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December 2000
published by
the Refugee Studies Centre in association with the Norwegian Refugee Council/ Global IDP Project
G ender and displacement
Children in adversity
UN role in the security of NGO staff
Southern NGOs view of ExCom
Accountability in the media
special feature on
Upda tes on Afghanistan Malukas
Dams Reangs Detention of asylum
seekers Appointment of UN Special
Coordinator on Internal Displacement
News from the Refugee Studies Centre
and the Global IDP Project
Conferences and
y the time you read this,
David Turton will have
retiredas Director of the Refugee
Studies Centre. David was a dri-
ving force behind this
publications transformation in
1998 fromRPN newsletter to
Forced Migration Reviewand we
have greatly appreciated his
input, both as Director and as a
member of our Editorial Advisory
Board. Stephen Castles starts
as the newDirector of the RSC
on 1February.
J udy El-Bushra, of the British NGO ACORD, has worked closely with us as Guest Editor in preparing
the feature section of this issue with its focus on Gender and Displacement. If you would like to
respond to any of the points raised or add newones, please write (no more than 700 words) to us by
mid February. Our contact details are given opposite.
We would like to express our thanks to UNICEF for their sponsorship of
this issue of Forced Migration Review.
Our next issue (issue 10, due out April 2001) will include a feature on UNHCR and the 50th
Anniversary of the 1951Convention, guest-edited by Professor BS Chimni. Would you like to write a
short piece for us? We would particularly welcome contributions fromNGOand UN staff in the field, and
fromdisplacedpeople. Howdo the successes and limitations of both the Convention and UNHCR
affect displaced people in the country in which you work? Howdo they affect you and your work? What
do you feel about UNHCR its mandate and its relationship to the other UN agencies, to governments,
to NGOs and to displaced people? What is there to celebrate? What would you change? What should
we learn fromhistory and what developments would you like to see - or which do you predict - in the
next 10, 20 or 50 years?
Maximumlength of written contributions: 3,000 words. Short opinion pieces or pithy exhortations are
also welcomed! Dont worry if English is not your first language we are more than happy to edit con-
tributions. Email us today with your ideas (fmr@qeh.ox.ac.uk) or write to us at the address opposite.
The August 2001issue will be on Return to Peace, looking at: peace and the restoration of confidence;
justice; post-conflict power structures; reconciliation and promotion of historical and cultural under-
standing; and separation or integration of communities. Ideally, we would like to publish a mix of
overview articles and local reports and examples, including information on appropriate models, good
practice and recommendations for action/follow-up. Please contact us as soon as possible with your
suggestions for contributions, contributors, reports and examples.
With our very best wishes for 2001.
Marion Couldrey and TimMorris
from the editors

from the editors
1orced Mgruton Revew
provIdes a Iorum Ior Ihe reguIar exchange
oI pracIIcaI experIence, InIormaIIon and
Ideas beIween researchers, reIugees and
InIernaIIy dIspIaced peopIe, and Ihose who
work wIIh Ihem. II Is pubIIshed Ihree IImes
a year In LngIIsh, SpanIsh and ArabIc by
Ihe ReIugee SIudIes CenIre/UnIversIIy oI
OxIord In assocIaIIon wIIh Ihe GIobaI IDP
ProjecI/NorwegIan ReIugee CouncII.
The SpanIsh IransIaIIon, Kc\:tn dc
Mgnconc: Iozo:n:, Is produced by
HLGOA In BIIbao, SpaIn.
MarIon CouIdrey & Dr TIm MorrIs
5ubscrptons Assstunt
Sharon LIIIs
1orced Mgruton Revew
ReIugee SIudIes CenIre,
Queen LIIzabeIh House,
21 SI GIIes, OxIord, OX1 3LA, UK
LmaII: ImrJqeh.ox.ac.uk
TeI: +44 (0)186S 280700
Iax: +44 (0)186S 270721
Globa l IDP Project
ChemIn MoseDubouIe S9
CH1209 Geneva, SwIIzerIand
LmaII: IdpsurveyJnrc.ch
TeI: +41 22 788 808S
Iax: +41 22 788 8086
5ubscrpton rutes
IndIvIduaIs 11S/USS26 per annum
InsIIIuIIons 12S/USS43 per annum
IRLL Ior: resIdenIs oI deveIopIng counIrIes,
sIudenIs/unwaged and reIugees/IDPs
See page 43.
Cop)rght und dscIumer
MaIerIaI Irom Ioccd Mgnton Kc\c\ may
be IreeIy reproduced buI pIease acknow
Iedge Ihe source. PhoIographs shouId onIy
be reproduced In Ihe conIexI oI Ihe arIIcIes
In whIch Ihey appear (and credIIed).
MaIerIaI and InIormaIIon conIaIned In
Ioccd Mgnton Kc\c\ are Ihe opInIons
oI Ihe auIhors and do noI necessarIIy
reIIecI Ihe vIews oI Ihe LdIIors, Ihe
ReIugee SIudIes CenIre or Ihe NorwegIan
ReIugee CouncII.
1orthcomng ]eutures
AprII 2001: UNHCR/S0Ih AnnIversary
AugusI 2001: ReIurn Io Peace
prInIed by LDI LId on envIronmenIaIIy
IrIendIy paper
ISSN 14609819
Writing for FMR? Here are our submission deadlines:
Issue Articles by Information items by
10 (UNHCR) 1February 2001 1March 2001
11(Returnto Peace) 1J une 2001 1J uly 2001
Front cover: Rwandese refugeesin Zaire wait for water distribution in Kibuma camp 1994. UN HC R/ B. Press
Gender and forced migration: editorial
by Judy El-Bushra 4
Vindicating masculinity: the fate of promoting gender equality
by Simon Turner 8
Making young displaced men visible
by Cathrine Brun 10
Gender dimensions of displacement
by Srilakshmi Gururaja 13
Gender, persecution and the concept of politics in the asylum
determination process
by Heaven Crawley 17
Gender guidelines for the UK
by Nathalia Berkowitz 21
Ethnicity, gender and violence in Kenya
by Peter Mwangi Kagwanja 22
Rural farming systems, plant genetic resources and disasters
by Monica Trujillo 26
A more proactive UN role in the security of NGO staff?
by Randolph Martin 29
Children in adversity
by Jo de Berry and Jo Boyden 33
Accountability in the media 37
Update 38
Refugee Studies Centre 41
Conferences: including ExCom: a Southern view 42
Global IDP Project 44
Publications 46
Gender and displacement
General articles
Regular features
ender and DeveIopmenI (GAD)
Iakes as IIs sIarIIng poInI Ihe
Idea IhaI Ihe behavIour oI men
and women Is condIIIoned by socIaI and
cuIIuraI expecIaIIons, raIher Ihan by
InnaIe or naIuraI dIIIerences beIween
Ihe Iwo sexes. These assumed dIIIer
ences resuII In InjusIIce when Ihey are
reIIecIed In dIIIerenIIaI access Io decI
sIonmakIng power or when Ihey carry
wIIh Ihem dIscrImInaIory aIIIIudes and
AssumpIIons and vaIues abouI men's
and women's roIes and behavIours con
dIIIon men's aIIIIudes Iowards oIher
men and women's Iowards oIher women,
as weII as Ihe reIaIIons beIween women
and men. AssumpIIons abouI gender dII
Ierences operaIe noI onIy beIween
IndIvIduaIs buI aIso wIIhIn InsIIIuIIons,
IncIudIng Ihe househoId, Ihe communIIy,
Ihe sIaIe, schooIs and pIaces oI empIoy
menI, IncIudIng deveIopmenI agencIes
IhemseIves. II Is Ihese InsIIIuIIons whIch
reInIorce and perpeIuaIe gender dIscrIm
InaIIon, and II Is Ihese whIch musI be
chaIIenged II gender InjusIIce Is Io be
IransIormed InIo equaIIIy oI IreaImenI,
opporIunIIy and rIghIs.
Gender a nd Development a t the
crossroa ds
Gender and DeveIopmenI arose ouI oI a
concern IhaI deveIopmenI poIIcIes and
InIervenIIons were IendIng Io Iake men
as beIng Ihe 'norm', IgnorIng women's
own needs and aspIraIIons and IheIr
capacIIy Io acI IndependenIIy. In doIng
so Ihey were aIso endangerIng paIIerns
oI Iood securIIy, weaIIh creaIIon, mar
keIs, socIaIIzaIIon pracIIces, cuIIuraI
expressIon and poIIIIcaI processes by
devaIuIng women's crIIIcaI conIrIbuIIons
Io Ihem. The maIn aIm oI GAD poIIcy
has been Io IransIorm Ihe posIIIon oI
women Irom one oI subordInaIIon Io one
oI equaIIIy, by recognIzIng Ihe InessenIIaI
and IransIIory naIure oI Ihe assumpIIons
whIch underpIn IhaI subordInaIIon.
AIIhough IhIs aIm has been wIdeIy
adopIed by deveIopmenI and humanIIar
Ian agencIes and by IheIr donors over
Ihe IasI 10 Io 1S years, Ihe IIeId oI gen
der and deveIopmenI conIInues Io be a
conIesIed one. II Is currenIIy under chaI
Ienge Irom Ihree separaIe, Ihough
IInked, Irends. These are: Ihe debaIe on
men and gender, Ihe chaIIenge oI mak
Ing women's rIghIs a reaIIIy, and Ihe
broadenIng oI Iocus away Irom a nar
row, economIsIIc vIew oI deveIopmenI.
The arIIcIes In IhIs Issue, Ihough wrIIIen
Irom Ihe specIIIc perspecIIve oI gender
and Iorced mIgraIIon, reIIecI Ihese
debaIes and conIrIbuIe Io Ihem.
i. Where do men liI?
The IIrsI chaIIenge Is a concern Io arIIcu
IaIe, more IIrmIy and acIIveIy Ihan In Ihe
pasI, Ihe posIIIon oI men wIIhIn gender
anaIyIIcaI Irameworks. ThIs Is a reacIIon
Io GAD's aImosI excIusIve preoccupaIIon
over Ihe IasI Ien years or more wIIh
women's needs, InIeresIs and rIghIs.
II 'gender' ImpIIes a web oI reIaIIonshIps
beIween women and men, oId and
young, powerIuI and powerIess, shouId
men noI IIgure, InIegraIIy and equaIIy,
In Ihe anaIysIs oI Ihese reIaIIonshIps7
As SImon Turner and CaIhrIne Brun IndI
caIe In IhIs Issue, Ihere may be negaIIve
consequences Ior boIh women and men
II Ihey are noI. GIvIng preIerence Io
women In assIsIance programmes may
conIrIbuIe Io erodIng men's roIe (as pro
IecIors, provIders and decIsIon makers,
Ior exampIe) and hence IheIr socIaI posI
IIon and seIIesIeem buI sIIII noI
chaIIenge Ihe domInanI gender IdeoIogy
In whIch men's and women's roIes are
boIh vIewed as 'naIuraI'. The sIIuaIIon oI
dIspIacemenI Is an opporIunIIy Ior rene
goIIaIIng gender reIaIIons (as weII as
reIaIIonshIps beIween generaIIons): an
opporIunIIy whIch may be mIssed
Ihrough prIorIIIzIng supporI Io eIIher
women or men. To make Ihe mosI oI
IhIs opporIunIIy, men and women musI
boIh 'parIIcIpaIe as acIIve parIners' (In
Brun's phrase) In IhIs renegoIIaIIon.
OIher reIaIed quesIIons, currenIIy rever
beraIIng Ihrough assIsIanceprovIdIng
agencIes, are aIso echoed In Ihe arIIcIes
In IhIs Issue. Does Ihe sIress on women
prevenI us Irom recognIzIng dIscrImIna
IIon by men agaInsI men (oIder versus
younger men, Ior exampIe, or men Irom
dIIIerenI cIasses or eIhnIcIIIes), women
agaInsI women (when women coIIude In
promoIIng gender dIscrImInaIIon agaInsI
each oIher) and women agaInsI men7
Can women's rIghIs be supporIed wIIhIn
a conIexI oI broader deveIopmenIaI and
humanIIarIan goaIs or do men InevIIabIy
have Io Iose when women gaIn7 In shorI,
where do men III wIIhIn a gender
approach Io deveIopmenI7
ii. Has developmenI promoIed or
undermined women's righIs?
The second Irend Is a quesIIonIng oI
whaI GAD has Indeed achIeved Ior
women. The 'maInsIreamIng' oI gender
approaches In deveIopmenI aI Ihe IeveI oI
poIIcy has oIIen Ied Io greaIer awareness
Gender and displacement
Gender and forced migration:
by Judy El-Bushra
This issue of Forced Migration Review comes
at a time when Gender and Development as a
body of theoretical and professional practice
is at a critical point in its evolution.
Gender and displacement
oI women's needs, and a greaIer IeveI oI
InvesImenI In supporIIng Ihese. YeI Ihe
ouIcomes have oIIen been paIIIaIIve In
naIure, provIdIng women wIIh, Ior exam
pIe, addIIIonaI Income, Increased
mobIIIIy or access Io servIces whIIe noI
conIronIIng Ihe IdeoIogIcaI basIs oI dIs
crImInaIIon agaInsI Ihem. They have
oIIen IaIIed Io Iake InIo accounI Ihe
power reIaIIons In whIch women are
enmeshed, or Io gIve Irue recognIIIon Io
women's sIrengIhs and capacIIy Io acI
on IheIr own accounI.
The aIIenIIon women have receIved Irom
deveIopmenI agencIes and poIIcy makers
has oIIen been Ioo IIIIIe, Ioo IaIe and Ioo
superIIcIaI Io promoIe Ihe exercIse oI
IheIr rIghIs. A recenI reIIecIIon oI IhIs
sIaIe oI aIIaIrs has been evIdenced In
Ihe BeIjIng + S consuIIaIIon process.
The consuIIaIIon (as SrIIakshmI Gururaja
poInIs ouI) concIuded IhaI, IIve years sInce
Ihe Iandmark BeIjIng InIernaIIonaI
ConIerence on Women Iook pIace, barrIers
sIIII remaIn In ImpIemenIIng IIs provIsIons.
AssIsIance provIders, boIh governmenIaI
and nongovernmenIaI or muIIIIaIeraI,
have oIIen been dIIaIory In approachIng
abuses oI women's rIghIs Indeed oI
human rIghIs generaIIy. OIIen (see, Ior
exampIe, PeIer MwangI Kangwaja's
remarks on sexuaI abuse oI Sudanese
women In Kenya)
Ihese are dIsmIssed
as beIongIng In Ihe
reaIm oI 'cuIIure'
and hence beyond
Ihe scope oI assIs
Iance programmes.
ThIs may be Irue
even where proIecIIon Is parI oI Ihe
organIzaIIon's mandaIe. The poIIIIcs oI
agency survIvaI wIIhIn hosI counIrIes
can dampen Ihe IncIInaIIon Io chaIIenge
dIscrImInaIory IdeoIogIes. However,
Ihe agencIes concerned may Ihereby Iay
IhemseIves open Io charges oI dIscrImI
naIIon Ihrough negIecI.
WhIIe assIsIance provIders have oIIen
Iound II reIaIIveIy easy Io address
women's needs as vuInerabIe vIcIIms oI
war, Ihey have oIIen bauIked aI supporI
Ing women In IheIr capacIIy Io be acIIve
shapers oI IheIr own IIves ('seeIng women
as survIvors noI vIcIIms', In Gururaja's
phrase). Why shouId IhIs be so7
LIke Kangwaja, Heaven CrawIey (address
Ing Ihe quesIIon Irom Ihe perspecIIve oI
asyIum cIaIms Irom women and how
Ihey are handIed) ImpIIes IhaI ImmIgra
IIon oIIIcIaIs, Ioo, are InIIuenced by IheIr
own eIhnocenIrIc undersIandIng oI gen
der when deaIIng wIIh cIaIms Irom
SouIhern women whom Ihey assume Io
be poor and badIy educaIed, IncapabIe
oI conIronIIng acIIveIy Ihe socIaI con
sIrucIIons In whIch IheIr IIves are Iramed.
iii. A deeper and more inclusive
gender analysis lramework
The IhIrd Irend Is a growIng apprecIa
IIon IhaI IncreasIng women's access Io
economIc securIIy and Io sources oI
Income, Iong Ihe Iocus oI GAD projecIs,
Is Ioo narrow a goaI. NoI onIy does II
noI Iake InIo accounI men's gendered
roIes, as suggesIed above, buI II aIso
IaIIs Io recognIze Ihe IuII range oI
women's conIrIbuIIons Io socIeIy and
oI IheIr needs and InIeresIs.
UndersIandIng and promoIIng susIaIn
abIe IIveIIhoods InvoIves recognIzIng and
supporIIng women's roIes In agrIcuIIure,
anImaI husbandry, commerce and In Ihe
dIsIrIbuIIon and consumpIIon oI Iood
and oIher beneIIIs wIIhIn Ihe househoId
and communIIy. DespIIe decades oI evI
dence oI women's conIrIbuIIon Io Iood
producIIon gIobaIIy, deveIopmenI and
humanIIarIan agencIes sIIII Iend Io Iocus
IheIr InvesImenI In crops and produc
IIon sysIems managed by men. SImIIarIy,
Ihe IechnIcaI, socIaI, economIc and poIII
IcaI skIIIs whIch
women appIy when
conIrIbuIIng Io
compIex sysIems oI
Iood securIIy are
oIIen overIooked.
A reIaIIveIy under
researched area In
IhIs conIexI Is women's conIrIbuIIon Io
Ihe maInIenance oI geneIIc dIversIIy oI
crops and producIIon sysIems In posI
dIsasIer conIexIs (see MonIca TrujIIIo's
More broadIy, agencIes have onIy reIa
IIveIy recenIIy begun Io acknowIedge
IhaI Ihe nonmaIerIaI aspecIs oI peopIe's
IIves pIay as greaI a parI as IheIr eco
nomIc success. These nonmaIerIaI
aspecIs IncIude IheIr personaI and sexu
aI reIaIIonshIps, IheIr reproducIIve and
menIaI heaIIh, IheIr seIIesIeem and Ihe
respecI Ihey receIve Irom oIhers, and
IheIr capacIIy Ior poIIIIcaI InvoIvemenI
and acIIvIsm. Gururaja's overvIew
descrIbes a number oI projecIs IakIng
IhIs broad perspecIIve. The exIsIence
oI such projecIs Is evIdence oI
progress away Irom a humanIIarIan
modeI concerned maInIy wIIh sheIIer,
Iood and Income buI sIIII IaIIs shorI oI
consIIIuIIng a comprehensIve modeI.
The gender dimensions of forced
migra tion
LookIng aI Iorced mIgraIIon Irom a gen
der perspecIIve provIdes InsIghI InIo a
number oI Issues reIaIIng Io Ihe pIan
nIng and ImpIemenIaIIon oI humanII
arIan assIsIance. As Gururaja suggesIs,
conIIIcI and dIsasIers ImpacI dIIIerenIIy
on men and women. II cannoI be
assumed IhaI IheIr needs and InIeresIs
are Ihe same, nor IhaI Ihose oI women
or oI men are Ihe same everywhere.
A gender approach Ihen requIres projecI
pIannIng Io be based on an undersIand
Ing oI Ihe varIed conIexIs In whIch InIer
venIIons are ImpIemenIed. An ImporIanI
concIusIon emergIng Irom IhIs coIIecIIon
Is Ihe danger oI IakIng a broadbrush
approach Io Ihe desIgn oI assIsIance
programmes and oI depIoyIng modeIs
and guIdeIInes whIch are InsensIIIve Io
IocaI conIexIs or unInIormed by research
and anaIysIs oI Ihese conIexIs.
The arIIcIes In IhIs Issue have reIevance
Ior Iour ImporIanI quesIIons In parIIcuIar:
Ihe ImpacI oI InIervenIIons on processes
oI socIaI change, Ihe managemenI oI
camps Ior reIugees and dIspIaced per
sons, sexuaI vIoIence agaInsI women,
and Ihe ImpIemenIaIIon oI InIernaIIonaI
convenIIons and guIdeIInes on Ihe rIghIs
oI (especIaIIy women) reIugees and IDPs.
i. AssisIance programmes and Iheir
impacI on social change
How do gender roIes and reIaIIonshIps
shIII under Ihe pressure oI rapId
upheavaIs7 Some generaI Irends can be
observed: Ihere Is a Iendency Ior women
Io Iake on more and dIIIerenI roIes as
provIders and proIecIors oI IamIIIes,
Io draw conIIdence and deIermInaIIon
Irom Ihese experIences, and Io deveIop
IheIr poIIIIcaI conscIousness and agency.
On Ihe oIher hand, men oIIen IInd Ihem
seIves aI a Ioose end, unabIe Io re
esIabIIsh IheIr posIIIon as respecIed
decIsIon makers.
ThIs Iendency Ior women Io Iake on new
roIes Is oIIen gIven conscIous encourage
menI by aId provIders, as demonsIraIed
by Ihe BurundI and SrI Lanka cases
descrIbed here, In Ihe hope IhaI by
doIng so Ihe opporIunIIy can be Iaken Io
buIId more equIIabIe power reIaIIons In
IuIure. Is such opIImIsm jusIIIIed7
The cases quoIed In IhIs Issue Ihrow
doubI on Ihe capacIIy oI Ihe InIer
naIIonaI communIIy Io InIIuence gender
conflict and disasters
impact differently on
men and women
Gender and displacement
reIaIIons In a posIIIve and IasIIng way.
Ior exampIe, advancIng women's InIer
esIs aI a superIIcIaI, womenIocused
IeveI whIch IaIIs Io chaIIenge overaII
paradIgms oI gender dIIIerence Ieaves
women wIIh new roIes Io IuIIII buI no
InsIIIuIIonaI Ieverage Io IuIIII Ihem eIIec
IIveIy, as boIh Turner and Brun show.
WhaI Is aIso cIear Irom Ihese accounIs,
however, Is IhaI posIcrIsIs InIervenIIons
are equaIIy unIIkeIy Io be neuIraI In IheIr
ImpacI on Ihe changIng posIIIon and
condIIIon oI men and women, and may
Indeed reInIorce paIrIarchaI InsIIIuIIons
(as Kagwanja descrIbes) whIch consIraIn
women's human rIghIs Ior proIecIIon.
To Ihe exIenI IhaI oIIIcIaI IechnIcaI
assIsIance Ignores producIIon sysIems
managed by women (as wIIh Ihe agrIcuI
IuraI sysIems descrIbed by TrujIIIo) IhIs
may have IongIerm consequences Ior
boIh Iood securIIy and women's capacIIy
Io manage IheIr own aIIaIrs. Gururaja
poInIs Io an ImporIanI concIusIon: Ihe
necessIIy oI socIaI and gender research
InIo dIspIaced communIIIes as a basIs
Ior pIannIng and ImpIemenIaIIon oI
assIsIance programmes.
ii. Agency and parIicipaIion and Ihe
challenge Io managemenI
ManagemenI oI assIsIance programmes
Is InIIuenced crIIIcaIIy by Ihe aIIIIudes
and vaIues oI Ihe humanIIarIan proIes
sIon. WhIIe proIecIIon oI Ihe vuInerabIe
Is a major IacIor In humanIIarIan poIIcy
and In Ihe moIIvaIIon oI agency person
neI, IhIs needs aI Ihe same IIme Io be
baIanced by a recognIIIon IhaI dIspIaced
peopIe are IndIvIduaIs wIIh IheIr own
hIsIorIes, skIIIs, sIrengIhs and capacIIIes,
and wIIh seIs oI personaI and socIaI reIa
IIons whIch crIsIs wIII noI easIIy erode.
The noIIon oI vuInerabIIIIy has IIgured
hIghIy In humanIIarIan dIscourse Ior
years. II has had parIIcuIar ImpIIcaIIons
Ior dIspIaced women, chIIdren and Ihe
dIsabIed, who are oIIen caIegorIzed as
'vuInerabIe groups'. 'VIcIIm' may weII be
an approprIaIe word Ior Ihose women
and men who have suIIered rape, Ior
exampIe, and Ihe aIIendanI muIIIpIe
crIses oI physIcaI and psychoIogIcaI
Injury, and rejecIIon by IamIIIes, com
munIIIes and IegaI sysIems. YeI Ihe use
oI Ihe word, denyIng as II does Ihe
resIIIence and deIermInaIIon oI Ihose
who have undergone such experIences,
predIsposes assIsIance programmes
Iowards oIIerIng paIIIaIIve care raIher
Ihan conIronIIng underIyIng sysIemIc
InjusIIces. UsIng II may Iead Io exIend
Ing Ihe noIIon oI 'vIcIImhood' Io aII
women or Io aII dIspIaced peopIe, or aII
oI a parIIcuIar eIhnIcIIy or cIass.
Such 'vIcIIms' are seen as beIng prone
Io Ihe 'dependency syndrome' men
IIoned by Turner, addIcIed Io assIsIance
and an eIernaI charge on Ihe InIernaI
IonaI communIIy.
ParIIcIpaIIon by Ihe dIspIaced (and
especIaIIy women) In Ihe managemenI
oI camps Is one approach whIch aIms Io
break down 'vIcIImhood'. However,
quesIIons musI be asked (as Turner
does) abouI who beneIIIs mosI Irom IhIs
approach. Do Ihe dIspIaced gaIn dIgnIIy
and seIIesIeem Irom II or Is II a manage
menI IooI7 Over and above IhaI,
prIorIIIzIng women In camp managemenI
may serve neIIher women nor men weII,
sInce II boIh excIudes men and, II carrIed
ouI aI a superIIcIaI IeveI, IaIIs Io capIIaI
Ize on women's capacIIIes and agency.


Dinka refugee returning from Ethiopia to Sudan.
Gender and displacement
iii. Sexual violence
Major assIsIance provIders such as
UNHCR have reIaIIveIy recenIIy recog
nIzed rape and oIher Iorms oI sexuaI
vIoIence (such as Iorced marrIage) as
beIng a sIgnIIIcanI phenomenon aIIecI
Ing reIugee and dIspIaced communIIIes,
and one whIch needs Io be addressed by
assIsIance programmes In pracIIcaI ways
as parI oI Ihe proIecIIon mandaIe.
AIIenIIon has been paId Io Issues such
as camp IayouI and IIghIIng and Ihe pro
vIsIon oI servIces and supporI Io raped
women. Much oI Ihe ImpeIus Ior IhIs
aIIenIIon came Irom UNHCRspon
sored InIIIaIIves among SomaII and
Sudanese reIugees In Kenya, reIerred Io
by Kagwanja.
Kagwanja's arIIcIe seeks Io deepen Ihe
undersIandIng oI Ihe phenomenon by
IInkIng IIs hIgh IncIdence In Ihe Kenyan
conIexI Io underIyIng gender and eIhnIc
dIscrImInaIIon, boIh wIIhIn Ihe reIugee
communIIIes and wIIhIn Ihe Kenyan
sIaIe, and even echoed
In Ihe assIsIance com
munIIy. However, Ihe
Issue oI sexuaI vIoIence
raIses oIher Iundamen
IaI quesIIons.
IIrsI, how can Ihe appar
enI Increase In sexuaI vIoIence In
sIIuaIIons oI conIIIcI be expIaIned7
WhaI IacIors are InherenI In conIIIcI
whIch IrIgger IhIs response7 LIIecIIve
assIsIance measures depend on a deeper
undersIandIng oI Ihe phenomenon In
SecondIy, Ihere Is a wIdespread assump
IIon (reIIecIed In Ihe arIIcIes In IhIs
voIume) IhaI rape and sexuaI vIoIence
are InIIIcIed by men on women, even
Ihough evIdence shows maIe rape Io be
a sIgnIIIcanI IeaIure oI many conIIIcIs.
ThIs Ioo has ImpIIcaIIons Ior assIsIance
programmes: II supporI Ior raped
women has been InsuIIIcIenI, supporI
Ior raped men Is vIrIuaIIy nonexIsIenI.
ThIrdIy, why has II been so dIIIIcuII Ior
sexuaI vIoIence Io be recognIzed, In
Ierms oI gIobaI poIIcy, as a pushIacIor
In dIspIacemenI and hence grounds Ior
asyIum7 A parIIcuIar aspecI oI IhIs (and
one rareIy acknowIedged) Is Ihe Issue oI
homophobIc dIscrImInaIIon, boIh as a
pushIacIor In counIrIes oI reIugee orI
gIn and In asyIum counIrIes. Homo
phobIa Is Indeed rareIy regarded as a
'gender Issue' aI aII, even Ihough II Is a
prIme exampIe oI Ihe 'socIaIIy and cuI
IuraIIy consIrucIed expecIaIIons' oI
men's and women's behavIour on whIch
gender anaIysIs Is Iounded. The assocIa
IIon oI 'gender dIscrImInaIIon' wIIh
Issues oI women's rIghIs (reIerred Io
above) has bIInded many assIsIance
provIders Io IIs deeper ImpIIcaIIons.
iv. lnIernaIional legal lrameworks
and sIandards
A number oI InIernaIIonaI IegaI Irame
works, drawn essenIIaIIy Irom Ihe UN
CharIer on Human RIghIs, have been
deveIoped Io guIde InIernaIIonaI
responses Io reIugee and dIspIaced peo
pIe's rIghIs (see Gururaja's arIIcIe Ior
reIerences Io key exampIes). These have
been accompanIed by codes oI conducI,
good pracIIce guIdeIInes and IraInIng
ImpIemenIaIIon, however, Iags behInd,
parIIy because InIerpreIaIIons oI agreed
poIIcy vary In dIIIerenI cuIIuraI and
poIIIIcaI conIexIs and have Io be re
made In each conIexI. CrawIey and
Kagwanja, examInIng IhIs quesIIon Irom
Iwo dIIIerenI vIewpoInIs, suggesI IhaI
eIhnIc and gender IdeoIogIes oI dIscrImI
naIIon may underpIn boIh
Ihe poIIcy and Ihe prac
IIce oI asyIum and
proIecIIon. However,
NaIhaIIa BerkowIIz' noIe
on Ihe UK gender guIde
IInes suggesIs IhaI
consIrucIIve IobbyIng
can brIng abouI sIgnIIIcanI changes In
boIh aIIIIudes and pracIIce.
The arIIcIes In IhIs Issue demonsIraIe
some oI Ihe InsIghIs IhaI a gender
approach can oIIer Io Ihe pIannIng and
ImpIemenIaIIon oI assIsIance pro
grammes In supporI oI dIspIaced
communIIIes and IndIvIduaIs. Such an
approach can ensure IhaI women's prac
IIcaI needs, easy Io overIook, become
more vIsIbIe, and IhaI IheIr own eIIorIs
Io Improve IheIr socIaI posIIIon can be
supporIed. II can heIp assIsIance agen
cIes Io gaIn Improved undersIandIng oI
Ihe socIaI, economIc and poIIIIcaI
ImpacIs oI IheIr choIces oI acIIon and
InvesImenI. MaInsIreamIng gender
anaIysIs InIo InIernaIIonaI IegaI Irame
works and agencIes Iorms Ihe basIs oI
accounIabIIIIy by Ihe InIernaIIonaI
communIIy Iowards Ihe dIspIaced, and
can heIp IdenIIIy bIases whIch InsIIIu
IIons musI conIronI In IheIr own
aIIIIudes and pracIIce.
