - November 1986
316
EXPANSION OF THE AREA OF FRUIT TREES THROUGH
EXPLOITATION OF INDIGENOUS SPECIES
Me NAUTlYAL
G B Pant Universiry of Agriculture Technology
Hill Campus
Ranichauri-249199
'QIhe Uttar Pradesh Himalayas are a rich store-house of several kinds
of wild fruits. This project was undertaken at Hill Campus, Ranichauri With a
view to study the vegetation survey of watershed, conserve the socially
preferred wild indigenous fruit species, study the survival rate and standardize
suitable techniques for their rapid multiplication under the agro-c1imatic
conditions in the watershed of Sawali.
Survey was conducted in different parts of Gadlwal Himaiayas and
about 27 species were collected in the form of seeds/hardwood cultings/roo!-
Slickers. Among all indigenous species Comus Wpilala was pred0minant in
the watershed with a maximum density (480 treeslha). And amollg hushy
fonns Berberis Iycium (3920 treeslha), Berberis asialica (2808 treesiho) and
Berberis aristala (l640 trees/ hal were found respectively.
The seeds of different wild fruit species were sown inoatural cOllditions
to know their gerrninability. Maximum seed germination was recol.\Cd in
Pnmus armenia (72.53%), Pnmus cerasoides(61.33%) and Malus b"cmla
(60.20%). Experiments were conducted on hard wood cuttings of fOUi fruit
species of Rubus hypargyrus, R paniculale, AClinidia chinensis "110 .vilis
.. .jacquemimiii during winter with five temperature levels ([jOC, J8C, lIvC,
24C and 27C) and two synthetic auxins (indole Butyric and L-Napthalane
Acetic acid). Wood cuttings treated with auxins (2500 and 5000 ppm-lB A;
1000 and2000 ppm-NAAl planted in rooting medium with remperature levels
of 21C and 24C showed more rooting. Neither low temperature (15C and
lSOC) nor extreme temperature (27C) showed favourable rooting in any
317
species. Ruhus ilypmx;'l'IIs and Rul",.\' l'ul1iculala exhibited highest rooting
percentage (69.3% and 69.9% respectively). In case of donnant hardwood
cuttings of AcfiniC/ia chinens;s NAA was more effective in stimulating root
development. Out of5 temperature levels of rooting medium, 24C was found
to be optimum temperature for e!ihanced rooting.
Effect of seed position and their planting depths in the soil were studied
in walnut and it was noticed that enhanced gennination by 50 to 60%and better
seedling growth at 7 cm. depth with vertical position of the seeds in the soil.
The fruit trees of apple, peach, apricot, pear, walnut, which are not
producing econom ic fruit yield due to poor genetic make-up of the varieties,
lI11lri lional hunger or improper management were rejuvenated by providing the
proper orchard management techniques which included the application of
billatll.:cd dose ofl113cro-and micro-clements, trimming of undesired vegetative
growth/ diseased or insect-pest infected branches, adoption of proper plant
protection measures. Similarly plallts of indigenolls fruits species growing
naturally in tIle watcrslled \vere also rejuvellated through pruning, soil reclama-
tion ;;mJ hy applying proper and balanced major and trace elements like
N,r,K,Cu.B,Mo,Mg and Ca.
The study showed that wild fruits can be optimally utilized in a micro-
watershed catchment area.
Period ,,(sllIdv : March 1985 - March 1989
3lS
COLLECTION, CULTURE AND CONSERVATION OF EDIBLE
FUNGI OF WESTERN IIIMALA YAS
II M SINGII
Department of Plan I /Jafh%XY
Himachall'rade.l'h Kri.l'hi Vi.l'hvavidyalaya
Palampur-I-61162
mhe Western Himalayan region with its diverse climate and vegcta
tion. supports remarkable assembltlge of fungal flora. The survival and
establishment of majority of forest trees depends on the rich growth of fleshy
fungi which fOfm eClO-mycolThizal association with their roots.
The project aimed at collection, culture and conservation of edible fungi
of Westem Himalayas. Salient findings wcre:
Four hundred specks belongillg to vClrious groups of f-leshy fungi were
collected. Seventy six species have Geen added to the list of earlier
known species from India. Five species were established as new.
About 170 ullidentificd species fmlll taxonomic po!nt of views were
perhaps either new records for India or altogether Ilew to scic.nce.Genus
was recorded for tile first time from India
Edibility data collected from the local people of the sl',d" area resulted
in the identification of95 species with good edibility. in addition to the
earlier known species
Nineteen species broug.ht into culture on media, inc-
by the local people,
These wercAgariclfscampestris, A. CIIJ/cnsis Amanita caesarea,jJo/etlfs
edulis, Canlharc//us ciharius, Flammu/ina I'elutipes, LellC()Coprinlls
sp. no\!. Mac:ro/epio/u procr.:ra, JJlclirolus corJicaflJ5, V pela/oid
Sparassis cri.l'pa, and Murchella e.l'c!llellla
3 (I)
A luw temperature loving strain of Pleurolus corlicalus was domesti
cated
A decline in species diversity of some of the prized mushrooms were
recorded in/two localities selected for studying the .impact of protection
and collection
Food value contents offour wild ediule mushroom species were evalu-
ated from the fruit bodies collected from the wild. All the species had
nutrient composition comparable to other well known "diule species
The study revealed valuaule information on the occurrence and edibility
data of the fungi in the Western Himalayas, not hitherto recorded. [n addition,
clllture of some ediule species and food value of wild mushroom constitute the
important feature of the study. The results will be useful to the Botanical
Survey of India, Indian Council of Agricultural Research and the concerned
Forest Department and Extension wing of the State Goverrunent of Himalayan
States, G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development,
Almora.
Perioa"fs/udy: May 1987 -Murch 1991
320
GEOLOGICAL AND GEOMORPHOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS
OF LANDSLIDES IN THE KUMA UN LESSER HlMALAYA-
ITS CAUSES AND PREVENTIONS
M JOSHI
Department of Geology
Kumaun University
Nainital- 263002
'QIhe objectives ofthe study were to identify old, active and susceptible
areas of landslides, their causes, to prepare the landslide zone maps, landuse
capability map for Kumaun Himalaya and to suggest corrective/remedial
measures. The study sites included Kapkot-Lohankhet-lhuui area, 8ageshwar-
Kapkot area and Tejam-dhannaghar area.
l.OCA TION MAP' OF STUDY AREA
321

N
t>"."
The study was carried-out with special reference to lithotectonic and
geomorphological framework of the region which controls the landslides.
