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http://www.electrical-installation.org/enwiki/Main_Page XLPE = Cross-Linked Polyethelene There are actually two semi-conductive layers on high voltage cable.

One is between the actual conductors and the XLPE. The other semi-con is on outside of the XLPE insulation underneath the concentric neutral. The semi-con is used to equalize the electrical stresses over a large area. For example, most conductors are made up of multiple strands of copper or aluminum. The outer edge of the conductor bundle is not smooth. It has several ridges on the outer edge where the individual strands meet one another. These high spots will stress the insulation leading to a premature failure. The internal semi-con makes a smooth voltage level for the XLPE where it meets the conductor strands.

In the context of electrical cables, PVC and XLPE are two materials used as insulation. XLPE has got more capacity to hold on incase of high temperature. XLPE will not deteriorate it's insulating property until it reaches 90 degree celsius. It will not suddenly lose it's insulating property if the themperature jumps just above 90. But the overall life of the cable will be reduced. PVC can withstand temperatures only upto 70 degree Celsius. PVC is cheaper than XPLE, hence it's find it's place in market today. PVC is a thermo plastic where as XLPE is thermosetting plastic. PVC - Poly Vinyl chloride XLPE - Cross linked Poly Ethylene

New standard for selection of cables


A new standard for the selection of cables was published by SAI Global in late 2009 and will be used by Queenslands Electrical Safety Office as the basis for ensuring compliance with electrical safety legislation on work performed from 1 June 2010. The standard is entitled AS/NZS 3008.1.1:2009 (Electrical installations - Selection of cables Cables for alternating voltages up to and including 0.6/1 kV Typical Australian installation conditions). It sets out a method for cable selection for those types of electrical cables and methods of installation that are in common use at working voltages up to and including 0.6/1 kV at 50 Hz a.c. Three criteria are given for cable selection: (a) Current-carrying capacity (b) Voltage drop (c) Short-circuit temperature rise

This standard provides sustained current-carrying capacities and voltage drop values for those types of electrical cable and installation practices in common use in Australia. A significant amount of explanatory material is also provided on the application of rating factors that arise from the particular installation conditions of a single circuit or groups of circuits. Also, provided in Section 5 is information on cable selection based on short-circuit temperature limits. This standard recommends that it apply to installations made or carried out after the date of publication on 26 October 2009, but it is recommended that it not be applied on a mandatory basis until six months after the publication date. Queenslands Electrical Safety Office will be using this standard as a basis for ensuring compliance with the electrical safety legislation on electrical work performed from Tuesday 1 June 2010 with the following exceptions:

electrical work commenced under the former standard (AS/NZS 3008.1.1:1998) prior to 1 June 2010 may continue; electrical work quoted under the former standard (AS/NZS 3008.1.1:1998) prior to 1 June and for which a contract has been awarded may be performed under the former standard; electrical work designed under the former standard (AS/NZS 3008.1.1:1998) prior to 1 June for projects (e.g. like shopping complexes, large residential & industrial buildings), may be performed under the former standard; and the new standard (AS/NZS 3008.1.1:1998) prior to 1 June may be applied to the above circumstances where it does not cause onerous changes or costs. A copy of the standard can be purchased from SAI Global at www.saiglobal.com(
http://www.saiglobal.com/ )

Introduction

This article examines the sizing of electrical cables (i.e. cross-sectional area) and its implementation in various international standards. Cable sizing methods do differ across international standards (e.g. IEC, NEC, BS, etc) and some standards emphasise certain things over others. However the general principles underlying any cable sizing calculation do not change. In this article, a general methodology for sizing cables is first presented and then the specific international standards are introduced.

Why do the calculation?


The proper sizing of an electrical (load bearing) cable is important to ensure that the cable can:

Operate continuously under full load without being damaged Withstand the worst short circuits currents flowing through the cable Provide the load with a suitable voltage (and avoid excessive voltage drops) (optional) Ensure operation of protective devices during an earth fault

When to do the calculation?


This calculation can be done individually for each power cable that needs to be sized, or alternatively, it can be used to produce cable sizing waterfall charts for groups of cables with similar characteristics (e.g. cables installed on ladder feeding induction motors).

General Methodology
All cable sizing methods more or less follow the same basic six step process:
1) Gathering data about the cable, its installation conditions, the load that it will carry, etc 2) Determine the minimum cable size based on continuous current carrying capacity 3) Determine the minimum cable size based on voltage drop considerations 4) Determine the minimum cable size based on short circuit temperature rise 5) Determine the minimum cable size based on earth fault loop impedance 6) Select the cable based on the highest of the sizes calculated in step 2, 3, 4 and 5

Step 1: Data Gathering


The first step is to collate the relevant information that is required to perform the sizing calculation. Typically, you will need to obtain the following data: Load Details The characteristics of the load that the cable will supply, which includes:

Load type: motor or feeder Three phase, single phase or DC System / source voltage Full load current (A) - or calculate this if the load is defined in terms of power (kW) Full load power factor (pu) Locked rotor or load starting current (A) Starting power factor (pu) Distance / length of cable run from source to load - this length should be as close as possible to the actual route of the cable and include enough contingency for vertical drops / rises and termination of the cable tails

Cable Construction The basic characteristics of the cable's physical construction, which includes:

Conductor material - normally copper or aluminium Conductor shape - e.g. circular or shaped Conductor type - e.g. stranded or solid Conductor surface coating - e.g. plain (no coating), tinned, silver or nickel Insulation type - e.g. PVC, XLPE, EPR Number of cores - single core or multicore (e.g. 2C, 3C or 4C)

Installation Conditions How the cable will be installed, which includes:


Above ground or underground Installation / arrangement - e.g. for underground cables, is it directly buried or buried in conduit? for above ground cables, is it installed on cable tray / ladder, against a wall, in air, etc. Ambient or soil temperature of the installation site Cable bunching, i.e. the number of cables that are bunched together Cable spacing, i.e. whether cables are installed touching or spaced Soil thermal resistivity (for underground cables) Depth of laying (for underground cables) For single core three-phase cables, are the cables installed in trefoil or laid flat?