YeI, as Ihe exampIes quoIed here show,
gaps and conIradIcIIons appear In prac
IIce, prompIIng Ihe quesIIon: Is gender
sIIII a useIuI concepI7 Has II been used
so wIdeIy, and Io represenI so many dII
IerIng perspecIIves, IhaI IIs currency has
become debased7 Has Ihe IundamenIaI
meanIng oI gender (as socIaI consIruc
IIons oI mascuIInIIy and IemInInIIy)
been swepI asIde In Ihe search Ior poIIcy
prescrIpIIons7 And, In Ihe process, Is II In
danger oI IaIIIng boIh women and men7
II 'gender' Is Io be rescued as a useIuI
projecI Ior deveIopmenI, II needs IIme
and resources Io be InvesIed In research
In order Io undersIand how II works In
dIIIerenI socIaI, economIc and poIIIIcaI
conIexIs. II needs Io be repoIIIIcIzed
and undersIood as a IacIor oI conIesIed
IdenIIIIes, boIh oI women and oI men.
MosI ImporIanIIy, II gender Is Io conIIn
ue Io be a reIevanI concepI, II needs Io
be undersIood as havIng meanIng Ior
boIh men and women, oId and young,
seIIIed and dIspIaced, NorIh and SouIh:
In oIher words, as an expressIon oI
human IdenIIIy and human aspIraIIons.
]ud) LI-Bushru s Actng Orector o]
the Reseurch und PoIc) Progrumme
ut ACORO, u Iong-term deveIopment
ugenc) workng n poor und soIuted
communtes n A]rcu.
LmuI: ]ud)e@ucord.org.uk
is gender still a
useful concept"
Research update
Relugee voices in Europe
ReIugees Irom Iormer YugosIavIa
In IIaIy and Ihe NeIherIands -
experIences oI InIegraIIon (wIIh
Iocus on roIe oI gender)
April 1999 - May 2001
Researcher: Dr Maja Korac,
ReIugee SIudIes CenIre
The maIn aIm oI IhIs research Is Io
anaIyse Ihe socIaI condIIIons oI
reIugees and expIore IheIr experI
ences oI InIegraIIon In Ihe process
oI reIugee seIIIemenI, wIIh a specIaI
Iocus on Ihe roIe oI gender. The
projecI Iakes Ihe Iorm oI a compar
aIIve sIudy oI exIIe communIIIes
Irom Iormer YugosIavIa In IIaIy and
Ihe NeIherIands. II addresses Ihe
IoIIowIng Issues: I) Ihe socIaI condI
IIons oI reIugees Irom Iormer
YugosIavIa In Ihe Iwo LU counIrIes;
II) Ihe naIure oI 'successIuI InIegra
IIon' as desIred by Ihe reIugees
IhemseIves; III) Ihe poIIcy conIexIs
and IheIr reIaIIon Io Ihe needs and
expecIaIIons oI reIugees. IIndIngs
oI Ihe overaII comparaIIve sIudy
wIII be compIeIed by Ihe end oI May
2001. (Iunded by LIsa GIIad
InIIIaIIve and LCRL)
Io noc nonnton, contnct Mn]n Ionc
nt nn]n.oncqcI.ox.nc.u o \:t tIc
K5C \cL:tc nt \\\.qcI.ox.nc.u,:c,.
Gender and displacement
omen's Issues have become
IncreasIngIy cenIraI In
UNHCR's poIIcIes over Ihe pasI
1S years. OIIen Iumped IogeIher wIIh
chIIdren In surveys, Ihey are perceIved
as vuInerabIe vIcIIms oI war:
"Anong tIc coc It Indc:t L) tIc
\ocncc nnd uncctnnt) o d:ncc-
ncnt nc g:, cdc) \do\:, :ngc
notIc: - \oncn. A: n uc o tIunL,
:onc 75 c ccnt o tIc:c dc:ttutc
d:nccd coc nc \oncn nnd tIc
dccndcnt cIdcn.
LvokIng Ihe pIcIure oI women and chII
dren, NGOs and UNHCR are abIe Io
appeaI Io our humanIIarIan sympaIhy.
As LIIsa MaIkkI
has poInIed ouI, chIIdren
and IemaIe reIugees epIIomIze bare
humanIIy. Women are consIrued as
more 'Irue' reIugees, beIng Ihe vIcIIms
raIher Ihan Ihe perpeIraIors oI war and
vIoIence. However, IhIs pIcIure aIso
reduces a reIugee woman Io Ihe IeveI oI
an InIanI and Ieaves her wIIhouI agency
and responsIbIIIIy.
UNHCR Is very concerned wIIh Ihe ques
IIon oI agency, and empowerIng women
and geIIIng Ihem Io parIIcIpaIe In camp
acIIvIIIes have become cenIraI aspecIs In
Ihe poIIcIes oI UNHCR and oIher reIIeI
agencIes. In LukoIe ReIugee Camp In
TanzanIa where I dId over a year's IIeId
, Ihey were noI onIy concerned
wIIh heIpIng women - proIecIIon Irom
rape, access Io Iood and medIcaI heIp,
eIc - buI were aIso very concerned wIIh
heIpIng women Io heIp IhemseIves. ThIs
'heIp Io seIIheIp' or empowermenI oI
reIugees In generaI and oI women In
parIIcuIar was noI mereIy meanI as a
means Ior aIIaInIng cerIaIn (maIerIaI)
goaIs. LmpowermenI was aIso a means
oI combaIIng apaIhy and dependency
among reIugees, and oI gIvIng Ihem a
cerIaIn amounI oI seIIesIeem. To quoIe
UNHCR's guIdeIInes on Ihe proIecIIon oI
reIugee women:
"Intcnton t:c onotc: otcc-
ton. Intcnn otccton oLcn: nc
otcn duc n: nucI to coc': ccng:
o :onton, u:tnton, nc o
Lcongng to n :tuctucd :occt) nnd
nc o conto o\c tIc o\n utuc...
Kcugcc ntcnton Ic: Lud tIc
\nuc: nnd :cn:c o connunt) tInt
contLutc to cducng otccton
In oIher words, women
reIugees are Io be gIven
back Ihe agency IhaI
Ihey aIIegedIy IosI as
vIcIIms oI war. ThIs
whoIe Idea oI empowermenI and parIIcI
paIIon Is based on a modern IdeaI oI
(democraIIc) cIIIzenshIp and (equaI)
Ba bies in UN HCRs a rms
So how do reIugees reacI Io IhIs IdeaI oI
equaI rIghIs7 How do Ihey InIerpreI Ihe
changes In Ihe camp and Ihe ways In
whIch reIIeI agencIes admInIsIer Iood
and oIher resources7
When I asked BarundIan reIugees In
LukoIe ReIugee Camp
abouI changes In
gender reIaIIons aIIer comIng Io Ihe
camp, men and women aIIke were aII
very keen Io gIve IheIr opInIon. The gen
eraI ImpressIon I receIved - Irom Ihe
many quaIIIaIIve group InIervIews as
weII as a survey oI 464 reIugees - was
IhaI oI moraI decay. ThIngs were no
Ionger as Ihey used Io be, Ihey wouId
say. Women were becomIng prosIIIuIes,
men were poIygamIsIs, dIvorce raIes
were goIng up and young men were mar
ryIng oId women. A generaI Iheme In
mosI InIervIews was IhaI women no
Ionger respecIed IheIr husbands. II I
enquIred more abouI IhIs, Ihe answer
was quIIe cIear: "Women IInd UNHCR a
beIIer husband." By IhIs Ihey meanI IhaI
men IdeaIIy shouId provIde Ior IheIr
wIves and chIIdren, whIIe women and
chIIdren shouId obey and respecI Ihe
men. BuI In Ihe camp, accordIng Io Ihe
reIugees, UNHCR (or mereIy Ihe whIIe
man) wouId provIde Iood Ior everybody,
IrrespecIIve oI age, gender or sIaIus.
So, accordIng Io IhIs reasonIng, Ihe
women onIy respecI and obey UNHCR.
In a paradoxIcaI manner, Ihe IdeaI oI
everyone beIng equaI beIore UNHCR has
been reInIerpreIed In Ierms oI UNHCR
or Ihe whIIe man IakIng Ihe pIace oI Ihe
husband and
Ihe IaIher. In
oIher words,
Ihe men In Ihe
camp IeII IhaI
IheIr posIIIon
as breadwIn
ners and IIgures oI auIhorIIy was under
pressure. UNHCR was IakIng IheIr
auIhorIIy and IheIr women Irom Ihem.
A consequence oI IhIs was Io be reduced
Io becomIng equaI wIIh heIpIess women
or chIIdren, whIch was cerIaInIy noI a
desIrabIe sIaIe. As a young man saId
upon beIng asked wheIher he couId see
any changes In Ihe camp: "There Is a
change. PeopIe are noI IakIng care oI
IheIr own IIIe. They are jusI IIke babIes
In UNHCR's arms."
The generaI IeeIIng oI Ioss and oI
socIaI and moraI decay IhaI IoIIow
IIIghI and arrIvaI In a reIugee camp Is
oIIen InIerpreIed In Ierms oI gender
reIaIIons, and men's IeeIIng oI power
Iessness Is projecIed onIo UNHCR and
IIs poIIcy oI empowerIng women.
UNHCR has sImpIy Iaken IheIr women
and IheIr mascuIInIIy.
Vindicating masculinity: the fate
of promoting gender equality
by Simon Turner
This article explores how attempts by UNHCR
and others to empower women in refugee
camps are reinterpreted and given new
meaning by the refugees themselves.
Women find UNHCR
a better husband.
Gender and displacement
Rea sser ting ma sculinity
When I IIrsI wenI Io LukoIe, I was sur
prIsed Io IInd IhaI a Iarge group oI
young men In Ihe camp were exIremeIy
successIuI. The IIrsI surprIse was Ihe
number oI very young maIe sIreeI/
vIIIage Ieaders In Ihe camp. I InIervIewed
Ieaders who were onIy 21 years oId and
who had been Ieaders Ior severaI years.
ThIs conIIIcIed wIIh my assumpIIons
abouI BurundI socIeIy where age gIves
sIaIus and one Is noI consIdered a reaI
man worIh IIsIenIng Io unIII much oIder.
The reIugees IhemseIves provIde some
pIausIbIe expIanaIIons Ior Ihe phenome
non. They expIaIned IhaI one has Io be
very mobIIe Io be a Ieader: consIanIIy
movIng Irom Ihe UNHCR oIIIce Io Ihe
Iood dIsIrIbuIIon cenIre, Io Ihe poIIce
posI and back Io Ihe vIIIage/sIreeI.
IurIhermore, a Ieader In Ihe camp
preIerabIy has Io know Ianguages, wIIh
LngIIsh and SwahIII beIng more useIuI
Ihan Irench and KIrundI (Ihe oIIIcIaI Ian
guages In BurundI). IInaIIy, one has Io
be adapIabIe and noI 'be shy'. In oIher
words, one musI be abIe Io Iearn Ihe jar
gon oI reIIeI agencIes and dare Io
approach Ihem In Ihe rIghI way. These
are aII vIrIues where Ihe youIh have an
advanIage over Ihe oIder men.
SImIIarIy, I Iound IhaI a Iarge group oI
young men had Iound jobs wIIh NGOs.
They heId many oI Ihe same quaIIIIca
IIons as Ihe Ieaders and heId equaIIy
ImporIanI posIs In Ihe camp. BeIng
empIoyed by an agency gave access Io
resources and power. TheIr posIIIon as
InIermedIarIes beIween NGOs (provIdIng
resources such as medIcaI assIsIance,
educaIIon, socIaI servIces and securIIy)
and Ihe beneIIcIary popuIaIIon enabIed
Ihe IndIvIduaIs InvoIved Io buIId up horI
zonIaI neIworks wIIh each oIher and
verIIcaI neIworks oI paIronage. OIIen
Ihese neIworks were InIermeshed wIIh
Ihe camp's IormaI IeadershIp sIrucIure
and sIrongIy IInked Io Ihe Iwo cIandes
IIne poIIIIcaI parIIes In Ihe camp.
AIIhough poIIIIcaI acIIvIIy Is banned In
reIugee camps In TanzanIa, II Is com
mon knowIedge IhaI Iwo rIvaI (HuIu)
opposIIIon parIIes were very acIIve In
recruIIIng members In LukoIe. BeIng a
member oI Ihe rIghI parIy wouId oIIen
heIp a young man In geIIIng a job wIIh
an agency. II couId aIso sIrengIhen hIs
posIIIon as a Ieader. More ImporIanIIy,
however, beIng a parIy member gave a
sense oI IdenIIIy. ParIy Ieaders showed
sIrengIh and were respecIed - even
Ieared - In Ihe camp. They had a pur
pose In IIIe and had Iaken IheIr IuIure In
IheIr own hands, InsIead oI hangIng
around Ihe camp pIayIng cards and geI
IIng drunk IIke oIher young men. ParIy
members were even deIyIng UNHCR and
TanzanIan Iaw, pIayIng InsIead by IheIr
own ruIes. One couId say IhaI Ihey were
IakIng back whaI UNHCR had aIIegedIy
Iaken Irom Ihem. They were reasserIIng
IheIr mascuIInIIy.
UNHCR and oIher reIIeI agencIes sIrongIy
emphasIzed gender equaIIIy and
women's parIIcIpaIIon In LukoIe ReIugee
Camp. My IIndIngs In Ihe camp show
IhaI, InsIead oI empowerIng women,
Ihese poIIcIes had Ihe paradoxIcaI eIIecI
oI provIdIng upward mobIIIIy Ior a
group oI semIeducaIed young men.
The IdeoIogy oI gender equaIIIy was per
ceIved as a IhreaI Io IheIr mascuIInIIy
wIIh UNHCR IakIng IheIr pIace as hus
bands and IaIhers, reducIng Ihem Io
sIbIIngs or heIpIess women. In IheIr IIghI
Io regaIn IheIr presumed IosI pIace, Ihey
managed Io ouImanoeuvre Ihe oIder
generaIIon oI men, maInIy due Io IheIr
abIIIIy Io adapI Io Ihe new surroundIngs
and Io approach reIIeI agencIes In Ihe
rIghI manner. Thus, we see a change In
reIaIIons beIween generaIIons.
One mIghI expecI IhaI Ihe changes In
Ihe camp had aIso broughI abouI new
possIbIIIIIes Ior a group oI educaIed
young women as weII. However, men
and women aIIke InIerpreI changes In
Ihe camp accordIng Io a domInanI gen
der IdeoIogy based on maIe superIorIIy.
Lven young, educaIed women workIng
Ior NGOs beIIeve, on Ihe whoIe, IhaI
men are supposed Io be masIers and
IhaI equaIIIy onIy creaIes probIems; Ihey
may consequenIIy gIve haII oI IheIr
wages Io IheIr husband In order noI Io
anIagonIze hIm.
II has noI been Ihe purpose oI IhIs arII
cIe Io crIIIcIze UNHCR poIIcy on gender
In generaI, and I do noI pIead Ior a shIII
Io a cuIIuraI reIaIIvIsI approach endors
Ing paIrIarchaI or oIher oppressIve
sIrucIures In Ihe name oI cuIIuraI sensI
IIvIIy. ThIs arIIcIe mereIy poInIs ouI
some oI Ihe unInIended consequences aI
Ihe IocaI IeveI oI such generaI poIIcIes.
These unInIended consequences occur
as a resuII oI Ihe reIugees' reInIerpreIa
IIons oI weIIInIended reIIeI programmes
In Ihe camp, In IhIs parIIcuIar case creaI
Ing some quIIe unexpecIed eIIecIs on
age and gender reIaIIons.
5mon Turner s currentI) u Ph.O
Cunddute ut the Gruduute 5chooI
]or 1nternutonuI OeveIopment
5tudes, RoskIde Unverst),
Oenmurk. He Ived n Nguru,
Tunzunu, ]rom 1996 to 199S.
LmuI: turner@ruc.dk
1 UNHCR Iundn:ng: TIc Ccncn Iognnnc: -
UNHCK': Coc Act\tc:, p4. (www.unhcr.ch/Idrs/
2 LIIsa MaIkkI Iut) nnd Ixc: Vocncc, Mcno), nnd
Nntonn Co:noog) nnong Hutu Kcugcc: n
Tnnznnn, 199S, ChIcago UnIversIIy Press.
3 See SImon Turner Ang) )oung ncn n cnn:: gcn-
dc, ngc nnd cn:: cnton: nnong uundnn cugcc:
n Tnnznnn, WorkIng Paper No 9, UNHCR. 1999.
4 UNHCR Cudcnc: on tIc Iotccton o Kcugcc
Woncn, 10, 1991.
S I argue In my PhD IhesIs, Irom a IoucauIdIan Idea oI
bIopoIIIIcs, IhaI such IdeaIs consIIIuIe a IIneIuned
manner oI governIng Ihe camp by creaIIng seIIgov
ernIng subjecIs.
6 LukoIe Is IocaIed In NorIh WesIern TanzanIa. AI Ihe
IIme oI my IIeIdwork, 19971998, roughIy 100,000
BurundIans IIved In Ihe camp.

1 0
Gender and displacement
oung men are among Ihe mosI
vIsIbIe oI aII groups In PuIIaIam
DIsIrIcI oI Ihe NorIh WesIern
ProvInce, SrI Lanka. AImosI 40 per cenI
oI Ihe young maIe resIdenIs are InIernaI
Iy dIspIaced MusIIms expeIIed by Ihe
LIberaIIon TIgers oI TamII LeIam (LTTL)
In OcIober 1990, IogeIher wIIh IheIr
IamIIIes and IrIends.
The reasons Ior IhIs 'eIhnIc cIeansIng'
are compIex buI one reason was IhaI Ihe
MusIIms were noI prepared Io IuIIy sup
porI Ihe LTTL and were Ihus seen as a
IhreaI Io LTTL domInaIIon In Ihe norIh.
7S,000 MusIIms aImosI Ihe enIIre
MusIIm popuIaIIon oI Ihe NorIhern
ProvInce were IhreaIened aI gunpoInI
and gIven Irom Iwo hours Io one week
Io quII Ihe regIon. The majorIIy oI Ihe
norIhern MusIIms came Io PuIIaIam
DIsIrIcI, where Ihere was a mIxed popu
IaIIon oI MusIIms, SInhaIese and TamIIs.
Ten years have passed sInce Ihe expuI
sIon and Ihe sIIuaIIon In PuIIaIam Is
abouI Io become a IorgoIIen case
amIdsI SrI Lanka's new waves oI dIs
pIacemenI caused by Ihe war In Ihe
norIh oI Ihe IsIand.
Changes in practice and perception
The InIIux oI so many peopIe Io
PuIIaIam In 1990 has changed many
aspecIs oI Ihe IIves oI boIh IocaIs and
IDPs, IncIudIng changes In gender reIa
IIons. PeopIe's undersIandIng oI gender
Iocuses maInIy on women as symboIs oI
boIh sIabIIIIy and change. On Ihe one
hand, women are expecIed Io uphoId Ihe
cuIIure oI Ihe communIIy, by beIng
moIhers and wIves. LIvIng In a poor
envIronmenI wIIh smaII houses and IIIIIe
prIvaIe space, Ihey are supposed Io
maInIaIn In one way or anoIher Ihe
secIusIon Ior MusIIm women as weII as
Io proIecI IradIIIonaI IamIIy vaIues. On
Ihe oIher hand, women are aIso aI Ihe
IoreIronI oI change. Much oI Ihe
empIoymenI avaIIabIe In Ihe area Is
casuaI wage Iabour Ior women In agrIcuI
Iure: a new sIIuaIIon Ior women Irom
Ihe norIh. In Ihe norIh, Ihey cuIIIvaIed
IheIr own Iand wIIh IheIr husbands.
Today, Ihey Iace a dIIIerenI sIIuaIIon,
someIImes havIng Io IraveI Iong dIs
Iances Io work as Iabourers Ior oIhers.
ConsequenIIy, women do noI greaIIy
apprecIaIe havIng Io go ouI Io work,
despIIe IheIr Increased mobIIIIy, as II In
eIIecI symboIIzes Ihe degradaIIon oI
IheIr cuIIure. These changes dIrecIIy
aIIecI Ihe vIsIbIIIIy oI women as weII and
are used as a symboI oI how dIspIaced
peopIe have 'ruIned' Ihe IocaI cuIIure, by
makIng IocaI women aIso wanI Io move
around more IreeIy.
Conta ct w ith N GOs
Many oI Ihe 20 or so agencIes workIng
In Ihe dIsIrIcI have paId specIaI aIIenIIon
Io women, recognIzIng IhaI Ihey Iace
Ihese conIradIcIory expecIaIIons. Ior
mosI NGOs, women are one oI Ihree
maIn IargeI groups oI aId, IogeIher wIIh
chIIdren and Ihe househoId. The gender
perspecIIve In aId has become IaIrIy weII
arIIcuIaIed and quIIe sophIsIIcaIed, and
Ihe achIevemenIs are encouragIng.
AcIIvIIIes Ior women IncIude: awareness,
heaIIh, seIIempIoymenI and IeadershIp
IraInIng programmes and savIng groups.
Men are onIy IargeIed as heads oI house
hoIds, raIher Ihan as gendered acIors.
The young men Iose ouI, beIng neIIher
chIIdren, nor heads oI househoIds, nor
recognIzed as gendered acIors.
"We do noI have much conIacI wIIh
NGOs, excepI Ior one organIzaIIon IhaI
normaIIy comes Io our seIIIemenI buI
Ihey are onIy InIeresIed In Ihe women",
a young man IoId me. He conIInued:
"In my vIew, Ihe organIzaIIons shouId
have conIacI wIIh our group |young
men]. ThaI wouId be beIIer because nor
maIIy men have more knowIedge Ihan
women. . Men soIve probIems more
easIIy. II a weII needed Io be consIrucI
ed, Ior InsIance, we couId more easIIy
decIde Ihe suIIabIe pIace and Ihe needy
There are many messages In IhIs sIaIe
menI, noI IeasI a skewed vIew oI Ihe
abIIIIIes oI women. One ImporIanI poInI
underIyIng whaI he says Is IhaI men's
gender IdenIIIIes do noI auIomaIIcaIIy
change when women's IdenIIIIes and
pracIIces change. ChangIng women's
pracIIces does noI necessarIIy change
Ihe domInaIIng gender IdeoIogy and
men's aIIIIudes.
Men are sIIII perceIved as more knowI
edgeabIe, men are sIIII In Ihe IeadershIp
posIIIons and men are sIIII consIdered as
Ihe maIn breadwInners oI a IamIIy.
When agencIes onIy Iocus on women,
Ihere Is a danger oI undersIandIng men
onIy as absIracI represenIaIIves oI a
maIedomInaIed socIeIy. To make young
men, and men In generaI, vIsIbIe as gen
dered acIors Is Ihus Io recognIze Ihem
as acIIveIy InvoIved In Ihe processes oI
change and sIabIIIIy durIng dIspIacemenI
and reseIIIemenI. ThIs makes II Impor
IanI Io undersIand young dIspIaced men,
Ihe naIure oI IheIr chaIIenges, Ihe ouI
comes desIred by Ihe young men Ihem
seIves and Ihe IImIIaIIons Ihey experI
ence. II Is aIso ImporIanI Io emphasIze
IhaI young men do noI represenI one
homogenous group.
BeIow, I Iocus on Iwo Iypes oI gender
reIaIIons InvoIvIng Ihe young men: IIrsI,
Making young displaced men
visible by Cathrine Brun
This article examines the importance of under-
standing the part of young men in the
processes of displacement and resettlement
and suggests that agencies need to take
greater account of the role and position of
young displaced men when formulating
gender-sensitive policy and practice.
1 1
Gender and displacement
Ihe young men and IheIr househoIds;
second, Ihe young men's neIworks,
IrIendshIps and encounIers wIIh oIher
young men.
Young men a nd gender rela tions
w ithin the household
MosI oI Ihe young men dIscussed here
are beIween 18 and 30 years oId, have
IInIshed or dropped ouI oI schooI and
are sIIII unmarrIed. Those who are mar
rIed are sIIII noI necessarIIy heads oI
IheIr own househoIds as many IIve wIIh
IheIr parenIs or parenIsInIaw Ior many
years aIIer geIIIng marrIed. OIhers are
sIIII workIng Io geI
IheIr sIsIers mar
rIed, Io IInd a
suIIabIe parIner and
raIse a dowry,
beIore IheIr own
marrIages can be
UnIIke Turner's IIndIngs In LukoIe
ReIugee Camp Ior BurundIan reIugees In
Iew young dIspIaced men In
PuIIaIam have Iaken IeadershIp posI
IIons and Ihey are sIIII 'subordInaIe' Io
IheIr IaIhers and oIder men. SInce mosI
oI Ihe norIhern MusIIms IIed IogeIher
and arrIved IogeIher In PuIIaIam, Ihe
socIaI sIrucIures Irom Ihe norIh have In
many cases been reesIabIIshed In Ihe
camps and seIIIemenIs. As many oIder
men were noI abIe Io geI empIoymenI In
PuIIaIam, many young men have Iaken
over IheIr IaIher's roIe as breadwInner
earIIer Ihan Ihey wouId have done In Ihe
norIh. Though IhIs Is expressed as a
greaI Ioss Ior Ihe oIder men, II has noI
chaIIenged IheIr posIIIon as heads oI
househoIds and heads In Ihe seIIIe
menIs. One reason Ior IhIs mIghI be Ihe
ImporIanI roIe oI Ihe mosque In sIruc
IurIng Ihe socIeIy, and Ihe IacI IhaI Ihe
mosque IrusIee boards sIIII consIsI oI
men onIy, and maInIy eIderIy 'respecIabIe'
men. AIso Ihe percenIage oI IemaIe
headed househoIds Is reIaIIveIy Iow:
seven per cenI compared Io around 20
per cenI among SrI Lankan IDPs IocaIed
cIoser Io Ihe conIIIcI areas.
The mosI ImporIanI way Ior men Io
become 'respecIabIe' Is Io IoIIow IsIam
and IuIIII IheIr responsIbIIIIIes In Ihe
IamIIy, as breadwInners. In many young
men's vIew, IheIr IaIher's responsIbIIIIy
wIII be IheIr responsIbIIIIy In Ihe IuIure.
They worry onIy abouI Ihe dIIIIcuIIy oI
geIIIng permanenI empIoymenI In
PuIIaIam: Iack oI empIoymenI makes II
harder Io meeI IamIIy expecIaIIons.
Though empIoymenI wouId probabIy
have been a probIem In Ihe norIh as
weII, Ihere are oIher chaIIenges In beIng
dIspIaced. When Ihey IIed, Ihey had Io
Ieave aII IheIr beIongIngs and properIy
IosIng Ihe basIs Ior provIdIng dowry Ior
IheIr sIsIers. In addIIIon, Ihe dowry has
Increased aIIer dIspIacemenI, parIIy as a
househoId's means Io resIore IosI asseIs
and properIy.
The dIIIIcuIIy oI geIIIng empIoymenI
and Ihe accompanyIng IrusIraIIon are
aIso reIaIed Io
IheIr gender
IdenIIIy. The
young men's
oI IheIr maIn
as maInIaIner
oI IheIr IamIIy and as Ihe maIn bread
wInner does noI change despIIe Ihe
number oI women who are Ioday con
IrIbuIIng on equaI Ierms wIIh IheIr
husbands Io provIde Ior IheIr IamIIIes.
In IheIr vIew, women are Iorced Io work
because men cannoI IuIIII IheIr obIIga
IIons. II Ihe young men couId aIIord II,
Ihey wouId noI auIomaIIcaIIy approve oI
IheIr wIves goIng ouI Io work. Changes
In women's cuIIure and pracIIces have
become symboIIc oI men's InadequacIes.
Young mens netw orks a nd
MakIng young men vIsIbIe as gendered
acIors does noI onIy InvoIve IheIr
gender reIaIIons wIIhIn Ihe househoId.
ReIaIIonshIps wIIh oIher men ouIsIde
IheIr homes and IamIIIes are equaIIy
ImporIanI and equaIIy gendered, and
Ihus essenIIaI In buIIdIng Ihe young
men's sense oI IdenIIIy. Young men pIay
an ImporIanI roIe In Ihe InIegraIIon
process oI IocaIs and IDPs Ihrough
esIabIIshIng conIacIs beIween Ihe Iwo
groups and provIdIng a common ground
where dIIIerenI parIIes can come IogeIh
er. However, IhIs roIe Is noI apprecIaIed
nor used acIIveIy In order Io Improve
reIaIIonshIps beIween IocaIs and dIspIaced.
AIIhough Ihe IDPs and IocaIs IIve aparI
(IDPs In seIIIemenIs and camps, IocaI
MusIIms and SInhaIese In IheIr own
separaIe vIIIages), Ihe young men move
IreeIy beIween Ihe dIIIerenI seIIIemenIs,
buIIdIng neIworks and IrIendshIps wIIh
oIher young men. ReIaIIonshIps beIween
Ihe groups oI IocaIs and IDPs are IrIend
Iy buI poIenIIaIIy conIIIcIuaI.
The neIworks oI young men, IocaIs and
dIspIaced, are based on work, prevIous
schooI sIIuaIIons, reIIgIous acIIvIIIes and
games. They meeI In Ihe mosque Ior
prayers, In shops and eaIIng pIaces, ouI
sIde each oIher's houses and on Ihe
sporIs grounds. IDP and IocaI men have
IheIr own Ieams buI someIImes aIso pIay
IogeIher Ior Ihe same Ieams. In many
ways Ihey represenI Ihe group IhaI has
creaIed Ihe greaIesI IeveI oI InIegraIIon
beIween IocaIs and dIspIaced. As one
dIspIaced man IoId me, "I sIudIed wIIh
Ihe PuIIaIam boys and sIayed wIIh Ihe
PuIIaIam boys. MosI oI my IrIends are
PuIIaIam boys so Ihey consIder me as a
PuIIaIam boy." TheIr IdenIIIIes as dIs
pIaced young men aIso become
ambIguous. Many oI Ihem grew up wIIh
Ihe IocaI young boys and do noI IeeI
much dIIIerenI Irom Ihem.
Through IheIr mobIIIIy, men have greaI
opporIunIIIes Io nurIure neIworks whIch
cross Ihe IDPIocaI and TamIISInhaIese
dIvIdes. The norIhern MusIIms speak
TamII buI many oI Ihe young men have
aIso IearnI SInhaIa, Ihe Ianguage oI Ihe
majorIIy In SrI Lanka. KnowIng boIh Ian
guages, Ihey can move more easIIy
Men's reIaIIonshIps Io oIher men aIso
work as ImporIanI InIormaIIon channeIs,
especIaIIy Ior possIbIIIIIes Ior empIoy
menI. When Ihere Is no work Io be
Iound, mosI oI Ihe days are spenI
IogeIher wIIh oIher men In pubIIc pIaces.
IDPsin Puttalam District, Sri Lanka


many young men have
taken over their fathers
role as breadwinner
ThIs creaIes a IeeIIng oI unIIy wIIh oIher
men and heIps resIore dIgnIIy and sIaIus
In Ihe eyes oI IheIr IamIIIes, because
Ihey have somewhere Io go InsIead oI
beIng In Ihe house wIIh IheIr sIsIers and
moIhers durIng dayIIme.