Using measured environmental variabies and severeily indices, proneness to
landslides actively Was predicted and corrective measures and controls were
suggested,
The drainage basin analysis indicated lithotectonic topographic spatial
and hydrologic control on drainage development. Geomorphologicalobserva-
tions brought-out a major control of the still aclive tectonics of this region in
shaping the landforms. The geomorphic aspecls studied were evaluated
quantirntively by their morphomeo'ic analysis. The litho-structurally complex
and tectonically active area showed immature topography. The studies oflhe
morphometric characters, concluded that the Berinag Thrust and Main Central
Thrust are tectonically more active compared to Munsiari Thrust, while some
of the faults could be more active compared to any of other regional tectonic
features.
Various Iypes of drainge patterns viz. trellies, dendritic, rectangular and
radialisubradial ha'/e been identified in the area. A quantitative analysis oUhe
siope characteristics has been presented systematically. The draina{,;e devel-
opment is most immature in the fault zone. The Munsiari Thrust Zune is
characterized by itnmature draillage development which suggests a relatively
domination of geomorphic process over the tectonic ones.
The neotectonic studies indicated Vre domination of geomorphic fonns
over the Mtmsiari Thrust, however, suggested strong tectonic control on the
geomorphic development.
... - .. -----.----.. -.- -.-.. Jhe .Iandslides .. oLthe-Loharkhet,kami .. area were studied in detail!.
Various Iypes of landslides studied statistically to evaluate the relative
contnlmtionof the natural anthropogenic and tectogenic factors in triggering
landslides. The landslides in the area, not affected by teclulOgenic and
anthropogenic activities, were studied' to evaluate the role of natural factors.
322
Various causes of the denudatiollai activities were conducted and
possible corrective measures like down slope and up slope tree canopy, down
slope and up slope retaining walls and cumplete removal of regolith cover,
checking ofundennining of the road-bed and removal of water on roads have
been suggested through intensive and extensive statistical analysis.
Period ofsl/tdy : Septemher 1984 - Fehruary 1988
323
LIVESTOCK - ITS ECONOMY AND IMPACT ON ECOLOGY: A
CASE STUDY OF NEERU DRAINAGE, DODA DISTRICT OF
JAMMU AND KASHMIR
OP SHARMA
Department of Economics
Universiry of Jammu
Jammu-Tawi - 180001
mhe study was undertaken to asses the .carying c a p ~ c i t y of Neeru
drainage to productively sustain the existing bovine population, to find out
whether livestock population is surplus or deficit in elation to its requirements,
to estimate the productivity and efficiency oflivestock, to determine the impact
of bovine drainage.
Out of the tctal number of 275 villages, 55 villages were ra.'ldomly
selected for the collection of the requisite data. Depending upon the size of
operational holding all households were divided into landless household
having zero holding, marginal farm having 0.01 to 2.5 acre holding, smail
fafIDing having 2.6 to 5.00 acre holding, medium farm holding 5,1 to 7,5 acreS
and large fann having 7.5 acres, 1206 households were surveyed randomly.
The survey revealed that marginal and small farmers own 83.42% of the total
. land holdings and constitute about 79% of the total population. Medium and
large fann households about 14-30% of the total population. About 46% of the
population in the sample households represents the category dependent or
unproductive,
The pOPllllltiORengaged inagriculture.cllllStituted1J}.97% ofq.dee1op, _ ..
ment populalion engaged in indnstry was found to be considerably low. Male
and female popUlation engaged inihe agricultural sector is 58,0 I % and 94.58%
respectively. The contribution of female population in the agricultural sector
was more than the male popUlation,
324
Land utilization pattern among the sample households revealed that
some rann households in the Neeru sub-watershed like their counterpart in the
rest of the state, lease-in and lease-out their cultivable land. The marginal
fanners who have leased-in more land than they had leased-out. Small fann
household's had leased-out almost double the land area than they had leased-in.
Medium and large fanners had only leased-out land due to the small size of
ownership land holding, it was but natural that marginal falmers lease-in land
not only to supplement their income and employment but also to increased the
utilizatioin of their draught animals and the supply of fodder for them.
The study suggested that gradual tax on cattle, compulsoryconfintment
of bulls, mandatary castration of all young bulls o u l d control grazing. In order
to replenish the depleted grassland, the grazing should be curtailed till it 'is
rehabilitated. Rotational grazing could be encouraged in partially depleted
grasslands.
Period o[study: October /983 - September 1986
325
GERMPLASM BANK OF PASTURE GRASSES/LEGUMES AT
PALAMPUR AND KUKUMSERI (LAHAUL & SPITI)
PRADESH
DC KATOCH
/Jepartment 01'1'10111 Breeding & Genetics
Himachal Pmdesh Krishi Vishvavidyalaya
Palampur-176IJ62
:] n Himachal Pradesh natural rallgclands and culturable waste and
barre;11ands serve as a major source of fodder to livestock population. These
rangelands and forests are spread over from 300 III to 450 lOin above mean sea
level and can be divided into two ecological zones viz. sub-tropical and
temperate type. The sub-tropical grasslands are found below 2300m height and
occupy whole of shivalik ranges whereas temperate type occurs in higher hills.
Over the ):'ears. O\\'ing to continuous and over grazing practiced in these
areas, palatable grass/legumes species have selectively been grazed and
gradually eliminated leading to dO!llin<:'llce of unpalatable and undesired
grasses 3.nd bushes. These f;}c:ors have convclted whole of the Hil11alaynn
into unproductive ones and livestock rearing has become difficult.
The key to the well-being of the pasture land lie in the appropriate
scientific management of pasture lands ill the Himalayas. The first step in this
direction is the ayailability of pure seed of improved varieties of pasture
grasses/legumes. However, the main concern is the non-availability of healthy
seeds of elite provenances of grassesllegumes.
The present study on germ plasm bank of improved grasses and legumes
was undertaken with a viewto meet the seed requirements in the region. Duflllg-
first year, grass seed nurseries on one hectare was established at Palampur and
on 0.4 hectare at Kukulllseri. During the period, about 200 strains of
indigenous and exotic grasses were coilected and maintained and about 20.60
J26
lakh seedling and 48 kg seed of various grasses and legumes was produced and
distributed to farmers and Govtlprivate agencies engaged in afforestation
programmes.
o During second year, nursery area was increased to 2 ha at Palampur and
to 0.5 ha at Kukumscri. During this period about 300 strains of indigenous and
exotic grasses were maintained in two farms and about 20.60 lakh seedling and
135kg per ha seed of improved grasses and legumes were produced and
distributed to fanners and Govt.lprivate agencies.
