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The family of all antiderivatives of a function f(x) is called the indefinite integral of the function f(x) and is denoted by

Properties of the Indefinite Integral

In formulas given below f and g are functions of the variable x, F is an antiderivative of f, and a, k, C are constants.

Table of Integrals

It's supposed below that a, p (p 1), C are real constants, b is the base of the exponential function (b 1, b > 0).

Example 1

Calculate

Solution.

Example 2

Solution.

Transforming the integrand and using the formula for integral of the power function, we have

Example 3

Calculate

Solution.

. Then

Example 4

Solution.

, we obtain

Example 5

Solution.

Since

, the integral is

Example 6

Solution.

Using the double angle formula sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x and the identity sin2x + cos2x = 1, we can write:

where x = g (u) is a substitution. Accordingly, the inverse function u = g 1(x) describes the dependence of the new variable on the old variable.

It's important to remember that the differential dx also needs to be substituted. It must be replaced with the differential ofthe new variab For definite integrals, it is also necessary to change the limits of integration. See about this on the page "The Definite Integral and Fundamental Theorem of Calculus". Example 1

Example 2

We make the substitution . Then The integral is easy to calculate with the new variable:

or

Noting 2e = a (This is not a change of variable, since x still remains the independent variable), we get the table integral:

Example 5

Hence,

Integration by Parts Let u(x) and v(x) be differentiable functions. By the product rule, Integrating both sides of the expression, we obtain

Integration by using this formula is called integration by parts. Example 1 Compute Solution. We use integration by parts: . Let . hen .

Example 2 Integrate Solution. We are to integrate by parts: u = ln x, dv = dx. The only choices we have for u and dv are . Then .

. Then

. In this case,

Example 4 Find the integral Solution. We use integration by parts: integral can be written in the form: . Let . Then .

,so th

Apply integration by parts one more time. Now let integral we started with is

. Hence,

, so that th

Example 5

. Let

. Then

Hence,

. As a result, we obtain

A rational function 1.

, where P(x) and Q(x) are both polynomials, can be integrated in four steps:

Reduce the fraction if it is improper (i.e. degree of P(x) is greater than degree of Q(x));

2.

3.

4.

Consider the specified steps in more details. Step 1. Reducing an improper fraction If the fraction is improper (i.e. degree of P(x) is greater than degree of Q(x)), divide the numerator P(x) by the denominatorQ(x) to obta

where is a proper fraction. Step 2. Factoring Q(x) into linear and/or quadratic factors Write the denominator Q(x) as

where quadratic functions are irreducible, i.e. do not have real roots. Step 3. Decomposing the rational fraction into a sum of partial fractions. Write the function as follows:

The total number of undetermined coefficients Ai , Bi , Ki , Li , Mi , Ni , ... must be equal to the degree of the denominatorQ(x).

Then equate the coefficients of equal powers of x by multiplying both sides of the latter expression by Q(x) and write the system of line equations in Ai , Bi , Ki , Li , Mi , Ni , .... The resulting system must always have a unique solution. Step 4. Integrating partial fractions. Use the following 6 formulas to evaluate integrals of partial fractions with linear and quadratic denominators:

1.

where

3.

4.

5.

The integral

6. Example 1

Equate coefficients:

Hence,

Then

Example 2

Evaluate

Then

Example 3

Example 4

Evaluate the integral Solution. Decompose the integrand into partial functions:

Equate coefficients:

Hence,

Then

Example 5

Evaluate

Equate coefficients:

Hence

Example 6

Equate coefficients:

Hence,

Then

Example 7

The factors in the denominator are irreducible quadratic factors since they have no real roots. Then

Equate coefficients:

This yields

Hence,

Then

Hence,

Example 8

Equate coefficients:

Hence,

Example 9

Decompose the integrand into partial functions, taking into account that the denominator has a third degree root:

Equate coefficients:

Hence,

Example 10

Then

Integration of Irrational Functions To integrate an irrational function containing a term we make the substitution .

To integrate an irrational function involving more than one rational power of x, make a substitution of the form to be the least common multiple of the denominators of all the fractional powers that appear in the function.

, wheren is ch

. and

See Trigonometric and Hyperbolic Substitutions about integration of irrational functions involving Example 1

Then

Example 2

Solution. We make the following substitution: Then the integral (we denote it by I ) becomes

As a result, we have

Example 3

Since the least common multiple (LCM) of the denominators of the fractional powers is equal to n = LCM(1,3) = 3, we make the substi

Thus

Example 4

Since the degree of the numerator is greater than the degree of the denominator, we divide the numerator by the denominator:

Example 5

As can be seen, the least common multiple (LCM) of the denominators of the fractional powers is equal ton = LCM(3,4) = 12, we make substitution:

This yields

The degree of the numerator is greater than the degree of the denominator, therefore, we divide the fraction:

Example 6

This yields

Example 7

As a result, we have

Integration of Rational Expressions of Trigonometric Functions Any rational expression of trigonometric functions can be always reduced to integrating a rational function by makingthe

).