WhIIe II Is Irue IhaI young men have
been good aI esIabIIshIng reIaIIonshIps
beIween IocaIs and dIs
pIaced, Ihere Is sIIII a
poIenIIaI Ior conIIIcIuaI
reIaIIonshIps beIween
young dIspIaced men
and young IocaI men.
CompeIIIIon Ior work
and dIscrImInaIIon
agaInsI dIspIaced men In
work as weII as In oIher spheres creaIe
IrusIraIIon and separaIIon, and some
IImes end up In vIoIenI encounIers.
Today, Ihese vIoIenI encounIers are
InIrequenI buI are Ieared and a common
IopIc oI conversaIIon.
Tow a rds inter ventions tha t involve
young men
GendersensIIIve poIIcIes and pracIIces
need Io InvoIve boIh pracIIcaI needs and
sIraIegIc InIeresIs.
PracIIcaI gender
needs InvoIve Ihose arIsIng Irom Ihe
concreIe condIIIons IhaI women and
men experIence. SIraIegIc gender InIer
esIs are Ihose InIeresIs and needs
arIsIng Irom Ihe anaIysIs oI exIsIIng gen
der reIaIIons and normaIIy InvoIve
quesIIonIng Ihese reIaIIons.
i. PracIical needs
PracIIcaI needs IdenIIIIed by Ihe young
men IhemseIves are secure empIoymenI
and pIaces Io meeI. One oI Ihe Iwo InIer
naIIonaI NGOs presenI In PuIIaIam has
sIarIed Io work wIIh young men Ihrough
a projecI run by Ihe young men Ihem
seIves. Here, boIh dIspIaced and IocaIs,
MusIIms, SInhaIese and TamIIs, work
IogeIher. TheIr maIn acIIvIIIes are voca
IIonaI IraInIng, seIIempIoymenI and
provIdIng assIsIance Io buIId sporIs
grounds. The NGO consIders unempIoy
menI and underempIoymenI as Ihe rooI
causes oI youIh probIems and vIoIence
In PuIIaIam, and hIghIIghIs Ihe Impor
Iance oI creaIIng arenas, IIke sporIs
grounds, where young men can meeI
and deveIop good reIaIIonshIps.
The young men's groups have Ihe same
objecIIve as Ihe women's groups where
Ihe maIn aIm has been Io meeI pracIIcaI
needs by savIngs, empIoymenI and
heaIIh programmes. A IIeIdworker
recounIs how dIIIIcuII II was, In esIab
IIshIng Ihe women's groups, Io geI
women InvoIved; Ioday, however, Ihese
groups are runnIng weII In aImosI aII Ihe
camps and seIIIemenIs, and have man
aged Io gaIn some InIIuence In camp and
seIIIemenI decIsIon makIng. The achIeve
menIs oI Ihe women's groups cIearIy
show how meeIIng pracIIcaI needs has
Ied Io Ihe achIevemenI oI more sIraIegIc
InIeresIs and Ihere are hopes IhaI Ihe
same process can Iake pIace Ior Ihe
young men's groups.
ii. SIraIegic inIeresIs
An exampIe oI an organIzaIIon workIng
more expIIcIIIy wIIh sIraIegIc InIeresIs Is
a IocaI NGO whose maIn aIm Is gender
equaIIIy. II works Io achIeve IhIs Ihrough
awareness programmes: programmes Io
geI more women empIoyed, more
women InvoIved In decIsIon makIng,
prevenIIng earIy marrIages as weII as
workIng Ior an accepIance oI 'Iovemar
rIages' (whIch do noI InvoIve dowry).
The NGO was Ioo radIcaI Ior Ihe mosque
IrusIee board In one oI Ihe camps and
was shunned. However, Ihe women's
group IaIked wIIh a group oI young men,
who Ihen dIscussed Ihe Issue wIIh Ihe
IrusIee board who evenIuaIIy agreed IhaI
Ihe NGO couId resume IIs work. In IhIs
way, young men are used as acIIve parI
ners - and as medIaIors - Io achIeve
sIraIegIc gender InIeresIs.
To change gender IdeoIogIes, boIh
women and men have Io parIIcIpaIe as
acIIve parIners. In PuIIaIam, women
have managed Io change IheIr sIraIegIes
and have moved Ihe IImIIs and under
sIandIngs oI whaI Ihey can and cannoI
do as women. AI Ihe same IIme, young
men have shown greaI abIIIIy as medIa
Iors, IransmIIIIng Ideas beIween groups,
and as InnovaIors buI IhIs roIe Is noI
conscIousIy acknowIedged, eIIher by Ihe
young men IhemseIves or by Ihe agen
cIes or oIher groups. There Is no reason
why young men shouId noI parIIcIpaIe
muIuaIIy wIIh young women In changIng
undersIandIngs oI gender. However,
acIIve parIIcIpaIIon assumes awareness
and II may be IhaI Ihere needs Io be
more provIsIon oI approprIaIe educaIIon
Ior men Io heIp Ihem undersIand Ihe con
sequences oI changes In gender IdeoIogy.
Young men have greaI poIenIIaI Ior
heIpIng Io deveIop IIves and IIveIIhoods
aIIer dIspIacemenI. Today Ihe agencIes
workIng In PuIIaIam have very IImIIed
IundIng and, Io a Iarge exIenI, IheIr
exIernaI Iunders, decIde Ihe naIure oI
Ihe projecIs. There needs Io be greaIer
awareness among Iunders and agencIes
oI Ihe need Io IncIude boIh women and
men In workIng wIIh sIraIegIc gender
InIeresIs and Io regard men as gendered
and acIIve parIIcIpanIs In gender reIaIIons.
They need aIso Io recognIze IhaI,
aIIhough young men are hIghIy vIsIbIe
and manage IheIr IIves quIIe weII, Ihey
experIence greaI IrusIraIIon aI beIng
unabIe Io provIde properIy Ior IheIr
IamIIIes. ThIs IrusIraIIon needs Io be
acknowIedged and addressed.
IurIhermore, agencIes shouId, Ihrough
careIuI InIervenIIon, buIId more acIIveIy
on Ihe poIenIIaI oI Ihese young men Io
acI eIIecIIveIy as medIaIors beIween Ihe
dIspIaced and IocaI popuIaIIons as weII
as In gender negoIIaIIons.
Cuthrne Brun s u PhO ]eIIow,
Oepurtment o] Geogruph), ut the
Norwegun Unverst) o] 5cence
und TechnoIog).
LmuI: cuthrne.brun@svt.ntnu.no
1 Based on IIeIdwork by Ihe auIhor In 19982000.
2 SImon Turner Ang) )oung ncn n cnn:: gcndc,
ngc nnd cn:: cnton: nnong uundnn cugcc: n
Tnnznnn UNHCR, WorkIng Paper no 9, 1999.
3 WorId Iood Programme 'RevIew oI proIracIed reIIeI
and recovery operaIIon, SrI Lanka 61S2', 2000, WIP,
4 KaIe Young Innnng Ic\concnt \tI Woncn:
Mnng n Wod o Iccncc, 1993, MacmIIIan Press,
London. CaroIIne Moser Ccndc Innnng nnd
Ic\concnt: TIco), Inctcc & Tnnng, 1993,
RouIIedge, London.
1 2
Gender and displacement
young men are used as
active partners to achieve
strategic gender interests
1 3
Gender and displacement
hen dIspIacemenI occurs,
Iar more damage resuIIs Ihan
sImpIy Ihe Ioss and desIruc
IIon oI goods and properIy. PeopIe's
IIves and IheIr socIaI IabrIc are IeII In
IaIIers; new, oIIen unIamIIIar, IIvIng
envIronmenIs aIIecI Ihe socIaI roIes
and responsIbIIIIIes oI men and
women; Iormer supporI sIrucIures
break down; and IamIIIes may Iace
poverIy Ior Ihe IIrsI IIme.
BoIh men and women are Iorced InIo
resIrIcIed mobIIIIy, IIvIng wIIh new regu
IaIIons and enIerIng new socIaI
reIaIIonshIps whIch may chaIIenge oId
IIes and kInshIps. WIIh Iew or no oppor
IunIIIes Ior conIInuIng IheIr IIveIIhoods
and oIIen In Ihe absence oI maIe IamIIy
members, women have no access Io
remuneraIIve work yeI are expecIed Io
provIde Ior IheIr IamIIIes. The Iack oI
access Io InIormaIIon abouI Ihe sIIua
IIon oI IheIr IamIIy members adds Io
Ihe Irauma and overwheImIng sense oI
DIspIacemenI has dIIIerenI conse
quences Ior women and gIrIs Ihan Ior
men and boys. There Is oIIen a dramaIIc
Increase In Ihe number oI women heads
oI househoIds, and Ihey bear addIIIonaI
responsIbIIIIIes Ior meeIIng Ihe needs oI
chIIdren and ageIng reIaIIves, sInce Ihe
maIe IamIIy members have eIIher joIned
Ihe warrIng groups or been capIured.
Women Iace new demands In provIdIng
Ior IhemseIves and IheIr chIIdren, wIIh
Increased workIoads and IImIIed access
Io and conIroI over Ihe beneIIIs oI goods
and servIces. IurIhermore, as a resuII oI
conIIIcI and Ihe breakdown In Iaw and
order, women and gIrIs Iace Increased
rIsks oI sexuaI vIoIence and abuse. In
some sIIuaIIons, Ihey become IargeIs Ior
deIIberaIe aIIacks by Ihe opposIng Iac
IIons Ior purposes oI revenge.
Stra tegies for a ction
AIIhough we know how war aIIecIs
women and chIIdren and whaI Io pro
vIde as emergency reIIeI, we are onIy
jusI begInnIng Io undersIand how Io
address Ihe gender dImensIon wIIhIn Ihe
humanIIarIan prIncIpIes Iramework.
When we dIscuss Ihe gender dImensIons
oI dIspIacemenI, we are IncIudIng a vasI
range oI dIIIerenI eIIecIs oI armed con
IIIcI on women and men, InIcIudIng how
II aIIecIs power reIaIIons beIween Ihem,
IheIr rIghIs and IheIr dIIIerenIIaI access
Io and beneIIIs Irom servIces. In 1999,
UNICLI and Ihe Women's CommIssIon
Ior ReIugee Women and ChIIdren orga
nIzed an LxperI MeeIIng on Gender
DImensIons oI InIernaI DIspIacemenI Io
deveIop sIraIegIes Io address Ihe gender
dImensIon oI InIernaI dIspIacemenI. Two
areas were hIghIIghIed Ior acIIon Ior
women and gIrIs: a) proIecIIon saIe
guardIng women and gIrIs Irom rape,
abducIIon, Iorced sexuaI sIavery, IorIure
and murder, and b) Ihe reaIIzaIIon oI
IheIr rIghIs Io equaI access and IuII par
IIcIpaIIon In Ihe managemenI oI Ihe
camps. In deveIopIng programmes Io
address Ihese areas Ior acIIon, UNICLI
has a number oI prIorIIIes, IIve oI whIch
are ouIIIned beIow:
i. Breaking barriers
LnIrenched dIscrImInaIory aIIIIudes are
evIdenI where women and gIrIs are
denIed IheIr rIghIs Io survIvaI, deveIop
menI, parIIcIpaIIon and proIecIIon.
UNICLI's programmes Ior IDPs In Sudan
have seI cIear goaIs Ior Ihe enroImenI
and reIenIIon oI gIrIs In educaIIonaI
IacIIIIIes. The socIaI mobIIIzaIIon oI
communIIIes In order Io change aIII
Iudes Is gIven ImporIance In Ihe seIIIng
up and managemenI oI such IacIIIIIes.
Human rIghIs educaIIon, Ihrough Irans
IaIIon oI Ihe approprIaIe IegaI InsIru
menIs and awareness campaIgns Ior
boIh men and women, has Iocused on
women's and chIIdren's rIghIs, IncIudIng
pubIIc educaIIon on Ihe eIImInaIIon oI
IemaIe genIIaI muIIIaIIon.
ii. Seeing women as survivors,
noI vicIims
In seIIIng up humanIIarIan servIces,
women's parIIcIpaIIon shouId be
pIanned In a vIsIbIe manner: IIrsIIy, by
IdenIIIyIng women IronIIIne workers
nurses, Ieachers, communIcaIors and,
secondIy, by acIIveIy InvoIvIng Ihem In
Ihe deIIvery oI servIces. ThIs mobIIIza
IIon can aIso be used Io IacIIIIaIe a
sysIemaIIc consuIIaIIve process wIIh
women In Ihe dayIoday managemenI
oI Ihe camps and membershIp In camp
These IIrsI Iwo prIorIIIes In approach
can be seen In Ihe conIexI oI UNICLI's
work In Ihe PaIesIInIan reIugee camps In
Lebanon. Men have IradIIIonaIIy run Ihe
'popuIar commIIIees' responsIbIe Ior
IormuIaIIng IocaI camp poIIcy buI
UNICLI has encouraged Ihem Io accepI
IemaIe represenIaIIon. SemInars were
InIIIaIIy heId wIIh members oI women's
assocIaIIons Io pIan a sIraIegy Io InIIu
ence Ihe popuIar commIIIees Io achIeve
IhIs. One woman Irom each group was
seIecIed Io acI as IheIr preIerred repre
senIaIIve and each group's members
Ihen IobbIed Ior Ihe appoInImenI oI IhIs
woman Io Ihe decIsIon makIng board oI
IheIr popuIar commIIIee. DurIng Ihe
semInars, women aIso Iearned how an
assocIaIIon IuncIIons, Ihe prIncIpIes oI
democraIIc cooperaIIon, InIormaIIon
skIIIs and IobbyIng IechnIques. MeeIIngs
were aIso heId wIIh heads oI Ihe popuIar
commIIIees Io dIscuss Ihe ImporIance oI
IemaIe represenIaIIon. As a resuII, Iour
popuIar commIIIees now IncIude women.
iii. lnvolving men and women lrom
Ihe beginning in peace building
and conllicI resoluIion acIiviIies
ThIs was Ihe maIn message oI Ihe recenI
SecurIIy CouncII ResoIuIIon 132S on
Women, Peace and SecurIIy, oI OcIober
2000. LxperIence oI MozambIque,
Gender dimensions of displacement
by Srilakshmi Gururaja
This article focuses on how gender awareness
is essential for addressing the protection and
participation rights of displaced women and
girls, with a discussion of the role and results
of the Beijing conferences.
1 4
Gender and displacement
GuaIemaIa, BurundI and SomaIIa IndI
caIes IhaI, despIIe cuIIuraI resIrIcIIons
and expecIaIIons, women are wIIIIng Io
cross boundarIes Io resoIve conIIIcI and
IIve In harmony wIIh peopIe oI opposIng
warrIng groups. In SomaIIa, UNICLI and
UNIILM joInIIy organIzed IraInIng work
shops In 1997 on 'Women's RoIe In
ConIIIcI ResoIuIIon', enabIIng a group oI
SomaII women Io advocaIe Ior peace and
acI as socIaI change agenIs In IheIr com
munIIIes. ThIs IaId Ihe IoundaIIon Ior
brIngIng women InIo Ihe pubIIc sphere
and has resuIIed In promoIIng women's
parIIcIpaIIon In cIvII governance.
iv. Raising gender awareness lor
MosI proIecIIon eIIorIs have Iocused on
educaIIon programmes Ior women on
how Io seek recourse or how Io secure
access Io rehabIIIIaIIon servIces. WhIIe
Ihese are ImporIanI, Ihey may noI be
reaIIy eIIecIIve In proIecIIng women and
prevenIIng vIoIence agaInsI women.
SensIIIzaIIon oI camp Ieaders and work
ers Io gender Issues Is essenIIaI. There Is
now a cerIaIn IeveI oI awareness oI
sexuaI vIoIence agaInsI women and gIrIs
and, In many camps, precauIIons are
beIng Iaken Io provIde IIghIIng In
secIuded areas and aIong rouIes Io waIer
poInIs and IueI wood coIIecIIon. The
Sphere projecI
has deveIoped mInImum
sIandards In parIIcuIar areas oI dIsasIer
response and encourages Ihe parIIcIpa
IIon oI women In IdenIIIyIng IheIr
specIaI needs. II pIaces emphasIs on
prevenIIng genderbased vIoIence and
sexuaI expIoIIaIIon, Ihrough Improved
IIghIIng and securIIy paIroIs In Ihe
camps. II aIso encourages Ihe IdenIIIIca
IIon oI persons and groups who presenI
a IhreaI Io women (wheIher Irom Ihe
dIspIaced IhemseIves or Irom Ihe hosI
communIIIes) and supporIs Ihe dIs
pIaced persons In IakIng acIIon Io
proIecI IhemseIves.
v. Reaching adolescenIs and youIh
Boredom, absence oI goaIs and Ioss oI
dIrecIIon aIIecI Ihe seIIconIIdence oI
young peopIe In camps. However,
aIIhough IheIr IIves may have been badIy
dIsrupIed, Ihey have energy and enIhusI
asm whIch can be channeIIed eIIecIIveIy.
In November 2000, UNICLI organIzed a
meeIIng In LnIebbe wIIh key NGOs and
oIher UN agencIes Io exchange InIorma
IIon on exIsIIng InIervenIIons and Io
deveIop sIraIegIes Ior IhIs age group.
The meeIIng's recommendaIIons Iocused
on assessmenI meIhods Ior use In emer
gencIes and sIraIegIes emphasIzIng
parIIcIpaIIon and cIose InvoIvemenI oI
adoIescenIs In pIannIng and ImpIemenI
aIIon oI InIervenIIons. In Ihe reIugee
camps In Kukes, AIbanIa, Ior exampIe,
UNICLI InIIIaIed a 'peerIopeer'
approach whIch encouraged 1S,000
young Kosovans (maIe and IemaIe
beIween Ihe ages oI 1S and 30) Io geI
engaged In conIIIcI resoIuIIon.
The Beijing Conferences
The IourIh WorId ConIerence on
Women, whIch Iook pIace In BeIjIng In
199S, soughI Io gaIvanIze women's
movemenIs and InIernaIIonaI organIza
IIons Io revIew progress made In
achIevIng Ihe goaIs oI Ihe NaIrobI
Iorward LookIng SIraIegIes oI LquaIIIy,
DeveIopmenI and Peace and Io IdenIIIy
Ihe emergIng areas Ior acIIon In IuIIIII
Ing Ihe human rIghIs oI women. IIs ouI
come was a 'PIaIIorm Ior AcIIon' (PIA)
Food distribution at refugee camp near Brazda, FYR M acedonia, 1999.

Gender and displacement
1 5
coverIng 12 crIIIcaI areas oI concern
IncIudIng Ihe human rIghIs oI women,
vIoIence agaInsI women and gIrIs, and
women In armed conIIIcI. II caIIed on
Ihe InIernaIIonaI communIIy Io proIecI
Ihe rIghIs and address Ihe needs oI
reIugees and IDPs In IIne wIIh InIerna
IIonaI covenanIs and IreaIIes.
SInce Ihe adopIIon oI Ihe BeIjIng PIA In
199S, some progress has been made In
proIecIIng Ihe rIghIs oI women and gIrIs
In conIIIcI zones and In addressIng IheIr
unIque concerns. These achIevemenIs
InIIIaIIves Io raIIIy and ImpIemenI
Ihe SIaIuIe oI Ihe InIernaIIonaI
CrImInaI CourI whIch consIders gen
derreIaIed crImes and crImes oI
sexuaI vIoIence. An achIevemenI Is
Ihe SIaIuIe IIseII, whIch IncIudes
under Ihe deIInIIIon oI crImes agaInsI
humanIIy: "rape, sexuaI sIavery,
enIorced prosIIIuIIon, Iorced preg
nancy, enIorced sIerIIIsaIIon, or any
oIher Iorm oI sexuaI vIoIence oI
comparabIe gravIIy"; and, under Ihe
deIInIIIon oI war crImes, "commIIIIng
rape, sexuaI sIavery, enIorced prosII
IuIIon, Iorced pregnancy, enIorced
sIerIIIsaIIon, or any oIher Iorm oI
sexuaI vIoIence aIso consIIIuIIng a
grave breach oI Ihe Geneva
The GuIdIng PrIncIpIes on InIernaI
DIspIacemenI (1998).
UN DeveIopmenI Iund Ior Women
(UNIILM) TrusI Iund In SupporI oI
AcIIons Io LIImInaIe VIoIence AgaInsI
Women and IIs AIrIcan Women In
CrIsIs programme AIWIC.
InIernaIIonaI CrImInaI TrIbunaI on
YugosIavIa (ICTY) ruIIng IhaI rape Is
a weapon oI war and a crIme agaInsI
humanIIy (1996) and InIernaIIonaI
CrImInaI TrIbunaI on Rwanda (ICTR)
subsequenI ruIIng IhaI rape can be
IegaIIy InIerpreIed as a weapon or
IooI or genocIde.
UN SecurIIy CouncII ResoIuIIon 126S
on Ihe ProIecIIon oI CIvIIIans In
Armed ConIIIcI and ResoIuIIon 261
(1999) and resoIuIIon 1314 (2000) on
Ihe ProIecIIon oI ChIIdren In Armed
ConIIIcI and Ihe depIoymenI oI UN
ChIId ProIecIIon AdvIsors and Gender
AdvIsors (1999).
The IIve year revIew (BeIjIng +S) oI Ihe
ImpIemenIaIIon oI Ihe BeIjIng PIA,
underIaken durIng a SpecIaI SessIon oI
Ihe UN GeneraI AssembIy In New York,
In |une 2000, Iocused on Gender
LquaIIIy, DeveIopmenI and Peace Ior Ihe
21sI CenIury and gave specIaI aIIenIIon
Io Ihe needs and rIghIs oI waraIIecIed
popuIaIIons, parIIcuIarIy women. The
resuIIIng documenI, enIIIIed 'IurIher
acIIons and InIIIaIIves Io ImpIemenI Ihe
BeIjIng DecIaraIIon and PIaIIorm Ior
AcIIon', recognIzes IhaI some posIIIve
deveIopmenIs have Iaken pIace buI aIso
acknowIedges IhaI severaI barrIers have
prevenIed Ihe IuII ImpIemenIaIIon oI Ihe
BeIjIng goaIs and commIImenIs.
The documenI caIIs upon governmenIs
Io IncorporaIe a gender perspecIIve In
budgeIary processes Io Iessen Ihe eco
nomIc InequaIIIy beIween men and
women. In an eIIorI Io overcome Ihe
eIIecIs oI gIobaIIzaIIon, governmenIs
aIso agreed Io Iake measures IhaI wouId
guaranIee Ihe equaI parIIcIpaIIon oI
women In macroeconomIc decIsIon mak
Ing. To achIeve IuII parIIcIpaIIon oI
women aI aII IeveIs oI decIsIon makIng,
Ihe documenI caIIs Ior Ihe creaIIon oI
'IavourabIe condIIIons' Io encourage
women's parIIcIpaIIon In poIIIIcs. In
addIIIon, governmenIs accepIed IhaI
any Iype oI vIoIence agaInsI women Is a
human rIghIs vIoIaIIon and agreed Io
Iake aII sIeps necessary Io ensure IhaI
women are proIecIed and have access
Io jusIIce.
The documenI recommended IhaI
acIIons need Io be Iaken aI boIh naIIonaI
and InIernaIIonaI IeveIs Io ensure and
supporI Ihe IuII parIIcIpaIIon oI women
aI aII IeveIs oI decIsIon makIng and
ImpIemenIaIIon oI deveIopmenI acIIvI
IIes and peace processes, IncIudIng
conIIIcI prevenIIon and resoIuIIon, posI
conIIIcI reconsIrucIIon, peace makIng,
peace keepIng and peace buIIdIng In IIne
wIIh exIsIIng prIncIpIes and guIdeIInes.
In IhIs regard, eIIorIs shouId aIso be
made Io supporI Ihe InvoIvemenI oI
women's organIzaIIons, communIIy
based organIzaIIons and NGOs, and Io
ensure Ihe appIIcaIIon oI InIernaIIonaI
convenIIons IncIudIng CLDAW and CRC
Io Ihese processes.
Area s for a ction
In Ihe deIIvery oI humanIIarIan assIs
Iance, Ihe chaIIenge Ior governmenIs,
Ihe UN, NGOs and oIhers Is Io under
sIand and respond Io gender Issues
Ihrough anaIysIs and comprehensIve
programme InIIIaIIves. These InIIIaIIves
shouId eIIecIIveIy buIId on Ihe capacIIy
oI women aIIecIed by armed conIIIcI,
supporI InIernaIIy dIspIaced women and
chIIdren as Ihey push Ior reIurn Io IheIr
homes and reconsIrucIIon, and encour
age women's parIIcIpaIIon and proIec
IIon In buIIdIng a IIIe oI peace and
DrawIng upon recenI InIernaIIonaI com
mIImenIs and conIerence ouIcomes, as
ouIIIned above, Ihe IoIIowIng emerge as
areas Ior ImmedIaIe acIIons Ior advanc
Ing Ihe rIghIs oI dIspIaced women and
LIIecIIve ImpIemenIaIIon oI UN
SecurIIy CouncII ResoIuIIons, ensur
Ing Ihe proIecIIon oI chIIdren and
women In armed conIIIcI.
More eIIecIIve warnIng sysIems Ior
prevenIIng vIoIence agaInsI women
and gIrIs, and In makIng Ihe perpeIra
Iors accounIabIe Ior vIoIaIIons. The
raIIIIcaIIon and ImpIemenIaIIon oI
Ihe SIaIuIe on Ihe InIernaIIonaI
CrImInaI CourI needs Io be compIe
menIed by communIIybased
reconcIIIaIIon and judIcIaI proce
dures. More eIIorIs musI be made Io
end sexuaI and genderbased vIoIence
Ihrough aIIocaIIng more programme
budgeI Io educaIIon Ior prevenIIon.
PrIorIIIzaIIon by humanIIarIan reIIeI
workers oI HIV/AIDS acIIvIIIes,
IncIudIng awareness campaIgns
aImed aI muIIIsecIoraI proIecIIon,
educaIIon, communIIy servIces,
heaIIh, nuIrIIIon and economIc pro
grammes, addressIng prevenIIon oI
moIher Io chIId IransmIssIon oI HIV,
ImprovIng Ihe prevenIIon and IreaI
menI oI sexuaIIy IransmIIIed
dIseases, and ImpIemenIIng voIunIary
counseIIIng and IesIIng as approprI
aIe Ior InIernaIIy dIspIaced women
and adoIescenI gIrIs.
ImpIemenIaIIon oI Ihe InIerAgency
SIandIng CommIIIee PoIIcy SIaIemenI
on Ihe InIegraIIon oI a Gender
PerspecIIve In HumanIIarIan
AssIsIance and Ihe agreed concIu
sIons oI Ihe HumanIIarIan SegmenI oI
UN LconomIc and SocIaI CouncII oI
1999. ThIs wouId ensure IhaI gender
Issues are broughI InIo Ihe maIn
sIream oI humanIIarIan assIsIance
acIIvIIIes IoIIowIng a genderImpacI
anaIysIs. ThIs wouId aIso pave Ihe
way Ior measures Io promoIe Ihe
posIIIve roIe IhaI women can pIay In
posIconIIIcI peace buIIdIng, recon
sIrucIIon and reconcIIIaIIon.
In addIIIon, Ihe recenI progress reporI
oI Ihe Graa MacheI sIudy, used as Ihe
background documenI aI Ihe SepIember
2000 InIernaIIonaI ConIerence on War
AIIecIed ChIIdren In WInnIpeg,
reIIeraIed IhaI Ihe mandaIes oI preven
IIve peace mIssIons, peace keepIng
operaIIons and peace buIIdIng need Io
IncIude provIsIons Ior women's proIec
IIon as weII as Io respond Io gender
Issues. Such mIssIons and operaIIonaI
acIIvIIIes shouId IncIude approprIaIeIy
sIaIIed and InIegraIed gender unIIs and
gender advIsors, and gIve prIorIIy Io Ihe
verIIIcaIIon oI genderbased vIoIaIIons
and Ihe proIecIIon oI women's human
rIghIs. IIeId operaIIons shouId proIecI
and supporI Ihe deIIvery oI humanIIarI
an assIsIance Ior aIIecIed women and gIrIs,
and In parIIcuIar Ior reIugee and dIspIaced
women Irom a gender perspecIIve.
How do we make II happen7 There are
Iwo overwheImIng prerequIsIIes:
lirsIly, we need gIobaI appIIcaIIon oI
InIernaIIonaI norms, IncIudIng Ihe
GuIdIng PrIncIpIes on InIernaI DIspIace
menI, usIng rIghIsbased approaches
based on equaIIIy, accounIabIIIIy,
parIIcIpaIIon and proIecIIon.
Secondly, we need an InIormed under
sIandIng and anaIysIs oI Ihe socIaI
sIrucIures oI dIspIaced popuIaIIons IhaI
deIermIne Ihe reIaIIonshIps, behavIour,
copIng mechanIsms and capacIIy Ior
adjusImenI. DIsaggregaIIon and anaIysIs
oI InIormaIIon by sex, age, eIhnIcIIy and
reIIgIon are essenIIaI Ior Ihe pIannIng
and ImpIemenIaIIon oI eIIecIIve humanI
IarIan assIsIance servIces.
5rIukshm Gururu]u s the 5enor
Advsor ]or Gender und OeveIop-
ment ut the Progrumme Ovson,
UN1CL1. 5he wrote ths urtcIe n her
personuI cupuct); vews expressed
do not necessurI) represent o]]cuI
UN1CL1 opnon.
LmuI: sgururu]u@unce].org
1 www.sphereprojecI.org
2 AIWIC (AIrIcan Women In CrIsIs) enabIes UNIILM Io
supporI quIck responses and ImmedIaIe assIsIance Io
women In crIsIs, and Io pIace women aI Ihe cenIre oI
Ihe search Ior soIuIIons. AIWIC aIms Io buIId Ihe
capacIIy oI seIecIed women's rIghIs organIzaIIons and
reIIeI organIzaIIons In LasI, WesI and CenIraI AIrIca Io
expand IheIr work Io IncIude advocacy on behaII oI
reIugee, dIspIaced and reIurnee women.
