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31.10.

2011

Overpressure Protection of Oil & Gas Production Facilities (Inlet Arrangements) Design av innlpsarrangement (choke kollaps/feilpning) ved bruk av integrerte simuleringsverkty.
A M lb Arne Myrvang G Gulbraar Tekna, Prosessikkerhet Olje og Gass, 2.-3. Nov. 2011, Bergen

Email:info@bpt.no Phone:+4767569990 VisitingAddress:Lkketangen20,Sandvika

Billington Process Technology AS


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COMPANY PRESENTATION

Since 1998, BPT core business is to provide solution focused verificaton and support services as an independant 3rd party process specialist to asset owners and/or proprietory process owners. Our business is conducted by combining component and system design knowhow, field experience with structured use of both rigorous static and dynamic process simulation models. BPT holds own software licenses for steady state as well as dynamic simulations.: HYSYS & OLGA ( (Including like Crude, g HYSYS options p , Amines, , Upstream Dynamics,.Olga-Hysys link etc.). Models are as far as possible validated against field data. The company has implemented a Quality Assurance System according to ISO 9001:2000. BPT is certified to the Achilles Joint Qualification System under ID No. 26845 for suppliers to the oil & gas industry.

Billington Process Technology AS


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Life cycle simulations

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Overpressure Protection of Oil & Gas Production Facilities (Inlet Arrangements)


Fail open & Choke collapse Projects by BPT:
Statoils sgard A & B incl the Morvin tie-in & the Smrbukk Sr tie-in
Picture of sgard g B: With courtesy y from Statoil ASA

BPT Utilizes Integrated Dynamic Multiphase (OLGA (1)) and Process (HYSYS (2)) to design Oil & Gas Production Facilities for the so called inadvertent opening of inlet block valves with production choke fully open and choke collapse scenarios.

Statoils Kristin incl the Tyrihans tie-in Enis Marulk tie-in to Statoils Norne FPSO Totals Hild

Enis Goliat

Statoils Huldra

Statoils Valemon Statoils Visund Sr tie-in to Gullfaks C

Statoils Skuld tie-in to Statoils Norne FPSO

(1) OLGA

Dynamic multiphase flow product of SPT Group


(2) HYSYS

Aspen HYSYS Dynamics, by AspenTech

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Benefits vs Plant Regularity & Integrity

Extend operational limits (raise flowline PSHH)? Remove interlocks? Simplify procedures? Reduce maintenance requirements? Larger chokes/less change-outs? Allow for choke choke collapse collapse in design?

By using dynamic simulations in the design of


overpressure protection systems, a better utilization of existing as well as new installations can be achieved
(i)

Plant Regularity/ Production

(ii)
Potential for... Less flowline trips Less planned maintenance Quicker start-up after trip

(i) Design based on improved model assumptions, by use of rigorous dynamic simulations => Robust / Conventional secondary pressure protection system (ii) Design based on too conservative model assumptions => Complex / Instrumented secondary pressure protection system.

A plants minimum spec.

Plant integrity
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Introduction - Overpressure Protection

Overpressure protection of inlet arrangement in a process plant is a


challenging design task due to the complex dynamic multiphase phenomena often occuring from incoming pipelines

Key standards:
API Std 521 Norsok P-100 ++ Example: Oil&Gas offshore production facility with long distance subsea tie-backs

Typical Inlet Arrangement:


PSV

Flare Tip

Flare K.O.Drum Inlet Separator

Riser Production Block Choke Valve


Riser hang-off

HV

PSV

HV

Test Separator

Inlet Manifolds

Risers

Flowlines

Templates

Sub sea valves (Wing, master and choke)

Wells

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Introduction - Overpressure Protection

Operators Needs:
Safe platform operations without restricting Production or Plant Operability
Optimum utilization of the facility

Static approaches pp have in various cases shown to be unpredictable, p ,


resulting in safety hazards

Stand alone multiphase (OLGA) simulations have been used by many


operators with success to establish a safe and operable system

The linked multiphase & process simulations bring additional benefits


into the design:
more realistic design cases can be evaluated Improved understanding is gained This again leads to a safer design, and a better utilization of the facility
Extend operational limits (raise flowline PSHH)? Remove interlocks? Simplify procedures? Reduce maintenance requirements? Larger chokes/less change-outs? Allow for choke collapse in design?

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Overpressure Protection of process inlets Aim: Example 1: Protection of process equipment from
pressure overload resulting from Inadvertent opening of To keep the flow rate inlet block valve with production choke fully open from a shut-in
Inadvertent Opening! (1st error)
Riser Production Block Choke 100% Valve
Riser hang-off Production from wells or flowlines
HV

PSV

Flare Tip

Flare header

Flare K.O.Drum

Inlet Separator

pipeline, upon accidental opening of the blocking valve, below an acceptable value Means: Restrict settle-out pressure in pipeline upon shut-in Result:

PSV

open
HV

Test Separator

Inlet Manifolds

What is the flowline process conditions at the start of the incident? Well: Full shut-in pressure Flowline: Full shut-in pressure, or restricted settle-out pressure in pipeline upon shut-in ?

