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Preface
You may distribute this ebook freely. The ebook is illustrated with 40
colorful photos of LCD Monitors. It explains the basic functions, major
components and repair guide of LCD Monitor which is required to be fully
understood and will be a knowledge channel of being a succesful LCD
Monitor repairer.

Friendly Reminder
The reader is expressly reminded to consider and adopt all safety
precaution that might be indicated by the activities herein and to avoid all
potential hazards. Although all possible measures have been taken to
ensure the accuracy of the information presented, neither
Lcdmonitorrepairebook, nor the author are liable for damages or injuries,
misinterpretation of directions, of the misapplications of informaiton. By
following the instructions contained herein, the reader willingly assumes all
risks in connection with such instructions.









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CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION: LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY MONITOR
2. HOW THE LIQUID CRYSTAL LIGHT CONTROL
3. DIVISION OF LCD DISPLAY AND TFTS
4. BASIC STRUCTURE OF TFT LCD DISPLAY
5. CONTROL OF TFT LCD DISPLAY TRANSISTORS
6. STRUCTURE OF THE LCD DISPLAY AND BACKLIGHTING
7. BACKLIGHTING OF THE LCD LAMPS
8. HOW TO OPEN THE LCD MONITORS
9. INTERNAL BOARDS OF LCD MONITOR
10. BLOCK DIAGRAM IN LCD MONITOR
11. IDENTIFICATION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS IN MAIN
BOARD
12. IDENTIFICATION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS IN POWER
SUPPLY BOARD
13. IDENTIFICATION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS IN POWER
INVERTER
14. PROCEDURE FOR LCD MONITORS REPAIR
15. DEFECTS IN LCD DISPLAY
16. OTHER DEFECTS IN STEPS OF MONITOR
17. EXAMPLE OF IC REPLACEMENT IN LCD MONITOR
18. PROCEDURE FOR IC REPLACEMENT IN LCD MONITOR
19. COMBINATION OF SCALAR AND MICRO IN ONE IC
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LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY MONITOR

The LCD screen is the equivalent of the picture tube monitors. It consists of
several layers and below all have the light diffuser, which is a white plastic
plate that distributes the light from two or more cold cathode fluorescent
lamps (CCFL) uniformly behind the screen. Also within the module of
display drivers find the ICs of the pixels that form images on this display.
In the figure below we have a picture of one taken from a display monitor
showing in detail the terminals of the CCFL lamps:

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Important: The LCD display is only one module, so any defect which
comes to present, including blemishes, dead pixel, broken glass, light bulb
or IC, it should be swapped round, as well as with the conventional tube
monitors when they are weakened, the filament burned or going short.


HOW THE LIQUID CRYSTAL LIGHT CONTROL:-

Liquid crystal is a substance with characteristics between solids and
liquids. In solids the molecules are close together and organized structures.
Already in the liquid the molecules are far apart and move in different
directions. In the liquid crystal molecules are arranged in structures, but not
so close as in solids. See below:

When a light beam passing through the liquid crystal molecules, its
direction is changed. Then just put the plate of liquid crystal between two
polarizers, apply tension between them and make the light go through one
of the polarizers, through the liquid crystal to reach the other polarizer.

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Polarizing Filter - glass formed by grooves that only lets the light pass in
one direction. The polarizers are placed at the ends of the liquid crystal
with the slots at 90 degrees relative to each other. Among them will a
source of tension that can be turned on or off. See the structure in the figure
below:


When no voltage is applied between the polarizers, the light passes through
the first and the liquid crystal molecules twist light by 90 so that it can cut
through the second and becomes visible in front of the display. So the
display is clear. When voltage is applied between the polarizers, the
molecules are oriented differently so as not to change the direction of light
from a polarizer. Thus the light can not leave the polarizer 2 and can not be
seen in front of the display. So the display goes dark. Controlling the level
of voltage applied between the polarizers is possible to vary the level of
light that pass through the display.