Gender and displacement
1 6
Resources: gender issues in armed conflict
1. OngoIng InIIIaIIves Io Improve response Io IDPs:
Cudng Incc: on Intcnn I:nccncnt (RepresenIaIIve oI Ihe UN SecreIary
GeneraI on IDPs /UNHCHR, 1998). See p4S Ior IIsI oI IransIaIIons. AvaIIabIe aI:
Mnnun on Icd Inctcc n Intcnn I:nccncnt: Ixnnc: on UN Agcncc: nnd
Intnc Ognn:nton: o Icd-Ln:cd Intnt\c: 5uotng III: (IASC PoIIcy Paper,
1999). AvaIIabIe aI: www.reIIeIweb.InI/ochaoI/pub/IDPManuaI.pdI
HnndLoo o A)ng tIc Cudng Incc: on Intcnn I:nccncnt (The
BrookIngs InsIIIuIIon ProjecI on InIernaI DIspIacemenI, 1999). AvaIIabIe aI:
ConIacI deIails lor OCHA: Ccnc\n: OCHA, UN, PaIaIs des NaIIons, 1211 Geneva 10
SwIIzerIand. TeI: +41 22 917 1234. Iax: +41 22 917 0023. LmaII: ochagvaJun.org
Nc\ Yo: OCHA, UN, New York, NY 10017, USA. TeI: +1 212 963 1234. Iax: +1 212
963 1312. LmaII: ochanyJun.org
GIobaI DaIabase on IDPs (NorwegIan ReIugee CouncII): www.IdpprojecI.org
2. DocumenIaIIon on posIconIIIcI reInIegraIIon (UNDP, BrookIngs InsIIIuIIon , UNICLI, eIc).
Ior exampIe, IASC (InIerAgency SIandIng CommIIIee) ReIerence Group process on IhIs Issue
(dIsbandIng end 2000) wIII produce a reporI on IIs IIndIngs; see www.reIIeIweb.InI/Iasc/
3. UNICLI: Hunnntnnn Incc: Tnnng: A CId KgIt: Iotccton AoncI to
Concx Incgcncc: (UNICLI). AvaIIabIe on CDRom and aI: coedmha.org/unIceI/
unIceI2Is.hIm. Irench and SpanIsh versIons avaIIabIe. TrIIInguaI CDRom beIng prInIed.
TIc Ccndc Incn:on: o Intcnn I:nccncnt: Concct Inc nnd Annotntcd
LognI), WorkIng Paper SerIes, Nov 1998, 73pp. ConIacI: OIIIce oI Lmergency
Programmes, UNICLI House, 3 UN PIaza, New York, NY 10017, USA. TeI: +1 212 326
7000. Iax: +1 212 887 746S. LmaII: emopsJunIceI.org
4. ProIecIIon oI IDPs Iotccton :tntcgc: o \oncn, cIdcn nnd otIc \uncnLc
gou: (IASC PoIIcy Paper 1999).
5. PoIIcy SIaIemenI Ior Ihe InIegraIIon oI a Gender PerspecIIve In HumanIIarIan
AssIsIance (IASC/LCOSOC, May 1998). AvaIIabIe aI: www.reIIeIweb.InI/ochaoI/pub/
Iasc/IASC20gender20poIIcy.hIm pIus Background Paper 'MaInsIreamIng Gender In
Ihe HumanIIarIan Response Io LmergencIes' (March 1999). AvaIIabIe aI: www.reIIeIweb.
6. NGOs resources such as Ihe Sphere ProjecI. See: www.sphereprojecI.org ConIacI:
Sphere ProjecI, PO Box 372, 1211 Geneva 19, SwIIzerIand. TeI. +41 22 730 49 7S.
Iax: +41 22 730 49 0S. LmaII: sphereJIIrc.org
7. Tnnng o Icnccccng Iocc: IocusIng on gender aspecIs produced by Ihe LesIer
Pearson PeacekeepIng InsIIIuIe, Canada and UNICLI. AvaIIabIe on CDRom. ConIacI:
Carmen Sorger, PeacebuIIdIng and Human SecurIIy DIvIsIon, DeparImenI oI IoreIgn
AIIaIrs and InIernaIIonaI Trade, 12S Sussex DrIve, OIIawa, OnIarIo, Canada K1A OG2.
TeI: +1 613 944 1171. LmaII: carmen.sorgerJdIaIImaecI.gc.ca
8. ReIugee SIudIes CenIre: TIc Kcugcc Ixccncc psychosocIaI IraInIng moduIe
IncIudes secIIon on gender and Iorced mIgraIIon. ConIacI Maryanne Loughry aI Ihe RSC
(address p2). LmaII: reIexpJqeh.ox.ac.uk. Doreen Indra Ingcndcng Ioccd Mgnton:
TIco) nnd Inctcc, 1998, Berghahn Books (In assocIaIIon wIIh Ihe RSC). 390pp. ISBN 1
S7181 134 6. ConIacI Berghahn Books aI: SS |ohn SIreeI, 3rd IIoor, New York, NY 10038,
USA or: 3 New Tec PIace, MagdaIen Road, OxIord OX4 IRL, UK.
9. GuIdance Ior poIIcy ImpIemenIaIIon deveIoped by UN agencIes and specIaIIzed
agencIes: eg UNICLI's Iognnnc': Cudc to Ccndc Mnn:tcnnng (emaII: emopsJ
unIceI.org); UNHCR's Icoc Ocntcd Innnng Cudc (emaII: hqrd00Junhcr.ch).
Gender and displacement
1 7
urrenI InIerpreIaIIon oI Ihe 19S1
UN ConvenIIon reIaIIng Io Ihe
SIaIus oI ReIugees (Ihe 'ReIugee
ConvenIIon') presenIs consIderabIe dIIII
cuIIIes Ior women when IheIr Iears oI
persecuIIon arIse ouI oI Iorms oI proIesI
or III IreaImenI whIch are noI consIdered
The ReIugee ConvenIIon does noI specII
IcaIIy reIer Io gender as one oI Ihe
grounds upon whIch an IndIvIduaI can
be recognIzed as a reIugee and gIven
proIecIIon. II Is IhIs whIch has IargeIy
been seen as Ihe basIs oI women's mar
gInaIIzaIIon and whIch has Ied some Io
caII Ior Ihe reIugee deIInIIIon Io be re
wrIIIen and Ior 'gender' Io be added Io
Ihe ConvenIIon's grounds aIongsIde race,
naIIonaIIIy, reIIgIon, socIaI group and
acIuaI (or ImpuIed) poIIIIcaI opInIon.
II has aIso Ied Io caIIs Ior women Io be
recognIzed as 'members oI a parIIcuIar
socIaI group' wIIhIn Ihe meanIng oI Ihe
ConvenIIon and oIIered proIecIIon on
IhIs basIs.
ThIs arIIcIe quesIIons, how
ever, wheIher such approaches, In hIgh
IIghIIng Ihe specIIIcIIy oI women's expe
rIences, have adequaIeIy reIIecIed upon
Ihe roIe oI gender, as opposed Io sex, In
shapIng Ihose experIences and Ihe prob
Iems experIenced In Ihe deIermInaIIon
In many respecIs, Ihe IaIIure Io Incorpo
raIe Ihe genderreIaIed asyIum cIaIms oI
women Is a producI oI Ihe generaI IaII
ure oI reIugee Iaw Io recognIze socIaI
and economIc rIghIs and IIs emphasIs
InsIead on IndIvIduaI IargeIIng and spe
cIIIc deprIvaIIon oI cIvII and poIIIIcaI
rIghIs. ThIs Is despIIe Ihe IacI IhaI socIaI
and economIc rIghIs may be vIoIaIed Ior
poIIIIcaI reasons. However, II Is aIso
reIaIed Io a Iarger crIIIcIsm oI human
rIghIs Iaw and dIscourse: IhaI II prIvI
Ieges maIedomInaIed 'pubIIc' acIIvIIIes
over Ihe acIIvIIIes oI women, whIch Iake
pIace IargeIy In Ihe 'prIvaIe' sphere.
AIIhough InIernaIIonaI Iaw Is gender
neuIraI In Iheory, In pracIIce Ihe
pubIIc/prIvaIe dIsIIncIIon Is used In such
a way IhaI whaI women do and whaI Is
done Io Ihem Is oIIen seen as IrreIevanI.
Many oI Ihe exIsIIng anaIyses have
soughI Io expIaIn Ihe dIIIerenIIaI IreaI
menI oI women by reIerence Io IheIr
sIaIus as women (Ie IheIr sex) raIher
Ihan Ihe consIrucIIon oI gender IdenIIIy
In specIIIc geographIcaI, hIsIorIcaI, poIIII
caI and socIocuIIuraI conIexIs.
Moreover, Ihe Ierms 'gender' and 'sex'
have Iended Io be used InIerchangeabIy.
UnIIke 'sex' whIch Is bIoIogIcaIIy deIIned
and IhereIore InnaIe, Ihe Ierm 'gender'
reIers Io Ihe socIaI consIrucIIon oI
power reIaIIons beIween women and
men, and Ihe ImpIIcaIIons oI Ihese reIa
IIons Ior women's (and men's) IdenIIIy,
sIaIus, roIes and responsIbIIIIIes. Gender
reIaIIons and gender dIIIerences are hIs
IorIcaIIy, geographIcaIIy and cuIIuraIIy
specIIIc, so IhaI whaI II Is Io be a
'woman' or 'man' varIes Ihrough space
and over IIme. Any anaIysIs oI Ihe way
In whIch gender (as opposed Io bIoIogI
caI sex) shapes Ihe experIences oI
asyIumseekIng women musI IhereIore
conIexIuaIIze Ihose experIences.
ThIs dIsIIncIIon beIween gender and sex
and Ihe Iocus on Ihe poIIIIcaI conIexI In
whIch women's experIences Iake pIace
are ImporIanI because Ihe conIInuIng
Iocus on women as opposed Io gender
In Iorced mIgraIIon research and prac
IIce repIIcaIes and reInIorces Ihe
margInaIIzaIIon oI women's experIences.
LquaIIng 'gender' wIIh women Ieads Io a
Iendency Io generaIIze abouI Ihe experI
ences oI women as asyIum seekers and
IhIs Is probIemaIIc Ior severaI reasons.
IIrsIIy, II resuIIs In conIusIon abouI
whaI Is meanI by Ihe Ierm 'genderreIaI
ed persecuIIon' and, In parIIcuIar, a Iack
oI undersIandIng abouI Ihe reIaIIonshIp
beIween Ihe Iorm oI harm suIIered or
Ieared and Ihe reIevanI enumeraIed
ground. SecondIy, whIIe Ihere are oIIen
sIgnIIIcanI dIIIerences beIween Ihe expe
rIences oI women and men, Ihere are
aIso crIIIcaI dIIIerences beIween women
wIIhIn and beIween parIIcuIar counIrIes
and conIexIs. The Iendency oI acade
mIcs, pracIIIIoners and poIIcy makers Io
IreaI 'women' as an homogeneous
caIegory In order Io emphasIze Ihe ways
In whIch Ihe experIences oI women gen
eraIIy have been margInaIIzed means IhaI
Ihese crIIIcaI dIIIerences beIween women
have oIIen been Ignored.
Ma le versus fema le models
The probIem wIIh many oI Ihe currenI
approaches Io women as asyIum seekers
IhereIore Is IhaI Ihey oIIen counIerpose
Ihe 'maIe experIence' oI persecuIIon wIIh
Gender, persecution and the
concept of politics in the asylum
determination process
by Heaven Crawley
The particular difficulties facing many women
as asylum seekers stem not from the absence
of gender in the Refugee Conventions
grounds but rather from the failure of decision
makers to acknowledge and respond to the
gendering of politics and of womens relation-
ship to the state when applying that definition
to individual cases.
Gender and displacement
1 8
a 'IemaIe modeI'. ThIs modeI generaIIzes
abouI women's experIences oI 'gender
reIaIed persecuIIon' and overemphasIzes
sexuaI vIoIence aI Ihe expense oI oIher
Iorms oI resIsIance and repressIon IhaI
are experIenced by women In IheIr coun
IrIes oI orIgIn. DIIIerences beIween
women, however, have sIgnIIIcanI ImpII
caIIons Ior IheIr experIences oI boIh
persecuIIon and Ihe process oI asyIum
deIermInaIIon. Ior exampIe, because
naIIonaIIsI agendas are more open Io
IncorporaIIng some groups oI women
Ihan oIhers, Ihe apparaIus and InsIIIu
IIons oI Ihe sIaIe
may esIabIIsh dII
IerenIIaI poIIcIes
Iowards Ihem.
One unInIended
buI very serIous
eIIecI oI mereIy
addIng 'women' Io exIsIIng anaIyses
wIIhouI an undersIandIng oI Ihe dIIIer
ences beIween women Is IhaI women
appear onIy as vIcIIms: reIugee women
are presenIed as unIIormIy poor, power
Iess and vuInerabIe, whIIe WesIern
women are Ihe reIerence poInI Ior mod
ern, educaIed, sexuaIIyIIberaIed
womanhood. ThIs In Iurn Ieads Io Ihe
depoIIIIcIzaIIon and deconIexIuaIIzaIIon
oI women's experIences oI persecuIIon
and IheIr concepIuaIIzaIIon as passIve
vIcIIms oI, Ior exampIe, 'maIe oppres
sIon' or 'oppressIve cuIIures, reIIgIons or
The concept of politics
The concepI oI 'poIIIIcs' Is crIIIcaI Io Ihe
process oI deIermInIng wheIher an IndI
vIduaI appIIcanI shouId be recognIzed as
a reIugee wIIhIn Ihe meanIng oI Ihe
ReIugee ConvenIIon. II has been suggesI
ed IhaI because women are much Iess
IIkeIy Ihan men Io be InvoIved In poII
IIcs, Ihe concepI oI 'poIIIIcaI opInIon' Is
unIIkeIy Io be cenIraI In Ihe cIaIms oI
women seekIng asyIum.
However, IhIs
IaIIs Io Iake InIo accounI Ihe conIexI In
whIch women's parIIcIpaIIon and resIs
Iance Iake pIace.
Gendered crIIIques oI poIIIIcs and poIIII
caI parIIcIpaIIon are parIIcuIarIy useIuI
because Ihey shed new IIghI on Ihe reIa
IIonshIp beIween women and poIIIIcs,
boIh by poInIIng Io Ihe sIrucIuraI Iea
Iures oI poIIIIcaI IIIe whIch have Iended
Io excIude women Irom posIIIons oI
power and by reveaIIng Ihe hIsIory oI
women's InvoIvemenI In poIIIIcaI acIIon.
In addIIIon Ihey have chaIIenged Ihe Ien
dency Io separaIe Ihe pubIIc worId oI
poIIIIcs and empIoymenI Irom Ihe prI
vaIe sphere oI IamIIy and InIerpersonaI
Women are as vuInerabIe Io poIIIIcaI
vIoIence as IheIr maIe counIerparIs even
Ihough IheIr poIIIIcaI parIIcIpaIIon oIIen
Iakes pIace aI a socaIIed 'Iow IeveI'.
In many socIeIIes, Indeed, Ihe penaIIIes
Ior poIIIIcaI parIIcIpaIIon and resIsIance
are even more severe Ior women Ihan
Ior men because oI cuIIuraI and socIaI
norms IhaI precIude women's InvoIve
menI. Ior
women who
are ImprIs
oned by Ihe
run Ihe rIsk
oI 'doubIe
punIshmenI'. They are punIshed noI
onIy because Ihey oppose Ihe regIme In
some way buI aIso because Ihey shun
Ihe IradIIIonaI roIe oI women by beIng
poIIIIcaIIy acIIve aI aII. As a resuII, Ihey
are oIIen 'puI back In IheIr pIace' by
prIson guards or mIIIIary men.
VIoIence agaInsI Ihose who oppose
regImes Is noI conIIned Io Ihe pubIIc
sphere because poIIIIcs and poIIIIcaI
resIsIance are noI excIusIve Io Ihe pubIIc
sphere. PoIIIIcaI vIoIence by Ihe sIaIe
aIms Io dIsabIe opposIIIon or resIsIance
by so InIImIdaIIng a popuIaIIon as Io
IorcIbIy 'depoIIIIcIze' II. BrIngIng vIo
Ience InIo Ihe 'prIvaIe' sphere oI Ihe
home and IamIIy appears Io be a parIIc
uIarIy eIIecIIve means oI achIevIng IhIs
aIm. As a resuII, even where women do
noI parIIcIpaIe In IormaI poIIIIcs, a
woman noneIheIess may be harmed as a
means oI InIImIdaIIng, coercIng or harm
Ing oIher IamIIy members who hoId
dIssenIIng poIIIIcaI vIews or who engage
In poIIIIcaI acIIvIIIes whIch are dIsap
proved oI by Ihe persecuIor.
In addIIIon, women who have had IIIIIe
or no InvoIvemenI In IormaI poIIIIcaI
InsIIIuIIons oIIen Iake up aII sorIs oI
pracIIcaI and InnovaIIve ways Io exerI
pressure on Ihe poIIIIcaI scene In IImes
oI conIIIcI. These Iorms oI poIIIIcaI par
IIcIpaIIon by women oIIen grow ouI oI
and subverI IheIr gender roIes as
provIders and nurIurers; because women
are seen as poIIIIcaI InnocenIs, Ihey are
abIe Io use IhIs ImmunIIy Io Iake InIIIa
IIves and responsIbIIIIIes oI a coverI
poIIIIcaI naIure.
A gendered crIIIque oI poIIIIcs suggesIs
IhaI Ihe exIenI oI women's poIIIIcaI
parIIcIpaIIon has been underesIImaIed.
In addIIIon, however, II IndIcaIes a Ien
dency Io mIsrepresenI gendered Iorms
oI persecuIIon and resIsIance as per
sonaI raIher Ihan poIIIIcaI. In Ihe
conIexI oI growIng sIruggIes over
naIIonaI IdenIIIy, prevaIenI IdeoIogIes
have arIIcuIaIed poIIcIes IhaI have
proved parIIcuIarIy deIrImenIaI Io
women because Ihe roIe oI gender In
Ihe consIrucIIon oI naIIonaI IdenIIIy
becomes reIIecIed In sIaIe poIIcIes.
Many anIIcoIonIaI naIIonaIIsI projecIs
aIm Io recover or reInvenI 'IradIIIon' In
order Io deveIop a new naIIonaIIsI con
scIousness. WIIhIn IhIs process, naIIonaI
dIIIerence Is oIIen consIrucIed In cuIIur
aI Ierms agaInsI Ihe WesI and, because
IhIs dIIIerence Is oIIen IocaIed In Ihe
prIvaIe sphere, In IamIIy and sex roIes,
women have been consIrucIed as Ihe
bearers oI an auIhenIIc/auIhenIIcaIed
cuIIure. In many parIs oI Ihe worId,
women who do noI IIve up Io Ihe moraI
or eIhIcaI sIandards Imposed on Ihem
by IheIr socIeIIes are ImpuIed wIIh a
poIIIIcaI opInIon and as a consequence
suIIer crueI or Inhuman IreaImenI.
ReIusIng Io marry, havIng sexuaI reIa
IIons ouIsIde marrIage, provIdIng
unsaIIsIacIory dowry or even wearIng
cerIaIn dress can resuII In persecuIIon.
Perhaps one oI Ihe cIearesI exampIes oI
Ihe way In whIch poIIIIcaI parIIcIpaIIon
and resIsIance Is gendered can be seen
In Ihe poIIIIcs oI dress codes and, specII
IcaIIy, Ihe veII. Women's opposIIIon Io
Ihe ImposIIIon oI dress codes durIng Ihe
process oI IsIamIzaIIon shouId be be
seen In Ihe conIexI oI Ihe poIIIIcaI sym
boIIsm oI Ihe veII. The concepI oI
'honour' has become sIrongIy assocIaIed
wIIh women's sexuaI behavIour In many
conIexIs. Any acIuaI or perceIved vIoIa
IIon oI whaI are deemed Io be
'approprIaIe' gender reIaIIons Is vIewed
as deIIIIng Ihe honour oI Ihe woman
and, In Iurn, Ihe honour oI Ihe naIIon
IIseII. ProIecIIng Ihe honour oI Ihe
woman and Ihe naIIon IhereIore gaIns
poIIIIcaI sIgnIIIcance and wIII be
enIorced eIIher dIrecIIy Ihrough Ihe
sIaIe - as seen In IegIsIaIed dIscrImIna
IIon and Iaws reguIaIIng women's
behavIour - or Ihrough a woman's
IamIIy and communIIy.
The ImpIIcaIIons oI Ihese processes Ior
women can be seen In Ihe experIences oI
Ihose seekIng asyIum under Ihe ReIugee
ConvenIIon. Women may be subjecIed Io
dIscrImInaIory IreaImenI whIch Is
Women are as vulnerable
to political violence as
their male counterparts
1 9
Gender and displacement
enIorced Ihrough Iaw or Ihrough Ihe
ImposIIIon oI socIaI or reIIgIous norms
whIch resIrIcI IheIr opporIunIIIes and
rIghIs. The consequences Ior women oI
IaIIure or reIusaI Io compIy wIIh socIaI
norms and mores regardIng IheIr behav
Iour can vary enormousIy.
AI one exIreme, a woman may Iear IhaI
she wIII be subjecIed Io IhreaIs on her
IIIe II she Is Iorced Io reIurn Io her
counIry oI orIgIn. Lven where a woman
does noI Iear IhreaIs on her IIIe, she Is
oIIen Iorced Io submII Io measures Io
reIaIn or reesIabIIsh her honour. The
harm experIenced or Ieared In Ihese
cases wIII oIIen be marrIagereIaIed
IncIudIng Iorced marrIage, a Iorm oI
abuse IhaI Is oIIen noI recognIzed. In
many cases oI women who reIuse Io
agree Io such arrangemenIs, II wIII be
Ihe punIshmenI InIIIcIed as a reIusaI Io
abIde by dIscrImInaIory socIaI mores,
raIher Ihan Ihe marrIage IIseII, whIch
wIII rIse Io Ihe IeveI oI 'serIous harm'.
The repercussIons Ior women oI dIvorc
Ing IheIr husbands or enIerIng InIo
mIxed marrIages may be equaIIy devas
In oIher conIexIs, Ihere may be pressure
on women Io have or noI Io have chII
dren; accordIng Io dIIIerenI naIIonaI
projecIs, under specIIIc hIsIorIcaI cIr
cumsIances, some or aII women oI
chIIdbearIng age groups wouId be caIIed
on, someIImes brIbed and someIImes
even Iorced Io have more or Iewer chII
dren. ThIs can be seen, Ior exampIe, In
Ihe experIences oI some women Irom
Ihe PeopIe's RepubIIc oI ChIna.
Content versus interpreta tion
ThIs approach Io Ihe experIences oI
women seekIng asyIum suggesIs IhaI Ihe
Iramework Ior asyIum deIermInaIIon
needs Io be IransIormed Io accommo
daIe Ihe IncIusIon oI women noI as a
specIaI case devIaIIng Irom Ihe norm buI
as one oI many dIIIerenI groups whose
experIences musI be conIexIuaIIzed II
Ihey are Io be properIy undersIood. ThIs
approach suggesIs IhaI Ihe 'probIem' Is
noI so much Ihe acIuaI InvIsIbIIIIy oI
women buI raIher how IheIr experIences
have been represenIed and anaIyIIcaIIy
BoIh acIuaI (and ImpuIed) poIIIIcaI opIn
Ion and 'membershIp oI a parIIcuIar
socIaI group' wIIhIn Ihe meanIng oI
ArIIcIe 1(A) oI Ihe ConvenIIon can and
shouId provIde a IegaI basIs Ior Ihe
recognIIIon oI women as ConvenIIon
reIugees. PoIIIIcaI opInIon In parIIcuIar
shouId be properIy InIerpreIed Io
IncIude women's opposIIIon Io exIreme,
InsIIIuIIonaIIzed Iorms oI oppressIon;
a woman who opposes IegIsIaIed dIs
crImInaIIon agaInsI women or expresses
vIews oI Independence Irom Ihe socIaI
or cuIIuraI domInance oI men In her
socIeIy may be Iound Io have been per
secuIed or Io Iear persecuIIon because
oI her acIuaI poIIIIcaI opInIon or a poIIII
caI opInIon IhaI has been or wIII be
Demonstratorsoutside Rochester prison in Kent
protesting against detention of asylum seekers.

Gender and displacement
ImpuIed Io her. She Is perceIved wIIhIn
Ihe esIabIIshed poIIIIcaI/socIaI sIrucIure
as expressIng poIIIIcaIIy anIagonIsIIc
vIews Ihrough her acIIons or IaIIure Io
acI. II a woman resIsIs gendered oppres
sIon, her resIsIance shouId be regarded
as poIIIIcaI acIIvIIy.
In addIIIon, Ihere are cases where
women do noI dIrecIIy or InIenIIonaIIy
chaIIenge InsIIIuIIonaIIzed norms oI
behavIour buI are noneIheIess ImpuIed
wIIh a poIIIIcaI opInIon as a consequence
oI IheIr experIences. ThIs can be seen,
Ior exampIe, In Ihe characIerIzaIIon oI a
raped woman as aduIIerous, In Ihe socIaI
osIracIsm oI an unmarrIed, separaIed,
dIvorced, wIdowed or IesbIan woman,
and In Ihe poIIIIcIzaIIon oI (unInIenIIon
aI) vIoIaIIons oI dress codes.
The deveIopmenI oI
IhIs approach Io Ihe
ReIugee ConvenIIon
Is ImporIanI Io
ensure IhaI Ihe asy
Ium cIaIms made by
women are properIy
and consIsIenIIy
consIdered by decI
sIon makers and
IhaI Ihe IegaI and IheoreIIcaI argumenIs
are coherenI and abIe Io sIand Ihe IesI
oI IIme. LookIng aI gender, as opposed
Io sex, enabIes an approach whIch can
accommodaIe specIIIcIIy, dIversIIy and
heIerogeneIIy. II aIso ensures IhaI Ihe
asyIum cIaIms oI women are noI rouIIneIy
dIsmIssed as cuIIuraIIy reIaIIve and
IhereIore ouIsIde Ihe mechanIsms Ior
proIecIIon avaIIabIe under Ihe ReIugee
IoIIowIng years oI negIecI oI Ihe needs
oI reIugee and asyIumseekIng women,
a new awareness and wIIIIngness Io Iake
gender InIo accounI In poIIcy deveIop
menI and ImpIemenIaIIon have emerged
and Ihere have been many encouragIng
recenI deveIopmenIs IegIIImIzIng Ihe
IacIuaI basIs Ior women's asyIum cIaIms.
Human rIghIs groups In parIIcuIar have
IncreasIngIy Iocused IheIr aIIenIIon on
genderspecIIIc human rIghIs. MeanwhIIe,
UNHCR has aIso begun Io Iurn IIs aIIen
IIon Io genderreIaIed persecuIIon and
Canada, Ihe US and AusIraIIa have
exIended IheIr InIerpreIaIIon oI Ihe
ConvenIIon Io women makIng cIaIms
on IhIs basIs.
In Ihe UK, Ihe ReIugee Women's LegaI
Group has produced IIs own Gender
GuIdeIInes Ior Ihe DeIermInaIIon oI
AsyIum CIaIms In Ihe UK, Iaunched In
1998. AIIhough Ihese guIdeIInes have
noI been accepIed by Ihe Home OIIIce,
Ihey are cIearIy reIIecIed In guIdeIInes
pubIIshed In December 2000 by Ihe
ImmIgraIIon AppeIIaIe AuIhorIIIes Ior
decIsIon makers hearIng appeaIs agaInsI
Ihe reIusaI oI asyIum.
Gender guIdeIInes can serve an Impor
IanI roIe In raIsIng awareness oI Ihe
specIIIc dIIIIcuIIIes IacIng women as
asyIum seekers and In addressIng a
range oI subsIanIIve and proceduraI
Issues. They are aIso ImporIanI In ensur
Ing IhaI a wIde range oI IndIvIduaIs and
organIzaIIons - IndIvIduaI Iawyers and
pracIIIIoners, NGOs, women's groups,
academIcs - chaIIenge currenI poIIcy
and pracIIce aI
a varIeIy oI
IeveIs: In Ihe
gaIherIng oI
InIormaIIon, In
Ihe IormuIaIIon
oI IndIvIduaI
cIaIms, aI Ihe
InIIIaI decIsIon
makIng sIage
and on appeaI. However, II Is ImporIanI
Io recognIze IhaI Ihe underIyIng prob
Iems experIenced by women sIem noI
sImpIy Irom Ihe IacI IhaI Ihey are
women c :c buI Irom Ihe concepIuaI
IzaIIon oI key eIemenIs oI Ihe ReIugee
ConvenIIon and, In parIIcuIar, Ihe con
cepI oI poIIIIcs.
II Is IhIs concepIuaIIzaIIon and Ihe con
IInuIng Iendency among decIsIon makers
Io aIIow a pubIIc/prIvaIe dIchoIomy Io
engender Ihe deIermInaIIon process as a
whoIe IhaI mosI serIousIy undermInes
Ihe proIecIIon avaIIabIe under Ihe
ReIugee ConvenIIon. ThIs probIem
cannoI easIIy be addressed by Ihe
ImpIemenIaIIon oI guIdeIInes aIone.
Or Heuven CruwIe) s u ]ounder
member o] the Re]ugee Women's
LeguI Group n the UK und uuthor o]
Women us As)Ium 5eekers: A LeguI
Hundbook (199?). A revsed und
upduted second edton enttIed
Re]ugee Luw und Process: Gendered
Perspectves wII be pubIshed b)
]orduns n ]unuur) 2001.
LmuI: heuven@cruwIe)30.]reeserve.
Ior more InIormaIIon on Ihe ReIugee
Women's LegaI Group, Ihe gender guIde
IInes and Dr CrawIey's new book, pIus
IInks Io oIher sources oI InIormaIIon
and supporI, vIsII www.rwIg.org.uk
1 The use oI Ihe parIIcuIar socIaI group basIs oI Ihe
reIugee deIInIIIon Io exIend proIecIIon Io women who
Iace persecuIIon Ior havIng Iransgressed reIIgIous or
socIaI mores IInds sIrong supporI In Ihe pronounce
menIs oI Ihe UNHCR and governmenIaI bodIes and Ihe
admInIsIraIIve decIsIons oI severaI counIrIes.
2 ThIs undersIandIng Is aIso ImpIIcII In Ihose anaIyses
whIch Iocus upon 'membershIp oI a parIIcuIar socIaI
group' as Ihe mosI approprIaIe, or Indeed onIy, basIs
on whIch women can be proIecIed under Ihe ReIugee
3 See pIece opposIIe by NaIhaIIa BerkowIIz.
2 0
a new awareness and
willingness to take
gender into account
have emerged
EU w omen lobby
for equa l rights in
seeking a sylum
On 6 December 2000, Ihe Luropean
Women's Lobby (LWL) Iaunched a
yearIong campaIgn Io hIghIIghI
Iorms oI persecuIIon unIque Io
women and Io ensure IhaI Ihey are
abIe Io cIaIm reIugee sIaIus ''In IheIr
own rIghI'' under IuIure LU asyIum
The LWL, a coaIIIIon oI 2,700 mem
ber organIzaIIons In Ihe LU, beIIeves
IhaI Ihe 19S1 Geneva ConvenIIon
and Ihe IoIIowup ProIocoI oI 1967,
whIch IogeIher provIde Ihe IegaI
basIs Ior granIIng asyIum worId
wIde, IaII Io expIIcIIIy address
genderspecIIIc acIs oI persecuIIon,
IncIudIng sexuaI vIoIence and oIher
Iorms oI human rIghIs vIoIaIIons.
ThroughouI Ihe yearIong campaIgn,
Ihe LWL wIII monIIor progress on a
draII dIrecIIve on mInImum sIan
dards on procedures In LU member
sIaIes Ior granIIng and wIIhdrawIng
reIugee sIaIus, now beIng consId
ered by Ihe Luropean ParIIamenI.
