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Elmar H. Mazon Jr.

BS ME / 201210743

Solid Mensuration 7-8pm (TTh) Prof. Mabutas CYLINDERS AND PRISMS (V=Bh)

Introduction: We examine cylinders and prisms, defining them, and measuring their surface areas and volumes. The Lesson: We may think of a cylinder as a tin can, with two bases that are circles. The surface wrapping around the circles can be unwrapped and shown as a rectangle. A diagram below shows a cylinder on the left. The rectangle at right is the side surface, unwrapped from the cylinder. We know that its length is the circumference of the circular base which is .

The surface area is the sum of the areas of the two circles that are the bases and the area of the rectangle. Since the area of a circle is and the area of a rectangle is lw, we can make a formula for the surface area of a cylinder: .

The volume of a cylinder is found using the concept of base x height. The area of the base is . The volume of the cylinder is .

A prism is a (3-dimensional) polyhedron with bases that are parallel, congruent polygons. The sides are parallelograms. We show three examples below. The important features are the areas of the bases and the height, which is the perpendicular distance between the bases. At the left is a rectangular solid. The middle diagram is of a prism with bases that are hexagons. Notice that the slant height, s, is different than the height, h, since the prism is tilted. The prism at right has bases that are pentagons and is not tilted. We shall concentrate on prisms such as this which are called right prisms.

Volume and surface area can be found as follows: Volume = base (area) x height Surface Area = sum of areas of both bases and all sides The area of the bases can be found if we know the dimensions and properties of the polygons which form the bases. The area of all the sides (called the lateral area) can be found if we can measure the base and height (called the slant height and labeled s) of each of the parallelograms which form the sides of the prism. Adding the areas of the parallelograms which form the sides can be summarized by multiplying the slant height and the perimeter of a base. We have: Surface Area = sum of areas of both bases and s x P where s is the slant height and P is the perimeter of a base. If the bases are perpendicular to the parallelograms forming the sides (as in a right prism), the slant height s = h.

Let's Practice: We label the three prisms below A, B, and C. A is a rectangular solid. B is a non-right prism. C is a right prism.

Suppose prism A has dimensions 5 x 4 x 7 feet. What are the surface area and volume? We solve this using standard formulas for a rectangular solid. The volume is 5 x 4 x 7 = 140 cubic feet. Two sides are 5 x 4, two are 4 x 7 and two are 5 x 7. The areas of these sides are 20, 28, and 35. Thus the total surface area is twice the sum of these or 166 square feet. Suppose prism B has bases which are regular hexagons of side 2 meters, a height of 3 meters, and a slant height of 3.4 meters. What are the surface area and the volume? The lateral area equals s x P = 3.4 x 12 = 40.8 m2. The area of a regular hexagon (base) is

m2. This gives a total surface area of two bases plus the lateral area which equals m2. We now know the volume = area of base x height equals m3. Suppose right prism C has bases which are regular pentagons of radius 25

centimeters. The height is 40 centimeters. What are the surface area and the volume? For the area of a base we use

. This gives us area of base as cm2. We calculate volume = area of base x height as 1486 x 40 = 59440 cm3 = 0.05944 m3. The lateral area is s x P where P is the perimeter of the base of the regular pentagon with radius 25 and s = h is the slant height. A side can be found from

This gives us the length of a side of the base as cm. The lateral area equals s x P = 40 x 5(29.39) = 5878 cm2. The total surface area is two bases plus the lateral area or 8850 cm2 = 0.885 m2. A tin can has a radius of 2 inches and a height of 3 inches. What are the surface area and volumes? The volume is in3.

WORD PROBLEMS: VOLUME AND SURFACE AREA OF PRISMS We will work with right prisms, in which the slant height is the same as the height. In order to solve problems which require application of the volume and surface area for prisms, it is necessary to know how to use basic formulas for volume (V) and surface area (SA) of a right prism: V = area of base x height SA = sum of both bases and the lateral area know how to find the area of a base:

a) regular polygon: base area = b) regular hexagon: base area =

know how to find the length of a side of a regular polygon using solve basic linear and quadratic equations. A typical problem involving the volume or surface area of a prism gives us one or more of the volume, lateral area, area of a base, height and/or radius of the prism. We will be required to calculate some of these quantities given information about the others. Suppose the height of a right rectangular prism (rectangular solid) is 30 cm and the volume is 480 cm3. If the base is a square, find the surface area of this prism. A diagram is shown below.