The following trigonometric formulas are used to transform rational expressions of sin x, cos x, tan x, cot x, sec x and csc xinto rationa functions of t :

If an integrand is a function of only tan x, the substitution t = tan x transforms this integral into integral of a rational function.

, where both functions sin x and cos x have even powers, usethe substitution

Example 1

Since

, we have

Example 2

Example 3

Solution. As in the previous examples, we will use the universal trigonometric substitution:

Since

we can write:

Example 4

Evaluate

Example 5

, we can write

Hence,

Example 6

Example 7

Hence,

So the integral is

In this section we consider 8 classes of integrals with trigonometric functions. Special transformations and subtitutions used for each of classes allow us to obtain exact solutions for these integrals. 1. Integrals of the form To find integrals of this type, use the following trigonometric identities:

2. Integrals of the form It's assumed here and below that m and n are positive integers. To find an integral of this form, use the following substitutions: a. If the power n of the cosine is odd (the power m of the sine can be arbitrary), then the substitution is used.

b.

is used.

c.

If both powers m and n are even, then first use the double angle formulas

to reduce the power of the sine or cosine in the integrand. Then, if necessary, apply the rules a) or b).

3. Integrals of the form The power of the integrand can be reduced by using the trigonometric identity and the reduction formula

4. Integrals of the form We can reduce the power of the integrand using the trigonometric identity and the reduction formula

5. Integrals of the form This type of integrals can be simplified with help of the reduction formula:

6. Integrals of the form Similarly to the previous examples, this type of integrals can be simplified by the formula

a.

If the power of the secant n is even, then using the identity the secant function is expressed asthe tangent function. The factor is separated and used for transformation of the differential. As a result,the entire integral (including differential) is expressed as the function of tan x.

b.

If both the powers n and m are odd, then the factor sec x tan x, which is necessary to transform the differential, is separated. T the entire integral is expressed through sec x.

c.

If the power of the secant n is odd, and the power of the tangent m is even, then the tangent is expressed as the secant using the identity . Then the integrals of the secant are calculated.

a.

If the power of the cosecant n is even, then using the identity the cosecant function is expressed as the cotangent function. The factor is separated and used for transformation of the differential. As a result,the integrand an differential are expressed through cot x.

b.

If both the powers n and m are odd, then the factor csc x cot x, which is necessary to transform the differential, is separated. Th the integral is expressed through csc x.

c.

If the power of the cosecant n is odd, and the power of the cotangent m is even, then the cotangent is expressed asthe cosecant the identity . Then the integrals of the cosecant are calculated.

Solution. Making the substitution u = sin x, du = cos xdx and using the identity

, we obtain

Using identities

and

, we can write:

We get

Solution. Making the substitution u = cos x, du = sin xdx and expressing the sine through cosine with help of the formula obtain

Example 6

Hence,

Example 7 Evaluate the integral Solution. We use the identity to transform the integral. This yields .

Hence,

The integral

Hence,

Example 11 Compute .

Solution.

Since

to

There are the following differentiation and integration formulas for hyperbolic functions:

When an integrand contains a hyperbolic function, the integral can be reduced to integrating a rational function by usingthe

substitution Example 1

, and, hence,

. Let

. Then,

. Hence

Since

, we obtain

Example 5

Example 6

By definition,

and

. Hence,

and

, we get

Then

Then we have

There are the following differentiation and integration formulas for hyperbolic functions:

When an integrand contains a hyperbolic function, the integral can be reduced to integrating a rational function by usingthe

substitution Example 1

, and, hence,

Example 3 Evaluate the integral Solution. We use integration by parts: integral is . Let . Then, .

. Hence

Since

, we obtain

Example 5

Example 6

By definition,

and

. Hence,

and

, we get

Then

Then we have

There are the following differentiation and integration formulas for hyperbolic functions:

When an integrand contains a hyperbolic function, the integral can be reduced to integrating a rational function by usingthe

substitution Example 1

, and, hence,

Example 3 Evaluate the integral Solution. We use integration by parts: integral is . Let . Then, .

. Hence

Example 4

Since

, we obtain

Example 5

Example 6

By definition,

and

. Hence,

and

, we get

Then

Then we have

To calculate such an integral, we need first to complete the square in the quadratic expression:

, we can obtain one of the three possible integrals, depending on the values of the

coefficients a, b and c:

1.

2.

3. Now, we use the following trigonometric or hyperbolic substitutions to simplify the integrals: 1. Integrals of the form Trigonometric substitution:

Hyperbolic substitution:

Hyperbolic substitution:

Remarks:

Instead of the trigonometric substitutions in cases 1, 2, 3 you can use the substitutionsx = r cos t, x = r cot t, x = r csc t, respect

Using the formulas given above, we consider only positive values of the root. For example, in strict writing

Then

We make the hyperbolic substitution: x = a sinh t, dx = a cosh tdt. Using the hyperbolic identity

, we can write:

Example 3

, we have

Example 4

. Hence,

Example 5

We make the trigonometric substitution: x = a sec t, dx = a tan t sec tdt. Calculate the integral using the identity

Example 7 Evaluate the integral Solution. Here we make the hyperbolic substitution (for diversity): becomes . Since .