As parI oI Ihe campaIgn, Ihe LWL Is
dIsIrIbuIIng Iens oI Ihousands oI
posIcards IhroughouI Lurope, hIgh
IIghIIng Iour dIIIerenI areas oI
concern - IemaIe genIIaI muIIIaIIon,
rape as a weapon oI war, Iorced
marrIage and 'guIII by assocaIIon'
and asserIIng IhaI ''persecuIIon Is
noI gender bIInd''. On 6 December
2001, Ihe posIcards and eIecIronIc
peIIIIon wIII be submIIIed Io
BeIgIum, whIch wIII Ihen hoId Ihe
roIaIIng LU PresIdency.
See: www.womenlobby.org,
n S December 2000, Ihe UK's
ImmIgraIIon AppeIIaIe AuIhorIIy
(Ihe ImmIgraIIon and asyIum IrI
bunaI) Iaunched IIs A:)un Ccndc
Cudcnc: Ior use In Ihe deIermInaIIon
oI asyIum appeaIs In Ihe UK. The guIde
IInes aIm Io assIsI judIcIary aI Ihe
ImmIgraIIon AppeIIaIe AuIhorIIy (IAA)
In IuIIy consIderIng aII aspecIs oI asyIum
seekers' cIaIms Io InIernaIIonaI reIugee
proIecIIon and In ensurIng IhaI Ihe gen
der oI Ihe asyIum seeker does noI
prejudIce IheIr appIIcaIIon.
SpecIIIcaIIy, Ihe guIdeIInes noIe IhaI Ihe
domInanI vIew oI whaI consIIIuIes a
'reaI reIugee' has been oI a man and IhIs
has meanI IhaI women asyIum seekers
In Ihe UK may noI beneIII equIIabIy
Irom Ihe proIecIIon oIIered by Ihe
ReIugee ConvenIIon. Two maIn reasons
Ior IhIs are suggesIed: IIrsIIy, because
Ihe case Iaw has noI IuIIy consIdered Ihe
specIIIc Issues raIsed by women's needs
Ior proIecIIon or has consIdered Ihem
Irom a Iramework oI maIe experIences
and, secondIy, because proceduraI and
evIdenIIaI requIremenIs oI Ihe asyIum
sIaIus deIermInaIIon procedures may noI
be equaIIy accessIbIe Io women as men.
However, Ihese guIdeIInes are noI soIeIy
oI appIIcaIIon Io IemaIe asyIum seekers:
Ihey are gender guIdeIInes, noI women's
guIdeIInes. ThIs Is made cIear In Ihe
InIroducIIon Io Ihe guIdeIInes whIch
sIaIes: "MosI oI Ihese guIdeIInes are
appIIcabIe Io Ihe asyIum cIaIms oI boIh
men and women. They address Ihe roIe
oI gender In Ihe asyIum deIermInaIIon
process raIher Ihan sImpIy Ihe posIIIon
oI women asyIum seekers or Ihe roIe oI
bIoIogIcaI sex. In Ihese guIdeIInes, Ihe
Ierms 'women', 'woman', 'she' and 'her'
appIy equaIIy Io men."
In adopIIng Ihe A:)un Ccndc
Cudcnc:, Ihe UK buIIds upon Ihe
guIdeIInes In exIsIence In a number oI
oIher counIrIes. WhIIe earIIer guIdeIInes
share many IeaIures, Ihey do dIIIer Irom
each oIher and are addressed Io dIIIerenI
audIences. The UK's guIdeIInes are
specIIIcaIIy geared Io Ihe needs oI judI
cIary as opposed Io ImmIgraIIon oIIIcers
and, as such, conIaIn more Iaw and IegaI
anaIysIs Ihan prevIous guIdeIInes and
specIIIcaIIy address Ihe need Ior gender
sensIIIve procedures Io be adopIed In
Ihe hearIng room.
LarIIer sIeps In Ihe hIsIory oI gender
guIdeIInes IncIude UNHCR's adopIIon, In
1991, oI Cudcnc: on tIc Iotccton o
Kcugcc Woncn, IoIIowed In 199S by
5cxun Vocncc Agnn:t Kcugcc::
Cudcnc: on Ic\cnton nnd Kc:on:c.
These guIdeIInes deaI wIIh a range oI
Issues oI reIevance Io IemaIe reIugees
IncIudIng saIeIy and access Io resources
In reIugee camps buI aIso IncIude useIuI
secIIons oI reIevance Io Ihe deIermIna
IIon oI asyIum cIaIms such as Ihe
probIems oI IemaIe vIcIIms oI sexuaI
vIoIence Irom mIIIIary personneI and Ihe
need Ior gendersensIIIve InIervIewIng
and proceduraI requIremenIs.
Canada was Ihe IIrsI counIry Io IormaIIy
Issue guIdeIInes reIaIIng Io women's asy
Ium cIaIms. IIs Cudcnc: on Woncn
Kcugcc Cnnnnt: Icnng Ccndc-
Kcntcd Ic:ccuton (1993, updaIed In
1996) have been haIIed as 'groundbreak
. Addressed Io decIsIon makers aI
Ihe CanadIan ImmIgraIIon and ReIugee
Board, Ihey were deveIoped aIIer consuI
IaIIon wIIh boIh governmenIaI and
nongovernmenIaI groups and IndIvIdu
aIs. They were Ihe IIrsI naIIonaI guIdeIInes
Io IormaIIy recognIze IhaI women IIeeIng
persecuIIon because oI IheIr gender couId
be recognIzed as reIugees.
In 199S, Ihe AmerIcan ImmIgraIIon and
NaIuraIIzaIIon ServIce IoIIowed Ihe
CanadIan exampIe and adopIed
Con:dcnton: o A:)un Occ:
Ad]udcntng A:)un Cnn: on
These guIdeIInes aImed Io
assIsI asyIum oIIIcers In InIervIewIng
women reIugees and makIng asyIum
decIsIons. The AusIraIIan Cudcnc: on
Ccndc I::uc: o Icc:on Mnc:,
Issued In 1996, are aImed aI ImmIgraIIon
oIIIcers and are very comprehensIve In
scope sIressIng boIh proceduraI and
jurIsprudencIaI Issues aIIecIIng women's
asyIum cIaIms.
AI Luropean UnIon IeveI
Ihere are no gender guIdeIInes buI some
sIeps have been Iaken Io recognIze Ihe
Issue oI gender In asyIum cIaIms, Ior
exampIe, In IIs Mnnun Cunnntcc: on
A:)un Ioccduc:.
The adopIIon oI gender guIdeIInes by
Ihe UK's IAA owes much Io Ihe guIde
IInes prevIousIy Issued by oIher counIrIes,
Io Ihe supporI Ior guIdeIInes by Ihe UN,
IncIudIng Ihe UN SpecIaI RapporIeur on
VIoIence AgaInsI Women, and Io Ihe
campaIgnIng work oI groups such as Ihe
ReIugee Women's LegaI Group whIch, In
1998, Issued IIs own gender guIdeIInes,
dIrecIed aI asyIum caseworkers In Ihe
ImmIgraIIon and NaIIonaIIIy DIvIsIon oI
Ihe UK Home OIIIce, and obIaIned sup
porI Ior Ihe prIncIpIe oI gender guIdeIInes
by a Iarge number oI Members oI
ParIIamenI. WIIh Ihe Iaunch oI Ihe IAA's
A:)un Ccndc Cudcnc: In December
2000, Ihe ImmIgraIIon judIcIary, asyIum
caseworkers, asyIum appIIcanIs and IheIr
represenIaIIves wIII have a IooI Io assIsI In
ensurIng IhaI gender aspecIs oI asyIum
cIaIms are IuIIy consIdered In Ihe UK.
The ImmIgraIIon AppeIIaIe AuIhorIIy's
A:)un Ccndc Cudcnc: wIII be avaII
abIe onIIne aI www.eIn.org.uk/Iaa
NuthuIu Berkowtz s 5enor LeguI &
Reseurch O]]cer ut the 1mmgruton
AppeIIute Authort), London, UK.
LmuI: n.berkowtz@mcr1.popteI.
1 UNHCR: www.unhcr.ch/
2 CanadIan GuIdeIInes: www.Irb.gc.cahumanrIghIs/
3 US guIdeIInes: www.sIaIe.gov/gIobaI/
4 AusIraIIan guIdeIInes: www.ausIIII.edu.au/
Gender and displacement
2 1
Gender guidelines for the UK
by Nathalia Berkowitz
he sexuaI vIoIence agaInsI
reIugees In Kenya In Ihe 1990s
occurred agaInsI Ihe backdrop oI
a huge Increase In Ihe reIugee popuIa
IIon, a shIII In IIs eIhnIc composIIIon
and Ihe rIse oI eIhnIcIIy as Ihe domInanI
IdeoIogIcaI Iorce In Kenya's reIugee
IoIIowIng Ihe escaIaIIon oI InIernaI wars
In Ihe Horn and Ihe GreaI Lakes regIon,
Kenya's reIugee popuIaIIon rose Irom
nearIy 1S,000 In 1991 Io over 427,000
reIugees assIsIed by UNHCR and SS,000
100,000 'IreeIIvers' In cIIIes by mId
ThIs number decIIned Io Iess Ihan
200,000 by March 1999 IargeIy because
oI voIunIary repaIrIaIIon and IhIrd coun
Iry reseIIIemenIs. The Kenyan govern
menI cIaImed IhaI Ihe sIze oI IhIs popu
IaIIon serIousIy compromIsed IIs
securIIy, greaIIy ouIsIreIched Ihe InIra
sIrucIure and medIcaI servIces and
undermIned IIs IourIsI IndusIry. In 1993,
II asked UNHCR Io repaIrIaIe aII SomaII,
LIhIopIan and Sudanese reIugees.
UNHCR spenI S40 mIIIIon Io esIabIIsh
Ihe Dadaab camps oI IIo, Hagadera and
DagahaIey In norIheasIern Kenya near
Ihe border wIIh SomaIIa, and Kakuma
near Ihe Sudanese border; aI Ihe govern
menI's behesI, UNHCR cIosed down Ihe
maInIy SomaII camps aI Ihe coasI and
reIocaIed reIugees Io Kakuma camp,
away Irom Kenya's economIc cenIres.
LarIIer anaIyses oI Kenya's posIcoIonIaI
reIugee poIIcy underscore Ihe Immense
ImporIance oI cIass and eIhnIc concerns.
In Ihe 1970s and 80s, In order Io meeI
IIs need Ior skIIIed Iabour and InvesIors,
Ihe governmenI aIIowed Ugandan
reIugee InIeIIecIuaIs, busInessmen and
proIessIonaIs Io parIIcIpaIe In economIc
IIIe. In Ihe 1990s, II aIso permIIIed weII
Iodo and enIerprIsIng reIugees Io seIIIe
and esIabIIsh busInesses In NaIrobI and
Mombasa. However, II wIeIded a heavy
sIIck agaInsI poor reIugees resIdIng In
sIums and perIurban areas: many were
arresIed and deIaIned; some were
Kenya aIso used eIhnIcIIy as a key crIIe
rIon Io deIermIne Ihe eIIgIbIIIIy oI
reIugees, parIIcuIarIy Irom parIah
regImes wIIh whIch II was aIIIed. Ior
InsIance, In Ihe aIIermaIh oI Ihe
Rwandese genocIde In 1994 agaInsI Ihe
TuIsI and moderaIe HuIu, Kenya gave
Ihe conservaIIve HuIu a redcarpeI weI
come because oI IIs own cIose
assocIaIIon wIIh Ihe regIme oI |uvenaI
HabyarImana. HuIu reIugees "arrIved by
Mercedes, Ihe men In poIo shIrIs and
sIIk IIes, Ihe women In IIowIng dresses
and goId earrIngs.|Io] renI houses and
IIaIs In NaIrobI."
By Ihe same Ioken, In 1989 Ihe govern
menI promIsed SIad Barre oI SomaIIa
IhaI reIugees Irom Ihe rIvaI Ogaden cIan
wouId noI be gIven sancIuary In Kenya.
In Ihe same year, II carrIed ouI naIIon
wIde screenIng oI IIs own eIhnIc
SomaIIs, orderIng Ihem Io carry separaIe
pInk IdenIIIy cards Io prove IheIr naIIon
aIIIy, osIensIbIy Io IIush ouI IIIegaI
aIIens. II noI onIy permIIIed SIad Barre
Io resIde IemporarIIy In Kenya aIIer hIs
overIhrow In 1991 buI aIso aIIowed mIII
IIas Irom hIs cIan Io use Kenyan
IerrIIory Ior suppIyIng arms Ior Ihe
IIghIIng In SomaIIa.
ReIugees Irom oIher SomaII cIans were
Iumped IogeIher wIIh Kenya's eIhnIc
SomaIIs who had experIenced decades oI
enIrenched InsIIIuIIonaI dIscrImInaIIon,
economIc negIecI and coIonIaIsIyIe coI
IecIIve punIIIve expedIIIons by securIIy
Iorces. Kenya's dIscrImInaIory pracIIces
and repressIon oI IIs SomaII popuIaIIon
are hIsIorIcaIIy IInked Io IIs parIIcIpaIIon
In Ihe SomaIIbacked 5Itn (bandII) war
In Ihe 1960s whIch soughI Io annex
norIheasIern Kenya Io 'GreaIer SomaIIa'.
The eIhnIc dImensIon oI Kenya's poIIcy
Iowards reIugees Irom Sudan soughI Io
reduce Ihe burden oI reIugees on IIs
socIaI and economIc InIrasIrucIure and
Io enabIe IIs own ImpoverIshed Turkana
popuIaIIon Io gaIn access Io deveIop
menI opporIunIIIes accruIng Irom Ihe
InIernaIIonaI reIugee supporI sysIem.
ThIs approach and Ihe Iendency oI Ihe
reIIeI agencIes Io Ignore Ihe more repug
nanI cusIoms and pracIIces embedded In
Ihe paIrIarchaI cuIIure oI Ihe reIugees
and IheIr 'councIIs oI eIders' In Ihe
camps severeIy compromIsed Sudanese
women's rIghI Io physIcaI saIeIy.
Ra pe a nd violence
The 199293 orgy oI sexuaI vIoIence
agaInsI reIugee women aIIecIed Ihe pre
domInanIIy SomaII camps oI Dadaab.
A human rIghIs group IhaI vIsIIed
camps In norIhern Kenya In AprII Io
May 1993 reporIed IhaI "beaIIngs oI
reIugees, as weII as sexuaI assauII and
rape, were daIIy and nIghIIy occur
In 1993, when Ihe vIoIence was
aI IIs peak, 200 IncIdenIs oI rape were
reporIed In Dadaab, Ihough, In Ihe
words oI a rape counseIIor, Ihose reporI
ed "were jusI Ihe IIp oI Ihe Iceberg".
InIroducIIon oI securIIy measures In
camps broughI down Ihe number oI
reporIed rapes Io an average oI 90 cases
per year In Dadaab In 1994 Io 1998 buI
Ihe physIcaI InsecurIIy oI women has
remaIned a IacI oI camp IIIe.
AIIhough SomaII reIugees were Ihe maIn
casuaIIIes oI Ihe rapes In Dadaab, scores
oI nonSomaII women were aIso aIIecIed.
2 2
Gender and displacement
Ethnicity, gender and violence
in Kenya
by Peter Mwangi Kagwanja
This article examines the ethnically-
discriminatory nature of Kenyas refugee
policy, its influence on the administration and
practice of refugee affairs, especially by relief
agencies, and its role in encouraging sexual
violence against women refugees.
Gender and displacement
An expaIrIaIe NGO nurse was reporIedIy
raped, prompIIng MedIcIns sans
IronIIeres (BeIgIum) Io wIIhdraw mosI oI
IIs IemaIe workers Irom Dadaab camps
In May 1993. In |anuary 1998, IIve
LIhIopIan women were parI oI 16S rape
survIvors In IIo camp. Over 90 per cenI
oI Ihe 200 reporIed rape vIcIIms In 1996
Io 1997 were aIIacked when IoragIng Ior
IIrewood or herdIng IIvesIock ouIsIde
Ihe camps, aIIhough IemaIe Iraders who
reIused Io pay exIorIIon money were
aIso assauIIed. The Iasks oI gaIherIng
IIrewood and grazIng goaIs and sheep
among Ihe SomaII are cusIomarIIy
reserved Ior women and gIrIs. Women
were reporIedIy agaInsI Ihe Idea oI IheIr
husbands coIIecIIng IIrewood because,
gIven Ihe dynamIcs oI InIercIan Ieuds,
men are IIkeIy Io be kIIIed whIIe women
wIII "onIy be raped".
In Kakuma, Ihe eIhnIc dynamIcs under
pInnIng vIoIence agaInsI women were
dIIIerenI and more compIex Ihan In
Dadaab. Here, Sudanese maIe reIugees
and mIIIIIa assauIIed women, especIaIIy
Irom Ihe DInka group. SexuaI assauII on
Sudanese women revoIved around Ihe
cusIomary pracIIces oI chIIdmarrIage,
Iorced marrIage and remarrIage. In Ihe
IaIIer case, reIugee women were kId
napped and remarrIed Io men In
SouIhern Sudan who were abIe Io pay
huge dowrIes Io Ihe IamIIy In Ihe Iorm
oI caIIIe. Men who raped, kIdnapped or
Iorced women InIo marrIages In Kakuma
were seIdom prosecuIed because UNHCR
camp sIaII were wary oI beIng seen Io
InIerIere when Ihey were unsure as Io
whaI exIenI IradIIIonaI cuIIuraI pracIIces
were InvoIved. Indeed, as Ihe NaIIonaI
CouncII oI Churches oI Kenya's oIIIcer In
charge oI Ihe ReproducIIve HeaIIh
Programme InIormed us, Ihere were Iew
reporIed cases oI rape among Sudanese
because no sIeps wouId be Iaken agaInsI
Ihe aggressors and women Ieared
reprIsaI by maIe reIugees.
MosI oI Ihe occurrences oI rape IhaI
appeared In Ihe MedIcIns sans IronIIeres
(BeIgIum) medIcaI records In Dadaab
InvoIved gIrIs, some as young as 11 and
12 years. In Iebruary Io March 1998, a
IoIaI oI 17 gIrIs rangIng beIween 1S and
18 years were sexuaIIy abused and IreaI
ed aI IIo camp aIone. GIrIs were more
IIkeIy Io be assauIIed Ihan oIder women
as Ihey were Ihe ones maInIy InvoIved In
coIIecIIng IIrewood and grazIng IIvesIock
ouIsIde Ihe camps.
Women and gIrIs In Dadaab were
aIIacked by 'bandIIs' (a Ierm IhaI seems
Io have been appIIed generaIIy Io 'SomaII
speakers' IncIudIng Kenyan nomads),
maIe reIugees, mIIIIIas engaged In cross
border raIds and Kenyan poIIce and
soIdIers. The mIIIIary acIIvIIIes oI InIer
naIIonaI Iorces In SomaIIa In OperaIIon
ResIore Hope and IIs successor, UNO
SOM, drove SomaII mIIIIIa and bandIIs
InIo Ihe border area where Ihe camps
were IocaIed. MosI assaIIanIs moved In
gangs, armed wIIh guns, macheIes and
knIves, and were responsIbIe Ior many
oI Ihe reporIed gangrapes. WhIIe Iew
women dIed Irom Ihese aIIacks, some
vIcIIms susIaIned serIous InjurIes, con
IracIed sexuaIIy IransmIIIed dIseases,
conceIved, and were generaIIy Irauma
IIzed and socIaIIy osIracIzed.
Ra pe a s a w ea pon of w a r
The IargescaIe naIure oI Ihese rapes
poInIs Io a poIIIIcaI/eIhnIc connecIIon.
Rape, especIaIIy oI gIrIs, has been a com
mon weapon In InIercIan Ieuds In
posIcoIonIaI SomaII poIIIIcs. In 1979,
when SIad Barre IraIned hIs guns agaInsI
Ihe MajeerIeen cIan Ior aIIegedIy sIagIng
a coup agaInsI hIs regIme, "II was cus
Iomary Ior Ihe army Io abducI 12 and
13year oId MajeerIeen gIrIs and hoId
Ihem as 'Iemporary wIves Ior Ihe
Rape oI gIrIs, perhaps more
Ihan any oIher acI oI aggressIon, expos
es Ihe uIIer deIenceIessness oI Ihe enIIre
communIIy; II Is Ihe exercIse oI uIIImaIe
power and conIroI oI one group by
The governmenI casI SomaII reIugees,
IIke IIs own eIhnIc SomaII popuIaIIon, as
5Itn or bandIIs and IargeIed Ihem Ior
IndIscrImInaIe reIrIbuIIon, parIIcuIarIy
when unknown gunmen aIIacked or
kIIIed IIs securIIy oIIIcers. In March
1992, aIIer bandIIs had kIIIed Iour poIIce
oIIIcers, a unII oI some 20 or so poIIce
men IIred InIo a crowd oI abouI 1,000
reIugees gaIherIng Ior Iood dIsIrIbuIIon
In Dadaab's DagahaIey camp, kIIIIng
Ihree and serIousIy InjurIng sIx. AII
human rIghIs organIzaIIons IhaI InvesII
gaIed Ihe IaIer rape oI women In Dadaab
bIamed Kenyan poIIce and soIdIers Ior
commIIIIng some oI Ihese aIrocIIIes.
GovernmenI reacIIon Io Ihe rapes oI
SomaII women was boIh dIsmIssIve and
deIensIve. SpeakIng Io parIIamenI, an
AssIsIanI MInIsIer In Ihe OIIIce oI Ihe
PresIdenI expressIy denIed IhaI reIugee
women were raped. He cIaImed IhaI
such reporIs were meanI Io "aIIracI
2 3
UN HC R and itsN G O partnersprovide counselling sessionsfor
vulnerable women and children. M any feel the need to discussthe sexual
or domestic violence they experienced in the camps, where rape continuesto be a problem.

Gender and displacement
2 4
sympaIhy and gIve Ihe governmenI
negaIIve pubIIcIIy" and advIsed IhaI II
aIIegaIIons oI rape were Irue, women
shouId reporI Ihem Io Ihe poIIce.
SImIIarIy, aIIrIbuIIng Ihe orgy oI rape on
InIraSomaII conIIIcI, a governmenI oIII
cIaI In Dadaab asserIed IhaI "II was noI
Kenya's responsIbIIIIy Io InvesIIgaIe
whaI happened In Ihe camps, II was Ior
SomaIIs Io sorI ouI IhemseIves".
decIared IIseII a 'IransII counIry', ceased
Io gIve reIugees IegaI recognIIIon and
decIared Ihem a 'UNHCR probIem' In
open deIIance oI IIs obIIgaIIons under
Ihe OAU ConvenIIon
and Ihe 19S1
Security a nd prosecution
In response Io mounIIng pressure, espe
cIaIIy Irom human rIghIs organIzaIIons,
Ihe governmenI and UNHCR InIroduced
measures Io end vIoIence and resIore
securIIy In camps. The governmenI
Increased Ihe number oI poIIce oIIIcers
and InIroduced heIIcopIer paIroIs.
UNHCR conIrIbuIed Iowards Ihe buIIdIng
oI poIIce sIaIIons In Kakuma and
Dadaab, provIded poIIce wIIh vehIcIes,
spare parIs and IueI, InsIaIIed a radIo
neIwork and subsIdIzed poIIce wages.
In Kakuma, Ihe agency recruIIed a 120
sIrong Iorce oI IargeIy IocaI Turkana
guards equIpped wIIh bIcycIes and radIo
handseIs Ior swIII movemenI and com
munIcaIIon. In Dadaab, reIugees
consIrucIed more Ihan 120 km oI IIve
Ihorn Ience around Ihe camps Io pre
venI aIIackers Irom enIerIng and
abducIIng women Irom Ihe camps, and a
IIrewood projecI was Iaunched Io reduce
cases oI women raped whIIe IoragIng Ior
IIrewood In Dadaab.
In supporI oI sexuaIIy assauIIed women,
UNHCR esIabIIshed Ihe Women VIcIIms
oI VIoIence Programme, creaIed Ihe
posIs oI SenIor CoordInaIor and RegIonaI
CoordInaIor on Women AIIaIrs pIus a
Rape CounseIIor, and conIracIed Ihe
Kenyan chapIer oI Ihe IederaIIon oI
InIernaIIonaI Lawyers (IIDA) Io provIde
IegaI servIces Io women survIvors oI rape.
In March 1994, Ihe governmenI ordered
a pubIIc InquIry InIo Ihe IncIdences oI
rape In Dadaab buI, despIIe Ihe evI
dence, Ihere were no prosecuIIons oI
poIIce or oIher securIIy oIIIcIaIs. Scores
oI 'cIvIIIan' assaIIanIs were IaIer
arraIgned, IncIudIng a serIaI rapIsI who
was successIuIIy prosecuIed In 199S.
Many IeII IhaI Ihe governmenI had eIIec
IIveIy used Ihe InquIry as a pIoy Io
conceaI Ihe InvoIvemenI oI IIs own
Iorces. PoIIce were noI onIy reIucIanI Io
InvesIIgaIe rape aIIegaIIons agaInsI IheIr
own members buI aIso accused Ihe vIc
IIms oI noI IIIIng reporIs quIckIy enough
Io enabIe Ihem Io pursue Ihe aggressors.
ReIugees were reIucIanI Io reporI abuses
because oI Iear oI reprIsaI, especIaIIy
Irom securIIy Iorces; moreover, Ihey had
IIIIIe access Io Ihe IegaI sysIem, prImarI
Iy because Ihere were no courIs wIIhIn
Ihe vIcInIIy oI Ihe camps. The nearesI
courIs Io Dadaab and Kakuma were over
100 kIIomeIres away and IheIr scheduIes
were oIIen overburdened.
UNHCR was dIsIurbIngIy averse Io IIIIng
cIvII suIIs Ior damages agaInsI perpeIra
Iors oI rape under Ihe Iaws oI Kenya or
InIIIaIIng prIvaIe crImInaI prosecuIIon on
behaII oI reIugees. II IaIIed Io heIp Ihose
reIugees aIIacked by securIIy personneI
Io brIng IheIr compIaInIs Io Ihe auIhorI
IIes or Io pass on IheIr cIaIms Io Ihe
AIIorney GeneraI Ior prosecuIIon.
Perhaps UNHCR was wary oI anIagonIz
Ing an aIready hosIIIe governmenI and,
In Ihe process, jeopardIzIng IIs pro
grammes In Ihe counIry. Indeed, Ihe
agency and IIs InIernaIIonaI NGO parI
ners enjoyed unprecedenIed auIonomy
Irom Ihe sIaIe and even exercIsed con
sIderabIe InIIuence over IIs IocaI
auIhorIIIes. NoI onIy dId UNHCR sIeer
cIear oI poIIcIes IhaI were IIkeIy Io
aIIracI Ihe governmenI's Ire buI aIso
Iended Io accepI Ihe sIaIe's eIhnIc
rheIorIc and sIereoIypIng oI reIugees.
The agency's sIaII casI Sudanese and
SomaII reIugees as "uncooperaIIve
groups, a deIermInaIIon IhaI had pracII
caI and poIIIIcaI ImpIIcaIIons..".
Women reIugees In Kenya became parIIc
uIarIy vuInerabIe Io abuse, noI onIy
because Ihey were reIugees and women
buI, more ImporIanIIy, because oI Ihe
poIIIIcIzaIIon oI eIhnIc IdenIIIIes.
LongsIandIng InsIIIuIIonaI dIscrImIna
IIon agaInsI SomaIIs In Kenya creaIed a
IerIIIe ground Ior sexuaI vIoIence agaInsI
reIugees; Ihe prevaIence oI an InsIIIu
IIonaIIzed paIrIarchaI cuIIure In camps
enabIed maIe reIugees and mIIIIIas Io
assauII and rape Sudanese women wIIh
ImpunIIy. PoIIcIes Io reverse Ihe Irend In
Ihe vIoIaIIon oI reIugee women shouId
IargeI boIh specIIIc and broad reIorms.
Specilically, Ihe governmenI shouId re
dedIcaIe IIseII Io proIecIIng reIugees
IrrespecIIve oI IheIr IdeoIogIcaI or eIhnIc
aIIIIIaIIon. II needs Io IraIn IIs securIIy
personneI In Ihe need Io deIend Ihe
rIghIs oI exIIes; Io conIaIn bandIIs and
mIIIIIas and oIher sources oI InsecurIIy;
Io make Ihe IegaI sysIem accessIbIe Io
reIugees; and Io prosecuIe reIugees'
assaIIanIs. HumanIIarIan agencIes
shouId be sIeadIasI In deIendIng women
Refugee campsneed to be mapped out in a way that allowssing
violence. Here, Somali refugee women re-build their hutsafter the

Gender and displacement
reIugees and conIronIIng Ihose dIscrImI
naIory poIIcIes whIch undermIne Ihe
physIcaI saIeIy oI reIugees. Ior InsIance,
UNHCR shouId sIrengIhen IIs capacIIy Io
oIIer IegaI assIsIance Io reIugees, IncIud
Ing IegaI represenIaIIon and InIIIaIIon oI
prIvaIe crImInaI prosecuIIon oI Ihose
vIoIaIIng IheIr Ireedoms. WhIIe reIugees
shouId enjoy IheIr IuII rIghI Io pracIIse
IheIr cuIIuraI IradIIIons, pracIIces IhaI
endanger Ihe physIcaI saIeIy and rIghIs
oI women reIugees and crImes arIsIng
Irom Ihem shouId be IrIed In Ihe courI
oI Iaw.
More broadly and lundamenIally,
eIIorIs Io creaIe a poIIcy envIronmenI
IhaI guaranIees Ihe saIeIy and rIghIs oI
women reIugees shouId, oI necessIIy,
Iake InIo accounI Ihe underIyIng eIhnIc
or racIaI sensIbIIIIIes IhaI gIve ImpeIus
Io oIher dIscrImInaIIve socIaI reIaIIons,
such as gender. As Ihe case oI Kenya
shows, sexuaI vIoIence agaInsI women
occurred agaInsI a backdrop oI eIhnIc
dIscrImInaIIon, exacerbaIIng dIscrImIna
Iory gender pracIIces In Ihe camps.
Peter Mwung Kugwun]u s currentI)
u 1uIbrght ]eIIow und doctoruI cun-
ddute, Unverst) o] 1IInos ut
Urbunu-Chumpugn. Pror to thut he
wus u reseurcher wth the Center ]or
Re]ugee 5tudes, Mo Unverst),
Ken)u. LmuI : pkugwun]u@hotmuI.
1 WhIIe earIIer surveys Iended Io Iocus aImosI excIu
sIveIy on Ihe experIences oI SomaII reIugees, Ihe
presenI sIudy advances on Ihese works by engagIng
Ihe eIhnIc dynamIcs surroundIng Ihe evenIs oI 1990s
and exIendIng Ihe anaIysIs Io Ihe experIences oI non
SomaII communIIIes, especIaIIy Sudanese and
2 UNHCR CounIry ProIIIe Kenya, 1998.
3 Intcnntonn Hcnd TLunc, |anuary 20, 1993
4 'SaIe Haven In Kenya Ior Some: Rwandese HuIus',
Iconon:t, 18 November 199S, VoI 337, No 7941, p42.