Step 2: Cable Selection Based on Current Rating


Current flowing through a cable generates heat through the resistive losses in the conductors, dielectric losses through the insulation and resistive losses from current flowing through any cable screens / shields and armouring. The component parts that make up the cable (e.g. conductors, insulation, bedding, sheath, armour, etc) must be capable of withstanding the temperature rise and heat emanating from the cable. The current carrying capacity of a cable is the maximum current that can flow continuously through a cable without damaging the cable's insulation and other components (e.g. bedding, sheath, etc). It is sometimes also referred to as the continuous current rating or ampacity of a cable. Cables with larger conductor cross-sectional areas (i.e. more copper or aluminium) have lower resistive losses and are able to dissipate the heat better than smaller cables. Therefore a 16 mm2 cable will have a higher current carrying capacity than a 4 mm2 cable. Base Current Ratings

Example of base current rating table (Excerpt from IEC 60364-5-52)

International standards and manufacturers of cables will quote base current ratings of different types of cables in tables such as the one shown on the right. Each of these tables pertain to a specific type of cable construction (e.g. copper conductor, PVC insulated, 0.6/1kV voltage grade, etc) and a base set of installation conditions (e.g. ambient temperature, installation method, etc). It is important to note that the current ratings are only valid for the quoted types of cables and base installation conditions. In the absence of any guidance, the following reference based current ratings may be used. Installed Current Ratings

When the proposed installation conditions differ from the base conditions, derating (or correction) factors can be applied to the base current ratings to obtain the actual installed current ratings. International standards and cable manufacturers will provide derating factors for a range of installation conditions, for example ambient / soil temperature, grouping or bunching of cables, soil thermal resistivity, etc. The installed current rating is calculated by multiplying the base current rating with each of the derating factors, i.e.

where

is the installed current rating (A)


is the base current rating (A) are the product of all the derating factors

For example, suppose a cable had an ambient temperature derating factor of kamb = 0.94 and a grouping derating factor of kg = 0.85, then the overall derating factor kd = 0.94x0.85 = 0.799. For a cable with a base current rating of 42A, the installed current rating would be Ic = 0.799x42 = 33.6A. In the absence of any guidance, the following reference derating factors may be used. Cable Selection and Coordination with Protective Devices
Feeders

When sizing cables for non-motor loads, the upstream protective device (fuse or circuit breaker) is typically selected to also protect the cable against damage from thermal overload. The protective device must therefore be selected to exceed the full load current, but not exceed the cable's installed current rating, i.e. this inequality must be met:

Where

is the full load current (A)


is the protective device rating (A) is the installed cable current rating (A)

Motors

Motors are normally protected by a separate thermal overload (TOL) relay and therefore the upstream protective device (e.g. fuse or circuit breaker) is not required to protect the cable

against overloads. As a result, cables need only to be sized to cater for the full load current of the motor, i.e.

Where

is the full load current (A)


is the installed cable current rating (A)

Of course, if there is no separate thermal overload protection on the motor, then the protective device needs to be taken into account as per the case for feeders above.

Step 3: Voltage Drop


A cable's conductor can be seen as an impedance and therefore whenever current flows through a cable, there will be a voltage drop across it, which can be derived by Ohms Law (i.e. V = IZ). The voltage drop will depend on two things:

Current flow through the cable the higher the current flow, the higher the voltage drop Impedance of the conductor the larger the impedance, the higher the voltage drop

Cable Impedances The impedance of the cable is a function of the cable size (cross-sectional area) and the length of the cable. Most cable manufacturers will quote a cables resistance and reactance in /km. The following typical cable impedances for low voltage AC and DC single core and multicore cables can be used in the absence of any other data. Calculating Voltage Drop For AC systems, the method of calculating voltage drops based on load power factor is commonly used. Full load currents are normally used, but if the load has high startup currents (e.g. motors), then voltage drops based on starting current (and power factor if applicable) should also be calculated. For a three phase system:

Where

is the three phase voltage drop (V)


is the nominal full load or starting current as applicable (A)

is the ac resistance of the cable (/km) is the ac reactance of the cable (/km) is the load power factor (pu) is the length of the cable (m)

For a single phase system:

Where

is the single phase voltage drop (V)


is the nominal full load or starting current as applicable (A) is the ac resistance of the cable (/km) is the ac reactance of the cable (/km) is the load power factor (pu) is the length of the cable (m)

For a DC system:

Where

is the dc voltage drop (V)


is the nominal full load or starting current as applicable (A) is the dc resistance of the cable (/km) is the length of the cable (m)

Maximum Permissible Voltage Drop It is customary for standards (or clients) to specify maximum permissible voltage drops, which is the highest voltage drop that is allowed across a cable. Should your cable exceed this voltage drop, then a larger cable size should be selected.