During third year, grasses nursery of 2 hectare was maintained at
Palampur and of 0.5 hectare at Kukumseri. During this year, about 400 strains
of indigenous and exotic grasses were maintained as germplasm. About II. 10
lakh seedling and 258 kg seed of different grasses and legumes were produced
and distributel to the farmers, Forest Department and Animal Husbandry
Department of the state.
Tlmsduringthreeyearperiod aboul33.5lakh seedlilngRnd451 kg. seed
were di,tributed to the Forest Department and farmers, which when in ult'plied
and used in pasture irnprovement programme, would go a long way to maintain
sustainahility in the region. Suitable grasses and clovers seed Iimitiplic,tiun
sites were identified for further strengthening of seed production prof!l: :lIl1e.
Cool sub-tropical places were found to be suitable for seed prod", ' om of
Trifolium repens, Fesluca arundinacea and Bramus wildinowii, whel .. " dry
temperate region was suitable for seed production for Trifolium V 11',
Phleum pratensis, DactJ!lis glomerata perennial O/ium perennes and i JIlIS
peduculatus.
_ ...... _._1'oe resuitsofthe inestigatillnwould beusefultothe StateDepartmeiif .... .
of Forest, National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resource, (leAR), the G.H. Pan!
Himaiayan Institute of Environment and Development, AImgra and "lher
agencies concerned with afforestation and extension activities.
Period of study: JIIly 1988 - June 1990
327
STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC
ACTIVITY ON SELECT MICRO-WATERSHED-
GIRl CATCHMENT IN HiMACHAL PRADESH
SUBHASH MlSHRA
Organisation Jur Applied Socio-economic System
B-IO, Ansal Chamber-I
Bhika)i Cama Place
New De/hi-II 0066
'(fihis study was undertaken t h the objective to find out the effect of
socio-ecological activities in the Giri catchment area of Himachal Pradesh.
The main occupation in the study area was agriculture. More than 90%
of the workforce was employed in it, either as cultivator or labours. Employ-
ment, on an average, in a year was for 2 I I days. The rest of the year they were
unemployed. Since only 26% of the land was under cultivation the employment
ill agriculiure was also form of disguised unempioyment. since higher yield
INDEX MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PROJECT IN GIrd
CATCHMENT H.P.
32&
could pO$oibly be achieved employing less people and more scientific
methods.
I t was found that the cultivators felt satisfied with the level of pre duct ion
the)' get On its own this seemed to be a good attitude as it will not cause further
exploitation of the land resources. But there was a paradox - if this level of
subsistence cultivation was followed firstly they were not able to genenite
aaditioin.l income for their other necessities and secondary the total economy
suffers. The low income was consequently responsible for environmental
deterioratioin in various ways. It was concluded that dIe cultivators either
lacked the knowledge or thc motivation to get higher yield.
The low level of income could be the cause of many environment
deteriorating activities like felling of trees for fuelwood or overgrazing of
pastures, etc. If they had higher income and considering the finding that most
of them are aware ofthe benefits afforests it might be safely assumed thatthey
would have acquired alternative more expensive fuel materiaL Similarly more
income would help the people afford to buy foduer and help to prevent
ovtrgrazing and subsequent soil erosion.
However, at the same time the low income was a result of the inability
to tap nature's resources properly as was shown by the use of primitive
cultivation practices, etc. So to increase income would mean exploitation of
natural resources to some extent.
The livestock population in tIle area was quite high (7.37 per respondent). The
grazing in state forests was allowed only to the right holders under the tenn of
settlement "Wazib-ularz". and limited area was available for grazing to the
most populous livestock in the area of goat, specially, and to all otherIivest.9.ck ... ___ ._._ .. _
in generaL This will naturally lead to
pasture.
Though according to the primary data only 12.5% respondents livestock
went to forest to graze, it was felt that this was an under estimation due to fear
329
ofpunislunent. However, even with only so many animals going into the forests
there was going to be some denudation caused to the forest. Newly planted
areas were more susceptible. And in case of unorganised illegal grazing the
chances of damages were more. There can be Iwo possible remedies viz.
decrease the number oflivestock in the area ofinerease pasture land and income
of the livestock owners so that they could afford to buy feed and fodderJrom
the market. Improved breed of the cattle could be a solution to the problem of
income. Further knowledge of the need for balanced nutrition and the various
fodders and nutritional value was required.
From the analysis of material used for fuel it is found that wood was the
most commonly used fuel. it was probably the least expensive and the most
readily available. Thus to decrease or stop the praclice of cutting tTees for fuel
wood alternatives have to be made availab1e and simulatenously their capacity
to buy fule was to be enhanced. Making available fuel efficient "Chullas" and
more Bio Gas plants was also oecessa!}'.
Period "f,ludy: .lanuary 1988 -AlIgUS11989
......... _-, .... _ .. _ .. _ .. - .... _-._-_ .. - ~ . - .... -..... "-',,_." .. - " - ~ ........ -.... _. __ ....... __ .. _-_._ .. - .... .
330
ECO-DEVELOPMENT PROJECT ON RAA TIl
GARHWAL HIMALAYA
K P NWTI\AL
Deparlm""lolHolany
H N Bahugll/Ia l!";"'Crsily
Srinagar-2J6J 76
'([he m,'estigation was an attempt to record the available vegetational
wealth of a remote, unapproachable and unexplored Raath area of Garhwal
Hlmalaya_ The assessment of the total vegetational wealth ofthe aforesaid arca
is not merely interesting to the botanists, but would also be beneficial to
ecologist, foresters, naturalists, phytogeographers, and planners to formulate
some strategies forthe proper development and utilisation of resources, as well
as in conservation of many economic spec..jcs. Ouring the course of investiga-
tions, it ,vas attempted to foUow the methilds of pl(lnt collection, prese!vation
and maintenance, as per recent Herbadum methods. The taxonomic account
dealt with approximately 1000 angiospermie species rellresenting 558 genera
and 131 families of mostly indigenous phmts_ Bcsides, phytosociological,
ethnobotanical, geabatanical, pathological studies we-re also conducted_
Ecological and phytosociological studies indicated % types of domi-
nant communities. Qualitative and quantitative data of different forests at
elevation ranging from 1200-1300 mean sea level were analysed to obtain
some basic characteristics_ The pattern of community stmctureofthe studied
forest stands i_e_ Pirns roxburghii, Querm., lellco/richophora, Q .l'emicarpifolia,
associated with corresponding understories_ However, the den sity of 1'_
roxburghii stands were observed to be higher than Quercus forests_ The factors
responsible for the destruction and degradation of mountaIn ecosystem of
Raath and disturbing the natural habitats of the flora were over exploitation,
overgrazing, forest-fires, lopping, shifting-cultivation, unplanned land
utilisation and other allied factors_ Many life sustaining economic species were
331
'.-"
'\{f
'y
,
,
--
REFERENCES
SOU HOARI E 5 .