S Lawyers CommIIIee Ior Human RIghIs Acnn
Ixodu:: Kcugcc C::, Hunnn KgIt: nnd tIc 1U
OAU Con\cnton, 199S, New York.
6 G Mwaura 'BandIIs TerrorIze ReIugee Women In
Dadaab Camps' TIc In:t Acnn, |uIy 27AugusI,
7 Kenya Human RIghIs CommIssIon Hn\cn o Icn:
TIc IgIt o Kcugcc: n Icn)n, 1999, NaIrobI.
8 In) Nnton, 29 |uIy 1993.
9 Kcugcc 5u\c) untc), VoI 13, No 1, 1994: S3
10 AIIhough Ihe OAU ConvenIIon Is noI expIIcIIIy
cIear on Ihe obIIgaIIons oI Ihe sIaIe \:-n-\: reIugees,
II Is possIbIe Io make cIaIms based on ArIIcIe II (1) on
AsyIum read IogeIher wIIh ArIIcIe IV on Non
11 See 'The envIronmenI oI reIugee camps : a chaI
Ienge Ior reIugees, IocaI popuIaIIons and aId agencIes'
by Thomas Hoerz In KIN Issue 18 (May 199S):
www.ImrevIew.org (cIIck on back Issues)
12 |ennIIer Hyndman Mnnngng I:nccncnt:
Kcugcc: nnd tIc Iotc: o Hunnntnnn:n, 2000,
MInneapoIIs & London: UnIversIIy oI MInnesoIa Press.
Integra ting a gender
perspective into huma n-
ita ria n a nd pea cekeeping
opera tions
SecuriIy Council resoluIion
1325 (2000): OcIober 2000
In OcIober 2000, Ihe SecurIIy
CouncII adopIed resoIuIIon 132S
(2000), caIIIng on aII acIors InvoIved
In negoIIaIIng and ImpIemenIIng
peace agreemenIs Io adopI a gender
perspecIIve Io IncIude Ihe specIaI
needs oI women and gIrIs durIng
repaIrIaIIon and reseIIIemenI, reha
bIIIIaIIon, reInIegraIIon and
posIconIIIcI reconsIrucIIon. Such a
gender perspecIIve wouId aIso
IncIude measures supporIIng IocaI
women's peace InIIIaIIves and
IndIgenous processes Ior conIIIcI
resoIuIIon and InvoIvIng women In
aII Ihe ImpIemenIaIIon mechanIsms
oI peace agreemenIs.
The CouncII urged Member SIaIes Io
Increase Ihe parIIcIpaIIon oI women
aI decIsIonmakIng IeveIs and urged
Ihe SecreIaryGeneraI Io appoInI
more women as specIaI represenIa
IIves and envoys. IurIhermore, Ihe
CouncII urged Ihe SecreIaryGeneraI
Io expand Ihe roIe oI women In UN
IIeIdbased operaIIons, especIaIIy
among mIIIIary observers, cIvIIIan
poIIce, human rIghIs and humanIIar
Ian personneI.
The CouncII caIIed on aII parIIes Io
armed conIIIcI Io proIecI women
and gIrIs Irom genderbased vIo
Ience. II emphasIzed Ihe responsI
bIIIIy oI aII SIaIes Io end ImpunIIy
and Io prosecuIe Ihose responsIbIe
Ior genocIde, crImes agaInsI humanI
Iy and war crImes, IncIudIng Ihose
reIaIIng Io sexuaI vIoIence agaInsI
women and gIrIs.
In addIIIon, paragraph 12 oI Ihe res
oIuIIon "caIIs upon aII parIIes Io
armed conIIIcI Io respecI Ihe cIvIIIan
and humanIIarIan characIer oI
reIugee camps and seIIIemenIs, and
Io Iake InIo accounI Ihe parIIcuIar
needs oI women and gIrIs, IncIudIng
In IheIr desIgn".
lor Ihe lull IexI ol Ihe resoluIion,
visiI www.un.org,Docs,scres,2000
2 5
gle women and mothersto be more easily protected against
ir transfer to Hagadera camp in Kenya.
hen HurrIcane MIIch sIruck
CenIraI AmerIca In OcIober
1998, II Iook Ihe IIves oI nearIy
10,000 peopIe and IeII over 11,000
mIssIng. II was a 'super dIsasIer',
causIng severe and sIrucIuraI damage Io
homes, buIIdIngs, waIer and sanIIaIIon
InIrasIrucIure, schooIs, cIInIcs, hospIIaIs,
brIdges and roads. The vasI majorIIy oI
Ihose aIIecIed In Ihe regIon, an esIImaI
ed IoIaI oI 6.S mIIIIon peopIe, IosI
aImosI everyIhIng Ihey possessed.
MIssIons represenIIng aImosI every
InIernaIIonaI humanIIarIan agency were
senI Io Ihe regIon, parIIcuIarIy Io Ihe
mosI devasIaIed counIrIes oI Honduras
and NIcaragua, Io assess Ihe damage and
IdenIIIy humanIIarIan needs. The
IAO/WIP SpecIaI ReporI Ior Honduras
esIImaIed IhaI oneIhIrd oI cereaI and
bean crops (consIdered Ihe 'major Iood
crops' In Ihe counIry) had been IosI and
IdenIIIIed major Iosses In cash crops
such as coIIee, sugarcane and meIons.
Such assessmenIs dIrecIIy InIorm Ihe
programmes Ior agrIcuIIuraI reIIeI and
rehabIIIIaIIon oI Ihe Iwo Iead UN Iood
agencIes and, by exIensIon, Ihose oI
naIIonaI governmenIs wIIh whIch Ihey
cIoseIy cooperaIe. LIeven projecI propos
aIs Ior a IoIaI amounI oI over USS8.S
mIIIIon were prepared by IAO Io sup
porI prImarIIy Ihe rehabIIIIaIIon oI basIc
graIn producIIon and Ihe resIoraIIon oI
daIry IIvesIock producIIon In Honduras.
YeI, whIIe such eIIorIs undoubIedIy
heIped Ihousands oI smaII Iarmers Io
recover IheIr IIveIIhoods, Ihe response
was onIy parIIaI. HurrIcane MIIch
desIroyed up Io S0 per cenI oI aII agrI
cuIIuraI Iand and Ihe desIrucIIon was
IndIscrImInaIe. IIood waIers swepI away
aImosI everyIhIng In IIs paIh, IncIudIng
all Ihose Iood crops whIch Iorm an
InIrInsIc parI oI Ihe compIex IarmIng
sysIems IhaI characIerIze ruraI IIveII
hoods In Ihe regIon.
ThroughouI CenIraI AmerIca, communaI
pIoIs and home gardens cuIIIvaIe
Iegumes, Iubers, vegeIabIes, IruIIs and
herbs In combInaIIons IhaI vary by coun
Iry or IocaIIIy. The IAO/WIP SpecIaI
ReporI had reporIed on Iosses In caIIIe
buI had noI consIdered oIher IIvesIock
crucIaI Io ruraI IIveIIhoods, such as
chIckens, pIgs, goaIs and oIher smaII
anImaIs. Why were Iosses In Ihese crops
and IIvesIock noI caIcuIaIed as parI oI
Ihe assessmenI7 Is II a coIncIdence IhaI
Ihese Iorms oI agrIcuIIuraI and IIvesIock
producIIon are IargeIy Ihe responsIbIIIIy
oI women7 These quesIIons are reIevanI
Ior mosI dIsasIer scenarIos and Ior
humanIIarIan and rehabIIIIaIIon pracIIces
generaIIy. AgrIcuIIuraI reIIeI and rehabIII
IaIIon poIIcIes are oIIen guIded by Ihe
assumpIIon IhaI humanIIy depends on a
handIuI oI commodIIy crops, mosI oI
whIch are deIIned as 'maIn' cereaI and
cash crops. CoIncIdenIaIIy, Ihese are
oIIen assocIaIed wIIh commercIaI Iarm
Ing, where producIIon and Income are
oIIen conIroIIed by maIe Iarmers
aIIhough women conIrIbuIe IheIr Iabour.
MosI IIveIIhoods oI Ihe poor are based
on muIIIpIe acIIvIIIes and sources oI
Iood, Income and securIIy. Home gar
dens, communaI pIoIs, pasIures,
agroIoresIry and cash crop producIIon
are some oI Ihe common IeaIures oI
smaIIscaIe, semIsubsIsIence agrIcuIIure
whIch IncIude Ihe coIIecIIon and cuIIIva
IIon oI Ihe roughIy 3,000 wIId and
domesIIcaIed pIanI specIes reguIarIy
expIoIIed Ior consumpIIon and saIe.
More specIIIcaIIy, abouI 30 crops acIuaIIy
'Ieed Ihe worId', provIdIng 9S per cenI
oI peopIe's dIeIary energy (caIorIes) or
AIIhough women markeI IheIr
surpIus Io generaIe addIIIonaI IamIIy
Income, IheIr IarmIng sysIem Is com
monIy deIIned as subsIsIence because
II prIorIIIzes producIIon Ior IamIIy con
sumpIIon, provIdIng Ihe Iood whIch Is
crucIaI Ior Ihe nuIrIIIonaI weIIbeIng and
heaIIh oI ruraI IamIIIes.
2 6
Gender and displacement
Rural farming systems, plant
genetic resources and disasters
by Monica Trujillo
Recognition of women as
agricultural producers,
including their role in the
conservation of genetic
diversity, is crucial for
understanding the impact
of disasters and disaster-
induced displacement on
the agricultural sector, for

accurately assessing
losses and hence for
effective relief and
2 7
Gender and displacement
In many regIons, IncIudIng CenIraI
AmerIca, women are aIso responsIbIe Ior
Ihe managemenI and reproducIIon oI
smaII IIvesIock. ChIckens and pIgs are
a common sIghI In mosI ruraI homes,
and may be reared Ior home consump
IIon or Ior saIe, or may be used as
'Insurance' agaInsI IImes oI sIress,
IncIudIng dIsasIers.
Wars and naIuraI dIsasIers, and subse
quenI dIspIacemenI, are IndIscrImInaIe
In IheIr ImpacI on ruraI IIveIIhoods. YeI
Iew, II any, caIcuIaIIons are made oI
Iosses In Ihe
hosI oI 'IemaIe'
crops. There Is
IhereIore IIIIIe
oI Ihe ImpacI
such Iosses
have on IIveII
hoods, on
Income and Iood securIIy. AgrIcuIIuraI
recovery Irom dIsasIers Is a responsIbIII
Iy IhaI women are IeII Io shouIder
IargeIy on IheIr own. |usI how Ihey are
abIe Io manage Io resIore IheIr Iosses,
over whaI perIod oI IIme and aI whaI
cosI, remaIn quesIIons requIrIng
Three deca des of know ledge
Ior 30 years Ihe worId has known IhaI
women pIay a crIIIcaI and cenIraI roIe In
worId Iood producIIon. In 1970, IemInIsI
economIsI LsIer Boserup conducIed a
pIoneerIng sIudy IhaI presenIed Ihe IIrsI
comprehensIve, empIrIcaIIybased anaIy
sIs oI women's parIIcIpaIIon In agrI
cuIIure In many parIs oI AIrIca, AsIa and
LaIIn AmerIca.
Boserup unveIIed Io Ihe
worId Ihe exIenI oI women's Iabour In
agrIcuIIure and, In Ihe process, decon
sIrucIed Ihe wIdespread noIIon IhaI
Iarmers worIdwIde were men.
Three decades oI research have IargeIy
supporIed Boserup's IIndIngs. IAO now
esIImaIes IhaI, on average, women pro
duce beIween 60 and 80 per cenI oI Ihe
Iood In Ihe deveIopIng worId, makIng up
S1 per cenI oI Ihe agrIcuIIuraI Iabour
Iorce worIdwIde and 63 per cenI In
deveIopIng counIrIes. YeI, In spIIe oI
pIoneerIng sIudIes, avaIIabIe research
and gIobaI sIaIIsIIcs, humanIIarIan and
rehabIIIIaIIon programmes conIInue Io
Iavour men In IheIr aIIocaIIon oI agrIcuI
IuraI resources. The exampIe oI
HurrIcane MIIch reveaIs IhaI women sIIII
IInd II more dIIIIcuII Ihan men Io gaIn
access Io vaIuabIe resources such as
Iand, credII and agrIcuIIuraI InpuIs, Iech
noIogy, IraInIng and servIces IhaI wouId
heIp Ihem recover Irom dIsasIers or
enhance IheIr producIIon capacIIy.
The IasI Iew years have seen some posI
IIve changes wIIh programmes payIng
greaIer aIIenIIon Io IemaIe IarmIng sys
Iems. IAO's proposed emergency
InIervenIIon (2000 Io 2002) Ior InIernaI
Iy dIspIaced IamIIIes In CoIombIa IargeIs
women Ior horIIcuIIuraI projecIs, prI
marIIy Ior Ihe cuIIIvaIIon oI vegeIabIes
and IruIIs, and Ihe rearIng oI smaII anI
maIs such as
chIckens and
Such pro
grammes are
a weIcome
change Indeed.
OIher agencIes
NGOs) are aIso
InIroducIng gendersensIIIve agrIcuIIuraI
projecIs, yeI Ihese remaIn margInaI
eIIorIs In Ihe greaIer scaIe oI humanIIar
Ian and rehabIIIIaIIon pracIIce. In IAO's
proposed programme Ior CoIombIa,
roughIy USS170,000 wIII be InvesIed In
seeds and anImaIs Ior Ihe women's pro
jecIs, whIIe over USS1,000,000 Is
dIrecIed aI seed InpuIs Ior maIze and
bean producIIon aIone.
Women, pla nt genetic resources
a nd disa sters
One crIIIcaI eIemenI oI IemaIe IarmIng
sysIems IhaI requIres research and
anaIysIs wIIhIn Ihe conIexI oI dIsasIers
and dIsasIerInduced dIspIacemenI
reIaIes Io IheIr roIe In Ihe conservaIIon
and managemenI oI pIanI geneIIc
resources. The vasI majorIIy oI Ihe avaII
abIe IIIeraIure on women and pIanI
bIodIversIIy Is Iound wIIhIn 'deveIop
menI' dIscourse and Ihe IInk wIIh
emergencIes and dIspIacemenI Is sIIII aI
a preIImInary sIage.
A key concern Is Ioss oI dIversIIy oI agrI
cuIIuraI crops. AIIhough Ihe causes oI
geneIIc erosIon are muIIIpIe, wIIh Ihe
spread oI commercIaI agrIcuIIure beIng
Ihe prIncIpaI cause, sIudIes are aIso
begInnIng Io assess Ihe ImpacI oI dIsas
Iers on geneIIc resources, IncIudIng Ihe
poIenIIaI Ioss oI IocaI crop varIeIy, IheIr
resIIIence Io crIsIs and how sIrengIhen
Ing IhIs can reduce Ihe negaIIve ImpacI
oI dIsasIers. NaIuraI dIsasIers In parIIcu
Iar can have a devasIaIIng eIIecI as IIood
waIers, hurrIcanes, mudsIIdes and voI
canIc erupIIons wash away or bury gene
banks. Iarmer gene banks may aIso be
IosI as a resuII oI dIspIacemenI, especIaI
Iy when Iong In duraIIon. The war In
ZImbabwe durIng Ihe 1970s dIsrupIed
IocaI paIIerns oI seed dIsIrIbuIIon and
caused a subsIanIIaI depIeIIon oI seed
sIocks and varIeIIes, as Iarmers IosI
access and conIroI over IheIr crop varI
eIIes as a resuII oI curIews or Iorced
dIspIacemenI InIo 'proIecIed vIIIages'.
ResIrIcIIons on IheIr movemenI meanI
IhaI Ihey were unabIe Io guard IheIr
crops agaInsI pesIs and raIds, and couId
noI save IheIr granarIes and seed sIocks
durIng reIocaIIon.
More recenIIy, dIs
pIacemenIs caused by InIense conIIIcI In
Ihe Uraba regIon oI CoIombIa Is erodIng
Ihe rIch bIodIversIIy once Iound In com
munIIIes aIong Ihe RIosucIo rIver. One
sIudy Iound Iosses In 48 varIeIIes oI
rIce, 17 oI maIze, 16 oI beans and 1S oI
yucca (cassava).
Among Ihe rIchesI remaInIng reposIIo
rIes oI geneIIc dIversIIy are home
gardens. Over generaIIons, women have
been coIIecIIng, preservIng and experI
menIIng wIIh IndIgenous seeds Irom
sIapIe and secondary crops, as weII as
wIIh IocaI wIId pIanIs IhaI may have
nuIrIIIonaI or medIcInaI vaIue. One sIudy
In ThaIIand Iound a IoIaI oI 230 dIIIer
enI pIanI specIes growIng In Ihe gardens
oI one vIIIage aIone, wIIh IndIvIduaI gar
den dIversIIy rangIng Irom 1S Io 60.
In SubSaharan AIrIca, women have been
Iound Io cuIIIvaIe as many as 120 dIIIer
enI pIanIs aIongsIde men's cash crops,
whIIe In Ihe Andean counIrIes oI BoIIvIa,
CoIombIa and Peru, women deveIop and
maInIaIn Ihe seed banks on whIch Iood
producIIon depends.
Women manage Ihe seIecIIon oI wIId
geneIIc resources Ior home pIanIIng, oI
seeds Ior conservaIIon InIo Ihe nexI
pIanIIng season, and oI pIanI mIxIures
Ior InIercroppIng In IIeIds and gardens.
These are sophIsIIcaIed processes
requIrIng exIensIve and deIaIIed knowI
edge oI geneIIc characIerIsIIcs and IraIIs.
ConIInuaI n :tu research and experI
menIaIIon make possIbIe Ihe conservaI
Ion, use and IurIher deveIopmenI oI
IocaI geneIIc dIversIIy. NoI surprIsIngIy,
home gardens are oIIen reIerred Io as
'InIormaI experImenIaI sIaIIons', provId
Ing a home Io a Iarge pooI oI
bIodIversIIy. IAO noIes IhaI In SouIheasI
AsIa, Ihe PacIIIc and LaIIn AmerIca
women's home gardens represenI "some
oI Ihe mosI compIex agrIcuIIuraI sysIems".
humanitarian and rehab-
ilitation programmes
continue to favour men
Gender and displacement
2 8
Recommenda tions
II Is now recognIzed IhaI Ihe maInIe
nance oI geneIIc dIversIIy Is essenIIaI Ior
IocaI IarmIng sysIems and Ihe IongIerm
susIaInabIIIIy oI agrIcuIIuraI producIIon
In compIex and changIng envIronmenIs.
KnowIedge oI IarmIng seed sysIems,
IncIudIng crop varIeIIes, geneIIc
resources, seed managemenI and IIveII
hood sIraIegIes under normaI and sIress
condIIIons, Is necessary Io deIermIne
needs as weII as eIIecIIve Iorms oI assIs
Need lor observance ol Ihe
lnIernaIional Code ol ConducI:
GIven Ihe rapId erosIon oI geneIIc
resources and Ihe grIm predIcIIon oI
more 'super dIsasIers', II Is crIIIcaI Io
resIore Ihose whIch are IosI by such
crIses. Losses IhreaIen Io wIpe away
crucIaI resources Iorever, and rehabII
IIaIIon eIIorIs need Io move beyond
Ihe dIsIrIbuIIon oI sIapIe seeds and
Io aIIempI Io promoIe greaIer dIver
sIIIcaIIon, as weII as Ihe resIockIng oI
IocaI seed banks. IAO now consIders
IhaI InIernaIIonaI NGOs shouId be
under an obIIgaIIon Io abIde by Ihe
InIernaIIonaI Code oI ConducI on Ihe
CoIIecIIon and TransIer oI PIanI
GeneIIc Resources.
Need lor lull communiIy involve-
menI: One noIabIe InIIIaIIve Is Ihe
Iood securIIy recovery programme oI
SwIssaId In CoIombIa. The RIosucIo
area In Ihe counIry's Uraba regIon Is
home Io a weaIIh oI bIoIogIcaI dIver
sIIy, yeI II Is aIso one oI Ihe mosI
vIoIenI regIons In Ihe counIry, prone
Io InIense conIIIcI beIween warrIng
IacIIons. Increased vIoIence durIng
1997 caused massIve dIspIacemenIs,
IorcIng peasanI IamIIIes Io abandon
IheIr agrIcuIIuraI Iands Ior up Io 19
monIhs. The Ioss oI conIacI wIIh
IheIr Iand and InabII
IIy Io cuIIIvaIe
durIng IhIs perIod
caused Ihe Ioss oI
mosI oI IheIr IradI
IIonaI seed varIeIIes.
The recovery pro
gramme oI SwIssaId
ImpIemenIed durIng
Ihe reIurn process
was based on IradI
IIonaI pracIIces oI
seed conservaIIon
and managemenI,
and IhereIore
Iocused on Ihe
recovery oI basIc seeds Ihrough maIe
Iarmers and oI Ihe home garden
economy Ihrough women Iarmers.
Recovery oI seeds, however, was dII
IIcuII gIven Ihe Iosses and requIred
research among Ihe smaII popuIaIIon
groups IhaI managed Io remaIn In
Ihe regIon durIng Ihe conIIIcI.
CommunIIy seed banks enabIed InI
IIaI producIIon, exchange among
communIIIes, and reproducIIon unIII
suIIIcIenI suppIIes were avaIIabIe Ior
each IamIIy unII. The home gardens
became Ihe maIn Iocus oI Ihe IIrsI
recovery eIIorIs and women were
acIIve In Ihe process oI exchange
among communIIIes. In aII oI Ihe
projecIs supporIed by SwIssaId here,
"Ihe InIIIaIIve oI women In Ihe recov
ery oI cuIIIvaIIon and IradIIIonaI
medIcInaI pIanIs has been exIraordI
nary. The |home garden] becomes Ihe
symboI oI Ihe rehabIIIIaIIon oI Ihe
Iand and Ihe begInnIng oI IIIe aIIer
Ihe exodus."
Need lor gender-aware research:
Programmes such as SwIssaId's are
exempIary and sImIIar sIraIegIes
couId easIIy be repIIcaIed.
UnIorIunaIeIy, exampIes are dIIIIcuII
Io IInd. More research IhaI draws
IogeIher dIsasIers and pIanI geneIIc
resources Irom a gender perspecIIve
wouId go a Iong way Io ImprovIng
our undersIandIng oI Ihe synergy
beIween Ihese, and wouId heIp In
deveIopIng approprIaIe poIIcIes and
pracIIces Ior conservaIIon and repro
ducIIon durIng Ihe posIdIsasIer
The recenI epIsode oI HurrIcane MIIch In
Honduras remInds us IhaI Ihere Is con
IInued need Io make women vIsIbIe In
spIIe oI Ihree decades oI gender
research and anaIysIs. DIsasIers and
dIsasIerInduced dIspIacemenI can have
an devasIaIIng eIIecI on agrIcuIIuraI
producIIon, on IamIIy heaIIh and on
gIobaI geneIIc resources. RecognIIIon oI
Ihe roIe oI women In Ihese areas Is
crucIaI Ior undersIandIng Ihe ImpacI oI
dIsasIers and dIspIacemenI on Ihe agrI
cuIIuraI secIor, Ior accuraIeIy assessIng
Iosses and, hence, Ior eIIecIIve reIIeI and
rehabIIIIaIIon programmes
Moncu Tru]IIo s currentI) un nde-
pendent reseurcher und consuItunt,
specuIzng n humunturun und
socuI-gender concerns. Over the
pust 12 )eurs she hus worked n
nternutonuI cooperuton und, more
spec]cuII), on humunturun pro-
grummes n 5outh Asu und Lutn
Amercu. 5he s co-uuthor o] the
Ox]um pubIcuton Rsk-Muppng
und LocuI Cupuctes: Lessons ]rom
Mexco und CentruI Amercu (pub-
Ished 2000). LmuI: mptru]IIo@
1 IAO/WIP 'Crop and Iood SuppIy AssessmenI
MIssIon Io Honduras', 29 |anuary 1999.
2 Hope Shand Hunnn Nntuc: Agcutun od\c:t)
nnd Inn-Ln:cd Iood 5ccut), 1997.
3 5tntc o tIc Wod on Innt Ccnctc Kc:oucc: o
Iood nnd Agcutuc, 1997, IAO. ThIs IdenIIIIes gaps
and consIraInIs In naIIonaI and InIernaIIonaI eIIorIs Io
saIeguard pIanI geneIIc resources and Io use Ihem Io
ensure Iood securIIy and Ihe susIaInabIIIIy oI agrIcuI
Iure. II provIdes Ihe basIs Ior Ihe GIobaI PIan oI
AcIIon adopIed by Ihe InIernaIIonaI TechnIcaI
ConIerence on PIanI GeneIIc Resources, LeIpzIg,
Germany, |une 1996. II can be ordered Irom IAOs
websIIe aI www.Iao.org
4 LsIer Boserup Woncn': Koc n Icononc
Ic\concnt, 1970, New York: SI. MarIIn's Press.
S CoonLn: Incgcnc) Intc\cnton: n In\ou o tIc
Intcnn) I:nccd Iounton: A::c::ncnt o Kcc
nnd KcInLtnton Nccd:, March 2000, IAO.
6 LsIImaIes excIude IndIrecI InpuIs such as IooIs, Ier
IIIIsers, Ieed or equIpmenI. IAO's programme Is sIIII
seekIng IInancIng/approvaI.
7 CaIherIne LongIey & PauI RIchards
Innc :ccd :):tcn: nnd d:n:tc:,
1999, Overseas DeveIopmenI
InsIIIuIe, London.
8 Kc\:tn 5cnn:: Kccucnndo n
5cgudnd Ancntnn cn Mcdo dc
Concto, OcIober 2000, SwIssaId.
9 SaIIy BunnIng Innc': KgIt: n tIc
Con:c\nton nnd U:c o Innt Ccnctc
Kc:oucc:: n Ccndc Ic:cct\c,
1996, IAO.
10 MarIo TapIa & Ana de Ia Torre In
nu]c cnnc:nn ) n: :cnn:
nndnn:- gcnco ) c nnnc]o dc o:
ccu:o: gcnctco:, 1996. See IAO
websIIe www.Iao.org
11 See 8 above.


2 9
I Ihe UNHCR LxCom meeIIngs In
Geneva In 2000, openIng
remarks Irom HIgh CommIss
Ioner OgaIa, SecreIaryGeneraI Annan
and WIP LxecuIIve DIrecIor BerIInI each
hIghIIghIed concern over Ihe securIIy oI
humanIIarIan aId workers. |usI a week
earIIer, dIrecIors and senIor managers
Irom 2S major AmerIcan and Luropean
agencIes meI IogeIher Ior a Iwoday
OIDA/InIerAcIIonsponsored workshop
on sIaII securIIy. Indeed, securIIy oI aId
workers has been a growIng concern and
prIorIIy over Ihe pasI Iew years and Is
onIy puncIuaIed when sIIuaIIons such as
WesI TImor and GuInea brIng Io Ihe
IoreIronI Ihe soberIng reaIIIIes oI Ihe
securIIy envIronmenIs In whIch Ihe UN
and NGOs work.
In recenI years Ihere have been noIabIe
InIeragency eIIorIs Io address securIIy
concerns. WorkIng under IundIng Irom
OIDA, In 1996 InIerAcIIon esIabIIshed
an NGO SecurIIy Task Iorce comprIzed
oI represenIaIIves oI a number oI
AmerIcan and Luropean NGOs. The Task
Iorce and subsequenI SecurIIy WorkIng
Group wenI on Io desIgn a comprehen
sIve currIcuIum Ior IraInIng NGO
workers on securIIy. The currIcuIum has
sInce been pIcked up by Ihe BrIIIsh NGO
RedR whIch, wIIh IundIng Irom OIDA
and BrIIaIn's DeparImenI Ior
InIernaIIonaI DeveIopmenI, Is oIIerIng
Ihe weekIong course Irom regIonaI cen
Ires around Ihe worId over Ihe nexI Iwo
The HumanIIarIan PracIIce NeIwork aI
Ihe Overseas DeveIopmenI InsIIIuIe has
recenIIy pubIIshed Cood Inctcc Kc\c\
#: Ocntonn 5ccut) Mnnngcncnt n
Vocnt In\onncnt:,
auIhored by
Koenraad Van BrabanI who has aIso
been an acIIve parIIcIpanI on Ihe
InIerAcIIon Task Iorce and WorkIng
Group. The book Is an ImporIanI reIer
ence Ior NGO securIIy pIanners, brIngIng
IogeIher InpuI Irom scores oI NGOs and
esIabIIshIng boIh a common Ianguage
and concepIuaI Iramework Ior under
sIandIng securIIy and sIraIegIes Ior
proIecIIng aId workers. NoI onIy have
NGO conIrIbuIIons Io Ihe book been
ImpressIve buI major governmenIaI
donors have aIso come Iorward Io sup
porI Ihe eIIorI: pubIIcaIIon was
supporIed by Ihe governmenIs oI
BrIIaIn, Denmark, IreIand, Ihe
NeIherIands, Sweden and Ihe US.
VOICL's HumanIIarIan SaIeIy and
ProIecIIon NeIwork (HSPN) has aIso
made an ImpressIve eIIorI Io esIabIIsh a
mechanIsm Ior IrackIng and anaIyzIng
securIIy IncIdenIs. PrIor Io Ihe HSPN
projecI wIIh Ihe noIabIe excepIIon oI
ICRC our undersIandIng oI securIIy
IncIdenIs, quaIIIaIIveIy and quanIIIa
IIveIy, has been IargeIy rooIed In
anecdoIaI reporIIng.
The UN Is aIso IakIng sIgnIIIcanI sIeps
Iowards ImprovIng securIIy Ior IIs IIeId
operaIIons. The SecreIaryGeneraI's
recenI reporI on 'SaIeIy and SecurIIy oI
UnIIed NaIIonaI PersonneI'
Ihe scope oI Ihe probIem Iaced by Ihe
UN In Ihe IIeId and Ihe shorIcomIngs oI
a sIraIegy deveIoped Ior Ihe sIIuaIIon as
II appeared IwenIy years ago. The reporI
seIs IorIh a number oI proposaIs Io
Improve securIIy. These wouId IncIude:
appoInImenI oI a SecurIIy CoordInaIor
aI Ihe AssIsIanI SecreIaryGeneraI IeveI,
esIabIIshmenI oI a more reIIabIe mecha
nIsm Ior IundIng IIeId SecurIIy OIIIcers
and Increased resources Ior Ihe oIIIce oI
A more proactive UN role in the
security of NGO staff?
by Randolph Martin
The recent and very tragic deaths of UNHCR
workers in West Timor and Guinea have once
again focused attention on the precarious
security circumstance under which humanit-
arian relief work is so often conducted.
Football stadium in Dili, East Timor, designated a
safe haven in the weeksfollowing the arrival of
the IN TERFET peacekeeping forces.

Ihe UN SecurIIy CoordInaIor (UNSLCO
ORD) whIch wouId provIde Ior enhanced
sIaII IraInIng, securIIy assessmenIs,
counseIIng and sIress managemenI.