Maximum voltage drops across a cable are specified because load consumers (e.g. appliances) will have an input voltage tolerance range. This means that if the voltage at the appliance is lower than its rated minimum voltage, then the appliance may not operate correctly. In general, most electrical equipment will operate normally at a voltage as low as 80% nominal voltage. For example, if the nominal voltage is 230VAC, then most appliances will run at >184VAC. Cables are typically sized for a more conservative maximum voltage drop, in the range of 5 10% at full load. Calculating Maximum Cable Length due to Voltage Drop It may be more convenient to calculate the maximum length of a cable for a particular conductor size given a maximum permissible voltage drop (e.g. 5% of nominal voltage at full load) rather than the voltage drop itself. For example, by doing this it is possible to construct tables showing the maximum lengths corresponding to different cable sizes in order to speed up the selection of similar type cables. The maximum cable length that will achieve this can be calculated by re-arranging the voltage drop equations and substituting the maximum permissible voltage drop (e.g. 5% of 415V nominal voltage = 20.75V). For a three phase system:

Where

is the maximum length of the cable (m)


is the maximum permissible three phase voltage drop (V) is the nominal full load or starting current as applicable (A) is the ac resistance of the cable (/km) is the ac reactance of the cable (/km) is the load power factor (pu)

For a single phase system:

Where

is the maximum length of the cable (m)


is the maximum permissible single phase voltage drop (V)

is the nominal full load or starting current as applicable (A) is the ac resistance of the cable (/km) is the ac reactance of the cable (/km) is the load power factor (pu)

For a DC system:

Where

is the maximum length of the cable (m)


is the maximum permissible dc voltage drop (V) is the nominal full load or starting current as applicable (A) is the dc resistance of the cable (/km) is the length of the cable (m)

Step 4: Short Circuit Temperature Rise


During a short circuit, a high amount of current can flow through a cable for a short time. This surge in current flow causes a temperature rise within the cable. High temperatures can trigger unwanted reactions in the cable insulation, sheath materials and other components, which can prematurely degrade the condition of the cable. As the cross-sectional area of the cable increases, it can dissipate higher fault currents for a given temperature rise. Therefore, cables should be sized to withstand the largest short circuit that it is expected to see. Minimum Cable Size Due to Short Circuit Temperature Rise The minimum cable size due to short circuit temperature rise is typically calculated with an equation of the form:

Where

is the minimum cross-sectional area of the cable (mm2)


is the prospective short circuit current (A)

is the duration of the short circuit (s) is a short circuit temperature rise constant

The temperature rise constant is calculated based on the material properties of the conductor and the initial and final conductor temperatures (see the derivation here). Different international standards have different treatments of the temperature rise constant, but by way of example, IEC 60364-5-54 calculates it as follows:

(for copper conductors)

(for aluminium conductors)

Where

is the initial conductor temperature (deg C)


is the final conductor temperature (deg C)

Initial and Final Conductor Temperatures The initial conductor temperature is typically chosen to be the maximum operating temperature of the cable. The final conductor temperature is typically chosen to be the limiting temperature of the insulation. In general, the cable's insulation will determine the maximum operating temperature and limiting temperatures. As a rough guide, the following temperatures are common for the different insulation materials:
Max Operating Temperature oC Limiting Temperature o C 160 250 250

Material

PVC EPR XLPE

75 90 90

Short Circuit Energy

The short circuit energy is normally chosen as the maximum short circuit that the cable could potentially experience. However for circuits with current limiting devices (such as HRC fuses), then the short circuit energy chosen should be the maximum prospective let-through energy of the protective device, which can be found from manufacturer data.

Step 5: Earth Fault Loop Impedance


Sometimes it is desirable (or necessary) to consider the earth fault loop impedance of a circuit in the sizing of a cable. Suppose a bolted earth fault occurs between an active conductor and earth. During such an earth fault, it is desirable that the upstream protective device acts to interrupt the fault within a maximum disconnection time so as to protect against any inadvertent contact to exposed live parts. Ideally the circuit will have earth fault protection, in which case the protection will be fast acting and well within the maximum disconnection time. The maximum disconnection time is chosen so that a dangerous touch voltage does not persist for long enough to cause injury or death. For most circuits, a maximum disconnection time of 5s is sufficient, though for portable equipment and socket outlets, a faster disconnection time is desirable (i.e. <1s and will definitely require earth fault protection). However for circuits that do not have earth fault protection, the upstream protective device (i.e. fuse or circuit breaker) must trip within the maximum disconnection time. In order for the protective device to trip, the fault current due to a bolted short circuit must exceed the value that will cause the protective device to act within the maximum disconnection time. For example, suppose a circuit is protected by a fuse and the maximum disconnection time is 5s, then the fault current must exceed the fuse melting current at 5s (which can be found by cross-referencing the fuse time-current curves). By simple application of Ohm's law:

Where is the earth fault current required to trip the protective device within the minimum disconnection time (A)
is the phase to earth voltage at the protective device (V) is the impedance of the earth fault loop ()

It can be seen from the equation above that the impedance of the earth fault loop must be sufficiently low to ensure that the earth fault current can trip the upstream protection. The Earth Fault Loop

The earth fault loop can consist of various return paths other than the earth conductor, including the cable armour and the static earthing connection of the facility. However for practical reasons, the earth fault loop in this calculation consists only of the active conductor and the earth conductor. The earth fault loop impedance can be found by:

Where

is the earth fault loop impedance ()


is the impedance of the active conductor () is the impedance of the earth conductor ()

Assuming that the active and earth conductors have identical lengths, the earth fault loop impedance can be calculated as follows:

Where

is the length of the cable (m)


and and are the ac resistances of the active and earth conductors respectively (/km) are the reactances of the active and earth conductors respectively (/km)

Maximum Cable Length The maximum earth fault loop impedance can be found by re-arranging the equation above:

Where

is the maximum earth fault loop impedance ()


is the phase to earth voltage at the protective device (V) is the earth fault current required to trip the protective device within the minimum disconnection time (A)

The maximum cable length can therefore be calculated by the following:

Where

is the maximum cable length (m)


is the phase to earth voltage at the protective device (V) is the earth fault current required to trip the protective device within the minimum disconnection time (A) and and are the ac resistances of the active and earth conductors respectively (/km) are the reactances of the active and earth conductors respectively (/km)

Note that the voltage V0 at the protective device is not necessarily the nominal phase to earth voltage, but usually a lower value as it can be downstream of the main busbars. This voltage is commonly represented by applying some factor to the nominal voltage. A conservative value of = 0.8 can be used so that:

Where Vn is the nominal phase to earth voltage (V)

Worked Example
In this example, we will size a cable for a 415V, 30kW three-phase motor from the MCC to the field.

Step 1: Data Gathering


The following data was collected for the cable to be sized:

Cable type: Cu/PVC/GSWB/PVC, 3C+E, 0.6/1kV Operating temperature: 75C Cable installation: above ground on cable ladder bunched together with 3 other cables on a single layer and at 30C ambient temperature Cable run: 90m (including tails) Motor load: 30kW, 415V three phase, full load current = 58A, power factor = 0.87 Protection: aM fuse of rating = 80A, max prospective fault I2t = 90 A2s , 5s melt time = 550A

Step 2: Cable Selection Based on Current Rating

Suppose the ambient temperature derating is 0.89 and the grouping derating for 3 bunched cables on a single layer is 0.82. The overall derating factor is 0.89 0.82 = 0.7298. Given that a 25 2 2 mm and 35 mm have base current ratings of 78A and 96A respectively, which cable should be selected based on current rating considerations? The installed current ratings for 25 mm2 and 35 mm2 is 0.7298 78A = 56.92A and 0.7298 96A = 70.06A respectively. Given that the full load current of the motor is 58A, then the installed current rating of the 25 mm2 cable is lower than the full load current and is not suitable for continuous use with the motor. The 35 mm2 cable on the other hand has an installed current rating that exceeds the motor full load current, and is therefore the cable that should be selected.

Step 3: Voltage Drop


Suppose a 35 mm2 cable is selected. If the maximum permissible voltage drop is 5%, is the cable suitable for a run length of 90m? A 35 mm2 cable has an ac resistance of 0.638 /km and a reactance of 0.0826 /km. The voltage drop across the cable is:

A voltage drop of 5.388V is equivalent to , which is lower than the maximum permissible voltage dorp of 5%. Therefore the cable is suitable for the motor based on voltage drop considerations.

Step 4: Short Circuit Temperature Rise


The cable is operating normally at 75C and has a prospective fault capacity (I2t) of 90 kA2s. What is the minimum size of the cable based on short circuit temperature rise? XLPE has a limiting temperature of 160C. Using the IEC formula, the short circuit temperature rise constant is 111.329. The minimum cable size due to short circuit temperature rise is therefore:

In this example, we also use the fuse for earth fault protection and it needs to trip within 5s, which is at the upper end of the adiabatic period where the short circuit temperature rise equation is still valid. Therefore, it's a good idea to also check that the cable can withstand the short circuit temperature rise for for a 5s fault. The 80A motor fuse has a 5s melting current of 550A. The short circuit temperature rise is thus:

Therefore, our 35 mm2 cable is still suitable for this application.

Step 5: Earth Fault Loop Impedance


Suppose there is no special earth fault protection for the motor and a bolted single phase to earth fault occurs at the motor terminals. The earth conductor for our 35 mm2 cable is 10 mm2. If the maximum disconnection time is 5s, is our 90m long cable suitable based on earth fault loop impedance? The 80A motor fuse has a 5s melting current of 550A. The ac resistances of the active and earth conductors are 0.638 /km and 2.33 /km) respectively. The reactances of the active and earth conductors are 0.0826 /km and 0.0967 /km) respectively. The maximum length of the cable allowed is calculated as:

The cable run is 90m and the maximum length allowed is 117m, therefore our cable is suitable based on earth fault loop impedance. In fact, our 35 mm2 cable has passed all the tests and is the size that should be selected.

Waterfall Charts

Example of a cable waterfall chart

Sometimes it is convenient to group together similar types of cables (for example, 415V PVC motor cables installed on cable ladder) so that instead of having to go through the laborious exercise of sizing each cable separately, one can select a cable from a pre-calculated chart.

These charts are often called "waterfall charts" and typically show a list of load ratings and the maximum of length of cable permissible for each cable size. Where a particular cable size fails to meet the requirements for current carrying capacity or short circuit temperature rise, it is blacked out on the chart (i.e. meaning that you can't choose it). Preparing a waterfall chart is common practice when having to size many like cables and substantially cuts down the time required for cable selection.

International Standards
IEC
IEC 60364-5-52 (2009) "Electrical installations in buildings - Part 5-52: Selection and erection of electrical equipment - Wiring systems" is the IEC standard governing cable sizing.

NEC
NFPA 70 (2011) "National Electricity Code" is the equivalent standard for IEC 60364 in North America and includes a section covering cable sizing in Article 300.

