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Bharat Heavy Electricals, Limited Bhopal

A Training report submitted to H RD C, B HEL, B HOPAL (M .P.) Project report on

T ransformers, Capacitor & Bushing

Guided by:
Mr. G. Lalwani
Manager/TRE Division BHEL (BHOPAL)

Submitted by:
Purit Rawal
B.E (Mechanical) T.I.T.R (BHOPAL)

Study Report On:

Transformers , Capacitor & Bushing

DECLARATION

I PURIT RAWAL declare that this project report entitled report on a original piece of work and submitted by me to words

partial fulfillment of my B.E. (MECHANICAL ENGNEERNG) graduate program (industrial training), under the guidance of Mr. G.LALWANI (MANAGER) TRE division BHEL, BHOPAL.

DATE 20 July 2013

PURIT RAWAL B.E. (MECHANICAL ENGG) TITR, BHOPAL UNIV. - RGPV, BHOPAL (M.P.)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
WE
WOULD LIKE TO THANK ALL, WHO S HELP WAS INEVITABLE IN THE SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF THIS REPORT.

FIRST OF ALL, WE WOULD LIKE TO THANK THE HR DEPARTMENT, BHEL, BHOPAL FOR GIVING US THIS OPPORTUNITY . IT DIRECTLY HELPED US TO LEARN RIGHT FROM THE BASICS, AND TO OBSERVE THINGS ACTUALLY HAPPENING. WE WOULD ALSO LIKE TO THANK MR. GHANSHYAM LALWANI (MANAGER/TRE DIVISION) UNDER WHOSE SKILFUL GUIDANCE WE HAVE LEARNED ALL WE COULD. ALSO FOR
ALLOCATING US THE DIFFERENT SECTIONS OF BLOCK SO AS TO MAKE US UNDERSTAND THE WHOLE PROCESS.

THE

EMPLOYEES ON SHOP FLOOR WHO HELPED US EVERY NOW AND THEN TO

UNDERSTAND EVERY BIT OF PROCESS; AND TO ABSORB EVERYTHING.

MR.S.K.SONI (ENGG,

POWER ASSEMBLY),

MR.

SAGAR SINGH

(ENGG.

TANKING AND

ASSEM BLY, TRM),THEY HAVE BEEN ON THEIR TOES IN MAKING US UNDERSTAND THE HUGE

COMPLEXITIES OF THE PROCESS, AND, PATIENTLY ANSWERING ALL OF OUR QUESTIONS.

WE

WOULD LIKE TO THANK THEM FROM THE BOTTOM OF OUR HEART AND WISH THEM

ALL SUCCESS.

A SPECIAL THANKS TO MR. P.MEHTO (ENGG, COIL CORE ASSLY., TRM). THANKING BHEL AGAIN FOR SUCH AN OPPORTUNITY.

Purit Rawal

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SERIAL NO. 01. 02. CHAPTER 1 TRM 03. 04. 05. 06. 07. CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 SECTION INTRODUCTION CORE PUNCH INSULATION WINDING COIL AND POWER ASSLY TECHNICAL DIVISION INSTRUMENT PAGE

08. 09.

BCM CPM

TRM

TCB

Transformer

Capacitor

Bushing

TRANSFORMERS Power Transformers upto 420kV class, 50/60 Hz 930 MVA, 3-phase Bank. Power Transformers upto 420kV class, 50/60 Hz 400 MVA, 3-phase Unit. HVDC Converter Transformers and Smoothing Reactors. 500 MVA, 500kVDC, 3 winding, 1- Phase. Convertor Transformer. 254 MVAR, 360mH, 1568A, 500 kVDC 1 -Phase Smoothing Reactor. INSTRUMENTS TRANSFORMERS Current transformers up to 400 kV. Capacitor voltage Transformer up to 420 kV. REACTORS Gapped core Shunt Reactors up to 420 kV class, 125 MVAR 3 Phase Unit. Series and Neutral Grounding Reactors. Controlled Shunt Reactor up to 420 kV class, 80 MVAR 3 Phase Unit.

Major Consumers of BHEL:


National NTPC PGCIL NJPC NHPC NLC NPCIL NEEPCO APTRANSCO APGENCO JPPCL ALL State Electricity Boards International TNB, Malaysia PPC, Greece MEW, Oman OCC, Oman GECOL, Libya Trinidad & Tobago New Zealand Tanzania etc.