Oil[1ti.c:I,8Iod<. __ ___ _
ORA,lIlA.G
Strea ....
SETTUIoIEHTS
'''"'' Placu. T"'1>I . , *.6 .
. ClO:.OS

RAni REGION - PJ\URlliJ\I<.IIWI\.,L
,"
-- .'.-
rapidly vansihing and were at' verge of extinction from the ,area, A few
specimens of this area allied to Po/ygonllm jilicall/e wall. ox Meissn.
(Polygonaceae) showed morphological and floral variation atvarietallevel, yet
to be described. Redicovery and collection of Care x liqulala Nees (Cyperaceae)
a rare species from the region (sp, Ex, u.P, Mussoorie, Royle DO 188/155) ..
A critical analysis of the flora from Himalayan region, indicated a few
species either extremely rare or with restricted distribution viz:. Berberis
pelitar;s Wall, ex G.Don
ex O,Oon) Seem, (Araliaceae): Penlapanax parasitiClis S.eems. (Araliaceae):
Galium cryplanlhum Hems!. (Rulliaceae): Glyce'ia lonKlensi.\' Clarke,
(Poaceae). The area is rich in folkore ,based On the wild plants"and the
inh,abitants are accustomed to use several plants like Aconilllln"Berheris,
7araxacum, Terminalia, Toona, etc. for food (vegetable, tubers, rhizomes,
" 332
bulbs etc.} fodder (grasses and leaf fodder), medicines, psychomedicine,
religious ceremonies, wood crafts etc.
The overall evaluation of different plant species with respect to popu-
lation density, abundance arid exploitation, demarcated several plant species
rare or threatened in nature from Raath, warranting their timely conservation.
Period ,,{study: June 1982 - March /986
_ ... -.. _ ... _._ ... '-"'-' -....
........... _-_ ....... _-_ ...... _ ..........
GEOMORPHIC STUDY OF LIMESTONE TOPOGRAPHY
AROUND CHERRAPUNJI, MEGHALA YA
RKRu
School of Environmental Sciences '
North El1?tern Hill UniversitA
Shillong-793014
Whe Cherrapunji plateau fonns the South-Western part of East Khasi
Hills District of Meghalaya. It is the north eastern extension of the Indian
Peninsular shield. The rocks of the region have mure in cornmon with those of
the Peninsular region rather than those of the neighbouring Himalayan ranges
of the north-eastern part of India. The total study area was about 260 sq. km ..
This area being in proximity to the Himalayas appears to be very much
associated with t.he Himalayan intennittent uplifts .
,,'

. "
Il 0 1lt.:,M
. ~
.'
~ .
."
,
..
'-

..,
CHEERAPUNn LOCA nON MAP
334
The project aimed to investigate, examine and interpret geomorphic
characteristics of the Cherrapunji plateau in relation to lithology and structure!
characteristics of rock. With a view to study the impact of geomorphic
processes involved in the arca in shapping the landforms; to examine the
evolution of drainage and their characteristics to analyse the rainfall, tempera-
ture and humidity data in long tenll perspective to evaluate the geomorphic
processes.
The evolution of Cherrapunji plateau was closely linked with the
structural evolution of the Shillong plateau. The area was full of limestone
formations. The study aflime stone ofthc region shows acomplete dissolution
of these rocks in water. Some unique development of stalactites and stalagmites
deposits were noted in the limestone caves. The Sludyshowed that the different
geomOJl'hological feanlTes of an area had relief manifestation on different
scales. The important relief features of thc area have been analysed with the
help of absolute relief. altitudinal zones and relative relief. The altitudinal
distribution reveals different erosion surfaces ocenring at different levels. The
il0I1h-eastem corner of the study area by and large showed higher relative
relief. Slopes were the basic features ofla,;dscape; it was observed that the steep
slope category wa,continued in thenorth-eastem and south - eastern and south
- eastem pan of the area. On plateau top vegetation cover was observed to be
absent except grasses. The lower karst and underground channels were also
observed in study area. Near Cherra town good quality limestone deposits were
used for manufacturing of cement. The study area had distinct geomorphic
domains (Plateau of table and hill domains) and showing characteristic
landfonns. The area under different category of land use had been identitied
and a land use map was prepared.
Period of SlIIdv : April 1988 - April 1991
..... __ "._ w__ ___ .. _ .... -.- ...... ---... -.... ~ - .. - .... -.- - ~ . _-_ ... _--.
335
......... _ ....... - .. ,--
.--_ .... _ ............. __ .. ,"
INTEGRA TED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT OF THE GUMTI
RIVER VALLEY
T BHATTACHARYA
Department afLife Science,
Tripura University
Agartala-799004
. mhe study covered an in depth enquiry into the edaphic, climatic,
geomorphological, hydrological, biotic and socio-economic aspects of the
upper catchment of the Gumti river valley. Special attention was given on the
environmental impact of jhuming (slash and burn cultivation) and the estab-
'lishment of the Gumti hydroelectric project. The main aim of the irivestigation
was to suggest measures for preventing further ecological damage and for
restoring ecological balance of the area.
Tho soil of the region was of good quality from agricultural point of
view. Analysis of the physico-chemical properties of the soil and of soil biota
of jhumed and non jhumed fields revealed that contrary to the general belief,
other things remaipng the same probablY jhuming along did not pose a very
serious threat to the soil fertility.
Geomorphological evidences indicated the unstable nature of the ter-
rain which is susceptible to greater fluvial erosion irrespective of the present
human interferences in terms of road construction, denudation of forests,
agricultural operations, constru.ctions of dams etc. Soil erosion due to heavy
""'-'downpiiiliifiiiigllie liillslopes was finther intensified by jhuming. The loss of
vegetational cover due to jhuming and other developmental activities 'had
resulted in the disappearance of natural forest and the formation of vast
stretches of bamboo forest and fallow land with lush growth ofwees. Inspite
of this 20 species of timber yieldinglI.:ees occurred in the area.