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DIVISION OF LCD DISPLAY AND TFTs

Pixel - is the smallest part that forms the image. Each pixel comprises three
subpixels, one red (R), one green (G) and one blue (B). The LCD screen is
divided into pixels and subpixels. For example, an SVGA screen has a
resolution of 800 columns x 600 rows. Hence it is composed of 480,000
pixels. Since each pixel has three colors, gives then a total of 1.44 million
rooms in this screen. Already have an XVGA screen resolution of 1024 x
768, has 786,432 pixels and 2,359,296 divisions. The higher the screen
resolution, more divisions it should have. Each division (sub-pixel) screen
is controlled by a tiny transistor mosfet mounted on a glass block located
behind the LCD. Each of the transistor is called TFT.


TFT - Thin Film Transistor "- or thin film transistor is a transistor mounted
on a glass substrate. As explained, the LCD monitor has millions of
transistors on a glass TFT mosfets located between the polarizer and a
liquid crystal block. An LCD screen resolution of 800 x 600 has 1.44
million of these transistors mounted on the glass. Each transistor is
responsible for making their subpixel pass the light (on) or block (off).
Below is the basic structure shown in the next page:






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BASIC STRUCTURE OF TFT LCD DISPLAY






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BASIC STRUCTURE OF TFT LCD DISPLAY

Each transistor is driven by the TFT gate line and the line of source pulses
through digital level "0" level or "1". When the gate-source and receiving a
level (voltage), the TFT is driving and lets light pass through the subpixel,
this appearing green, red or blue and clear in front of the screen. When the
gate or the source receive level 0 (no tension), the TFT is not conducive
and the subpixel is off. For each image formed on the LCD panel, TFT
each receives eight bits "0" and "1" each time. If all bits are 1, one subpixel
has the maximum brightness. If all bits are 0 subpixel that is off. If some
bits are 0 and others are 1, the subpixel is eight times turns on and off very
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quickly so that our eye sees brightness weaker.

Since each subpixel (color) receives 8 bits at a time, he may have 256
levels of brightness. Since each pixel has three colors, multiplying the 256
brightness levels for each one, it follows that this can reproduce 256 pixels
(R) x 256 (G) x 256 (B) = 16,777,216 colors, or more than 16 million
colors.

The capacitors storage to store a few moments of briliance that subpixel
information. LCDs are called using transistors TFT active matrix and
provide greater vibrancy to the image being used by all computer monitors
today.













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CONTROL OF TFT LCD DISPLAY TRANSISTORS

The connection between the LCD and the board of the monitor is made by
a connector called LVDS (low voltage differential signaling). Thus the
digital data are applied to the display by lines of 0 or 1.2 V providing
higher speed transfer of data and no noise. By going through the LVDS
connector, the data goes to a driver IC and the display of ICs for various
LDI providing the bits to drive the TFT transistors. The display driver IC is
located on a plate attached to the glass substrate where are the TFTs. The
display driver ICs are connected LDI between the plate and glass substrate.
But these components are not replaced when they burn. The solution is to
exchange the entire display. See the figure below the location of transistor
TFT display driver ICs:

On board display also enter a B + 3.3 or 5 V to power the control IC and
LDI.


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STRUCTURE OF THE LCD DISPLAY AND BACK LIGHTING

As explained, the LCD is a sandwich of plates and glass substrates, as well
as the structure of the backlight. See below:

LCD screen is comprised of the following components:
Polarizers - Just let the light pass in one direction;
Plate TFT - glass substrate where are the mosfets transistors that control
the brightness for each individual subpixel;
Color filter - glass substrate that gives color to the RGB subpixels
controlled by mosfets;
Liquid crystal - Modifies or not the path of light passing through it
depending on the voltage applied between the polarizing plate by mosfets
TFT.
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Backlight is formed by:

Lamps CCFL - cold cathode fluorescent lamps used to illuminate the
display. The monitor can have two or more of these;
Power inverter - provides between 300 and 1300 VAC to feed the bulbs.
By controlling the voltage to the lamp, adjust the brightness of the display;
Light guide - Directs light to the LCD display;
Spotlight - Reflect light to the guide;
Diffuser - spreads the light evenly in the backlight unit;
Prisma - Transfer the drive light to backlight the LCD display.