[Type text]

CORE P UNCH

Ferrous Material

M/C Comp

Assembled Core

CRGO

Lamination Preparation

Core Building

To Next Process

B.O. Insulation Component

In House Insul. Comp.

Fabrication Component

Core Manufacturing Process: CRGO Imported

Slitting Machine

Cropping Machine

Stacking / Arranging

Setting (Job)

Core Building

Clamping Lifting

Tapping

Curing

Test (2KV / 10KV)

Shift to Assembly / Tank

Types of CRGO Silicon Steel Used


CRGO Type M4 MOH ZDKH 90 ZDKH 85 Lamination Size 0.27 mm 0.27 mm 0.27 mm 0.23 mm Losses (Watts per Kg) 1.00 W/Kg 1.00 W/Kg 0.90 W/Kg 0.85 W/Kg

CRGO Imported from: 1) Nippon Steel Corporation, Yawata Works (Japan) 2) VIZ-Stal Ltd., Etakerinburg (Russia) 3) POSCO Slitting Machine (Sequence of operation): - Drawing / Q plan - Size / Grade CRGO - Burr Level 20 micron - Steel width within tolerance - Every 500m width check Burr Gauge - Scrap and Buckling Cropping Machine (Sequence of operation): - Revised drawing / QA Plan checked - Every 100 sheet parameter check After completion of assembly of core including curing of resin glass tape, 10 KV AC test between - Core and End-Frame - Core and Yoke-Bolts - End-Frame and Yoke-Bolts

Current CRGO grades used in various projects:

Core Building Project BINA Power TATA Mundra PG Sujalpur

CRGO Grade Used ZDKH - 85 MOH MOH

INSULATION SHOP

Materials Used: i. Press Board (1mm - 50mm) ii. Perma Wood iii. Bakelite (2mm - 25mm) iv. Fiber Glass (0.5mm - 4mm) v. Card Sheet / Gasket (for tanking) (3mm - 12.5mm) vi. GUM -Fevicol & Dendroid

List of machines used in Insulation Shop: i. Power Press (T-Block) ii. Crepe Paper Cutting iii. Embossing m/c iv. Plate Bending m/c v. Cylinder Gumming m/c vi. Scraffing m/c vii. Press Board Impregnation Equipment viii. Shield Ring Milling m/c ix. Guillitone m/c x. RM62 / Drill m/c xi. Lissing m/c xii. Weighing Drill m/c xiii. Bend Saw -Cutting m/c xiv. Angle Hot Press xv. Circular Saw xvi. Hydraulic Press m/c (300T / 500T) xvii. Pneumatic Platform - 4 xviii. Structural Platform - 8 xix. Steam Oven - 2 xx. Vacuum Drying Vessel - 2 xxi. EOT Cranes (50/10 T, 25/5 T)

[Type text]

COIL WINDING

PICC / CTC

Wound Coil

Moulded Comp. B.O. Insul. Component In House Insul. Comp.

Coil Winding

To Process

Copper imported from: Sr. No. 01. 02. 03. 04. 05. M/S Precision Wires Ltd. Bhandari Power Lines Pvt. Ltd. BPCL Conductors Pvt. Ltd. Sam Dong Co. Ltd. Chandra Proteco (CP Transco) From Silvassa Manipal Mandideep Japan Dimension 7.00 x 2.05 mm 10.05 x 1.40 mm 1.90 x 7.50 mm 2.05 x 9.60 mm 2.00 x 4.15 mm

Coil Pre -Heating: - 100 oC (min 95 oC oven temperature) - Duration 3 Hours

Types of Winding: - Disc and Interleaved - Helical, Spiral and Inter-Wound Helical

Copper Conductors: - PICC - Bunched - Glued CTC - Glued

COIL ASSEMBLY AND P OWER ASSEMBLY

Wound Coil Moulded Comp. Coil Assembly Assembled Coil To Process 4 B.O Insul. Component In House Insul . Component

General Winding Arrangement: TAP LV HV LV LV TAP HV HV TAP

Transformer Oil Properties - (Ascoryl / OM 16 / Pyroclor) High insulating Low Viscosity Low Surface Tension Optimum Cooling Point Low Decomposition

Material used: SRBP - Synthetic Resin Best Paper

TECHNICAL DIVISION
(VAPOR PHASE DYING PLANT)