336
As a sequel to the habitat destruction there was a seriolls depletion of the
wild life in the Gumti watershed. It is believed that a large number of elephants
have emigrated to the Chitlagang hill tracts in Bangladesh as a consequence of
the [onnation of reselvoir. This had, however, created a favourable habitat for
water birds and other aquatic life. The reservoir was visited bya large number
of migratory birds in winter. It also had a sufficient quantity and quality of
plankton to sustain a sizeable llsh popuiation where 48 species of fish were
recorded. However, it appeared that the fishery potential of the r"servior was
not being exploited optimally. Most of the wild animal species found in the
area are threatened and need p"'per attention for their conservation. Phayre's
leaf monkey (Presby!is phayrei) was identified as the most important of such
species in view of its almost endemic distribution in Tripura.

'''.l$ "' ........... ".., " .. , .. ,


0 .... -
0 ......... -,
a,-'-
'. f;.j],.- '-

\a . .-.... -- ......
El, ... c....,
0-'-
0----'
0'''''
0-
5'J -,,,-
0 ........ -
0 .... -
GEOLOGlCAL MAP OF Th-e. AREA IN AND AROl.i'ND GANDACHHARA, SQlHJ I "I "lUPURA
TRIPURA
337
Generation of the electridty had been found to be adversely affected
by the rapid coating fonnation in the cooling system ofthe rurbine. The coating
consisted mainly of a hydrated iron complex. Preliminary srud;es had shown
that such coating fonnation could be prevented by using amino acid deriva-
tives.
The findings underlined the need for an integrated approach to planning
ofland use and all productive activities in the catchment area. Methods should
be adopted to wean the people away from jhumiilg by providing popularly
acceptable alternatives such as growing timber yielding trees and encouraging
pisciculrure in low lands not suitable for cultivation. The study recommended
that the hill slopes bordering the reservoir be kept under penn anent forest cover
by converting the area into a sancturary without ousting the local inhabitants.
Period afstudy: .Tanuary 1985 - AugusI1988
338
INTEGRATED DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC
STUDIES IN DARJEELfNG DISTRICT
B BIIA TT ACI/AR\",\
Department ()(Gw[!,raphyand
Applied (;eography
University ()jNorlh Henga/
Darjee/inK - 73N31!
'mhe impact of aggregate population on the eco-system is a major factor
in understanding the ecological imbalance and destlUction brought by man.
The distribution of population determines the regional consumption level and
the social needs, the requirement of energy resources, the rate of environmental
pollution and the accumulation of waste material resulting from different
activities.
The socia-economic survey cf the hill "iii ages conducted wrth a view
to understand the ecological relationship with the subsistence activities of the
people focuses on the economic life of the people in terms of different
parameters. The average density oi 2 rcrson, per acre of the ten surveyed
villages selected at different altitudes, varied accordingly, being fairly high and
more acute in lower settlements. Migration was a recurrent phenomenon with
15% ofthe population born outside the village (5% in Nepal). The average size
of the family was 5.8 persons and it is nuclear in structure. The high ratc of
literacy had created a greater awareness of people about the need for family
planning which is evident from a nllmber of instances of vesectomy and" .
tubectomy operations.
The study revealed the character of a non affluent economy starting
from water resources, agricultural products to electric power and transporta-
tion. future expansion of settlements should have sound geological foundation
with provisions for stepped or terraced drains as a precaution against landslides
and landslips_ Small-and medium schemes for hydel-power-generation should
be given priority_ Inaccessibility as the major handicap of the region needs to
be removed with the construction of roads laid out along the-existing footpaths
and trekking routes_
The study also suggested that dIe strategy for agricultural development,
providing basic occupation to people should include introduction of new crops
adapted to the hill conditions to be followed by intensive extension services in
the form of agricultural cooperatives with stress on cash crops and proper
marketing facilities.
Period ojstudy: September 1983 - March 1988
340
APPENDIX
_ .... __ ......... -.- .. '-" ._--_ . .... . _ ... -_ .. ... -.""" ................. ---........... _-_.-._- _ ... ..

341
APPENOlX
CONTENTS OF VOLUME-I
PROJECT TITLE AND NAME OF 'JHE INVES'OUATOR
ECOLOGICAL S'IUDIr:.s OF MANGROVE FOREST ECOSYSTEM Of ANOAMAN ISLANDS.
L I' AI/fl.L
S-mUCTUItE AND FUNCnONlNG OF NA TIJRAL, MOJ)IFrED AND SIL VlCUtnntAL nCOSYS'fEMS
OF EASTERN ([ITAR PRADESH
RMlSRA
IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF O/OECOLOGICAL CHANGES IN FAUNAL I'AHERNS (SELECUm
GROUPS) BRoumrr ADOtrr BY TilE fA.RHAL SllllMERSJON or CORUE1T NkllONAL PARK AS
1\ RESULT OF RAMGANGA IIYDEL "ROJECT DAM (1ST STAGE 1976.79)
l1S IAMBA
ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON 11UMAN ACTlvrnES ON 'nn:; SANI1-011NE ECOSYSTEM OF nIE
IND{AN DES12RT
" M M Bf{M/D .. IRJ
S'lRUCll)RE AND FUNCTIONING (I(: Ni\:llJRAL, MODIFiED 0RASSLANO ECOSYSTf-MS IN '11 IE
J-IlMAL \ Y l\ (GAIU1W 1\1. Y 1\)
S KGUPTll
STATUS SURVEY OF TIlE FLOHAL CONSTITUENTS IN 111 lSLANn ECOSYS-mM OF GREAT
NICOBAR ISLAND CN '11m PRESENT CON1'EXT OF CllANGrNG lIAOrrATS.
N lJIIIAKlllSIINAN
FORf.:.STS. ENVIRONMENT AND FOREST UWELLER ECONOMY IN CIli\'fnSGARH
FER1I/ANIJI!S
IMPACT OF HUMAN AC"l1VfIlES ON 111 ECOSYSTEM AND vrCE-VERSA. Willi REfERENCE
.. -- .... -... --.-... -- '-"
TO SJKKfM fJlMAL4.Y,<\S-
___ ..... __ , _ .......... ___ _______ __ __ ,. __ ___ '_ '--0>
M K IJI/ASIN
S'llJOIES ON THE CHANGING !'AHERN OF MAN,FOREST INTERACTION ANI) ITS IMPUCA
'nONS ON ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
PM GANAPt1 TllY
343
IMPACT OF HlTh1AN ACllVITIF5: ON TIlE ORGANIC PRODUCllVIlY OF SEMINATIlRAL
GRAZlNG LANDS FROM ARID ill DRY SUBHUMJD AREAS OF WESTERN fNT)lA
SCPANDEYA
ECOLOGICAl. IMPLICATIONS OF !HUM CULTIVATION ON 1HE EGOSYS11;M FUNCTIONS OF
SUB TROPICAL HUMJD FOREST STANDS
P S RAMAKRlSIlNAN
ECOLOGICAL EFFECT OF HUMAN AC11VTIlES PARllCULARL YlHE USE OF MODERN TECHNOr..
