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FORCES

Standard Competence Basic Competence

Learning Objective

Learning Material

Standard of Competence

3. Comprehending work, force,


and energy role in daily life.

Basic Competence

3.2 To identify various kinds of force, addition of force, and effects of force on an object

Learning Objectives
1. Describe definition of force and the force which is applied to an object. 2. Differentiate contact force and non contact force, 3. Mention various examples of force. 4. Draw force on an object proportionally and calculate it. 5. Determine force resultant. effect of

6. Use spring balance to measure force,


7. Differentiate between mass and weight. 8. Explain about friction force.

Learning Material
1. Force and the effect of force 2. Drawing force and calculating resultant force 3. Contact force and noncontact force 4. Kind of force 5. Friction force

6. Weight and mass

WHAT IS MEANING OF FORCE?

Pull

Push

A force is a push or a pull on an object

The effect of force on body

A force can change shape of an object.

A force can
change speed of

an object.

A force can change


direction of an object.

The rest body will move

The moving body will be at rest


The form and size of the body will change

The direction of the body will change

Measuring a force
The device used to measure force is spring balance or dynamometer.

In international system (MKS) the unit of


force is Newton or abbrevieted N. 1 N = 1 kg m/s2 In CGS system the force unit is Dyne. 1 dyne = 1 g cm/s2

1 N = 105 dyne

Drawing a force
Force is a vector quantity. The force

can be drawn by using a vector diagram


in the form of an Arrow, as the figure F

beside:
diraction of arrow.

The diraction of force is represented by

The magnitude of force is represented by length of arrow.

Example!
1. A boy pull a car with force 150 N to the right. If the length 1 cm to represent 100 N the figure of force vector diagram? Answer:
F = 150 N

4 cm

resultant FORCE
Several force acting on the body in one work line

can be replaced by a force called Resultant

Force.

Resultant force which have same direction and different direction.

Mathematically, the magnitude of force resultant is:

FR = F1 + F2
For right direction, we say it as positive force For left direction , we say it as negative force

resultant FORCE
1. Forces acting on the body in one
line and same diraction. F1 F2

FR = F1 + F2
2. Forces acting on the body in one line and different diraction. F1 F2

F2

F1

FR = F1 + (- F2)

Example!

1. F1 = 15 N to the right, F2 = 20 N to the left,

and F3 = 10
by the

N to the left. If the force 10 N represented

vector diagram 1 cm. Determine the resultan of the forces and drawn the resultan diagram of forces? Answer:
0 1 2 3 4 cm

F3 = 10 N

F2 = 20 N

F1 = 15 N

FR = F1 + F2 + F3 FR = 15N + ( 20N) + ( 10N) FR = 15N FR = 15 N to the left.

CONTACT AND NON CONTACT FORCE


Contact Force is a force that work on a body, and there is a contact occurred between the force and the body

Noncontact Force is a force that work on a body and there is no contact occurred between the force and the body

Muscular force is a force that comes from muscular power.

Friction force is the force


2

occurred as the result of the direct contact

between
surface.

two

body

Direction of friction force


is always opposite with bodys motion

Magnetic force is a force produced by magnets

Electrical force is a force produced by electrical charge

Gravitational force is the attractive force caused by the earth


Spring force is a force that produces from a spring because a spring is pulled or pushed

Weight is earth gravitational force act on a body. weight = mass x gravitational acceleration

Where : w = weight (N) g = gravitational acceleration (m/s 2 )

m = mass (kg)

FRICTION FORCE

Friction force is the force occurred as the result of the direct contact between two body surface. direction of friction force is always opposite with bodys motion

FRICTION FORCE
There are at least two types of friction force 1. Static friction. 2. Kinetic friction

THE BENEFICIAL FRICTION FORCE


Friction between our feed and surface of road make us able to walk Friction in the braking system can slow down the vehicle Friction between a tyre and the road

surface so that vehicle is not slip

THE HARMFUL OF FRICTION FORCE


Friction between car engine and its clutch

can produce exceed heat, which can break


down the engine

Friction between air and car resist the car


motion Friction between the tyre of a vehicle and the road cause the tyre became thin