Capacity Autoclave Size Max Loading Transformer Rating

: 430 KW : 12500 x 6000 x 6000: 450 Ton : 750 MVA, 765 KV

Process: It is a process of proper drying of insulation of transformer by a perfectly Controlled automatic process, with lowest possible paper de-polymerization and energy consumption. Basic Equipment of Vapor Phase Drying (VPD) plant: a. Evaporator system. b. Condensation system. c. Autoclave. d. Vacuum system. e. Solvent Pumping system. f. Heating system for evaporator and autoclave. g. Heat recovery system. h. Distillation equipment. i. Special water extraction measuring equipment. j. Computer aided process. The whole process is carried out in % stages, which is as explained below: R1: Preparation: In this first stage, the oven is prepared for the process. The job is let inside the chamber by means of crane. All the instruments and devices are checked for correct operation. The oil filling pipe is placed in position. Thermocouple is attached to the core of the transformer for temperature monitoring; drain plug is connected by steel pipe, etc... Finally, the door is closed and clamped by hydraulic pump.

H1: Heating Up: The heating process is started after initial preparation. Pressure of 7mBar is maintained within the autoclave. The capacity of solvent tank is 12,000 L and a minimum of 5,000-6,000L is maintained during the process. The heating cycle is of 48-60 Hrs. and 2-3 intermediate pressure lowering (IPL) of 1.5-2 Hrs. is applied in between. The job temperature is maintained between 105oC - 125oC. P1: Fine Pressure Reduction: V1: Fine Vacuum: When water is obtained at 50mL/hour is obtained for three hours in Three simultaneous reading at 105oC - 125oC temperature and 0.2 Torr pressure, the solvent is closed down through valves. The job is flooded with oil and it is soaked for a minimum of 12Hrs. A1: Aeration: The vacuum inside the clave is broken down and air is let inside. Oil is drained from the job and it is sent to the assembly unit for servicing.

Post servicing, the job is let in for P2 process. This is generally carried out by conventional process only. The ob is heated to 100 +/- 5oC 0.2 torr vacuum pressure. When simultaneous 3 reading of 50mL/hour of water is obtained for 3 hours, the job is sent to Testing department for further process in oil-filled condition. Transformer Oil Properties - (Ascoryl / OM 16 / Pyroclor) High insulating Low Viscosity Low Surface Tension Optimum Cooling Point Low Decomposition

Advantages of VPD: 01. Fast, uniform heating up of the material to be dried. 02. Substantial reduction in the drying cycle of the transformer compared to conventional process. Sr. 1st Process 2nd Process Conventional Process VPD Process 12 to 15 days 07 to 08 days 5 days 3 days

03. Little de-polymerization of insulating material. 04. Optimum and homogeneous drying quality, since the heating process takes place in practically air free atmosphere, i.e. NO 2.

BCM

Following are the products of Bushing Manufacturing Division: 52KV TO 525 KV OIP condenser Bushings up to 3150 amps. Rating 25 kV, up to 300 amps. Bushing for Indian Railways. Bushing for miscellaneous applications such as bushings, roof Bushings, T.G. bushings etc. To suit customer requirements. SRBP cylinders for transformer application up to 1400 mm I/D, up to 2400 mm long.

Bushing Core Winding Assembly

Processing Leakage Test Testing

Pinking

Bushing Core Winding: The Core of bushing is hollow copper conductor. It is wrapped up with a Layer of insulation and aluminum foil, alternatively, to form parallel capacitors. This is done so as to reduce the electrical field stress, which would otherwise occur and cause breakdown. A center terminal is then taken out from aluminum foil for testing purposes (2KV test). This ready core is then treated in oven to remove moisture content for 48 hours at around 100oC. It is then delivered to the Assembly Line for further process. Assembly: Following materials are generally installed in a complete assembly of bushing, in order from bottom to top:

Bottom End Nut Bottom Sealing Plate Bottom Porcelain O - Ring Flange O - Ring Top Porcelain O - Ring Top Cap Top Cover

The top cover consists of pack assembly which accommodated washer / stud. Force is applied by compressor and nut is tightened to hold the complete bushing.

Entire asse mbly is carried out in five stages, which are explained below: Stage 01: Assembly of bushing in horizontal position Top Porcelain. Core condenser bushing. Top cap. Bottom porcelain. Sealing item.