BS
BS 7671 (2008) "Requirements for Electrical Installations - IEE Wiring Regulations" is the equivalent standard for IEC 60364 in the United Kingdom.

AS/NZS
AS/NZS 3008.1 (2009) "Electrical installations - Selection of cables - Cables for alternating voltages up to and including 0.6/1 kV" is the standard governing low voltage cable sizing in Australia and New Zealand. AS/NZS 3008.1.1 is for Australian conditions and AS/NZS 3008.1.2 is for New Zealand conditions.

Computer Software
Cablesizer is a free online application for sizing cables to IEC standards. Most of the major electrical analysis packages (e.g. ETAP, PTW, etc) have a cable sizing module. There also exists other (offline) software packages that include cable sizing (for example from Solutions Electrical UK). ############################################################################## #### For you clarification of Transfomer Sizing calculation could be followed as 1. Calculate Total Connected Load(KW)(

2. Calc the Total I/P in KW ( Considereing 85% efficiency) 3. Calc Total I/P in KVA (Considering 0.92 Power Factor) 4. Required KVA by mutiplying the Total I/P in KVA by 1.2 times. Calculation Example 1. Say Total Connected load in KW=1100 2. Therefore Total I/P in kw = 1100/0.86 = 1279 3. Total I/P in KVA = 1390 4. Total KVA required = 1390*1.2=1668 Therefore by considering the future connection you can select 2000 KVA transformer for the above said example.

AWG Wire Sizes (see table below) AWG: In the American Wire Gauge (AWG), diameters can be calculated by applying the formula D(AWG)=.00592((36-AWG)/39) inch. For the 00, 000, 0000 etc. gauges you use -1, -2, -3, which makes more sense mathematically than "double nought." This means that in American wire gage every 6 gauge decrease gives a doubling of the wire diameter, and every 3 gauge decrease doubles the wire cross sectional area. Similar to dB in signal and power levels. An approximate but accurate form of this formula contributed by Mario Rodriguez is D = .460 * (57/64)(awg +3) or D = .460 * (0.890625)(awg +3).

Metric Wire Gauges (see table below) Metric Gauge: In the Metric Gauge scale, the gauge is 10 times the diameter in millimeters, so a 50 gauge metric wire would be 5 mm in diameter. Note that in AWG the diameter goes up as the gauge goes down, but for metric gauges it is the opposite. Probably because of this confusion, most of the time metric sized wire is specified in millimeters rather than metric gauges. Load Carrying Capacities (see table below) The following chart is a guideline of ampacity or copper wire current carrying capacity following the Handbook of Electronic Tables and Formulas for American Wire Gauge. As you might guess, the rated ampacities are just a rule of thumb. In careful engineering the voltage drop, insulation temperature limit, thickness, thermal conductivity, and air convection and temperature should all be taken into account. The Maximum Amps for Power Transmission uses the 700 circular mils per amp rule, which is very very conservative. The Maximum Amps for Chassis Wiring is also a conservative rating, but is meant for wiring in air, and not in a bundle. For short lengths of wire, such as is used in battery packs you should trade off the resistance and load with size, weight, and flexibility. NOTE: For installations that need to conform to the National Electrical Code, you must use their guidelines. Contact your local electrician to find out what is legal! AWG Conductor Conductor Ohms Ohms per Maximum Maximum Maximum gauge Diameter Diameter per km amps for amps for frequency for

Inches

mm

1000 ft.

chassis wiring

power 100% skin transmission depth for solid conductor copper 302 239 190 150 119 94 75 60 47 37 30 24 19 15 12 9.3 7.4 5.9 4.7 3.7 2.9 2.3 1.8 1.5 1.2 0.92 0.729 0.577 0.457 0.361 0.288 0.226 125 Hz 160 Hz 200 Hz 250 Hz 325 Hz 410 Hz 500 Hz 650 Hz 810 Hz 1100 Hz 1300 Hz 1650 Hz 2050 Hz 2600 Hz 3200 Hz 4150 Hz 5300 Hz 6700 Hz 8250 Hz 11 k Hz 13 k Hz 17 kHz 21 kHz 27 kHz 33 kHz 42 kHz 53 kHz 68 kHz 85 kHz 107 kH 130 kHz 170 kHz

OOOO 0.46 OOO OO 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 0.4096 0.3648 0.3249 0.2893 0.2576 0.2294 0.2043 0.1819 0.162 0.1443 0.1285 0.1144 0.1019 0.0907 0.0808 0.072 0.0641 0.0571 0.0508 0.0453 0.0403 0.0359 0.032 0.0285 0.0254 0.0226 0.0201 0.0179 0.0159 0.0142 0.0126

11.684 10.40384 9.26592 8.25246 7.34822 6.54304 5.82676 5.18922 4.62026 4.1148 3.66522 3.2639 2.90576 2.58826 2.30378 2.05232 1.8288 1.62814 1.45034 1.29032 1.15062 1.02362 0.91186 0.8128 0.7239 0.64516 0.57404 0.51054 0.45466 0.40386 0.36068 0.32004

0.049

0.16072

380

0.0618 0.202704 328 0.0779 0.255512 283 0.0983 0.322424 245 0.1239 0.406392 211 0.1563 0.512664 181 0.197 0.64616 158 135 0.2485 0.81508

0.3133 1.027624 118 0.3951 1.295928 101 0.4982 1.634096 89 0.6282 2.060496 73 0.7921 2.598088 64 0.9989 3.276392 55 1.26 1.588 2.003 2.525 3.184 4.016 5.064 6.385 8.051 10.15 12.8 16.14 20.36 25.67 32.37 40.81 51.47 64.9 4.1328 5.20864 6.56984 8.282 47 41 35 32