OGY AND AGRlCUL1URAL PRACTICES ON 111E SlRUCTIJRE AND FUNCTION OF RIVER
ECOSYSmMS IN 111E STATE OF MAlIARASHfRA, WITIi SPECIAL REFERENCE TO 1HE ULIIAS
. AND TIlE MULA RIVERS
Be HALDER
STATUS SURVEY OF ENDANGERED AND lHREA mNED SPECIES OF MAMMALS AND BIRDS AT
NANDA DEVI NA 110NAL PARK 1981-85
OS LAM8A
CENSUS SURVEYS OF RURAL AND URBAN POPULAflONS OF NON HUMAN PRIMA 11;S OF
". SOUTH INDL \.
GU KURUP
TIlE RIVER GANGA WA 11;R QUALITY (WITIi REFERENCE TO VARANASI)
JNMISRA
]HE COLEROON ESTUARY AND ADJOINING SEABOARD (SOUTHERN INDlA) A HOLISTIC
STUDY OF BENlHlC ECOLOGY
K AYYAKKANNU
HYDRODIOLOGICAL SlUDIES OF 11IERMAL SPRINGS 0)' BIHAR
J S DATTA MUNSHl
..... .E.ffECTS.QJ:lIJJMAN.ACllYITIES.ON.1HE.STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONING OF FRESH WAmR
ECOSYS'lliMS OF GHANA BIRD SANCTUARY DIIARA TPUR AND RAMGARli LAKE, JAlPUR,
RAJASTHAN
CL MAHAJAN
344
ANAL YS!S OF SOME LAKE ECOSYSTEMS OF HIMACHA L PRADEOH wlnr SPECIAL REFERENCE
TO THEIR CONSERVA TlON AND MANAGEMENT
1l0AGRAWA 1. AND J{S THAKUR
S'I1JDIES ON THE EfFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ON SOME BENrrllC ANIMALS IN
THE COCHIN BACKWATERS
CVKUlUAN
LIMNOLOGICAL SURVEY AND [MJ>ACT OF HUMAN ACTIVITIES ON THE RIVER GANGES
(BARAUNI TO FARAKKA RANGE)
K S BlLGRAMl AND J S DU1TA MUNSf/1
ASSESSMENTOFTI-lE INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIC POLLUTION, mOlOG1CAL PRODUCTION AND
HIE RATE OF E[)TROPI-HCA"IlON OF THE LAKES OF HYDERABAD
M RSAXENit
STUDY OF ECOLOGICAL CHANCES DUt: TO ADDITION OF POLLUTANTS IN SOME AQUAllC
l{ABITATS IN AND AROUND DELHI STATE AND TO SELECT SOME INDICATOR SPECIE..') FOR
DEGREE AND KINO OF POLLUTION
K AI M DA .. KSIllNI
LI/l..fNOLOG!CAL SURVEY OF CAINERY RIVER SYSIH ....i WITH PARI1CUlA.R REfFRI"' .. ro
POLUJI1QN INDICATORS
A SRENIVASAN
L1Ml\lOLOGY OF LOWER LAKE BHOPAL WIm REFERENCE TO SEWAGE
EtJIROPHICA'nON
G P iJllATNAGAR
EFFECTS OF PESllClJ)ES OF AQUATIC FAUNA OF MALWA REGION
.. RS SIIRIVASTAVA
AGTRICUL TURAL pES1ICIDES RESIDUES AND nlElR DEGRADATION IN SOrL WA ll.l{ AND A
FEW BIOTA OF RIVER GANGES FROM ALLAHABAD TO PA TNA
LALLANRAI
ASSESSMENT OF D1STRlBlfllON AND CONSEQUENCE OF PESTICIDE USE IN TERRESTiUAL AND
AQUA TIC ECOSYSTEM "ND ll)ENl1F1CATION OF KEY [NmCA TOR PROCESs
SCStlXENA
345
\)In \I...ESIDU AND ITS DEGRAOA'110N IN SOIL. WATER l'l.ND A H!W AQUA11C .. \NlMALS or:
JAMUNA IN DEUII
AI K /tl PIL'-'lI AND /J C AGAIW-:-1L
STUDYOFUmVEGlA nON ANn FLORA rNl1-lEMAl/.S1IY AREA OfmmHWA NATIONALl'ARK,
LAKJlll\tPURKHERJ, {tn-AR I'RAOESII
u C IlIIA1TACIIARJ:-i
CYTOGENll"llC SURVEY OF TIlE FLORA OF THE Sll,.ENT VALLEY
E A JA/\fAKIAMMAL ANn MAlJADEVAN
l'ESHClDE DEGRt\J)Al10N IN lROl'lCAL lUCE SOIL ENVfRONMENT
N SE111UNATIIAN
I'ES11CmE RESIDUE PROBLEM IN RICE AND PADDY ECOSYSTEM
N SET/JUl\fATIIAN
AGIUCULTlntAL PESTICIDE RESIDUE AND nIEm ON sortS AND CROPS
J J (,'f/oSfI
OPHMAL FLOW ALLOCATION METIIOD FOR ECONOMIC DESIGN OF D1SUtIl3UnON
NET-WORKS
f{ N lJiJATlilC/lAIli'J'A
MR QUALl'lY SURVEY ATnvO STATIONS IN DOMDAY
AS G/IOSII MAZUMDAR
S1UDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION IN DAMODAR RIVER IN DURGAPURASANSOL
INDUSTRIAl. oaT, wr:ST IlENGAL
ANILKDH
USE OF ACTIVATED CARBONS 1N1llE REMOVAL OF DlSSOLV1}D ORGANIC POLLUTANTS
ESPECli\LLY COLORING Mt\TlHtS fROM UtE TEX11LE PROCESS WASTE LIQUORS
FACIUTA1TNG REUSE OF IVA'ffiRAS WELL AS SUBSTANTIAL REDUCTION IN POLLU110N
OF 1lIKDISCHf.\RlirrS1'RM'MR ... _ ...... _ .. _ ... _ .. - .... - .... - ... _-- _._ .. _ ... - ._ .. _._ .... _ ... - ... . .......... __ ._.