Conventional pressure protection according to API

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31.10.2011

Overpressure Protection of process inlets

Example 2: Protection of process equipment from


pressure overload resulting from topside choke collapse
Collapsing / Sudden increase in capacity (1st error)
HV Flare Tip

Aim: To keep the flow rate from a shut-in pipeline, upon topside choke collapse, below an acceptable value Means:

PSV

Flare header

100% open

Flare K.O.Drum

Riser Production Block Choke Valve


Riser hang-off Production from wells or flowlines

Inlet Separator

PSV

Choke configuration
(1x100%, 2x50%..)
HV

Test Separator

Inlet Manifolds

Restrict settle-out pressure in pipeline upon p shut-in Result: Conventional pressure protection according to API
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What is the flowline process conditions at the start of the incident? Normal production? Normal start-up? Choke position at time of collapse

Picture reference:Cage Collapse, Safety aspects of TC cage collapse and impact testing, Presentation by Mokveld at TEKNA Process Safety Conference, Bergen, 2010.

Basic requirements

Codes and standards for vessels and pipelines


Pressure directive for vessels: P < 1.1 x design pressure, brief surge allowed ASME ANSI B31.3 for p pipes: p 1.3 x design g p pressure

Conventional design of relief-systems


API Std 521 (identical ISO 23251) Sizing of secondary barrier, PSV and associated flare system Protection against any single failure, e.g. mal operation of valves API RP 14C To define necessary primary and secondary barriers ISO 10418 replaces API RP 14C for new systems

Choose a conventional solution according to a strict interpretation of API


practice ?

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Basic requirements API Std 521, 5th Edition, 2007 (ISO23251)


5.22 Dynamic simulation:

..can be used to calculate transient


pressure increases

The user should be aware of the underlying


assumptions that are built into the dynamic simulation software code and how they affect the results

..can be used to calculate relief rates from


individual relief devices (PSVs)

Conventional methods for calculating relief


loads are generally conservative and can lead to overly sized relief- and flare system designs.

At steady-state conditions, the dynamic


model shall closely match the steady-state model

If dynamic simulation is used, sensitivity

Dynamic simulations provides an alternative

analyses shall be performed to assess factors such as the effect of pressure-relief method to better define the relief load and devices with excess capacity, the action of improves the understanding of what happens automatic controls, controls controller tuning, tuning during relief understood, the dynamic simulation model shall include conservative assumptions.

If the physical phenomena are not well

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Basic requirements API Std 521, 5th Edition, 2007 (ISO23251)


5.22 Dynamic simulation:

..can be used to calculate transient


Degree of conservative assumptions may pressure increases

The user should be aware of the underlying


assumptions that are built into the dynamic simulation software code and how they affect the results

impact number of sensitivity cases that are q be used Key yp parameters torelief define: required. ..can to calculate rates from

individual reliefnormal devices (PSVs) Worst case operating conditions


Well production cond, PI,..) Conventional methods(reservoir for calculating relief

At steady-state conditions, the dynamic


model shall closely match the steady-state model

loads are generally conservative and can Flowline conditions (P, T, Holdup) lead to overly sized relief- and flare system Separator conditions (P, T, Level) designs.

Dynamic simulations provides an alternative Backgound production

analyses shall be performed to assess factors such as the effect of pressure-relief method to better define the relief load and devices with excess capacity, the action of Piping P-Flow relation and volumes improves the understanding of what happens automatic controls, controls controller tuning, tuning Valve capacity & characteristics during relief understood, the dynamic simulation model shall include conservative assumptions.

Valve initial posistions & actions

If dynamic simulation is used, sensitivity

If the physical phenomena are not well

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Basic requirements Norsok P-100, Edition 3, Feb 2010)


16.2.2 Choke valve collapse:

.. The relieving rate and the resulting


pressure build-up in case of choke collapse shall be determined. The relieving capacity shall be sufficient to prevent overpressure overpressure. In determining the required relieving rate, the highest realistic GOR and pressure in flowline/riser shall be used. A dynamic analysis may be required to determine these effects.

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Method - Overpressure Protection of process inlets

Utilizing Integrated Dynamic Multiphase (OLGA (1)) and Process


(HYSYS (2)) to design Oil & Gas Production Facilities for inadvertent opening of inlet block valves with production choke fully open and choke collapse scenarios.

Statoils Kristin

(1) OLGA

Dynamic y multiphase p flow product of SPT Group


(2) HYSYS

Statoils sgard B
Pictures: With courtesy from Statoil

Aspen HYSYS Dynamics, by AspenTech

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OLGA - Multiphase flow simulator

Dynamic simulator designed for


flow in wells and pipelines

Appears to be the de-facto


industry standard for simulation of transient multiphase flow
Engineering Operation

Figure: OLGA application areas and users (With courtesy from SPT Group) Billington Process Technology AS
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OLGA/HYSYS Link
By AspenTech and SPT Group

A dynamic user operation extension within HYSYS Dynamics

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Process parameters exchanged Fluid definitions

Pressure, Temperature, Phase mass flow rates, Phase fractions

dP/dF: Change of pressure with change in phase flow


OLGA uses PVT tables (compositional OLGA not used in this

work Use the same set of pseudo components and apply the same equation of state/fluid definitions in both OLGA and HYSYS. A HYSYS Reference stream defines compositional split from phase fractions, P & T as received from OLGA (Gas, Liquid & Water)

Time Synchronization

OLGA and HYSYS integrate differently using potentially different

time steps techniques. p and integration g q


OLGA time step must be an integer multiple of HYSYS steps.