10.44352 28 13.17248 22 16.60992 19 20.9428 33.292 41.984 52.9392 66.7808 84.1976 16 11 9 7 4.7 3.5 26.40728 14

106.1736 2.7 133.8568 2.2 168.8216 1.7 212.872 1.4

29 30 31 32

0.0113 0.01 0.0089 0.008

0.28702 0.254 0.22606 0.2032 0.200 0.18034 0.180 0.16002 0.16002 0.14224 .140 0.127 0.125 0.1143 0.112 0.1016 0.1000 0.0889 0.07874

81.83 103.2 130.1 164.1

268.4024 1.2 338.496 426.728 538.248 0.86 0.7 0.53 0.51 0.43 0.43 0.33 0.33 0.27 0.26 0.21 0.20 0.17 0.163 0.13 0.126 0.11 0.09

0.182 0.142 0.113 0.091 0.088 0.072 0.072 0.056 0.056 0.044 0.043 0.035 0.034 0.0289 0.0277 0.0228 0.0225 0.0175 0.0137

210 kHz 270 kHz 340 kHz 430 kHz 440 kHz 540 kHz 540 kHz 690 kHz 690 kHz 870 kHz 900 kHz 1100 kHz 1150 kHz 1350 kHz 1400 kHz 1750 kHz 1750 kHz 2250 kHz 2900 kHz

Metric 0.00787 2.0 33 0.0071 Metric 0.00709 1.8 34 0.0063 Metric 0.0063 1.6 35 0.0056 Metric .00551 1.4 36 0.005 Metric .00492 1.25 37 0.0045 Metric .00441 1.12 38 0.004 Metric .00394 1 39 40 0.0035 0.0031

169.39 555.61 206.9 207.5 260.9 260.9 329 339 414.8 428.2 523.1 533.8 659.6 670.2 831.8 1049 678.632 680.55 855.752 855.752 1079.12 1114 1360 1404 1715 1750 2163 2198 2728 3440

The British Standard BS 7671* applies to low voltage cables rated under 1 kV. Therefore, this standard is mostly for building cables. The derated cable ampacity calculation module uses the following parameters. *Additional Module - Not included in ETAP Base Package

Cable Raceway Installations ETAP is a powerful ampacity analysis software tool for aboveground (A/G) and underground (U/G in duct and buried) installations as followed:

A/G Conduit (no thermal insulation) A/G Trays (perforated) Air Drop (suspended)

Brackets Building Voids (with or without cable thermal insulation) Cleats Embedded Direct in Building Material Ladder Open & Clipped Direct Trenches (open/ventilated or closed) Trunking (wall/suspended or flush floor)

Cable Layout ETAPs cable ampacity analysis software gives the option to select from the cable layouts listed here below.

Horizontal layout - Touching Horizontal layout - Spaced Vertical layout Touching Vertical layout - Spaced Trefoil layout

Grouping Factors The cable ampacity, as part of the ampacity analysis tools, allows to select from the following grouping factors. The ampacity is adjusted accordingly based on the users selection.

Number of Circuits as limited based on the standard Simultaneously Overloading option (used for cable sizing)

Temperature Correction The cable ampacity assessment application calculates the derated ampacity based on the ambient and conductor temperatures. In this ampacity analysis application for buried, aboveground, and underground cables, the user can select the base temperature provided by the manufacturer or the operating temperature of the cable calculated by this module.

Base Ambient Temperature Base Conductor Temperature Operating Ambient Temperature Operating Conductor Temperature

Cable Fire Protection Users of this cable ampacity analysis program can select from a variety of fire protection layers available in the ETAP Library. ETAPs ampacity analysis program offers the following cable fire protection adjustments:

Cable Thermal Insulation Cable Insulation Thickness of able thermal insulation

Alert for Allowable Ampacity ETAPs ampacity analysis program provides alerts to the user when a critical situation occurs such as overloading. A critical situation may deteriorate the cable and tremendously reduce its lifetime. The alerts in ETAP can be based on the options listed below.

Based on the calculated Derated Ampacity User-Defined value Based on thermal analysis results of underground raceway systems module

This cable ampacity method is based on BS 7671 - 2001, Requirements for Electrical Installation. This cable ampacity calculation tool applies to a number of types of installation, including above ground and underground configurations. This cable ampacity analysis method can be used for cables at nominal voltages up to and including 1000V a.c. and 1500V d.c. The displayed cable Base ambient temperature (Ta) is fixed at 30 Co per BS 7671. The cable Base maximum conductor temperature (Tc) is determined based on cable conductor type and insulation type corresponding to Tables 4D1A and onwards of BS 7671. Cable Base Ampacity is from Tables 4DA1 and onwards of BS 7671. Under certain conditions, the base ampacity may not be available from these tables and the Base Ampacity field will show zero. In this case, the user may refer to ETAP log pane for more information. Cable Derated Ampacity is displayed in the Derated Ampacity field. The following derating factors are considered for cable derating calculation:

Ca Correction factor for ambient temperature. The factor is from Table 4C1 or Table 4C2 of BS 7671 Appendix 4. Cg Correction factor for grouping. The factor is from Tables 4B1, 4B2 or 4B3 of BS 7671 Appendix 4. Ci Correction factor for conductors embedded in thermal insulation. Refer to Section 523-04 of BS 7671 for detailed information. Cf Correction factor for BS 3036 fuse. A factor of 0.725 is applied for cables protected by a fuse to BS 3036. Refer to Section 5 of BS 7671 Appendix 4 for detailed information. A BS 3036 Fuse is specified on the Protection page by selecting User-Defined Overload Protection device.