Coordina tion w ith the N GO
The SecreIaryGeneraI's reporI ouIIInes
ImprovemenIs IhaI are a sIep - II noI a
Ieap - In Ihe rIghI dIrecIIon Ioward
enhancIng Ihe securIIy oI UN personneI.
However, beyond recognIzIng IhaI NGOs
Iace Ihe same chaIIengIng operaIIng
envIronmenI, Ihe reporI makes no men
IIon oI Ihe need Io enhance coordInaIIon
and joInI securIIy eIIorIs wIIh Ihe NGO
communIIy upon whIch Ihe UN Is
IncreasIngIy dependenI. ThIs Is a sIgnIII
canI oversIghI, noI onIy Ior NGOs buI
Ior Ihe securIIy oI UN IIeId operaIIons.
UNHCR, as a case In poInI, reIIes heavIIy
on NGO ImpIemenIIng parIners Io
achIeve IIs mandaIe
yeI has done IIIIIe
Io cIarIIy IIs roIe wIIh NGOs In Ihe reaIm
oI securIIy. In Ihe NGOUNHCR meeIIngs
prIor Io IhIs year's LxecuIIve CommIIIee
meeIIngs In Geneva, UNHCR's ChIeI oI
SaIeIy, RoIand L'AIIIer, IndIcaIed IhaI
Ihere Is no IormaI reIaIIonshIp buI
raIher "nd Ioc arrangemenIs IhaI vary
Irom sIIuaIIon Io sIIuaIIon. Mr L'AIIIer
aIso IndIcaIed IhaI Ihe nd Ioc arrange
menI Is "IIexIbIe" and "works". Indeed
Ihere Is IIexIbIIIIy. TaIkIng Io NGO IIeId
sIaII around
Ihe worId
abouI whaI
pIays In
Issues, one
geIs repIIes
evocaIIve oI
Ihe parabIe oI Ihe bIInd men and Ihe
eIephanI where each man descrIbes Ihe
overaII appearance oI Ihe anImaI based
upon Ihe one appendage IhaI he Is abIe
Io Iouch: securIIy managemenI In each
sIIuaIIon Is so dramaIIcaIIy dIIIerenI
IhaI II Is dIIIIcuII Io grasp Ihe overaII
vIsIon. II Is Iess cIear wheIher or noI
IhIs "works".
When UNHCR chooses Io underIake a
coordInaIIng roIe In securIIy, Ihe resuIIs
can be mosI ImpressIve. CoordInaIIng
NGOs - oIIen IIkened Io herdIng caIs - Is
noIorIousIy dIIIIcuII. YeI, when UNHCR
caIIs a securIIy coordInaIIon meeIIng Ior
Ihe NGO communIIy, Ihe NGOs come.
When UNHCR esIabIIshes a common
communIcaIIons neIwork or Irequency,
NGOs parIIcIpaIe acIIveIy. When UNHCR
oIIers IechnI
caI advIce or
IraInIng Io
NGOs on any
IhIng Irom sIIe
securIIy Io
convoy opera
IIons, NGOs
are generaIIy
keen Io Iap IhaI experIIse. These are
roIes IhaI UNHCR Is unIqueIy posIIIoned
Io oIIer. IndIvIduaI NGOs rareIy have Ihe
resources Io hIre IheIr own securIIy oIII
cers - and even II Ihey had, NGOs can
beneIII enormousIy Irom a common
UN/NGO Iorum Io dIscuss and coordI
naIe securIIy maIIers. A common
undersIandIng oI Ihe securIIy envIron
menI emerges, aIong wIIh a common
Ianguage and coordInaIed responses.
InIormaIIon Is shared whIch beneIIIs
noI onIy Ihe NGOs buI UNHCR as weII.
UNHCR Is unIqueIy sIIuaIed noI onIy Ior
creaIIng IhIs Iorum buI aIso Ior pIayIng
a Iarger represenIaIIonaI roIe on securIIy
maIIers. One oI Ihe pIIIars oI good secu
rIIy derIves Irom Ihe dIpIomaIIc
reIaIIons beIween Ihe humanIIarIan com
munIIy and Ihe IocaI or regIonaI powers.
AgaIn, In mosI sIIuaIIons, UNHCR Is Iar
beIIer posIIIoned Ihan mosI NGOs Io
approach naIIonaI and regIonaI auIhorI
IIes - or major donors - aI Ihe hIghesI
IeveIs Io advocaIe Ior humanIIarIan
access and Ihe securIIy oI aId workers.
Compromise a nd competition
II UNHCR Is so IdeaIIy sIIuaIed Io pIay a
cenIraI roIe In securIIy Ior NGOs, why
can IhIs roIe noI be made more IormaI7
One probIem Is IhaI UNHCR's eIIorI Is
generaIIy cenIred on Ihe appoInImenI oI
a IIeId SaIeIy AdvIsor (ISA). The ISA Is a
securIIy proIessIonaI wIIh Ihe experIIse
and mandaIe Io advIse on maIIers
oI securIIy. The appoInImenI oI IhIs
posIIIon Is noI auIomaIIc, even In Ihe
mosI precarIous oI securIIy envIron
menIs: onIy 60 ouI oI 80 hIghrIsk posIs
have assIgned securIIy oIIIcers.
UNHCR, Ihe decIsIon Io appoInI an
ISA resIs soIeIy wIIh UNHCR's ResIdenI
RepresenIaIIve, Ior whom Ihe decIsIon Is
IargeIy one oI resources and prIorIIIes.
3 0
Biaro camp, Kisangani, DRC


UNHCR is uniquely situated
for playing a larger repre-
sentational role on security
3 1
The UNHCR counIry oIIIce musI be abIe
and wIIIIng Io Iund Ihe posIIIon ouI oI Ihe
counIry budgeI usIng Iunds IhaI mIghI
oIherwIse be used Io supporI programme
acIIvIIIes. In an aImosphere oI dImInIsh
Ing IundIng, Ihe decIsIon can Iorce
dIIIIcuII compromIses. YeI, In Ihe absence
oI an ISA, UNHCR's abIIIIy Io pIay a coor
dInaIIng roIe Ior IIs NGO ImpIemenIIng
parIners Is aII buI eIImInaIed.
Lven when an ISA Is appoInIed, Ihere Is
no guaranIee IhaI UNHCR wIII acIIveIy
Iake on a coordInaIIng roIe wIIh NGOs.
In Ihe absence oI IormaI guIdeIInes or
poIIcIes speIIIng ouI Ihe roIe oI UNHCR
vIsavIs Ihe NGOs, Ihe reIaIIonshIp
beIween Ihe ISA and Ihe NGOs Is IargeIy
a producI oI personaIIIIes and compeI
Ing demands on Ihe ISA's IIme. As such,
Ihe reIaIIonshIp Is Indeed nd Ioc, vary
Ing sIgnIIIcanIIy Irom counIry Io
counIry and ISA Io ISA. II Ihe
SecreIaryGeneraI succeeds In hIs pro
posaI Io Iund Ihese posIIIons ouI oI
generaI Iunds, Ihen Ihe job IIseII
shouId be redesIgned Io IncIude IIaIson
and coordInaIIon wIIh NGOs.
Lven II UNHCR Is noI abIe Io broaden
Ihe advIsory servIces oI IIs ISAs, II
shouId be more IorIhrIghI abouI whaI II
can and cannoI do Ior IIs ImpIemenIIng
parIners. TypIcaIIy, UNHCR wIII oIIer
vague verbaI reassurances Io NGO repre
senIaIIves. ThIs Iends Io mask Ihe IacI -
surprIsIng Io many NGO workers - IhaI
Ihe UN has no IormaI responsIbIIIIy
whaIsoever Ior NGO securIIy. Such mIs
communIcaIIon oI capacIIy and InIenI
has IeII NGOs behInd In more Ihan one
evacuaIIon, and wouId no doubI aIIer
NGO securIIy pIannIng II Ihere were
more cIarIIy Irom Ihe begInnIng.
UN / N GO Memora ndum of
Understa nding
The UN has aIIempIed a more IormaI
securIIy agreemenI wIIh NGOs. In 1996,
UNSLCOORD draIIed a Memorandum oI
UndersIandIng (MoU) In an eIIorI Io
esIabIIsh a Iramework Ior a securIIy
reIaIIonshIp beIween UN organIzaIIons
and IheIr NGO ImpIemenIIng parIners
('ImpIemenIIng parIners' are Ihose NGOs
wIIh a conIracIuaI reIaIIonshIp wIIh a
UN agency Ior ImpIemenIIng a specIIIc
projecI under UN IundIng). Under Ihe
Ierms oI Ihe MoU, Ihe generaI responsI
bIIIIIes oI Ihe UN IncIude unspecIIIed
"proIecIIon oI InIernaIIonaI sIaII", IncIu
sIon oI "reIevanI InIormaIIon" abouI
InIernaIIonaI sIaII In Ihe UN's securIIy
pIan, keepIng Ihe NGO InIormed abouI
securIIy deveIopmenIs and measures
beIng ImpIemenIed by Ihe UN and, "Io
Ihe exIenI possIbIe", provIsIon oI IraveI
assIsIance on a reImbursabIe basIs In Ihe
case oI emergency. "Where possIbIe", Ihe
UN aIso agrees Io represenI Ihe NGO's
securIIy concerns Io Ihe auIhorIIIes oI
Ihe hosI governmenI.
In exchange, Ihe MoU requIres IhaI sIg
naIory ImpIemenIIng parIners "IuIIy
IoIIow Ihe InsIrucIIons oI |Ihe UN]
regardIng securIIy maIIers", yeI Ihe
NGOs are Io "assume aII rIsks and IIabIII
IIes reIaIed Io Ihe securIIy oI IIs sIaII"
and "deaI wIIh aII cIaIms as may be
broughI agaInsI Ihe UN arIsIng Irom Ihe
exIensIon under Ihe Memorandum . . . Io
IIs InIernaIIonaI sIaII". ThIs surrender oI
auIhorIIy has been a cenIraI Issue Ior
Ihe NGOs, parIIcuIarIy In vIew oI Ihe
murky promIses oI proIecIIon In reIurn.
One wonders whaI organIzaIIon wouId
agree Io surrender auIhorIIy over
securIIyreIaIed decIsIons yeI reIaIn
responsIbIIIIy Ior Ihe consequences oI
Ihose decIsIons. The MoU goes on Io
requIre IhaI Ihe NGO "ensure IhaI Ihe
|UN] Is aI aII IImes InIormed oI Ihe
whereabouIs and movemenIs. oI InIer
naIIonaI sIaII.". The MoU aIso requIres
IhaI Ihe NGOs "Iend, when possIbIe and
Io Ihe exIenI IeasIbIe, on a reImbursabIe
basIs, IraveI assIsIance Io |UN personneI]".
In shorI, Ihe MoU provIdes Ior Ihe
exchange oI securIIyreIaIed InIormaIIon
and - "Io Ihe exIenI possIbIe" - Ihe evac
uaIIon oI InIernaIIonaI sIaII In exchange
Ior Ihe NGO's wIIIIngness Io surrender
IIs auIhorIIy on securIIy maIIers Io Ihe
UN. The NGO aIso pays a Iee Io Ihe UN,
based upon Ihe cosI oI Ihe SecurIIy
ProvIsIons and Ihe number oI sub
scrIbers bearIng Ihose cosIs.
Above and beyond Ihe overarchIng ques
IIon oI wheIher Ihe vague provIsIons oI
Ihe agreemenI are worIh Ihe cosIs, Ihe
MoU raIses a number oI quesIIons
requIrIng cIarIIIcaIIon. WhaI exacIIy Is an
'ImpIemenIIng parIner': does Ihe MoU
perIaIn Io NGO sIaII Iunded by oIher
donors buI workIng on UNIunded pro
jecIs7 Does Ihe MoU exIend Io an
ImpIemenIIng parIner's sIaII who are
workIng on compIemenIary programmes
noI Iunded by Ihe UN7 Is Ihe MoU In
eIIecI when NGOs are ImpIemenIIng pro
jecIs In good IaIIh durIng Ihe oIIen
proIracIed perIods oI IIme when Ihe UN
Is processIng proposaIs and agreemenIs
and, In a sIrIcIIy IormaI sense, Ihere Is
no agreemenI beIween Ihe NGO and Ihe
UN7 Do Ihe provIsIons oI Ihe MoU reIaI
Ing Io evacuaIIon perIaIn Io naIIonaI
sIaII broughI In Ior Ihe purpose oI
ImpIemenIIng a UNHCRIunded projecI7
WhaI II an NGO does dIsobey Ihe securI
Iy InsIrucIIons oI UNHCR - Is Ihe enIIre
MoU revoked or are Ihe recaIcIIranI NGO
sIaII sImpIy omIIIed Irom Ihe reIaIed
porIIon oI Ihe securIIy pIan, such as an
DespIIe Ihese and many oIher quesIIons
raIsed by Ihe NGOs, UNSLCOORD has
been resoIuIeIy unwIIIIng Io aIIer Ihe
MoU, even Io add cIarIIy and even
Ihough noI a sIngIe NGO has sIgned on
Io Ihe MoU as a gIobaI agreemenI. (IOM,
whIch Is noI generaIIy consIdered an
NGO and has a very dIIIerenI seI oI
securIIy concerns vIsavIs Ihe UN, Is
Ihe onIy organIzaIIon IhaI has sIgned
Why Is II unreasonabIe Ior Ihe UN Io
expecI NGOs Io "IuIIy IoIIow Ihe InsIruc
IIon oI Ihe |UN] regardIng securIIy
maIIers"7 ParI oI Ihe answer sureIy
reIaIes Io Ihe cuIIure oI Independence
under whIch mosI NGOs operaIe, Ior
beIIer or Ior worse. However, Ihere are
oIher concerns as weII.
lirsI, and perhaps mosI ImporIanI, an
NGO's response Io a securIIy envIron
menI musI prImarIIy be reIaIed Io Ihe
NGO's gIobaI mandaIe and IocaI mIssIon.
An NGO ImpIemenIIng agrIcuIIuraI
exIensIon servIces shouId have a Iower
rIsk IoIerance Ihan an NGO underIakIng
IIIesavIng medIcaI servIces. II Is unreaI
IsIIc Io expecI boIh organIzaIIons Io
respond Io securIIy sIIuaIIons In Ihe
same IashIon.
Secondly, Ihe UN's own response Io
securIIy envIronmenIs can be compro
mIsed by IIscaI concerns IhaI are
unreIaIed Io NGOs. Ior exampIe, as
noIed above, II Ihe ResIdenI
RepresenIaIIve Is unwIIIIng Io prIorIIIze
IundIng Irom Ihe counIry budgeI, Ihere
wIII be no IIeId SaIeIy AdvIsor. In
Uganda Ihere Is no UNHCR ISA and Ihus
weak provIsIons Ior UNHCR sIaII work
Ing In Ihe precarIous envIronmenI In Ihe
NorIh, where Ihe Lord's ResIsIance Army
conIInues Io wreak havoc. UNHCR sIaII
are reIucIanI Io vIsII IIeId sIIes and, cII
Ing securIIy concerns, have spenI IIIIIe
more Ihan a Iew days In Ihe AchoI PII
reI ugee camp so I ar I hI s year.
NeverIheIess, UNHCR expecIs NGOs Io
carry ouI servIces In Ihe camp on a daIIy
basIs. II NGOs were Io IoIIow UNHCR's
Iead on securIIy, Ihere wouId sImpIy be
no servIces Ior reIugees.
IundIng Is aIso InvoIved In Ihe deIermI
naIIon oI Ihe UN's securIIy phases buI
noI aIways as one mIghI anIIcIpaIe.
AccordIng Io Ihe candId expIanaIIon oI a
senIor UNHCR oIIIcIaI In Hargesa,
UNHCR In SomaIIIand remaIned aI Phase
3 Iong aIIer condIIIons had Improved,
sImpIy because oI concerns over Ihe
ImpacI oI Ihe eIImInaIIon oI a phase
reIaIed securIIy aIIowance on an aIready
demoraIIzed sIaII. GIven Ihese Issues,
among oIhers, II wouId cIearIy be unwIse
Ior NGOs Io hand over securIIy decI
sIons Io Ihe UN even In Ihe besI oI
As a gIobaI documenI ouIIInIng Ihe reIa
IIonshIp beIween Ihe UN and Ihe NGOs
In Ihe reaIm oI securIIy, Ihe MoU Is sIg
nIIIcanIIy IIawed. II demands IhaI NGOs
surrender auIhorI
Iy over IheIr own
securIIy aIIaIrs In
exchange Ior
unspecIIIed proIec
IIon and supporI
Ior evacuaIIon. AI
Ihe same IIme, Ihe MoU does noI
address Ihe many crIIIcaI securIIy coor
dInaIIon Issues IhaI are so ImporIanI Io
NGOs. II shouId be no surprIse IhaI no
NGO has sIgned Ihe documenI on a
gIobaI basIs. InIeresIIngIy, Ihere are
some InsIances - 14 In aII where NGOs
have sIgned aI a counIry IeveI. The coun
IrIes IncIude LIberIa, TajIkIsIan and
Sudan. One mIghI surmIse IhaI Ihe use
IuIness oI Ihe MoU Is greaIIy Increased
In such pIaces where NGOs are unIIkeIy
Io have Ihe capacIIy Io handIe Ihe IogIs
IIcs oI evacuaIIon or Ihe dIpIomaIIc
connecIIons oI securIng - aI Ihe hIghesI
IeveIs humanIIarIan access and Ihe pro
IecIIon oI aId workers.
DespIIe our crIIIcIsm oI Ihe MoU docu
menI, IRC Is among Ihe sIgnaIorIes Io
Ihe MoU In Sudan where we are workIng
IogeIher wIIh Ihe UN In Ihe govern
menIheId garrIson Iowns oI SouIhern
Sudan. LvacuaIIon opIIons are IImIIed
and communIcaIIons are hIghIy resIrIcI
ed. The GovernmenI oI Sudan
unoIIIcIaIIy (II noI oIIIcIaIIy) vIews Ihe
humanIIarIan eIIorI as aIdIng and abeI
IIng IIs enemIes. II Is under Ihese
chaIIengIng cIrcumsIances where evac
uaIIon opIIons are dramaIIcaIIy IImIIed
and expensIve and where hIghIeveI
dIpIomaIIc reIaIIons wIIh governmenIs
and warrIng parIIes may enhance
humanIIarIan access IhaI a IormaI MoU
may be mosI approprIaIe.
Recommenda tions
WhIIe IhIs arIIcIe may appear crIIIcaI oI
Ihe UN, IIs recommendaIIons are buIII
upon sIIuaIIons In Ihe IIeId where Ihe
UN has In IacI sIepped Iorward and
Iaken a IeadIng roIe In securIIy:
lirsIly, securIIy coordInaIIon Improves
dramaIIcaIIy when a UN IIeId SecurIIy
OIIIcer Is appoInIed. The decIsIon Io
appoInI a IIeId SecurIIy OIIIcer shouId
be made soIeIy on consIderaIIon oI Ihe
securIIy envIronmenI, noI upon Ihe IIs
caI concerns and conIIIcIIng prIorIIIes oI
Ihe ResIdenI RepresenIaIIve. Accord
IngIy, Ihese posIIIons - cosIIng some
S100,000 each shouId be Iunded Irom
a separaIe cenIraIIy managed Iund. ThIs,
In essence, Is among Ihe UN SecreIary
GeneraI's proposaIs.
Secondly, NGO
securIIy coordI
naIIon shouId
be a lormal
responsIbIIIIy oI
Ihe UN IIeId
SecurIIy AdvIsors. IncIuded wouId be
organIzaIIon and IacIIIIaIIon oI rouIIne
securIIy coordInaIIon meeIIngs, esIab
IIshmenI oI a shared securIIy comm
unIcaIIons neIwork, provIsIon oI IhreaI
assessmenIs and exchange oI perIInenI
securIIy InIormaIIon. ParIIcIpaIIon In
Ihese acIIvIIIes wouId noI (or couId noI)
be requIred, nor wouId Ihey ImpIy a IIabII
IIy Io UN. NeverIheIess, experIence shows
IhaI Ihey wouId be weII supporIed and
vaIuabIe Io NGO and UN sIaII aIIke.
Thirdly, Ihe UN shouId make a concerI
ed eIIorI Io embrace Ihe Ianguage and
concepIuaI Iramework IhaI Ihe NGOs
have deveIoped In recenI years, as suc
cIncIIy represenIed In ODI's IaIesI
Cood Inctcc Kc\c\ and Ihe RedR
InIerAcIIon securIIy IraInIng course.
VarIous UN organIzaIIons and Ihe NGOs
are IncreasIngIy accepIIng common 'besI
pracIIces' under many secIors oI pro
gramme operaIIons, up Io and IncIudIng
Ihe Sphere ProjecI. ThIs Is an exceIIenI
opporIunIIy Ior Ihe UN Io recognIze and
embrace Ihe subsIanIIaI achIevemenIs oI
IIs NGO parIners In Ihe IIeId oI securIIy.
linally, Ihe UNSLCOORD MoU shouId
noI be abandoned buI reworked Io add
cIarIIy and Iocused IuncIIons wIIhIn
specIIIc conIexIs. II shouId be Invoked
when evacuaIIon opIIons are IImIIed and
where hIghIeveI represenIaIIon and
coordInaIIon on securIIy are pIvoIaI Io
ensurIng humanIIarIan access. PorIIons
oI IIs IexI shouId be conIexI specIIIc,
specIIyIng Ihe sIIes II covers and Ihe
roIes IhaI can be expecIed Irom Ihe par
IIes workIng In Ihose sIIes. In Ihese
IImIIed cIrcumsIances, such a IIghI
securIIy regImen shouId be oIIered Io
UN ImpIemenIIng parIners and mIghI
even be requIred oI Ihem. In shorI, Ior
Ihe MoU Io be useIuI, II Is ImperaIIve
IhaI UNSLCOORD show some hereIoIore
undemonsIraIed IIexIbIIIIy In recraIIIng
Ihe MoU on a more conIexIspecIIIc
The Iocus oI IhIs paper has been on how
Ihe UN mIghI pIay a more acIIve and
useIuI roIe In enhancIng securIIy Ior
IheIr NGO ImpIemenIIng parIners In Ihe
IIeId. ThIs shouId noI be consIrued Io
ImpIy IhaI Ihe NGOs cannoI do more Io
address IheIr own securIIy concerns.
The hope IhaI Ihe UN can pIay a more
acIIve securIIy coordInaIIon roIe IargeIy
reIIecIs Ihe IaIIure oI Ihe NGO commu
nIIy Io IIII IhIs roIe Ior ourseIves.
Moreover, Iew NGOs have desIgnaIed
securIIy oIIIcers aI HQ or In Ihe IIeId;
Iew have adequaIe securIIy poIIcy sIruc
Iures; Iew are adequaIeIy addressIng
securIIy orIenIaIIon and IraInIng; and Iew
are adequaIeIy addressIng Ihe resource
needs Ior enhancIng IIeId securIIy.
CIearIy, we aII have a Iong way Io go.
The purpose oI IhIs arIIcIe Is Io urge Ihe
UN Io cIarIIy, II noI IormaIIze, IIs unIque
and cenIraI roIe In enhancIng securIIy
Ior aII humanIIarIan aId workers. AI Ihe
very IeasI, II may InspIre new dIaIogue
beIween concerned NGOs and UN
agencIes on how we mIghI beIIer work
IogeIher Io creaIe a more secure work
Ing envIronmenI Ior our humanIIarIan
RundoIph Murtn s 5enor Orector
o] Operutons ut the 1nternutonuI
Rescue Commttee. LmuI:
1 Koenraad Van BrabanI, Ocntonn 5ccut)
Mnnngcncnt n Vocnt In\onncnt:. Good PracIIce
RevIew 8. 2000. Overseas DeveIopmenI InsIIIuIe.
2 KoII Annan, 'SaIeIy and SecurIIy oI UN PersonneI:
ReporI oI Ihe SecreIaryGeneraI', UN GeneraI
AssembIy, IIIIyIIIIh SessIon, 2000.
3 In 1999, UNHCR budgeIed nearIy USS300 mIIIIon
Ihrough IIs NGO ImpIemenIIng parIners.
3 2
the MoU is significantly
n SepIember 2000, Ihe ReIugees
SIudIes CenIre and Ihe CenIre Ior
ChIIdIocused AnIhropoIogIcaI
Research oI BruneI UnIversIIy hosIed an
InIernaIIonaI ConsuIIaIIon on 'ChIIdren
In AdversIIy' In OxIord.
The 110 parIIcI
panIs were broughI IogeIher Io share
IheIr knowIedge, research InIormaIIon
and pracIIIIoner experIence Io promoIe
a beIIer undersIandIng oI chIIdren, IheIr
deveIopmenI, IheIr capacIIIes and vuI
nerabIIIIIes, and Ihe rIsks Ihey Iace In
hIghIy deIrImenIaI seIIIngs. The parIIcI
panIs dIvIded InIo IIve workIng groups:
reIugee and dIspIaced chIIdren, chIIdren
In armed conIIIcI, workIng chIIdren,
chIIdren and IamIIy IncapacIIaIIon, and
chIIdren In deIeIerIous InsIIIuIIonaI seI
The aIm oI Ihe consuIIaIIon was Io
Increase undersIandIng oI Ihe resIIIence
and copIng sIraIegIes oI chIIdren
exposed Io hIghIy sIressIuI sIIuaIIons,
as weII as Ihe rIsks Ihey Iace. II was pro
posed IhaI recognIIIon and supporI oI
chIIdren's compeIencIes and resourceIuI
ness can encourage a move away Irom a
Iocus on chIId paIhoIogy and Iowards
Ihe recognIIIon oI chIIdren as socIaI
acIors wIIh vaIId InsIghIs and skIIIs.
ThIs In IIseII can Iead Io beIIer chIId pro
Fa ctors influencing childrens
resilience a nd coping
Much oI Ihe dIscussIon Iocused on Iden
IIIyIng IacIors IhaI conIrIbuIe Io or
undermIne chIIdren's resIIIence and cop
Ing In sIIuaIIons oI hardshIp. IIve
Ihemes In parIIcuIar arose In Ihe armed
conIIIcI and Iorced mIgraIIon workIng
1. The relevance ol social deliniIions
ol childhood
Approaches Io and experIences oI chIId
hood vary wIdeIy across cuIIures and
conIexIs. ChIIdhood Iends Io end Iar ear
IIer Ior gIrIs Ihan Ior boys, Ior exampIe,
wIIh Ihe IransIIIon Io aduIIhood In
women oIIen beIng assocIaIed wIIh
puberIy and marrIage. In sIIuaIIons oI
adversIIy, noIIons oI chIIdhood, youIh
and aduIIhood can be hIghIy IIuId, and
Ihe boundarIes beIween generaIIonaI
caIegorIes conIesIed. How chIIdhood Is
undersIood In any gIven seIIIng can have
a major ImpacI on resIIIence and copIng.
Ior exampIe, Ihe ChIIdren In Armed
ConIIIcI workIng group heard how many
young LIhIopIan boys have been con
scrIpIed as soIdIers. PracIIIIoners
InvoIved In programmes Ior IheIr demo
bIIIzaIIon and reInIegraIIon noIIced a
dIsIIncI dIIIerence In Ihe abIIIIy oI Ihe
boys Io come Io Ierms wIIh whaI Ihey
had done as acIIve combaIanIs. Those
who had undergone InIIIaIIon cere
monIes prIor Io conscrIpIIon showed
beIIer resIIIence Io Ihe condIIIons oI war
Ihan boys oI Ihe same age who had noI
been InIIIaIed. These InIIIaIIon cere
monIes sIress a IransIIIon Io manhood,
a sIaIus IhaI wouId accommodaIe Ihe
acIIvIIIes oI war
Iare, whIIe boys
who had noI been
InIIIaIed Iound II
dIIIIcuII Io recon
cIIe whaI Ihey had
done wIIh IheIr sIa
Ius as a 'chIId'.
When humanIIarIan
InIervenIIons InIro
duce specIIIc age
dIsIIncIIons whIch
are noI necessarIIy
IuncIIonaI In Ihe
hosI socIeIy (Ior
exampIe, cIassIng aII
Ihose under 18 as
chIIdren), such InIer
venIIons can even
change how Ihe hosI
socIeIy deIInes and
responds Io chIIdren.
YeI, aIongsIde Ihe
reIevance oI socIaI
consIrucIIons oI
whaI II Is Io be a
chIId, II was aIso
recognIzed IhaI
boIh Ihe rIsks oI
adversIIy and Ihe
aIIrIbuIes oI
resIIIence and copIng
do aIIer sIgnIIIcanIIy
wIIh age. Young chIIdren are oIIen seen
as Ihe mosI vuInerabIe, due Io IheIr
dependence on oIhers and IheIr InabIIIIy
Io comprehend many oI Ihe sIIuaIIons
Ihey conIronI. In one reIugee seIIIemenI
In IndonesIa, Ior exampIe, Ihe hIgh
Iences surroundIng Ihe schooI were
perceIved by younger chIIdren as Ihe
perImeIer oI a prIson camp. The chIIdren
Ihus saw schooI as a pIace oI Iear and
resIrIcIIon raIher Ihan oI opporIunIIy
and Ireedom. UndoubIedIy, InIanIs Iace
very specIIIc rIsks. In MozambIque, Ior
InsIance, Ihe war In Ihe Gorongosa
regIon dIsrupIed Ihe eIaboraIe socIaI
reIaIIons and cuIIuraI pracIIces sur
roundIng breasI IeedIng and weanIng.
Women dId noI keep up IradIIIonaI prac
IIces, whIch wouId have ensured a
Iwoyear spacIng beIween chIIdren.
ChIIdren were weaned more abrupIIy
and InIanI morIaIIIy soared. Cases such
3 3
Children in adversity
by Jo de Berry and Jo Boyden

as Ihese IndIcaIe IhaI much more InIor
maIIon Is needed abouI agereIaIed
vuInerabIIIIIes and compeIencIes.
2. The imporIance ol a child's culIural
Research and pracIIIIoner experIence
hIghIIghI Ihe ImporIance oI chIIdren's
cuIIuraI InherIIance and IearnIng In con
IronIIng adversIIy. ChIIdren are heavIIy
InIIuenced by IheIr cuIIuraI, maIerIaI and
socIaI envIronmenI. ParIIcuIar socIeIIes
have IheIr own Ideas abouI Ihe capacI
IIes and vuInerabIIIIIes oI chIIdren, Ihe
ways In whIch Ihey Iearn and deveIop,
and Ihose IhIngs IhaI are good and bad
Ior Ihem. These Ideas aIIecI approaches
Io chIId socIaIIzaIIon, IearnIng, dIscIpIIne
and proIecIIon and, hence, Io a sIgnIII
canI degree cIrcumscrIbe chIIdren's
adapIaIIon, resIIIence and copIng durIng
IIme oI sIress. Some socIeIIes acIIveIy
IraIn chIIdren In endurance Io enhance
In Uganda, Ior exampIe, suIIerIng and
hardshIp are consIrued very much as
parI oI everyday experIence. AIIer a IIme
oI war, young peopIe were abIe Io use
IheIr cuIIuraI resources - joke IeIIIng,
humour, companIonshIp, reIIgIous IaIIh
- Io cope wIIh Ihe many Iosses Ihey had
endured. In anoIher exampIe, pasIoraI
nomads were Iound Io encourage per
sonaI auIonomy In herdIng boys, and Io
have very posIIIve Ideas abouI mIgraIIon
and an essenIIaIIy spIrIIuaI vIew oI IamI
Iy; Ihese vaIues and aIIIIudes IosIered
resIIIence In boys separaIed Irom IheIr
IamIIIes durIng conIIIcI and Iorced Io
mIgraIe overseas.