Stage 02: Assembly of bushing in Vertical position - Spring pack. - Top cap setting / adjustment. Stage 03: Vacuum & Impregnation processing - Quality of oil according to specified parameters. - Impregnation of bushing for specified time / temperature / vacuum. Moisture in bushing according to specified vacuum / temperature. - Correct filling of oil. - Minimum 12hrs of soaking in plant. Top-up of oil in case of low oil level. Minimum 5 days of soaking. - Protection from dust. Stage 04: Post-Processing Checks - Mounting in upright position in fixture. Gauge mounting. - N2 pressure - Stabilization of pressure at specified oil level. Rectification of oil, if any. Stage 05 : Assembly of extra items according to design for dispatch - Check Lead / Lead length. - Cable thimble. - Terminal stand.

- Painting - Checking of oil in bushing in vertical position. In N2 pressure test, the bushing is filled up with N2 gas at 1.5 Kg/cm2 and kept under observation for 12 hours. If any leakage exists, theres a fall in the inside pressure, it is then identified and rectified. The bushing is then sent to the processing plant for moisture removal and oil filling.

Bushing Processing Plant: The processing of bushings is carried out in two forms: Full process and Short process. The Full process is carried out over bushings which come for processing for the first time, and the short process takes place for those bushings which have been already treated once.

For a 420 KV bushing, the typical Full process is:

Oven Start vacuum Temperature 60oC

100oC / 96 hours minimum 0.005 mBar pressure / 48 hours 24 hours

Start oil filling Drop by Drop 18 - 20 hours Stop Heating Soaking 24 hours

For a 420 KV bushing, the typical short process is:

Start vacuum Temperature 60oC

0.005 mBar pressure / 24 hours 24 hours

Start oil filling Drop by Drop 18 - 20 hours Stop Heating Soaking 24 hours

For 245 KV / 145 KV / 72 KV / 52.5 KV bushing, the typical full process is:

Oven Start vacuum Temperature 60oC

100oC / 72 hours minimum 0.005 mBar pressure / 48 hours 24 hours

Start oil filling Drop by Drop 18 - 20 hours Stop Heating Soaking 24 hours

For 245 KV / 145 KV / 72 KV / 52.5 KV bushing, the typical short Process is:

Temperature 60oC - 65oC 12 hours Vacuum 48 hours Start oil filling Drop by Drop 18 - 20 hours Stop Heating Soaking 24 hours

Soaking Duration: Rating Duration

420 KV Bushing 16 Hours minimum 245 KV Bushing 12 Hours minimum 145 KV Bushing 08 Hours minimum 72.5 KV Bushing 04 Hours minimum 52 KV Bushing 04 Hours minimum

Bushing Testing: Routine and type tests are carried out on bushing according to the Requirement and customers demand. A typical routine test observation on 420 KV bushing is shown below. The basic device for testing is Schering Bridge, and the parameters C3 and R3 are measured:

Parameter KV Capacitance C3 Tan delta Partial Discharge (internal)

10

122

255

364

420

364

255

122

10

The applied voltage on bushing is increased from 0-420 KV and reduced to zero again, and readings are taken as shown above. Upon reaching 420 KV, an overvoltage of 630 KV is maintained for a period of one minute and the same parameter readings are taken.

CPM

Following Products are manufactured at the CPM Division: Sr. No. 01. 02. 03. Product Shunt Capacitors Series Capacitors Filter Capacitors Rating 6.6 KV - 500 KV 33 KV - 400 KV up - 500 KV Purpose improvement of power Factor reactive compensation And voltage regulation different types of Harmonics filtering (HVDC) Protection of generator & Transformers Measuring line metering & power line carrier communication Improving power factor traction locomotive

04. 05.

Surge Capacitors CVTs

up - 40 KV 33 KV - 1200 KV

06. 07.

Motor Capacitors Roof Capacitors

3.3 KV - 11 KV 2000 volts dc

Shunt Capacitor banks with all film dielectric impregnated with non PCB Impregnate of desired ratings from 6.6 to 400 kV complete with manual / automatic control equipment for Industrial and power system application. Pole mounted Capacitors for mounting in line with Rural Electrification scheme up to 11 KV Roof Capacitor in Traction Motor application: 4 microfarad, 2 KV DC Series capacitors for Reactive compensation and voltage regulation in power system from 33kV to 400 KV Capacitor to improve power factor of traction substations suitable for Railway Electrification. Surge Capacitor for protection of Rotating Machine and Generator transformers winding 15 kV and 40 kV, 0.125 micro farad. AC filter Capacitor for Harmonic filtering suitable for HVDC application up to 500 kV. Coupling capacitors / CVT up to 800 kV class for Power line carrier communication application, meeting and protection.