The solved pressure-flow conditions from OLGA are not immediately enforced upon the HYSYS model but instead HYSYS linearly moves to the final values at its own (shorter or equal) step size.

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Overpressure protection of process inlet Issues solved


Prediction of slug gp phenomena Integrated approach; forced coupling of multiphase and process diciplines Account for volume accumulation Dynamic response from other flowlines Prediction of separator performance Dynamic D i response f from fl flare system t and d other th downstream systems User friendliness with regard to interpretation of process results Static OLGA approach Stand alone OLGA/ HYSYS Linked

++ + ++ ++ + + +

++ ++ +++ ++ +++ +++ +++

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Benefits gained by using HYSYS as the topside process simulator

Load reducing measures as piping/equipment volumes from other feed


streams, surrounding systems/segments can be included.
BPT has run cases where the full main topside process has been included, and where the design loads have been reduced significantly
Separators Recompressors Gas treatment Gas compressor

Added volumes Added PSV capacity Added realism...

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Benefits gained by using HYSYS as the topside process simulator

Prediction of separator performance:


Realistic geometries can be implemented Flexibility wrt liquid carry-over functions

PSV modeling:
Key factor is tuning of flow capacity Stand alone HEM calculations required? (acc to API Std 521)

Fast to get started, a model may already exist? User friendliness with regard to interpretation of process results
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Benefits gained by using HYSYS as the topside process simulator

Simulation of Primary & Instrumented Secondary Protection systems.


Rigorous models of all relevant equipment, including Unit Op. for Cause & Effects.

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Example
Case: Separator conditions following fail opening at time=1050s Gas/Oil fluid with GOR 1500 Value +5 s Max GAS flow peak into separator at time Max OIL flow peak into separator at time +19 s Max TOTAL mass flow (used in static calculations) 135 kg/s F ll R Full Relief li f at t ti time Max TOTAL relief No relief during initial peak flow Reduction in design relief flow 30-50% (static vs dynamic) +50 s 70 kg/s

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Example
Tie-in of high GOR (3000)
satelitte field to an existing North Sea operating facility.

Objective to verify that facility has


sufficient capacity

Flowline initial condition: maximum


shut-in

Fail opening towards separator


with closed outlets (that is, first producer towards this separator)

Normalized data: Pressure/MAAP Level/Vessel ID Flowrates/typical

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Example

Graph for PRIMARY barrrier defines the requirement for the PSD function to close inlet valves

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Example flare rate reduction

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Example

Choke collapse incidents:


Any sudden increase in valve capacity.

Flexibility wrt modeling of collapsing valve:


Capacity is dependant of initial opening at start of incident:
(1) Valve closed, about to open (high dP) => collapsed capacity < design capacity? (2) Valve fully open => capacity >> design capacity
(2)

(1)

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Economic benefits

Although the main result from such overpressure protection studies are related
to plant safety, huge cost impacts may be gained:
A too high flowline arrival PSD PSHH setting and/or a too large choke size may result in an unprotected system : None API secondary protection => None-API => Potential loss of installation => Cost/HSE impact? Need of flare system modification ? (if yes, a full topside production shutdown is required for x number of days/weeks) => Cost/HSE impact? Optimization of production choke capacity. If over-conservative assumptions must be taken due to a non-rigorous calculation, the production choke will unnecessary limit the production for x number of years) => Cost/HSE impact ? N Need df for more complex l i inlet l t arrangement t configuration; fi ti 2 x 50% or 3 x 33% lines with block valves and production chokes to reduce relief rates? => Cost/HSE impact
Extend operational limits (raise flowline PSHH)? Remove interlocks? Simplify procedures? Reduce R d maintenance i t requirements? i t ? Larger chokes/less change-outs? Allow for choke collapse in

Plant operability and regularity vs plant Integrity

design? A too conservative (low) PSD PSHH setting causes unnecessary trips. => Reduced availability => Cost impact?

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Conclusions By using dynamic simulations in the design of overpressure protection


systems, a better utilization of existing as well as new installations can be achieved

Safer S f design without restricting Production P d ti or Plant Pl t Operability O bilit .


Integrated multiphase and process dynamic simulations (OLGA /HYSYS)
provides improved capabilities
Direct transfer of dynamic responses from pipeline to process model Simultaneous simulation of pipeline and process p dynamics y Dynamic picture of overpressure from wellhead to flare tip is achieved
- More realistic design cases - Improved under-standing is gained

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