If a derating factor cannot be determined, the Derated Ampacity field on the Ampacity page will show zero. In this case you may refer to ETAP log pane for more information.

Look up the manufacturer rating for the specific cable. This gives the voltage drop and the current rating. The current rating is about how hot it gets, which is about the insulation. There are also de-ratings for conditions like bunched cables or underground where the cable can get hotter. Some cables are not intended to operate in the sunlight or in outdoor or underground situations. If in doubt contact the supplier or manufacturer explaining the situation and ask which cable and what de-rating.. The allowable voltage drop is often specified in regulations, and may be 5%. Often the voltage drop requirements will dictate a larger cable than the current ratings. You might need to consider voltage drop with starting current in some situations, like when larger motors are involved in the load. The maximum current needs to be determined including additional current due to power factor of the load. You might allow for further expansion of load too.

Table 1: Cables enclosed in an insulated wall: Method 1

Cable size 1mm 1.5mm 2.5mm 4.00mm 6.00mm 10.00mm Table 2: Cables which are clipped direct: Method 2

Rating in Amps 11 14 18.5 25 32 43

Cable size 1mm 1.5mm 2.5mm 4mm 6mm 10mm

Rating in Amps 15 19.5 27 36 46 63

Wire Size and Breakers

Residential electrical wiring can be confusing at the best of times. The size of the electrical service coming into the home and how to take that service and deliver the various power requirement through-out the home, can be a complex exercise. Power is supplied to your home, from the utility, in the form of volts and amps. The amount of power that the utility provides is governed by the transformer on the pole, as shown in Figure 1, or the transformer that is mounted on the ground, as shown in Figure 2, that services your home and the size of the wires from that transformer to your home.

Figure 1 - Typical residential overhead electrical service

Figure 2 - Ground or pad mounted residential electrical service

For explanation purposes we will use 120 and 240 VAC as the voltage. 120 & 240 are nominal numbers and can vary from 110 to 120 and 205 to 240 depending on the utility. Utilities can "drop" power into your home using copper or aluminum wiring. However, there is a difference to the current carrying capability of copper versus aluminum. Because of our ever increasing demand for electrical power in out homes, most new homes are being built with a minimum of a 150 Amp service and 200 is not uncommon. Many older homes still have 60 amp services and in rural locations it is still possible to find 30 amp services. It is important to understand the relationship between wire gauge and amperage. To do this we will look at the original fuse. The original fuse was a piece of wire sized to melt when a specific amount of amps (current) was going through it, as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 - The fuse element, on the left of the picture, is what is inside the cartridge. The thinner the link between the caps the less amount of current (amps) that the link can handle before it melts, due to the heat.

A piece of wire gets hot as it carries the current to your home or throughout your home. This is why a toaster, stove or hotplate works, current is sent through the wires and they get hot. The thinner the wire the hotter it gets when a specific amount of amps are flowing through it. Circuit breakers (Figure 4) perform the same function although they work in a different manner. They work in a similar manner to a thermostat. As current flows through the breaker, a piece of metal warms and bends, when the bend reaches a point it mechanically trips the breaker to the "TRIPPED" position, which is between the "OFF" and "ON" positions.

Figure 4 - Circuit breaker

It may be noted that although circuit breakers are more convenient than fuses because they can be reset. Fuses react much faster to overloads and hence shut down a circuit faster than breakers do. Wire is manufactured to a specific group of sizes that are designated by numbers known as gauges. The gauge of the wires that carry the power from the transformer to your home and within your home are chosen in size to ensure that they do not overheat at their rated amperage. In fact, there should be no noticeable heat on the wires at any time. So you might think that you can obtain more power from your utility just by increasing the size of the main fuses or breakers, and you probably can, to a point. At some point, the wires that run from the transformer to your home will act as a fuse and burn out from carrying more current than specified.

Table 1 - Service Wire Gauge Versus Amperage Copper Aluminum Amperage 10 8 30 6 6 60 6 4 70 4 2 100 2 1/0 125 1/0 2/0 150 2/0 4/0 200
Table 1 provides the current carrying capacity, by gauge of copper and aluminum wires .

Table 2 - Copper Ground Wire Gauge Copper Service Amperage 8 100 6 125 4 150 3 200
The choice of ground wire gauge is relative to the service size as indicated in Table 2

Correct Wire Gauge For Home Circuits Breaker / Fuse Size (Amps) 15 Wire Gauge (Copper*) Most Common Application 14

General household receptacles and lighting.** Kitchen countertop receptacles for small 20 12 appliances. 30 10 Water heaters. 40 8 Electric clothes dryers 50 6 Electric ranges. * If you have aluminum wiring then the gauge should go up one level. As an example; for a 15 amp circuit using aluminum wire the correct wire gauge is 12. ** More and more new homes are being wired with a minimum of 20 amp circuits for general receptacles and lighting applications.
Choosing the correct wire gauge within your home, wires that run from the electrical distribution panel (load center) to various appliances, and electrical outlets (receptacles) is crucial. You do not want the wire to act as a fuse and burn should a short circuit occur.

