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m. The reference level = atmospheric pressure (95-105kPa) Pressure measured with respect to atmosphere = Gage pressure Pressure measured with respect to perfect vaccum = Absolute pressure The three related by the equation Pabs = Pgage + Patm See Figure 3.1

Points Perfect vacuum = lowest possible pressure Absolute pressure will always be positive Gage pressure above atmospheric is +ve Gage pressure below atmospheric will be ve Units = Pa (abs) or Pa (gage) always mention what the reference is! Range of atmospheric pressure = 95 kPa to 105 kPa

Assumed as 101 kPa in the text. Or 14.7 psi(a) Problem 3.1 Given Pressure (gage) = 155 kPa Atmospheric Pressure = 98 kPa What is the Absolute Pressure????? Absolute pressure = Pressure and Elevation: Pressure is directly related to elevation and changes with elevation - example swimming pool or diving deep into a water body The greater the depth/elevation of fluid the greater the pressure Elevation in water measured with respect to a reference; positive upwards; negative downwards See Figure 3.2

It is advisable to choose the lowest point for a reference level so that you dont have to deal with negative elevation values!

****Change in pressure = p = h Where is the specific weight of the fluid and h is the elevation

******Key Points: Equation is only valid for homogenous liquids at rest Points on the same horizontal level have the same pressure Pressure varies linearly with change in elevation/depth Change in pressure is proportional to the specific weight of the fluid Above equation does not apply to gases because the specific weight of gas changes with elevation However the change in gas pressure with elevation is small! An increase in elevation of 300 m changes gas pressure by only 3.4kPa Problem 3.5 Determine the pressure at a depth of 5m for water. p = h Specific wt of water = 9.81 kN/m3 Therefore, p = 9.81 x 5 = 49.05 kN/m2 = 49.05 k Pa

Problem 3.7 (SI units) Compute the gage pressures at pts. A, B, C, D, E and F. Specific gravity of Oil = 0.9

Answers: Pa = 0 (gage) atmospheric pressure oil = 0.9 x 9.81 = 8.83 kN/m2 Pb = 3.0 x 8.83 Pb = 26.5 kN/m2 = 26.5 kPa Pc = 6.0 x 8.83 Pc = 53 kN/m2 Pd = Pb (same level) Pd = 26.5 kN/m2 Pe = Pa same level as A Pe = 0 kN/m2 Pf = 0 1.5*8.83 Pf = -13.2 kN/m2

Key observations from example above Pressure increases with depth Pressure changes linearly Points at the same elevation have the same pressure Pressure decreases at higher elevations

3.6 Pascals paradox Pressure depends only on the elevation and the type of the fluid; NOT on the size of the fluid container See Figure 3.7 All containers have the same pressure at the bottom!! -referred to as the Pascals Paradox

The role of elevation also comes into play with respect to pressure in a water distribution system See Figure 3.8

The Supply point should be higher than the receiving points to allow pressure to be maintained by gravity.

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3.7 Manometers Instrument to measure pressure. Simplest kind U tube manometer One end open to the atmosphere Other end connected to the fluid whose pressure is to be measured Contains liquid (gage fluid) whose deflection indicates the pressure Gage liquid should not mix with the other liquid

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Procedure for measurement: Start from the point which is exposed to atmosphere, and move towards the point at which the pressure is desired. If you move down in the fluid, pressure increases; and viceversa

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m = 9.81 x 13.54 = 132.8 kN/m3 P1 = 0 P2 = 0.25 x 132.8 = 33.2 kN/m2 P3 = P2 = 33.2 kN/m2 P4 = P3 0.4 x 9.81 = P3 - 3.92 = 29.28 kN/m2 Answer = Pa = 29.28 kN/m2 = 29.28kPa

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Problem 3.9 (US Units) Determine the difference in pressure between points A and B Specific wt of water = 62.4 lb/ft3.

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P1 = Pa + 33.75 x o P1 = P2 P3 = P1 29.5 x w P4 = P3 4.25 x o Pb = P4 = Pa + 33.75 x o 29.5 x w 4.25 x o Or Pb Pa = 33.75 x o 29.5 x w 4.25 x o = 29.5 o 29.5 x w = 29.5 (o w) o = 0.86 x 62.4 = 53.7 lb/ft3 Pb-Pa = 29.5 in x (53.7 62.4) lb/ft3 = 29.5 in x (-8.7 lb/ft3) x (1 ft3/ 1728 in3) Answer : Pb Pa = -0.15 lb/in2

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Barometers Device for measuring atmospheric pressure. Filled with mercury Mercury filled tube is inverted in mercury bath. Mercury column drops a little filled with mercury vapor at 0.17 Pa. The height of the mercury provides the atmospheric pressure 0 + mh = Patm Patm = mh

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Mercury depth decreases 1.0 inch every 1000 ft of increase in altitude. (pressure will decrease as you go up in the atmosphere). Specific wt of mercury changes with temp! So adjustments with temp have to be made!

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Pressure transducer pressure measured at one point, displayed at another pressure sensed mechanically and converted into an electrical signal.

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Q. A pressure gage at 19.0 ft from bottom of tank reads = 13.19 psi. Another at 14 ft, reads = 15.12 psi Compute specific wt, density, and specific gravity of fluid in tank We have two known pressure points and the distance between them! p = h Apply the equation (15.12 13.19) * 144 = * (19.0-14.0) Therefore = 55.6 lb/ft3 Remember = g Therefore, = 55.6/ 32.2 = 1.73 slug/ft3 SG = f/ w = 55.6/62.4 = 0.891.

Q.

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A reservoir of CCl4 has mass of 500 kg and a volume of 0.315 m3. Find the weight, density, specific weight and specific gravity. m = 500 kg g = 9.81 m/s2 W = mg = 500*9.81 = 4905 N = 4.905 kN Density = = m/V = 500/0.315 = 1587 kg/m3 Specific wt = = W/V = 4.905/0.315 = 15.57 kN/m3 SG = 15.57/9.81 = 1.59

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Q.

A

2.2 m B 0.6m

Fluid is Oil = SG = 0.85 Find the pressure heads at A and B? w = 9.81 kN/m3 o = 0.85*9.81 = 8.33 kN/m3 pA = 0 2.8*8.33 = - 23.35 kN/m2 pB = -23.35 + 2.2*8.33 = -5.02 kN/m2

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