Printed circuit board to the LCD display - Contains the display driver IC
and IC to provide the LDI bit to drive the TFT. The LCD screen, the
backlight unit and printed circuit board form a just and as already
explained, with defect in any part of the whole thing must be replaced.

BACKLIGHTING OF THE LCD LAMPS
As explained the lighting is done with cold cathode fluorescent lamps
(CCFL). These lamps have a glass tube containing inert gas inside (neon,
argon and mercury), two domestic terminals called cathode and a layer of
phosphor on the inside walls of glass. Applying a high voltage between
cathodes, the internal gas is ionized and emits ultraviolet (UV). The UV
excites the phosphor into visible light which then produces the tube lamp.
For prolonging bulb life it should work with AC voltage. If it also turns on
voltage, but with time the gases accumulate in the corners of the lamp,
darkening them and producing an uneven light in these regions relative to
the rest. See diagram these CCFL lamps fed with AC voltage and
continuous

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The CCFL lamps are fed with alternating voltage 300-1300 V which is
obtained by a power inverter. This inverter consists of transformers,
switching transistors and oscillator IC working at high frequency (between
40 and 80 kHz). The inverter then becomes a voltage low between 12 and
19 V on a high alternating voltage to light the lamps. The power inverter is
very easy to find on the monitor. Just follow the wires of the lamps (two
cables for each). The board where they are embedded is the power inverter.
Below is the location of the power inverter of an LCD monitor:

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In the power inverter also enter a control signal coming from the board of
the monitor to control the voltage supplied to the lamps and thereby adjust
the screen brightness. Also enter a control signal to turn off the lamp in
case of fault in the system such as the burning of the lamps of the display.

HOW TO OPEN THE LCD MONITORS
Most LCD monitors have locks on the cover of which should be released
for opening the housing. We take great care not to break these locks and /
or knead the monitor case to try to unlock using screwdrivers or other metal
objects. After removing the screws the lid open a crack between the lid and
the front of the monitor. Enter this hole a piece of card or wood phenolite.
Drag wood or phenolite forcing the crack slightly regions where the locks
are going until they drop. After just remove the cover. Below is a sequence
of disassembly of an LCD monitor "Samsung" shown in the next page:


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INTERNAL BOARDS OF LCD MONITOR
By opening a monitor this board find a motherboard on the LCD. We also
find a label attached to lamps of the display. This is the power inverter
board. There are cases where the inverter is on the board to alternate the
power supply voltage monitor. We will also have the card on the main
keyboard connected via a connector. Some monitors will find a board
where it enters the AC cord. This is the power supply board. Below is an
LCD display showing dismantling their boards:




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BLOCK DIAGRAM IN LCD MONITOR
In the diagram below we see how to divide the block of LCD monitors and
then have the function of its circuits:

DB15 - This is the same as conventional monitor. Carries the RGB signals
and synchronization to the monitor. Pins 1,2 and 3 receive the signals
coming from the analog RGB video card from the computer and send them
to the scalar IC. 13:14 The pins receive the synchronization signals and
send them along with the micro communication DDC (display data
channel) coming from pins 12 and 15. The function of the DDC is to make
the computer recognize your monitor model and install any drive for better
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performance.

DVI connector - This is optional and carries the video signal has already
scanned the computer monitor. Recalling that the LCD monitor is digital,
unlike conventional analog that is. Thus the reproduced image has higher
quality than that imposed by the DB15 connector. The disadvantage is that
the DB15 video card in the computer must convert the digital signal to
analog and the monitor switch from analog to digital again. In this process
there are losses in the video signal, which does not happen when using the
DVI connection between the computer and LCD monitor.

Scalar IC - The largest and main SMD IC LCD monitor. It receives the
RGB signals coming from the DB15 connector or the DVI digital video and
converts them into digital signals suitable for the production of images on
the LCD. The scalar provides signals corresponding to 60-75 complete
frames per second for the LCD display. The signals are transferred to the
display with an LVDS connector. Inside the scalar is going SDRAM
storing the images processed by the complete IC. Hence the IC reads each
image and release this data quickly to the LCD display. This IC also
converts the analog RGB signals into digital DB15 connector and makes
the contrast control and other necessary corrections to the image before
sending them to the display. The IC is controlled by micro scalar. A flaw in
scalar lets the monitor with the screen lit but no picture.

