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Chapter 2

Cellular Reproduction

Chapter 2 Cellular Reproduction © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chapter Outline

Cells and Chromosomes Mitosis Meiosis

Life Cycles of Some Model Genetic Organisms

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Cells and Chromosomes

In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic

cells, the genetic material is

organized into chromosomes.

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The Cellular Environment

Cytoplasmthe inside of a cell Water Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Molecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins, including enzymes Membranemade of lipids and proteins Organelles

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Animal and Plant Cells

Animal and Plant Cells © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Animal and Plant Cells © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Animal and Plant Cells © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Chromosomes  Double-stranded DNA with associated proteins and sometimes RNA  Prokaryotic cells contain one circular

Chromosomes

Double-stranded DNA with associated proteins

and sometimes RNA

Chromosomes  Double-stranded DNA with associated proteins and sometimes RNA  Prokaryotic cells contain one circular

Prokaryotic cells contain one circular chromosome plus smaller plasmids Most eukaryotic cells

contain several large

linear chromosomes

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Vocabulary for Chromosomes

Diploid Haploid Somatic cells Germ line Gametes Centromere

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Cell Division in Prokaryotes:

Fission

A mother cell divides to produce two daughter cells.

The mother cell’s chromosome is duplicated prior to fission.

Each daughter cell receives one copy of the chromosome.

Clonea population of genetically identical cells. Colonya visible mass of cells.

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Cell Division in Eukaryotes:

Mitosis and Cytokinesis

Cell Division in Eukaryotes: Mitosis and Cytokinesis © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Key Points

Cells, the basic units of all living things, are enclosed by membranes.

Chromosomes, the cellular structures that carry the genes, are composed of DNA, RNA, and protein.

In eukaryotes, chromosomes are contained within a membrane-bounded nucleus; in prokaryotes they are

not.

Eukaryotic cells possess complex systems of internal membranes as well as membranous organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, and the endoplasmic reticulum.

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Key Points

Haploid eukaryotic cells possess one copy of each chromosome; diploid cells possess two

copies.

Prokaryotic cells divide by fission; eukaryotic cells divide by mitosis and cytokinesis.

Eukaryotic chromosomes duplicate when a cell’s DNA is synthesized; this event, which

precedes mitosis, is characteristic of the S

phase of the cell cycle.

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Mitosis

When eukaryotic cells divide, they

distribute their genetic material

equally and exactly to their

offspring.

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Microtubules and Centrioles

Microtubules and Centrioles  Spindle  Microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs)  Centrosomes and centrioles  Pericentriolar

Spindle

Microtubule organizing centers

(MTOCs)

Centrosomes and centrioles

Pericentriolar

material

Aster

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Mitosis in Animal Cells

Mitosis in Animal Cells © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Cytokinesis in

Animal and Plant Cells

Cytokinesis in Animal and Plant Cells © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Cytokinesis in Animal and Plant Cells © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Key Points

As a cell enters mitosis, its duplicated chromosomes condense into rod-shaped bodies (prophase).

As mitosis progresses, the chromosomes migrate to the equatorial plane of the cell (metaphase).

Later in mitosis, the centromere that holds the sister chromatids of a duplicated

chromosome together splits, and the sisters chromatids separate (or disjoin) from each other (anaphase)

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Key Points

As mitosis comes to an end, the chromosomes decondense and a nuclear membrane reforms around them (telophase).

Each daughter cell produced by mitosis and cytokinesis has the same set of

chromosomes; thus, daughter cells are

genetically identical.

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Meiosis

Sexual reproduction involves a

mechanism that reduces the

number of chromosomes by half.

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Homologues

Homologues © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Comparison of

Mitosis and Meiosis

Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Prophase I: Leptonema

Prophase I: Leptonema  Chromosomes condense  Each chromosome has two sister chromatids © John Wiley

Chromosomes condense Each chromosome

has two sister

chromatids

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Prophase I: Zygonema

Prophase I: Zygonema  Synapsis of homologous chromosomes  Synaptonemal complex © John Wiley & Sons,

Synapsis of homologous

chromosomes

Synaptonemal

complex

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The Synaptonemal Complex

The Synaptonemal Complex © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Prophase I: Pachynema

Prophase I: Pachynema  Chromosomes condense further  Bivalent  Tetrad  Crossing over occurs ©

Chromosomes condense further

Bivalent

Tetrad

Crossing over occurs

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Prophase I: Diplonema

Prophase I: Diplonema  Paired chromosomes separate slightly but are in contact as chiasmata © John

Paired

chromosomes

separate slightly but

are in contact as

chiasmata

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Chiasmata

Chiasmata © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Prophase I: Diakinesis

Prophase I: Diakinesis  Nuclear envelope fragements  Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores  Chromosomes move

Nuclear envelope fragements

Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores

Chromosomes move to central

plane in pairs

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Metaphase I

Metaphase I  Paired chromosomes are oriented toward opposite poles  Terminalization: chiasmata move toward telomeres

Paired

chromosomes are

oriented toward

opposite poles

Terminalization:

chiasmata move

toward telomeres

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Anaphase I

Anaphase I  Chromosome disjunction (separation of paired chromosomes)  Separated homologues move toward opposite poles

Chromosome

disjunction

(separation of paired

chromosomes)

Separated

homologues move

toward opposite

poles

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Telophase I

Telophase I  Chromosomes reach the poles; nuclei forms  Spindle apparatus is disassembled  Daughter

Chromosomes reach the poles; nuclei forms

Spindle apparatus is disassembled

Daughter cells separated by

membranes

Chromosomes

decondense

Each chromosome still has two sister

chromatids

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Prophase II

Prophase II  Chromosomes condense  Chromosomes attach to a new spindle apparatus  Sister chromatids

Chromosomes

condense

Chromosomes

attach to a new

spindle apparatus

Sister chromatids are attached to

spindle fibers from

opposite poles

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Metaphase II

Metaphase II  Chromosomes align at equatorial plane © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Chromosomes align at equatorial plane

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Anaphase II

Anaphase II  Centromeres split  Chromatid disjunction — sister chromatids move toward opposite poles ©

Centromeres split Chromatid disjunctionsister

chromatids move

toward opposite

poles

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Telophase II

Telophase II  Separated chromatids gather at poles; daughter nuclei form  Each chromatid is now

Separated chromatids

gather at poles;

daughter nuclei form

Each chromatid is now called a chromosome

Each daughter nucleus contains a haploid set of chromosomes

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Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Daughter cells are NOT

genetically identical

Maternal and paternal homologues synapse, then disjoin. Different pairs

disjoin independently.

Homologous chromosomes exchange material by crossing over

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Key Points

Diploid eukaryotic cells form haploid cells by

meiosis, a process involving one round of

chromosome duplication followed by two cell

divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II).

During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair (synapse), exchange material (cross

over), and separate (disjoin) from each other.

During meiosis II, chromatids disjoin from each other.

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Life Cycle of

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Life Cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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© John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Oogenesis in Mammals

Oogenesis in Mammals © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Spermatogenesis in Mammals

Spermatogenesis in Mammals © John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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Key Points

In yeast, haploid cells with opposite mating

types fuse to form a diploid zygote, which then undergoes meiosis to produce four haploid

cells

Meiosis in the reproductive organs of Arabidopsis produces microspores and

megaspores, which subsequently develop into

male and female gametophytes

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Key Points

The double fertilization that ocurs during Arabidopsis reproduction creates a diploid

zygote, which develops into an embryo, and a

triploid endosperm, which develops into

nutritive tissue in the seed

In mice and other mammals, one cell from female meiosis becomes the egg, whereas all

four cells from male meiosis become sperm

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