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MEMORANDUM TO: FROM: MASOUD ALFI; KARIN GONZALEZ ABAD; MARIA BARRUFET GRANT MELSON PETE 310 501

1 SUBJECT: LAB 3: DETERMINATION OF THE GAS COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR Z DATE: 10 OCTOBER, 2013

In this laboratory experiment, our first objective was to compare the viscosities of two drilling fluids to the viscosity of water using a Marsh funnel. Our second was to measure the fluid densities of the drilling fluids and the water using a mud balance.

On my honor as an Aggie, I have neither given nor received unauthorized aid on this academic work.

[Signature of student] Attachment(s): Lab report

Title: Lab 3:Determination of the Gas Compressibility Factor Z Abstract


In this experiment, we analyzed the plastic viscosity, effective viscosity, apparent viscosity, and yield points of four different fluids:water, a base mud, a bentonite mud, and a barite mud. We used a viscometer to measure the different viscosities. Using different increments of setting times, we also measured each fluids yield point, which is relevant for a muds ability to keep cuttings suspended in the annulus in the absence of circulation. We found that effective viscosity

decreases as shear rate increases for all the muds. We found that for water, shear rate has little to no effect of its viscosity. We also found that the bentonite mud has the highest yield point and viscosity of all the muds.

Conclusions
Effective viscosity decreases for the muds as shear rate increases. Waters shear rate has no effect on its viscosity. Bentonite has the highest yield point and viscosity and is therefore the recommended mud for suspending cuttings.

Introduction
When first becoming familiar with the properties and PVT behavior of gases, it is common to treat them as ideal or perfect. Under this assumption, we ignore the effect of compressibility. Although this assumption is useful in acquainting ourselves with basic properties and behavior, the ideal gas equation of state does not account for intermolecular attraction/repulsion between the molecules, and it assumes the collisions between molecules are perfectly elastic. The problem with treating all gases as perfect is that there exists a discrepancy between the volume occupied by an ideal gas at a specified temperature and pressure versus the actual volume occupied by a real gas at the same temperature and pressure. To rectify this volume discrepancy, we introduce an additional compressibility factor (z-factor) to use with the ideal gas equation of state. The zfactor is defined as the ratio of the volume occupied by real gas versus the volume occupied by idel gas for the same temp and pressure. The z-factor must be determined experimentally, and certain simplifications/relations exist which will be discussed below.

Methods
In this experiment, we used the program DosBox with the SOPE application to the behavior of a single component in a PVT cell. We measured the molar volume at the fixed critical temperatures of 1.2, 1.6 and 2.0 at increasing pressures for the gases of methane and ethane. We then recorded the corresponding reduced pressures of each interval using Eq 1 and calculated the corresponding Z factor for each interval using Eq 2 and Eq 3. ...(1)

..(2) .(3)

Initially, it was difficult finding the number of millimoles to inject into the PVT cell, but we settled to just inject one millimole of either methane or ethane when appropriate. For the second part of the lab, we tested both methane and ethane at fixed volumes of 30 cc, recording the increasing pressures as we incrementally increased the number of moles in the cell. Last, we simulated the case where a leak develops in the cell. In the simulation, as pressure increases, the number of moles leaving the cell increases. We quantified this relationship with Eq 4. ....(4)

Discussion Nomenclature n = number of moles p = absolute pressure (bar) pr = reduced pressure R = universal gas constant Tr = reduced temperature T = absolute temperature (K) V = volume of gas (cc/mol) Vreal = real volume (cc/mol)

Vid = ideal volume (cc/mol) Z = compressibility factor C1 = methane C2 = ethane

References
Dr. Barrufet 310 Course Materials. http://www.pe.tamu.edu/barrufet/public_html/PETE310/Labs/pdf/Lab_3-%20zfactor.docx.pdf

Gas Encyclopedia. http://encyclopedia.airliquide.com/Encyclopedia.asp?GasID=28