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Fire & Explosion Safety

Electrical Equipment Duct Penetration

Explosive Atmosphere
Explosion Hazard
A mixture of air, under atmospheric conditions, and flammable gas, or vapour Capable of self-sustaining propagation upon ignition Hazardous. If exploded, can cause damage

Conditions for Explosion Hazard

Event of simultaneous occurrence of


Explosion Protection Concept

Explosion protection by removing one of the three factors in fire triangle
1. Primary Protection (make safe)
Prevention of explosive atmosphere, example
Ventilation inertization

2. Secondary Protection (encompass all electrical apparatus used in hazardous areas)

Prevention of the ignition of explosive atmosphere Comply with IEC/EN 60079 or AS60079

Hazardous Area Classification

Explosive atmosphere is present, or may be present for long period Allows selection of appropriate certified equipment

Hazard Probability
Zone 0 Explosive gas atmosphere is present continuously Zone 1 Explosive gas atmosphere is likely to occur in normal operation Zone 2 Explosive atmosphere is not like to occur in normal operation

Non hazardous Explosive gas atmosphere is never present

Electrical Equipment Protection Designation


Gas or Apparatus Group

Decreasing MIE

Ignition Characteristics
GAS OR VAPOUR Propane Ethylene Hydrogen LEL % UEL % MIE (J)

1.7 2.3 4.0

10.9 36 77

180 60 19

Source: EEHA note


Explosive Limits (LEL & UEL)

Temperature Class

Hydrogen auto ignition temperature is 560 C. Resultant classification may be T1.

Electrical Protection Classification

HVAC equipment are typically located only in zone 2 or non hazardous areas Outdoor area GR IIB T3 Motor certified to Ex n . Battery room GR IIC T1 Motor certified to Ex d

Explosion Protection Methods

Fire Integrity Duct Penetration

SOLAS Regulation 9
To contain fire in the origin space Subdivision by thermal boundaries Class: B0, B15, A0, A30, A60, H60, H120 Fire integrity shall be maintained at openings and penetrations Fire ratings and test procedures by SOLAS (Safety of Life at Sea) regulations

Typical Details Duct Penetration B Wall

Penetration Through A Wall

Penetration Thro A60 Wall

Fire Damper
Automatic closure of damper blade activated by temperature (68-79C) within the duct
Rupture of frangible bulb causes the spring return or operation of pneumatic actuator

Manual closure independent and can override the automatic means of control
Operation may be pneumatic or electric

Open/close Indication of damper

Typical Fire Damper Details