To get started, we sketch a diagram and label all of the given information to determine the appropriate formula(s) we will be able to use. Since we know the volume is 480 cm3, we will start with the formula for volume. V = 480 cm3 V = lwh The length l and width w are both the same in a square base allowing us to use the variable x for both l and w. Because h is given as 30 cm we can write: V = (x)(x)(30) V = 30x2 30x2 = 480 x2 = 16 x = 4 cm We will now use x = 4 cm and h = 30 cm to calculate the area of all six rectangular sides of this prism. Remember that the 2 bases are equal as are the four sides making up the lateral area. There are two square bases. Since the length of a side x = 4, there is a total area of 2x2 = 2(4)2 = 32 cm2 The four sides are rectangles with dimensions of width 4 cm and height 30 cm for a total area of 4(4)(30) = 480 cm2 The total surface area is 32 cm2 + 480 cm2 = 512 cm2

WORD PROBLEMS: VOLUME AND SURFACE AREA OF CYLINDERS In order to solve problems which require application of the volume and surface area for cylinders, it is necessary to know how to use basic formulas for volume and surface area of a cylinder:

Volume: V = pr2h

Surface Area: S = 2pr2 + 2prh

Notice that these factored versions of the surface area formula are sometimes easier to use: S = 2pr2 + 2prh = 2p(r2 + rh) = 2pr(r + h) Solve basic linear and quadratic equations.

A typical problem involving the volume or surface area of a cylinder gives us the volume or height and/or radius of the cylinder. We then need to calculate the unknown quantities based on the information given about the others. Suppose that the height of a cylinder is 30 cm and its volume is 750p cm3. Find its radius and surface area.

To get started, we need to organize as much of the given information as possible into a known formula. Since the volume (750p cm3) and height(30 cm) of the cylinder are given, we will start with the equation for volume. V = pr2h = 30pr2 V = 750p 750p = 30pr2 r = 5 cm Now we will find the surface area of the cylinder using our values for the radius and height. S = 2pr2 + 2prh S = 2p(25) + 2p(5)(30) S = 50p + 300p S = 350p cm2

Elmar H. Mazon Jr. BS ME / 201210743

Solid Mensuration 7-8pm (TTh) Prof. Mabutas PYRAMIDS AND CONES (V=1/3 Bh)

Introduction: We examine 3-dimensional objects known as pyramids and cones, defining them, and measuring their surface areas and volumes. Definitions: Pyramid: A 3-dimensional solid in which the base is a polygon and the sides are triangles which meet in one point called the vertex. We shall examine regular pyramids in which the base is a regular polygon and the sides are congruent triangles. A Right Circular Cone: A 3-dimensional solid in which the base is a circle. The side of a cone is formed by straight lines which connect the circular base to a vertex. The height is the perpendicular distance from the vertex to the base and meets the base in the center of the circle. The Lesson: The diagrams below show a pyramid and a cone. Both have a height of h and radius of r. In the pyramid at left, r is the radius of the regularhexagon that is the base of the pyramid. In the cone at right, r is the radius of the circular base. The slant height is s in both diagrams.

Pyramid: The perimeter of the base of the pyramid, which is a regular hexagon, is 6r since r is the same length as the side of a regular hexagon. The area of the base of the pyramid is given by . The area of the sides (lateral area), which are congruent triangles, is given by because in this case n = number of sides = 6, the base is equal to r, and the slant height of the triangles is s. Notice that this can be rewritten as: . where P is the perimeter of the base. Overview In general, calculating the surface area of a pyramid requires finding the sum of the areas of the base and the triangular sides. The lateral area is given by

where s is the slant height of a triangular side and P is the perimeter of the base.

Remember that this is only true because we are assuming that the triangular sides are congruent; that is, we are working with a regular pyramid. Note that in a regular pyramid it is also true that (1) each triangle makes the same angle with the base and (2) the height connects the vertex to the center of the regular polygonal base.

Pyramid Summary:

Surface area of a regular pyramid = area of base + .

Volume of a pyramid =

Cone Summary:

The area of the base of the cone is The lateral area is given by . The volume of a cone is given by

Let's Practice: i. In Egypt, the Great Pyramid of Giza is 145.75 m in height and has a square base of 229 m on a side. The triangular sides are congruent and form anangle of 51 with the square base. What are the surface area and the volume of this pyramid?

The base area is 2292 = 52441 m2. The lateral area is ; where s is the slant height of a triangular side.