PImA! KUMAIl MIIIH
AIR pOLLUTION AND ITS CONTROL IN COAL MINING
/If K ClltlKRAlJOltrl'
346
RURAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN NORTIlERN INDlA.
K VENUGOPAL
SIMULA nON SUlDYFOR UNlDIRECTIONAL TRAFFIC FLOW ON A MULTILANE-ROf.D SECTION.
HK PARGAL
TIlE DEVELOPMENT PLAN FOR GREATER Bm,IDA y, A CASE STIJDY OF URBA" PLANNrNG
AND DEVELOPMENT VISA VIS TIlE ENVIRONMENT.
!tI N BueH
MICROBIOLOGICAL REMOVAL OF HYDROCARBON IN REFINERY WASTE.
fRDOCTOR
SUlDrns ON MODEL AND VILLAGE AGRICUL lURAL ECOSYSTEMS.
N AMULYA KUMAR REDDl'
PES1ICIDE POLLUTION DUE TO CHLORINATED INSECTICIDES ESPECIALLY DDT IN TIlE
ENVIRONMENT OF MAN AND OTIfER LIVESTOCK IN TIlE COUNTRY.
S K CH.1ITERJ, S K KASIfYAP & S K GUPTA
INVES'nGATION ON TIlE RECYCLING OF EFFLUENTS fROM SAGO FACTORIES.
GOi1!...ISAMI
CHEMICAL INVESllGA 1l0N OF AtMOSPHERIC FARHCULA TE MA ITEROF S0ME [NDiTSTRiAL
CInES.
Gf'lR40
MONITORING Of YAMUNA RIVER WATER POLLUTION AND BlOLOarCAL ASSESS1'-1, ~ - I OF
ALLOWABLE CONCEN"ffiATION OF WASTE DISCHARGE.
KDSIIARMA
GEo.ENV[RONMENTAL CONTROLS OF lNDUSmlAL POLLUTION AROUND BARODA
SSMERlI
.MEII\BOUSM Of FLUORIDE IN TIlE NEWBORNES.INFANTS AND CI-IILDREN LIVIN(i IN
ENDEMIC FLUOROSIS AREA.
SPSTEOTIA
CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL S"I1JDlES ON PARniE><1UM ALLERGY.
PVSUnBARAO
347
INVESTIGA"nON ON INCIDENCE OF fLUOROSJS IN lU!LA-JlON TO CHEMICAL FEATURP...s OF
I'OTADLE WATER AND COrvr..\lON FOOD MATEIUA LS AND EVALUA 110N OF THE EFFECTS
OF DEFLUOIUDATION OF WATER IN NALGONDA DlSTRlCT OF ANDHRA PRADESH
K RAJYAUKSIIA/[
SITE SELECTION METIIODOLOGY FOR LOCAllNG INDUSTIUES IN RURAL AREA
MAHlE",
NOISE POLLUUON AND ITS ON HEARING Oi
7
PERSONNEL LIVING AND WORKING fN
MAJOR CEl'fmES TN SOUTHERN REGIONS INCLUSIVE OF MADRAS, COlMBATORE, MADURAI,
llAN'GALORE. t-.fYSORE, COCllIN AND l1UVANDRUM
S KAME$IlWAJ{4M
COt-.fl'REHENSIVE PLANNING OF SMALL
B N MUKlIERJE
DlO-ENERGETIC AND t-.fEl1iODOLOGY or ENEltGY FLOW IN IMPORTANT WETLANDS AND
Lo\K SYSTEMS OF ASTERN GllATS
S /{-i'\/AKlUSlJ_\>1 RAO
SURVEY AND ECOLOGY OF INSECT COMhtUNIT::ES OF HiE EASlum GHATS
MSMANJ
SE..4.GRASS ECOSYSTEM OF COROt-.tANDEL COAST
K K LAKSIIMAlvA.l'i,r
MANAGMENT AND CONSERVATION OF HERPETO fAUNAL RESOURCES OF THE EASTERN
GHATS, Ah'DHRA PRADESH
M V SUB1l4 RAO
S11JDIES ON mE flYDROWGICAL fEATURES OF CIIILKA LAKE, OJUSSA
PM MlSHR4 ..
A STIJDY OFECOLOGY, BREEDING PA TffiRNS, DEVELOPMENT AND _
TIlE OLIVE RIDLEY, UPiDOCHELYS OUVACEA
P .'tIOHANTY-IlJ/IIADI
INTER-DISCll)LINARY COOR.:lINA TED INVESTIGATIONS OF BIonc AND ABIOTIC ECOSYSTEMS
OF SELEClEO AREAS OF tfIT AR KM.c"N..tillA DISTRlCT OF KARNATAKA STA 1E
!tI S CllEl\':\:41'EEft41AII AND A- WGOKIIALE
)4S
llEAWMETAL rOLLlITANTS IN DRINKINGWAffiRRESOURCES IN PARTS OF WES-mRN GHATS,
KARNATAKA AND TI-fEIR SIGNIFICANCE
S SA TlIYANtillAYAN
ENVIRONMENTAL S'l1JDY or nm llAlAO( AND KOlLURU RIVER BASINS OF KARNATAKA
NAYAZ AIIMED SllAREEF
A COMPARAnVE ECOLOGICAL STillY ornm SOIL, CLIMATE, MICROORGANTSMS, EPrPIIYI'ES
AND WEEDS OF DEFORESTED AND AFFORESTED AREA OFH[E OAKS lUNA KANNADA AREA OF
TIm WES'I'ERN GHATS REGIOIN
L D'SOUZA
1lI0LOGfCAl ENVIRONMENT AND IMPACT OF pOLLtfnON OF KAtI )UVER AROUND DANDELl
AREA, tITTARA KANNADA DlSTRJCT KARNATAKA
I' B NADKARNI
STREAM nSlICOMM{JNrlY ORGANIZATION ALON(; I IAntTATGRADIENTS IN UPPUGALA HOLE
WES'lUtN (;IIA"I"$. KARNA1AKA

S"l1lD1i::S AND U'llUSAllON OF GRASSIAl"Il) FLORA, AVAILABLE IN HiE WEST-
ERN {alATS
(; RAGin 'AN I'll.IAI
STUDY OF HIE NA11JRAL ENVIRONS OF C,AN<iAVALl ruVf:R BASIN, 1JTrARA !-0NNADA
DIS'11UCT KAltNATAKA STATE INDIA, CONsnnnlNU A PART ()J: 'HIE WESTERN GHATS
V(.'('IIAI-:,11I/
.'\ STUDY ON 11 IE IMI'AC rs OF'nll; l'R<)I\()S[',l) MANAN'RIODY HYDROELECTRIC
1'/{i}JECI' ON l-'OI{ES'I' llAVITA l' AN) WILlJIJFE IN WYNAI). KERALA
M IML,tKUSISJlN,I.\' ;INU SE/,So;\' I' .WU.III.'IM
,wATIWSl-llill..s:ntllIES 9f KERAIA
n R.1GllV,\',ITIf
OF DHiRAt>t-:1J ENVIRONMI:NT IN ClIAMUAMI> '1lta'A'1. {"ULoNY AREA
,UARlll\'IJ.IKSII.-IN
IMPACT of FEI.I.INU IN I\. H)REST IN KERILA.