Followup To Question what size cable would i need to carry 240volt half a mile with out any power loss. i would be powering 3 small houses. Answer dear sir kindly let me know the following :1. What will be the approximate load of that three house? If load of those houses are 2 Kw each ie total = 2X3 = 6 Kw then current drawal will be approx :6000Watt / 220 Volt = 30 Amp. So you can go to a shop and ask for a cable which will be able to carry 30 X 1.5 = 45 Amp load ( considering factor of safety 1.Choose a properly insulated stranded copper cable with armouring around insulation. regards The houses would need 5 kw each Get the answer below

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Answer dear sir, In that case total load is 15 Kw = 15000Watt So the current will be approx 15000/220 Amp = 70 amp approx If you consider the factor of safety = 1.5 Then choose a cable which will be able to carry 70 x 1.5 amp = 105 Amp Current. If you consider for future load enhancement then better consider for a cable capable a carrying 200 amp current. I hope this will solve your problem. with regards.

In order to install any electrical wire installation, the proper wire size for the application is needed. But how do you know what size wire to use? Wire is sized by the American Wire Gauge (AWG) system. Your installation of conductors will depend on a few factors. The gauge of the wire, wire capacity, and what the wire will feed should all be considered. Youll notice that the smaller the wire gauge, the larger the ampacity that the wire can handle. Wire ampacity is the safe amount of current that a wire can handle without getting hot or causing a fire. The following examples of devices in your home, the ampacity that they are rated for, and the wire gauge, will help you determine the right size wire for the appropriate application. Wire Gauges and Uses

Wire Use

Rated Ampacity 10 Amps 13 Amps 15 Amps 20 Amps

Wire Gauge 18 Gauge 16 Gauge 14 Gauge 12 Gauge

Low-voltage Lighting and Lamp Cords Extension Cords Light Fixtures, Lamps, Lighting Runs Receptacles, 110-volt Air Conditioners, Sump Pumps, Kitchen Appliances Electric Clothes Dryers, 220-volt Window Air Conditioners, Built-in Ovens, Electric Water Heaters Cook Tops Electric Furnaces, Large Electric Heaters Electric Furnaces, Large Electric Water Heaters, Sub Panels Service Panels, Sub Panels Service Entrance Service Entrance

30 Amps

10 Gauge

45 Amps 60 Amps 80 Amps 100 Amps 150 Amps 200 Amps

8 Gauge 6 Gauge 4 Gauge 2 Gauge 1/0 Gauge 2/0 Gauge

MK Electric K5061WHI Logic Plus White Moulded Double Pole Flush Mounting Cooker Control Unit With 13A Switchsocket & Neons 45A

K5061WHI

Our Price 17.38 exc VAT

http://www.discount-electrical.co.uk/section.php/108583/1/domestic-wiring-accessories

Quantity

Our Price 20.86 inc VAT List Price 48.16 inc VAT You Save 22.75 or 56.69%

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Manufacturer Information

Code K5061WHI MK Electric K5061WHI Logic Plus White Moulded Double Pole Flush Mounting Cooker Control Unit With 13A Switchsocket & Neons 45A

A range of cooker control units suitable for the switching of all domestic, commercial and industrial appliances where higher current ratings are required, i.e. cookers, heaters, commercial refrigeration units etc. Metal units are particularly suitable for refurbishment projects. 45A - 240V ~ double pole switch with 13A - 240V ~ switched socket outlet Conform to BS 4177: 1992 (1993). 'Specification for cooker control units' Stylish modern profile Positive switch action Positive double pole switching

Toggle action switches Replaceable neon indicators All terminal and fixing screws operated by one size (4mm) screwdriver Backed out and captive terminal screws Flush mounting back box : min. 35 mm deep Nominal plate dimensions : 86 x 146 mm

Dimensions

Box Types

Box Depths Max Cable Size 10mm 10mm 6mm


2

Ref K5040 WHI K5041 WHI K5060 WHI

Flush 35mm

Surface Supplied with box Supplied with box -

10mm K5061 WHI K5001 WHI K5011 WHI

47mm 35mm 47mm 55mm

Supplied with box -

6mm 2 10mm 10mm 10mm


2

References Depths Flush Box Depth 30 35 40 46 47 55 1 gang 886 ZIC 877 ZIC 5120 ALM (cooker) 2 gang 886 ZIC 878 ZIC Surface 1 gang K2140 WHI K2301 WHI 2 gang K2172 WHI -

Technical Specification
45A Cooker Control Units Voltage Rating Current Rating 250V a.c 45A resistive 1x 16mm 2 3 x 6mm 2 4 x 4mm
2

Terminal Capacity

Physical

Operating Temperature IP Rating Maximum installation altitude

-5 C to +40 C IP4X 2000 metres

Logic Plus Logic Plus wiring devices from MK Electric have been designed to perfectly complement modern interiors, offering an unobtrusive and sophisticated look totally in keeping with today's design. Technically, they exceed British Standard requirements with patented features that make these products the most advanced and safest available. The range is backed by MK's quality and reliability and provides the largest selection of wiring devices in any single range. Features & Benefits Modern Styling Smoothly formed front plates, rounded rocker switches and chamfered radius corners. Total Safety 3-pin operated "child resistant shutter system", which is designed to inhibit access to the electricity supply, unless all 3 pins of a standard British 13 Amp plug are in position. Unrivaled Quality And Reliability Products are made from the very best materials and are 100% tested. Quick And Easy To Install In-line terminals and backed out, captive screws feature. Outstanding Range Large selection of wiring devices providing a total solution. 20 Year Guarantee Gives total peace of mind to you and your customers (10 years Electronic Devices).

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