To calculate the slant height, we use the height and the slant height (as a hypotenuse of a right triangle) as in the diagram shown above. Using the trig function sine, we get . This gives us . The lateral area is 458s = 85875 m2. The total surface area is 52441 + 85875 = 138,316 m2. The volume is area of base x height =

x 2292 x 145.75 = x 7,643,275.75 m3 = 2,547,758.583 m3. Despite the fact that well over 1,000,000 stone blocks weighing between 2 and 150 tons were manually installed, the exact measurements of the sides of the base and the angles of the triangles forming the sides are off by less than 0.1% from that of a perfectly regular pyramid. ii. A cone has height 5 feet and the radius of the base is 2 feet. What are the surface area and the volume?

To find the volume we use cubic feet.

To find the surface area we use

. This means we must calculate the slant height s. In order to do this, we note that the height is perpendicular to the base of the cone at

the center. We use the height, radius, and slant height sto form a right triangle. A diagram is shown below.

We now use the Pythagorean Theorem. s2 = 52 + 22 = 25 + 4 = 29 Now solve for s: s= This gives us a surface area of ft2.

WORD PROBLEMS: VOLUME AND SURFACE AREA OF PYRAMIDS We will work with regular pyramids, in which the triangular sides are congruent and the base is a regular polygon. In order to solve problems which require application of the volume and surface area for pyramids, it is necessary to know how to use basic formulas for volume and surface area of a regular pyramid:

i. ii.

Surface area of a regular pyramid = area of base + Volume of a pyramid = .

know how to find the area of a base:

i. ii.

for a regular polygon: A = for a hexagonal base: A =

know how to find the length of a side of a regular polygon using . use the Pythagorean Theorem in finding the radius, side of a base, or slant height.

A typical problem involving the volume or surface area of a pyramid gives us one or more of the volume, lateral area, area of a base, height and/or radius of the pyramid. We need to calculate some of these quantities given information about the others. Suppose that the height of a regular square pyramid is 3 cm and the length of one edge is 5 cm. What are the surface area and volume of this pyramid? A diagram shown below includes the length of the radius CB.

To get started, we must determine which quantities are known and look at the formulas available for our use to to see which additional variables we need to calculate. For both surface area and volume, we need the area of the square base. It is usually easier to find the area of the base if we first know the length of one side. Since triangle ACB is a right triangle with hypotenuse 5 and one leg 3, our square base has a radius of 4 . We can now use the formula

along with the knowledge that the radius r = 4 and the number of sides n = 4 to find the length of one side of the square,

We now know the area of the square base is A = s2 = We can use this to find the volume which is

V= To find the surface area, we need the perimeter of the base, P, and the slant height, s

surface area = area of base +

The perimeter of our square base is just four times the length of one side: perimeter = 4( perimeter = The slant height is the length of AM in triangle ABD. Using the Pythagorean Theorem and triangle ABM, )

where MB =

because it is half of one side .

The surface area equals

WORD PROBLEMS: VOLUME AND SURFACE AREA OF CONES We will work with right circular cones where the base is a circle and the height is the perpendicular distance from the vertex to the center of the base. In order to solve problems which require application of the volume and surface area for cones, it is necessary to know how to use basic formulas for volume and surface area of a cone. 1. The area of the base of a cone of radius r is p r2. 2. The volume of a cone is given by where h is the height of the cone. 3. The lateral area is given by p rs where s is the slant height. 4. The surface area is given by S = p r2+ p rs know how to solve basic linear and quadratic equations. know how to recognize right triangles and use the Pythagorean Theorem.

A typical problem involving the volume or surface area of a cone will give you information about one or more of the following quantities and ask you to calculate the others: volume, surface area, or height and/or radius of the cone. Suppose that the height of a cone is 3 cm and its surface area is 24p cm2. Find the height and volume of this cone. To get started, we need to write as much of the given information as possible into a known formula. We will start with the equation for surface area since we were given the radius as 3 cm and the surface area as 24p. S = 24p S = p r2 + prs S = p32 + p3s S = 3p(3 + s) Solving this equation for s we get 24p = 3p(3 + s) 8=3+s s = 5 cm

The information we have learned so far is summarized in the following diagram.

To calculate the volume we need to find the values of r and h. Since h, r, and s form a right triangle, we can use the Pythagorean Theorem to calculate the value of h h2 + r2 = s2 h2 + 32 = 52 h2 = 25 - 9 h2 = 16 h = 4 cm The triangle involving h, r, and s always allows us to use the Pythagorean Theorem and s is always the hypotenuse. We can now use r = 3 cm and h = 4 cm in the formula for volume:

Reference: Algebralab.org