K nALjSlJIlIl.-1MANl' ... IN
SEED SET AND SEED QVALI1Y IN FOREST, PLANTi\110N. FORAGE AND VEe ...
E1"ABLECROPS AS rNFLUENCED BY 1HE AGRO-TECIINIQUf:.S AND POLLUTANTS AFFECTING
TIlE ECOLOGICAL BALANCES
T
A COORDINATED SlUDY OF lHE IlACKGROVND AND IMPACT OF 110N ON 1l--lE
SOCIO-ECONOMIC OF VILLAGE LIrE AND I':NVlRONMENT IN DAKSI-UNA
!(ANNADA mSTRlCT
S UDlIAYASIIANKAR
DEVELOPMl:Vr OF VIADLE MOlJELS OF AGRO ECOSYS'lEMS TO COMPROJ\.{(SE WITH FOREST
ECOSYSTEMS IN TI-lE llUDAL llAMLETS ALONG TIlE WESTERN GHATS
RSAIYER
ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCA'llON AND A CAI\.{PAIGN
GPERUMAl
AN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF llUMAN ACHvrllES AND CONSERVAll0N
ACTION MODELS ON NAl1JRAL AND SI::MI NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS IN WESTERN GHATS
REGION !H TAMil.. NJ\DV
KAILASH P.1UJIIA1.
EFFECT Of lI.!INING ON "Illi ECOSYS1'D.1S OF SANGUEM Hie] iOLIM. SATI'ARf .AND QUEPEM
TALUKA,GOA
SA/SIlEITY
STIJDIES ON SEDIMENT YlELO I'ROM WATERSHEDS OF WESTERN GilAT REGION
EJJAMES
JGlSLA'nvE ANO AOMlNISTRAllVE ASPECTS UF ENVIRONMENTAL CONlROL IN WESTERN
GHATS
P LEELA KRiSIINAN
IMPACT 01' INDUSTIUAL POLLUTIaN ON 11m MICROlllOLOGY of alIA VAN! RIVER AND
ENVIRONS
G OIJUSAM: ANJ) G RAJANJ't.'AN
350
GEOHYDROlOGICAl INVESTIGATIONS OF TIlE GAUlA CATCHMDlT DlSTIUCT NAlNITAL
WInl SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ITS WATER BALANCE
KS VALDIYA
SEED AND SEEDLING DANK PROJECT FOR AGRO FORESTIt AND SOCIAL FORESTIty
PROGRAMME IN GARHW AL HIMALAYA
BPNAUTIYAL
SURVEY QF TIlE DIVERSITY OF LIVING ECONOMIC FLORA AND TIER CONSERVATION AND
DEVELOPMENT IN KARBI ANGLONG DIS1'RICT OF ASSAM
L C GOSWAMI ANDS CHOWDHURY
ECONOMlC ANALYSIS OF HIMALAYAN ECODEVELOPMENT PROmO'
TVJ.fOORTl
TRlFUNCTIONAl APPROACH FOR ECODEVELOPMENT OF DlSTIUCTIIIlDA. JAMMU (J&K)
Y R MALIIOTRA
ECODEVELOPMENT IN TELDAL DAcmGAM CATCHMENT. JAMMU .4IID KASHMIR
DNFOREDAR
PROPAGATION TECHNOLOGY FOR ASSAM BAMBOO
OPSllARMA
lONG -mRM IMPACT OF REMOVAL OF PINE NEEDLES ON .sorL (!OPERTIES AND FOREST
ENVIRONMENT
CMSINGII
ECODEVELOPMENT OF SIWALIK IllMALA Y A.s , IMPROVEMENT <F FOR SUS-
T AlNED PRODUCTIVllY CONDUCIVE TOTI{E ECONOMIC DEVELOPMBlrOFGHAAR. GARHW At
(U.P.)'
A PJOSlIl
IMPROVEMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF.NAI1JRALGRASSLANDS
CMSINGl!
ECODEVELOPMENT IN TI{E GARHW AL HIMALAYA wml PAR"ncm.REFERENCE TO FIELD
STIIDY AND MONITORING OF LANDSLIDES AND DEVELOPMENT <FINNOVATIVE CONTItOl
MEA.sURES
R K BHAl.;nARl
351
S'llJDY OF FUNGI ASSOCIATID WITII DECAY OF LIVING COMMERCIAL lllEES OF PICEA
SMITHIANA AND ABIES PiNDROW
TN LAKHANP AL
STRUClUREAND fUNCTION OF SOME GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF GAMBHER CATCH1fF.NT
OF RIVER SA nUl HIMACHAL PRADESI I
RS TllAKUR
S'llJOIES ONTIffiIlDAPHIC ENVIRONl>1ENf AND WA ITR POLUJOON DUE TO AGRO-CIIEMlCALS
CMS/NGH
AFFORESTATION OF LAND UNDER SOCIAL FOru,SlRY
PKKlfOSLA
POLLINATION ECOLOGY or APPLE ORCHARD ny fl)1vIENOI'U!RIJS INSECTS TN MknANA
NARKANDA TEMPERATE ZONE OF IDMACHAL IlltAl>SII
LR VERAIA
DRYING UP OF HILL SPRINGS AND lUI! GEOMOIU" IOLocacAL IIYDROLOGICAL SllmmS OF
SrrJNGS FOR TIllilR "RESERVA'nON-A UASrC PruOIUlY OFI ULLMAN'S FUTURE
C L ACIIARJ'A
352
'.
~ - ~
'PRll'.rmO AT: UNITED P,lUNnNO PREss. C-6, HARI NAGAR. NEW ilI!LHIll0064. PHONE: ~ 1 4
7" - . - ..

Оценить