Manufacturing Process of Power Capacitor:

Element Winding Testing 4.5 KV Element Stack Assembly

Pack Testing Soldering and Wiring Boxing

Testing at 4 KV

VP Plant Rack / Dispatch

Major raw materials: Sr. No. 01. 02. 03. 04. Material Polypropylene film Aluminum Foil PXE (Phenyl Xylyl Ethane) oil Bushing Purpose / Dimension as a dielectric- 9 to 18 microns 5 microns as liquid dielectric -

Capacitor consists of electrode made of 5 microns Aluminum Foil. The dielectric used is of Polypropylene film having thickness 9 microns to 18 microns. Three layer dielectrics are used between two electrodes of 5 microns Al Foil. All these layers of Polypropylene film and Aluminum Foil are wound on a Semi Automatic winding machine. And then it is pressed to get the capacitor element. This complete process is done in a dust proof air-conditioned winding room. All the elements are then tested using element-testing machine. If faulty elements are detected then they are at once rejected and are separated from the manufacturing process. For Power Capacitors, the elements are arranged in an appropriate series or parallel combination, so as to get desired capacitor rating. The arrangement of the elements is called a stack. The stacks are again tested in a pack-testing machine. These stacks are boxed in a steel container of suitable dimensions. This box can be referred as a Capacitor can. The Can is welded and the appropriate terminals are taken out through the bushings. The box is then impregnated by PXE (Phenyl Xylyl Ethane) oil under fine vacuum and temperature. Each unit is then routine tested as per relevant IS/IEC. Once the unit passes in the entire test it is then painted and assembled into a rack. The rack when completed is then dispatched to the customer.

Testing: Well Equipped Capacitor test & ultra high voltage laboratory to cope up with routine & type test requirements as per latest Indian & International for Power capacitor & coupling capacitor.

Sr. 1. 2.

TEST Measurement of Capacitance.

ROUTINE TEST as per IS 13925 (1998) PROCEDURE Capacitance is measured at rated voltage. Capacitor Loss tangent is measured after 48 hrs of stabilization or at the end of Thermal Stability Test. 4 times the rated voltage in DC is applied between the terminal for 10 sec. An Ac Voltage depending on the BIL level of the unit is applied between shorted terminals and container for 10 sec. this is applied only for units having all terminals insulated. Discharge resistance shall be measured. The DR shall be suitable discharge to less than 50 volts from an initial peak voltage of sqrt of 2 times the rated voltage after disconnecting from supply. The maximum discharge time shall be 10 min. A sealing test shall be carried out to demonstrate that the impregnate does not leak from the capacitor. The test shall be carried out at 80`c for a period of 4 hours after attaining container temperature of 80`c.

Capacitor Loss tangent measurement at rated voltage. Voltage test between terminals. Ac test terminals and container. Test of Discharge device.

3. 4.

5.

6.

Sealing test

Sr. 1.

TEST

TYPE TESTS as per IS 13925(1998) PROCEDURE a. Capacitor units are placed inside the oven having 55+- 2`c. b. An AC voltage equal to 1.2 Un is applied for 48 hrs. c. Te value of tan delta measured during last 10 hrs shall not increase by 1x 10-4 Capacitance is measured at rated voltage. Capacitor Loss tangent is measured after 48 hrs of stabilization or at the end of thermal stability test. An Ac Voltage depending on the BIL level of the unit is applied between shorted terminals and container for 1 min. this is applied only for units having all terminals insulated. An Impulse Voltage depending on the BIL level of the unit is applied between shorted terminals and container. this test is applicable only for units having all terminals insulated. a. 2.5 times the rated voltage in DC is applied between the terminals & then discharged through a gap situated as close as possible to the capacitor. The unit shall be subjected to give 5 such discharge within 10 min. b. Within 5 min after this test, the unit shall be subjected to 4.3 times the rated voltage between terminals for 10 sec.

Thermal Stability Test

2.

Capacitor loss tangent measurement at elevated temperature Ac test terminals and container.

3.

4.

Lighting impulse voltage test between shorted terminals and container. Shorted Circuit Discharge Test.

5.

THANK YOU