, the integral

Example 8

, we can write:

was already found in Problem 9 on the page Integration of some classes of trigonometric functions, so the com

Then

Express

and

in terms of x:

Hence,

Example 10

, we get

Then

The Definite Integral and Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Let f (x) be a continuous function on the closed interval [a, b]. The definite integral of f (x) from a to b is defined to bethe limit

where

Properties of the Definite Integral We assume below that f (x) and g (x) are continuous functions on the closed interval [a, b].

1.

2.

where k is a constant;

3.

4.

5.

If

for all

, then

6.

7.

8.

If

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Let f (x) be a function, which is continuous on the closed interval [a, b]. If F (x) is any antiderivative of f (x) on [a, b], then

The Area under a Curve The area under the graph of the function f (x) between the vertical lines x = a, x = b (Figure 1) is given by the formula

Fig.1 Fig.2 Let F (x) and G (x) be indefinite integrals of functions f (x) and g (x), respectively. If f (x) g (x) on the closed interval[a, b], then the a between the curves y = f (x), y = g (x) and the lines x = a, x = b (Figure 2) is given by

of the variable x can be changed into an integral with respect to t by making the substitutionx = g (t):

The new limits of integration for the variable t are given by the formulas where g -1 is the inverse function to g, i.e. t = g -1(x). Integration by Parts for Definite Integrals In this case the formula for integration by parts looks as follows:

where Example 1

Example 2

Example 3

Determine the new limits of integration. When x = 0, then t = 1. When x = 1, then we have t = 2. So, the integral withthe new variable be easily calculated:

Example 4

As can be seen, the curves intercept at the points (0,0) and (1,1). Hence, the area is given by

Fig.4

Solution. First we find the points of intersection of the curves (Figure 4):

Example 7 Find the area of the triangle with vertices at (0,0), (2,6) and (7,1). Solution. First we find an equation of the side OA (refer to Figure 5):

As seen from the Figure 5, the area of the this triangle can be calculated as the sum of two integrals:

Fig.5 Example 8

Fig.6

Solution. By symmetry (see Figure 6), the area of the ellipse is twice the area above the x-axis. The latter is given by

To calculate the last integral, we use the trigonometric substitution x = asin t, dx = acos tdt. Refine the limits of integration. When x = a, then sin t = 1, and . When x = a, then sin t = 1, . Thus we get

The function f (x) has one or more points of discontinuity in the interval [a,b].

Infinite Limits of Integration Let f (x) be a continuous function on the interval [a, ). We define the improper integral as

Consider the case when f (x) is a continuous function on the interval (, b]. Then we define the improper integral as

If these limits exist and are finite then we say that the improper integrals are convergent. Otherwise the integrals are divergent. Let f (x) be a continuous function for all real numbers. We define:

If, for some real number c, both of the integrals in the right side are convergent, then we say that the integral otherwise it is divergent. Comparison Theorems Let f (x) and g (x) be continuous functions on the interval [a, ). Suppose that

is also conv

1.

If

is convergent then

is also convergent;

2.

If

is divergent then

is also divergent;

3.

If

is convergent then

integral

is absolutely convergent.

Discontinuous Integrand Let f (x) be a function which is continuous on the interval [a,b), but is discontinuous at x = b. We define the improper integral as

Similarly we can consider the case when the function f (x) is continuous on the interval (a,b], but is discontinuous at x = a.Then

If these limits exist and are finite then we say that the integrals are convergent; otherwise the integrals are divergent.

Let f (x) be a continuous function for all real numbers x in the interval [a,b], except for some point

. We define:

is convergent if both of the integrals in the right side are also convergent. Otherwisethe

Determine for what values of k the integral Solution. By the definition of an improper integral, we have

converges.

As seen from the expression, there are 2 cases: If 0 < k < 1, then as and the integral diverges;

as

converges or diverges?

Note, that

integral Example 4

Determine whether the improper integral Solution. We can write this integral as

converges or diverges?

Since both the limits exist and are finite, the given integral converges. Example 6

converges or diverges?

Solution. We can write the obvious inequality for the absolute values:

conve

converges or diverges?

Solution. There is a discontinuity in the integrand at x = 2, so that we must consider two improper integrals:

is also divergent.

converges?

Solution. The integrand has discontinuity at the point x = 0, so that we can write the integral as

Find the area under the curve y = ln x between x = 0 and x = 1. Solution. The given region is sketched in Figure 1. Since it is infinite, we calculate the improper integral to find the area:

. Thus

Fig.2

Solution. We calculate the length of the arc of the circle in the first quadrant between x = 0 and x = 1 and then multiply the result by 4. The equation of the circle centered at the origin is Then the arc of the circle in the first quadrant (Figure 2) is described by the function

, we obtain

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