LVDS - "Low voltage differential signalizing" traffic or low voltage
differential signals - is a connector with means of 0 or 1.2 V that transfers
digital signals from the scalar of the display at high speed and with minimal
noise.

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Micro IC (or MICOM) - Go on the keyboard and the monitor controls
functions such as brightness, contrast, etc. It is a SMD IC and goes on the
scalar to control the contrast and the rate of transfer of images per second
for the display (resolution). The microcomputer is also connected at the
power inverter to connect, disconnect and control the brightness of the
display lamps. On some monitors the computer is with the scalar in a single
IC. The EEPROM stores the data display control.

Clock - a clock signal is produced from a quartz crystal. It is necessary to
synchronize the data transfer between digital ICs. Without the digital clock
ICs do not work.

LCD display - Converts signals from the scalar in images. As seen the
display receives a complete picture at a time scalar. Are 60-75 frames per
second depending on the rate chosen under Windows. In the display
module for the IC and control ICs that trigger the LDI transistors TFT.

Power Inverter - Transforms + B between 12 and 19 V in voltage
alternating between 300 and 1300 V for lighting lamps CCFL display. It is
controlled by computer.

Power supply - Transforms the alternating voltage network (110 or 220 V)
continuous power in the operation of the monitor. Usually provides a B + 5
V for the LCD and the motherboard which will then be covered in 3.3 and /
or 1.7 V to power the scalar and the micro, and another B + between 12 and
19 V feed the inverter board.


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IDENTIFICATION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS IN MAIN BOARD
In the photo below we have the motherboard on a Samsung monitor
highlighting its main parts:

First find the two largest SMD ICs. The biggest is the Scalar and the
smallest is the Micro. Even the latter is near the keyboard connector and the
IC has EEPROM of eight terminals on the side. Near the Scalar have the
crystal clock. On one side we have the Scalar DB15 connector that carries
the signals to the monitor and the other end are the outputs for LVDS LCD
display. Near the source we have the connector IC voltage regulators and
their electrolytic filter. The regulators provide B + 3.3 and 2.5 V to power
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the scalar, micro and LCD display.

Mosfet IC - It's a switcher mosfet regulator or mounted inside an IC
containing various terminal source and drain terminal and a gate to control.
In that way we get a good heat dissipation in a small space. This
component type is common in LCD monitors.

IDENTIFICATION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS IN POWER
SUPPLY BOARD
In the photo below we have the power supply board on a Samsung monitor
highlighting its main parts:

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After the entry of the power cord have a coil and some large capacitors.
Are network filters that let the system voltage enter and leave the frequency
of the power switch out to not interfere with other devices. The following is
the fuse, bridge rectifier and electrolytic main filter. After this we have the
power switch formed by the IC oscillator and switching device, the chopper
transformer, rectifier diodes and the electrolytic filter the rows of B +
which will feed the circuits of the monitor.

IDENTIFICATION OF MAJOR COMPONENTS IN POWER
INVERTER
In the photo shows in the next page is the circuit of a Samsung monitor at
the top and bottom of PCB.

We located a large transformer in the middle of the plate. It provides the
AC voltage to power the lamps of the display. We can observe that the
connector on both lamps are connected in said transformer. Sometimes
there are two transformers, one for each lamp (in the case of the display
using two bulbs). The primary of the transformer is going on in two
transistors (typically MOSFETs) that turn on and off the winding in the
frequency 40-80 kHz. So the transformer transfers a large alternating
voltage to the secondary (which has more turns than the primary). This
potential difference will light the lamp. The mosfets are controlled by an
oscillator IC. The power inverter circuit is controlled by micro
motherboard, as well as the oscillation frequency to adjust the brightness of
the lamp.

Take care not to touch the welds on this card when it is energized. The
shock at high voltage is not fatal, but it hurts a lot.
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PROCEDURE FOR LCD MONITORS REPAIR
This is the part that everyone was expecting. The procedures to fix these
types of monitors. Before we classify the defects into two groups: those
related defects in the display and connected with other circuits, in some
cases may also be on display.


DEFECTS IN LCD DISPLAY
They are usually failures requiring complete replacement of the display.
The LCD Monitors failures are caused by one or some transistors TFT
burned, or IC lamp burned on the display board or the breaking of glass or
spots on the display. See the figure below some defects related to display:










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OTHER DEFECTS IN STEPS OF MONITOR
In the figure below we have some symptoms of defects in LCD displays.



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EXAMPLE OF IC REPLACEMENT IN LCD MONITOR

Below is an example of a fairly common defect in the lines of monitors
Samsung 510N, 540N, 710N and 740N. Appears only one square that is
passing across the screen indicating lack of signal on the cable (even that
attached to the computer) or resolution error. This failure occurs because of
an internal program error occurred in micro IC. In this case, the solution is
the replacement of the IC and SMD as we take some care in this procedure.






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PROCEDURE FOR IC REPLACEMENT IN LCD MONITOR

REPLACEMENT OF SMD IC
We will need the following materials:
- Soldering iron 30 W or 40, fine tip and very clean;
- Solder joint quality such as "Best" or "Cobix"
- Welding of low melting;
- Flow weld pitch (+ isopropyl alcohol);
- A piece of wire mesh or failing that a stalk pickled;
- Isopropyl alcohol to clean the plate;
- Brush teeth;
- Piece of cotton cloth (old t-shirt kind of mesh).

1 - Purchase a new IC with the exact same code that to be changed,
especially for PCs. Parts for LCD monitors can be found at your nearest
specialty stores.

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2 - Spread the low-melting solder all pins of the IC that will be replaced.
Take care not to exaggerate the amount of soldering. Then using the tip of
the soldering iron to solder heat evenly on all pins of the IC. Using a small
screwdriver to lever up the IC card so that it falls on the bench. Then
remove the remains of the plate with the solder iron tip. On the trails of the
board where the IC soldier was cleaning can be done with wire mesh:
Spread flow of solder on the tip of the loop, pull it on the trails. Place the
tip of the iron in the mesh and the heat this will attract the remains of
soldiers who were on the trails. Then clean the rest of the plate with a
toothbrush, rubbing alcohol and cloth shirt. See below the IC has
desoldered from the board:


3 - Correctly place the new IC on the tracks of the board and apply solder
joint on the pin ends of the IC, do not worry about the pins that get shorted.
The purpose of this operation is to set the IC on the board.
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4 - Apply a small amount of soldering flux on one side of the IC. Make a
big ball of solder on the pins of the tip on this side where it was applied to
the stream. Lift the plate and slide the tip of the soldering iron pulling the
weld down. The solder will come down, solder the pins on the tracks and
because the flow will not be between two pins. If you happen to be two or
more pins stuck can unglue them using wire mesh embedded in the stream,
flush against the pins stuck, heating and so it attracts the solder unwinding
short. See the figure below the IC again already on the board and the
monitor back to working order:
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NOTE FINAL
The Micro IC LCD monitor also often called MiCOM or MCU and some
more modern monitors along with the scalar is a single chip. Below is an
example of a chip 100 terminals used by modern LCD monitors from LG
and it has the scalar and micro together shown in the next page.






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COMBINATION OF SCALAR AND MICRO IN ONE IC
This is example of Single IC of Scalar and Micros combination.



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My dear reader,

Here is the end of ebook which covers the basic knowledge of LCD
Monitor repair guide.

For further information, you may buy this ebook which reveals much more
secrets of LCD Monitor Repair in quick and easy way. Imagine how fast
you trouble-shoot the faulty LCD Monitors and receive money from your
customer. It is our recommendation to continue upgrade your LCD Monitor
repair skill and keep it up. Click this ebook photo for detail, or access to
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You may contact us through admin@lcdmonitorrepairebook.com for any
enquiry of this ebook.

Lastly, thank you for your reading.

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