A chIId's cuIIuraI conIexI noI onIy pro
vIdes Ihe necessary resources Ior copIng
wIIh hardshIp buI aIso deIInes wheIher
or noI Ihey are overwheImed psychoIogI
caIIy by IheIr experIences. These are
resources IhaI dIIIer beIween cuIIures
and wIIhIn cuIIures. In some conIexIs
In PaIesIInIan reIugee camps Ior InsIance
IamIIIes exercIse Iar greaIer conIroI
and resIrIcIIon over gIrIs Ihan boys. ThIs
Is jusIIIIed In Ierms oI gIrIs' greaIer need
Ior socIaI proIecIIon; however, Ihe con
sIraInIs pIaced on gIrIs may IImII IheIr
abIIIIy Io Iearn essenIIaI skIIIs Ior deaI
Ing wIIh adversIIy.
3. The adapIabiliIy ol children
The ReIugee and DIspIaced ChIIdren
workIng group dIscussed an array oI
rIsks commonIy Iaced by dIspIaced
chIIdren. These IncIude poor physIcaI
heaIIh, dIsrupIIon Io and Ioss oI IamIIy,
separaIIon, sIaIeIessness, Iack oI securIIy,
envIronmenIaI degradaIIon, socIaI mar
gInaIIzaIIon, Iack oI educaIIon and
absence oI power, choIce and conIroI
over IheIr IIves. PersonaI saIeIy emerged
as a major concern, wIIh dIspIaced gIrIs
and women In some cases experIencIng
a marked Increase In sexuaI abuse and
chIIdren oI boIh sexes beIng exposed Io
hIgh IeveIs oI vIoIence wIIhIn and ouI
sIde Ihe home.
In cerIaIn cIrcumsIances, cuIIuraI
IdenIIIy can become a major rIsk IacIor.
Young Serbs In Lurope, Ior exampIe,
were acuIeIy aware oI Ihe sIIgma oI IheIr
naIIonaIIIy, seekIng ImmedIaIe abandon
menI oI IheIr pasI persona and InIegra
IIon wIIh Ihe hosI cuIIure. DIspIaced
chIIdren are oIIen doubIy dIsadvanIaged
In IhIs respecI In IhaI Ihey no Ionger
beIong Io IheIr communIIy oI orIgIn and
are rejecIed by Ihe hosI communIIy.
In IryIng Io InIegraIe, chIIdren become
acuIeIy aware oI Ihe boundarIes Imposed
upon Ihem - Ihe Iack oI IamIIIar space,
Ihe many pIaces Ihey are prohIbIIed
Irom enIerIng and opporIunIIIes denIed
Ihem. These sIrIcIures can have emo
IIonaI and psychoIogIcaI repercussIons,
wIIh chIIdren IosIng seIIesIeem and
resIrIcIIng Ihe horIzons oI whaI Ihey
hope Io achIeve.
3 4


IDPsfrom the fighting in Kabul, Afghanistan
3 5
WhIIe Ihe WorkIng Group dweII aI some
IengIh on Ihe chaIIenges conIronIIng
reIugee and dIspIaced chIIdren, Ihey aIso
observed how chIIdren are oIIen more
adapIabIe Ihan aduIIs.
HAYS (Horn oI AIrIca YouIh Scheme),
a group oI young peopIe who had come
as unaccompanIed reIugees Irom
LIhIopIa Io BrIIaIn, descrIbed Ihe bewII
derIng experIence oI arrIvIng as young
chIIdren In a Ior
eIgn counIry, Ihe
IrusIraIIons Ihey
IeII when peopIe
made assumpIIons
abouI IheIr back
ground and Ihe
aIIenaIIon oI beIng
IabeIIed as a
reIugee raIher Ihan accepIed as an IndI
vIduaI person. YeI Ihrough reguIar
meeIIngs, organIzed by Ihe young peopIe
IhemseIves, Ihe members oI HAYS have
oIIered each oIher space Io share IheIr
reIIecIIons and Io respecI each oIher's
needs Ior IrIendshIp and supporI.
Indeed, chIIdren oIIen manIpuIaIe IheIr
duaI IdenIIIy by adopIIng Ihose eIemenIs
oI Ihe hosI cuIIure IhaI are useIuI Ior
survIvaI and accepIance In a new envI
ronmenI, whIIe cIIngIng Io aspecIs oI
IheIr orIgInaI herIIage IhaI provIde emo
IIonaI securIIy. ChIIdren Iearn Ihe hosI
Ianguage, cuIIuraI vaIues and pracIIces
more quIckIy Ihan aduIIs and IhIs can
Iead Ihem Io assume aduII roIes In Ihe
wIder communIIy, acIIng as InIermedI
arIes Ior parenIs (such as negoIIaIIng
wIIh auIhorIIIes or doIng Ihe shoppIng).
Such deveIopmenIs can be a cause oI
InIergeneraIIonaI conIIIcI, however,
especIaIIy when wIIhIn Ihe home chII
dren are expecIed Io maInIaIn a
submIssIve roIe. ThIs Is especIaIIy Ihe
case wIIh gIrIs In paIrIarchIcaI socIeIIes.
In Ihe Ionger Ierm, IhereIore, Ihe adap
IIveness and agIIIIy oI chIIdren Is a
poIenIIaI IhreaI Io InIergeneraIIonaI
reIaIIons and IamIIy sIabIIIIy.
4. Coping and resilience as sources
ol risk
In some sIIuaIIons oI adversIIy, chIIdren
have Iar more survIvaI and copIng
opIIons Ihan aduIIs. Ior exampIe, chII
dren are oIIen consIdered Io presenI Iess
oI a securIIy rIsk durIng conIIIcI and dIs
pIacemenI, enabIIng Ihem Io Iorage and
scavenge In mIIIIarIzed areas Irom whIch
aduII cIvIIIans are barred. OIIen, howev
er, conIIIcI and dIspIacemenI markedIy
Increase chIIdren's economIc and socIaI
responsIbIIIIIes whIIe aI Ihe same IIme
severeIy IImIIIng IheIr choIces and,
under Ihese cIrcumsIances, chIIdren's
resourceIuIness and copIng sIraIegIes
can enIaII severe rIsk. In AIghanIsIan,
pracIIIIoners workIng on anIImIne edu
caIIon projecIs were dIsmayed when a
boy who had recenIIy aIIended cIasses
on Ihe dangers oI IandmInes had Io have
hIs Ieg ampuIaIed aIIer venIurIng InIo a
and sIep
pIng on a
mIne. He
IoId Ihem
IaIer IhaI,
aIIhough he
was weII
aware oI
Ihe danger, coIIecIIng scrap meIaI Irom
Ihe mIneIIeIds Ior saIe was Ihe onIy way
he couId make a IIvIng.
Young PaIesIInIans In reIugee camps In
|ordan experIence many probIems asso
cIaIed wIIh IongIerm dIspIacemenI In
cramped condIIIons; IheIr copIng eIIorIs
Iocus on breakIng away Irom an oppres
sIve IamIIy envIronmenI eIIher Ihrough
earIy marrIage or IIeeIng Io Iake parI In
armed sIruggIe. LngagemenI In combaI
can be a copIng mechanIsm Ior boys In
SIerra Leone aIso. In a cIImaIe oI accusa
IIon and Iear, aII boys IncIudIng
cIvIIIans rIsk beIng IdenIIIIed as com
baIanIs and aIIacked by opposIIIon
groups. |oInIng Ihe mIIIIary provIdes
physIcaI proIecIIon, access Io Iood and
cIoIhIng, weapons and companIonshIp.
CIearIy, whIIe such sIraIegIes may resoIve
ImmedIaIe probIems, Ihey aIso pose grave
new IhreaIs, such as sexuaI abuse.
WhaI chIIdren do In Ihe name oI survIvaI
and copIng durIng adversIIy can have
serIous repercussIons Ior IheIr reIaIIon
shIps and socIaI InIegraIIon IaIer In IIIe.
Once Ihe IIghIIng ceases, Ior exampIe,
Iormer chIId soIdIers may be heId Io
accounI by IheIr communIIIes and IamI
IIes Ior IheIr acIIons durIng combaI. The
roIes and responsIbIIIIIes IhaI chIIdren
assume In warIIme oIIen seem Inappro
prIaIe In IImes oI peace, and Ihe
posIwar conIexI can InvoIve socIeIaI
judgemenIs concernIng chIIdren's acIIvI
IIes IhaI are Iar sIrIcIer Ihan Ihose made
durIng war.
However, 'normaI' chIId deveIopmenI
IndIcaIors and measures have IIIIIe vaIId
IIy durIng IImes oI war. PracIIIIoners
who have worked wIIh Iormer chIId
soIdIers sIress Ihe ImporIance, In Ierms
oI Ihe chIIdren's weIIbeIng, oI acknowI
edgIng and buIIdIng on, raIher Ihan
condemnIng or dIsregardIng, Ihe skIIIs
and sIrengIhs (such as IeadershIp, Ieam
work, resourceIuIness and courage) IhaI
Ihese young peopIe may have IearnI In
combaI. ResIIIence Is besI supporIed
Ihrough posIIIve reInIorcemenI raIher
Ihan rehabIIIIaIIon.
5. Role ol children in Iheir own
In MozambIque, pracIIIIoners conducIed
a survey Io assess IeveIs oI posIIrau
maIIc sIress dIsorder In a waraIIecIed
popuIaIIon wIIh Ihe InIenIIon oI ImpIe
menIIng a counseIIIng programme. AIIer
compIeIIng Ihe survey, some IocaI chII
dren asked, "Now IhaI we've IInIshed Ihe
survey, can we IeII you abouI our prob
Iems7" The InvesIIgaIors had cIearIy
IaIIed Io address whaI Ihe chIIdren saw
as IheIr maIn concerns whIch, II Iran
spIred, were Io do wIIh Ihe Ioss oI
schooIIng and IarmIands.
In anoIher
projecI, aImed aI reunIIIng chIIdren wIIh
IheIr parenIs In TanzanIa, chIIdren dId
noI undersIand Ihe quesIIons In a IamIIy
IracIng quesIIonnaIre, dIsIIked beIng
asked dIrecIIy abouI sensIIIve Issues
such as Ihe Ioss oI IheIr parenIs and dId
noI know whaI Ihe InIormaIIon was Io
be used Ior. YeI Ihey IeII compeIIed Io
answer, sImpIy Io pIease Ihe auIhorIIIes.
Many peopIe aI Ihe conIerence aIIesIed
Io Ihe dIIIerence IhaI can be made In
Ierms oI Ihe quaIIIy and ImpacI oI chIId
proIecIIon InIervenIIons when chIIdren
pIay a meanIngIuI roIe In programme
desIgn and ImpIemenIaIIon. AI Ihe very
IeasI, IgnorIng chIIdren's perspecIIves
can undermIne IheIr abIIIIy Io manage
and adjusI Io adversIIy.
AddIIIonaIIy, chIIdren oIIen have
InsIghIs InIo IheIr probIems oI whIch
aduIIs are unaware. TaIkIng Io chIIdren
In waraIIecIed communIIIes In SrI
Lanka, Ior exampIe, reveaIed a major
probIem oI aIcohoI abuse IhaI had noI
been apparenI Irom conversaIIons wIIh
aduIIs. SImIIarIy, dIspIaced chIIdren In
severaI seIIIngs were Iound Io be parIIc
uIarIy preoccupIed abouI IheIr InabIIIIy
Io IuIIII socIaI and economIc obIIgaIIons
normaIIy assocIaIed wIIh chIIdhood,
such as Ihe care oI IIeIds or anImaIs,
and Ihe IhreaI IhaI IhIs posed Io IheIr
passage Io aduIIhood. ChIIdren aIso
oIIen have sound Ideas abouI possIbIe
soIuIIons Io IheIr probIems. In Ihe
Now that weve finished
the survey, can we tell
you about our problems"
3 6
SIvanIheevu regIon oI SrI Lanka, IIeId
oIIIcers made a concerIed eIIorI Io Iearn
abouI chIIdren's worIdvIew and perspec
IIves, deveIopIng an undersIandIng oI
chIIdren's needs as arIIcuIaIed by Ihe
chIIdren IhemseIves. The chIIdren IdenII
IIed pIay, Ihe reconsIrucIIon oI IheIr
vIIIage and Ihe reesIabIIshmenI oI IrusI
as prIorIIIes and were subsequenIIy
InvoIved In desIgnIng InIIIaIIves Io
sIrengIhen Ihese aspecIs oI communIIy
IIndIngs Irom oIher chIIdIocused InIer
venIIons reaIIIrmed Ihe IangIbIe beneIIIs
oI chIIdren's parIIcIpaIIon, IncIudIng
greaIer seIIesIeem and Iesser rIsk oI
psychoIogIcaI dIsIress. Indeed, Ihere was
a suggesIIon IhaI, Io promoIe resIIIence
In chIIdren, pracIIIIoners shouId rId
IhemseIves oI Ihe 'probIem soIvIng'
ImperaIIve IhaI drIves so much oI IheIr
work. They shouId Iearn Io sIep asIde
and recognIze Ihe capacIIy oI chIIdren
and IheIr communIIIes Io address IheIr
own probIems and Iake acIIon on IheIr
own behaII usIng IndIgenous mecha
nIsms and sIraIegIes raIher Ihan
ImporIed modeIs.
Implica tions for child protection
policy a nd pra ctice
One oI Ihe IensIons Iaced aI Ihe consuI
IaIIon was Ihe quesIIon oI how Io move
on Irom observaIIons concernIng whaI
InIIuences chIIdren's resIIIence and
copIng Io Ihe desIgn oI beIIer poIIcy and
pracIIce Ior chIIdren In hardshIp. There
remaIn many unanswered quesIIons. II
we are Io Iocus on chIIdren's own abIII
IIes and sIrengIhs, how do we Ihen
IormuIaIe Ihe roIe oI aduII InIervenIIon7
II we Iocus on chIIdren's coIIecIIve
responses, do we rIsk IosIng sIghI oI
IndIvIduaI chIIdren who are parIIcuIarIy
vuInerabIe and IsoIaIed7 II chIIdren's
responses are so InIIuenced by IheIr hIs
IorIcaI and cuIIuraI seIIIng, can we use
gIobaI sIandards such as Ihose seI ouI In
Ihe ConvenIIon on Ihe RIghIs
oI Ihe ChIId7 II chIIdren's
resIIIence and copIng sIraIe
gIes whIch may be beneIIcIaI
In Ihe shorI Ierm have nega
IIve repercussIons In Ihe Iong
Ierm, Ihen shouId we noI con
cenIraIe on Ihe prevenIIon
raIher Ihan ameIIoraIIon oI sII
uaIIons oI adversIIy7
One ImporIanI sIep made aI
Ihe consuIIaIIon was Ihe
recognIIIon IhaI Ihe abIIIIy Io
answer such quesIIons demanded beIIer
knowIedge and undersIandIng oI chII
dren's experIences oI adversIIy. YeI II
emerged IhaI whaI pracIIIIoner experI
ence aIready exIsIs (oI Ihe reIaIIve
success and IaIIures oI InIervenIIons
wIIh chIIdren) Is noI wIdeIy dIssemInaI
ed. More serIous sIIII, Ihere has been
very IIIIIe research gIobaIIy InIo Ihe
ImpacIs oI dIIIerenI proIecIIon measures
and approaches on chIIdren's weIIbeIng
and seIdom are projecIs Ior chIIdren
crIIIcaIIy evaIuaIed usIng cuIIuraIIy
approprIaIe and chIIdIocused crIIerIa.
IrequenIIy, academIc research InIo rIsk
and resIIIence In chIIdren In adversIIy
does noI reach beyond Ihe conIInes oI a
parIIcuIar dIscIpIIne and Is noI dIssemI
naIed In an accessIbIe and Issue
orIenIaIed manner. KnowIedge IhaI Is
dIssemInaIed Is oIIen bIased and Incom
pIeIe; II was sIrIkIng, Ior exampIe, how
IIIIIe sysIemaIIc aIIenIIon was gIven In
Ihe armed conIIIcI and Iorced mIgraIIon
workIng groups Io Ihe ImpIIcaIIons oI
gender and age In Ierms oI exposure Io
adversIIy and paIIerns oI vuInerabIIIIy,
resIIIence and copIng.
Ior Ihese reasons Ihe ChIIdren In
AdversIIy consuIIaIIon can onIy be seen
as a IIrsI sIep In a process oI debaIe,
research and acIIon on chIId proIecIIon
Issues. The IoIIowup Io Ihe consuIIa
IIon wIII work Io IurIher IhIs process aI
many IeveIs.
II wIII, lirsIly, ensure IhaI Ihe essence oI
Ihe evenI - recognIIIon oI chIIdren's
sIrengIhs and creaIIve copIng abIIIIy
Is advanced In InIIuenIIaI InIernaIIonaI
Secondly, a reporI on Ihe consuIIaIIon
wIII be dIssemInaIed beIore Ihe UN
GeneraI AssembIy SpecIaI SessIon on
ChIIdren In SepIember 2001; regIonaI
workshops on Ihe IopIc, InIended Io
brIng IogeIher researchers and pracII
IIoners, are aIso proposed Ior 2001.
Thirdly, Ihere wIII be advocacy oI Ihe
need Ior IurIher subsIanIIaIIon oI
knowIedge abouI chIIdren's resIIIence
and copIng In adversIIy and Ior beIIer
undersIandIng oI Ihe IIves and cIrcum
sIances oI aIIecIed chIIdren, wIIh a Iocus
on age and gender dIIIerenIIaIIon. There
wIII aIso be advocacy In regard Io Ihe
need Ior sysIemaIIc evaIuaIIon oI Ihe
ImpacI oI proIecIIon InIervenIIons on
Ihe weIIbeIng oI chIIdren.
And linally, a workshop pIanned Ior
|uIy 2001 wIII expIore meIhods IhaI can
be deveIoped In Ihe acquIsIIIon oI more
eIIecIIve InIormaIIon abouI chIIdren
aIIecIed by adversIIy and Ihe ImpacIs oI
proIecIIon measures.
Or ]o de Berr) wus untI recentI) u
Reseurch 1eIIow ut the Centre ]or
ChId-1ocused AnthropoIogcuI
Reseurch ut BruneI Unverst) con-
ductng reseurch on ReconcIuton
und Rentegruton: 1ssues ]or Wur-
A]]ected ChIdren n Ugundu. 5he s
currentI) u consuItunt ]or u wur-
u]]ected chIdren's pro]ect wth
UN1CL1's RegonuI O]]ce 5outh
Asu. LmuI: ]ounnudeb@deberr)1?.
Or ]o Bo)den s u 5enor Reseurch
O]]cer ut the Re]ugee 5tudes Centre,
conductng reseurch on chIdren
u]]ected b) urmed con]Ict und
]orced mgruton, especuII) n 5outh
Lust Asu. LmuI: ]o.bo)den@qeh.ox.
1 The evenI was Iunded by: DIID, CIDA, UNICLI, The
Bernard Van Leer IoundaIIon and The Save Ihe
ChIIdren AIIIance.
2 The concepIuaI Irameworks IhaI have Iong shaped
undersIandIngs oI chIIdren's experIences oI adversIIy
Iend Io be domInaIed by assumpIIons oI medIcaI and
paIhoIogIcaI reIevance. The conIenI oI Ihese concepIs
and IheIr IImIIaIIons are dIscussed In Ihe conIerence
background paper 'ChIIdren's RIsk, ResIIIence and
CopIng In LxIreme SIIuaIIons' Boyden & Mann 2000:
ReIugees SIudIes CenIre.
3 The Inadequacy oI Ihe paradIgm oI 'Irauma' Io do
IuII jusIIce Io chIIdren's experIences oI adversIIy has
been dIscussed aI IengIh eIsewhere. See,
Ior exampIe, C PeIIy & P Bracken
KctInng tIc tnunn o Wn, 1998,
London: Save Ihe ChIIdren.
4 The ConsuIIaIIon's websIIe aIIows Ior
Ihe dIssemInaIIon oI InsIghI, resources
and crIIIque on Ihese Issues: see
International C onference on
War-Affected C hildren, Winnipeg,
September 2000.
Accounta bility in the
The dIscussIon on accounIabIIIIy In Issue
8 raIsed many InIeresIIng poInIs, noI
IeasI IhaI many IeadIng NGOs are deveI
opIng sIraIegIes Ior assessIng Ihe
eIIIcacy oI IheIr programmes In Ierms oI
IheIr advocacy and accounIabIIIIy. The
paIernaIIsIIc aIIIIude adopIed by some
aId agencIes Iowards IheIr deveIopmenI
and emergency work has Ior Ihe mosI
parI been proven ouImoded and Inap
proprIaIe. SImon HarrIs's arIIcIe
descrIbIng Ihe LIsIenIng surveys InIIIa
IIve, conducIed by OxIam GB and SCI
UK wIIh dIspIaced peopIe In SrI Lanka, Is
an IndIcaIor IhaI InnovaIIve pracIIces Io
assess accounIabIIIIy are beIng success
IuIIy and ImagInaIIveIy empIoyed.
ThIs commIImenI has been sImuIIane
ousIy reIIecIed In Ihe aIIIIudes oI Ihe
communIcaIIons deparImenIs In Ihe
Iarger NGOs. PhoIographers and wrIIers
are consIanIIy encouraged Io chaIIenge
Ihe sIereoIypes IhaI IheIr Images and
words may supporI and, Ihrough InIer
vIews, Io gIve a voIce Io peopIe who In
Ihe pasI have oIIen remaIned nameIess
Iaces In a phoIograph.
AId agencIes IIke SCI have pubIIshed
cIear guIdeIInes boIh Ior Ihe phoIogra
phers who Iake pIcIures Ior Ihem and
Ior Ihose who use Ihem, such as desIgn
ers. These guIdeIInes address a range oI
represenIaIIonaI Issues IncIudIng Ihe
mIsuse oI Images by seIecIIve croppIng
or InaccuraIe capIIonIng, IechnIques Ior
Ioo Iong empIoyed Io subverI Ihe mean
Ing oI Images. Lven beIore Ihe advenI oI
dIgIIaI manIpuIaIIon, Ihe oId adage oI
Ihe 'camera never IIes' had become an
evIdenI IaIsehood wIIh numerous exam
pIes oI manIpuIaIIon. Now wIIh Ihe
IechnIcaI abIIIIy Io aIIer Images convInc
IngIy so readIIy avaIIabIe II Is more
ImporIanI Ihan ever IhaI medIa pracII
IIoners acI responsIbIy.
SadIy IhIs aIIIIude Is noI aIways preva
IenI In Ihe maInsIream medIa where
pressures, such as deadIInes, resuII In
unsaIIsIacIory compromIses. A UK
broadsheeI pubIIshed a phoIograph I
had Iaken oI a VIeInamese reIugee
woman and chIId In a Hong Kong camp
Io accompany an arIIcIe abouI Ihe poor
IIvIng condIIIons oI IIIIpIno maIds In Ihe
Iormer coIony. AnoIher pIcIure edIIor, aI
Ihe DaIIy MIrror, whIIe vIewIng my pIc
Iures oI SomaIIa asked me Ior a Iew
prInIs Ior Ihe 'IamIne IIIe'.
II Is noI jusI Ihe broadsheeIs who can
have such a cavaIIer aIIIIude Io Images.
A reIugee group used a phoIograph I
had Iaken oI an AssyrIan ChrIsIIan
reIugee gIrI In New ZeaIand Io accompa
ny Ihe sIory oI an IranIan MusIIm gIrI In
Ihe UK. By aIIerIng Ihe eIhnIcIIy, naIIon
aIIIy, reIIgIon and counIry oI exIIe, a
dIsservIce was done Io Ihe IamIIy. OnIy
aIIer Iong dIscussIon had Ihe IamIIy
agreed Io IheIr chIIdren beIng pho
Iographed, In Ihe hope IhaI II mIghI
creaIe a beIIer awareness oI IheIr pIIghI.
OxIam encourages a responsIbIe aIIIIude
In Ihe phoIographers who documenI
IheIr deveIopmenI and emergency work.
ThIs IncIudes an undersIandIng IhaI Ihe
gaIherIng oI background InIormaIIon
and InIervIews Iakes IIme and wIII
InevIIabIy compromIse Io some degree
Ihe phoIographer's abIIIIy Io produce
Images. ThaI Is preIerabIe, however, Io
Ihe phoIographer who speaks Io no one,
IakIng phoIographs whIch have no con
IexI or background.
LasI year, IoIIowIng Ihe InIIIaI exodus oI
reIugees Irom Kosovo, I had Ihe oppor
IunIIy, Ihrough OxIam, Io documenI Ihe
IIves oI a reIugee IamIIy where Iwo oI
Ihe Ihree sons had been dIsabIed wIIh a
degeneraIIve IIIness. The chIIdren had
prevIousIy aIIended a dIsabIIIIy cenIre
whIch OxIam had supporIed Ior many
years In PrIsIIna, weII known Ior IIs radI
caI advocacy oI dIsabIIIIy rIghIs.
Through exIensIve InIervIews and over
severaI days we were abIe Io buIId up a
pIcIure (In a much IuIIer sense) oI Ihe
IamIIy's IIIe In Ihe camp, and oI some oI
Ihe parIIcuIar probIems Iaced by peopIe
wIIh dIsabIIIIIes In a reIugee crIsIs.
Lack oI accounIabIIIIy by phoIographers
and journaIIsIs can have severe reper
cussIons. On an assIgnmenI Io PakIsIan
Io cover Ihe AIghan reIugee camps, I
was warned by Ihe UNHCR press oIIIcer
oI Ihe InapproprIaIeness oI phoIograph
Ing young AIghan gIrIs. The prevIous
year, despIIe havIng been sImIIarIy
warned, a phoIojournaIIsI snaIched a
pIcIure oI a young AIghan reIugee gIrI
whIIe she was baIhIng by a rIver. The
phoIo subsequenIIy appeared on Ihe
cover oI a major news magazIne. The
IocaI MujahIdeen became aware oI Ihe
phoIograph and, wIIh Ihe name oI Ihe
camp heIpIuIIy suppIIed In Ihe capIIon,
duIy Iound Ihe gIrI and reporIedIy exe
cuIed her Ior Ihe dIsgrace she had
caused IsIam.
IaIIure Io address accounIabIIIIy may
noI aIways have such exIreme conse
quences buI Ihe Issues II raIses, wheIher
Ior Ihe journaIIsI or aId worker, remaIn
Ihe same: Issues IhaI cannoI be Ignored.
Howurd Ouves s u ]reeIunce
photo]ournuIst who hus been docu-
mentng the Ives o] re]ugees und
us)Ium seekers ]or more thun tweIve
)eurs. A webste ]euturng mun) o]
hs photogruphs cun be ]ound ut
3 7
deba te debate
In this section, Howard Davies responds to issue 8s discussion on
Accountability by highlighting questions facing media practitioners.
Ma lukus in crisis
AccordIng Io Ihe IndonesIan Red Cross,
Ihe number oI IDPs In IndonesIa drIven
Irom IheIr homes by eIhnIc and reIIgIous
conIIIcIs and separaIIsI sIruggIes has
exceeded one mIIIIon. IndonesIa Is now
In Ihe Iop IIve oI Ihe IIsI oI counIrIes
experIencIng dIspIacemenI crIses. WhIIe
Ihere are IDPs In every provInce oI Ihe
vasI archIpeIago, Ihe greaIesI sIngIe
number comes noI Irom LasI TImor buI
Irom Ihe much Iess pubIIcIzed crIsIs In
Ihe MaIukus. IndonesIa's NaIIonaI Board
oI SocIaI WeIIare esIImaIes IhaI some
220,000 peopIe have been dIspIaced
wIIhIn Ihe MaIukus. In a recenI reporI,
Ihe US CommIIIee Ior ReIugees esIImaIes
IhaI aI IeasI 3S0,000 have been dIs
pIaced wIIhIn Ihe MaIukus whIIe a
sIgnIIIcanI unknown number have
soughI reIuge eIsewhere In IndonesIa.
IormerIy known as Ihe SpIce IsIands,
Ihe MaIukus are a group oI some 1,000
IsIands In Ihe IndonesIan provInces oI
MaIuku and NorIh MaIuku. PrIor Io Ihe
ouIbreak oI conIIIcI In earIy 1999, Ihe
popuIaIIon oI abouI Iwo mIIIIon was
evenIy dIvIded beIween ChrIsIIans and
MusIIms. SImmerIng conIIIcI beIween Ihe
Iwo communIIIes has been exacerbaIed
by Ihe presence sInce AprII 2000 oI
3,000 heavIIy armed IsIamIc mIIIIanIs oI
Ihe |avabased Laskar |Ihad. The InabIII
Iy oI Ihe IndonesIan governmenI Io
prevenI whaI Ihe ChrIsIIan communIIIes
see as 'reIIgIous cIeansIng' poInIs Io Ihe
InvoIvemenI oI eIemenIs oI Ihe armed
Iorces In IueIIIng Ihe devasIaIIng com
munaI conIIIcI. PowerIuI cIvII, mIIIIary
and economIc Iorces conIInue Io use
reIIgIon Io sow dIsIrusI and Iear
beIween Ihe Iwo communIIIes.
CaIhoIIc and ProIesIanI Ieaders In Ihe
MaIukus have pIeaded Ior UN assIsIance.
IndonesIa's embaIIIed PresIdenI WahId
has acknowIedged Ihe severIIy oI Ihe crI
sIs In Ihe MaIukus and accepIed
InIernaIIonaI aId buI has adamanIIy
rejecIed Ihe possIbIIIIy oI a IoreIgn
peacekeepIng Iorce Io queII Ihe vIoIence.
The securIIy sIIuaIIon In Ihe MaIukus
has hIndered eIIorIs Io geI assIsIance Io
Ihe dIspIaced and has caused some
InIernaIIonaI agencIes Io suspend opera
IIons. The ouIgoIng UNHCR chIeI Sadako
OgaIa has saId she Is "very IrIghIened"
aI Ihe prospecIs oI IurIher massIve
desIabIIIzaIIon and dIspIacemenI In Ihe
MaIukus and eIsewhere In IndonesIa.
Ior IurIher InIormaIIon, see Ihe reporI oI Ihe US
CommIIIee Ior ReIugees aI www.reIugees.org/worId/
Da mning repor t
The WorId CommIssIon on Dams was
esIabIIshed In 1997 aIIer Ihe WorId Bank
convened a meeIIng oI governmenIs, Ihe
prIvaIe secIor, InIernaIIonaI IInancIaI
InsIIIuIIons, envIronmenIaIIsIs and rep
resenIaIIves oI damInduced IDPs. The
CommIssIon's reporI, recenIIy InIro
duced by NeIson MandeIa aI a London
conIerence, puIIs no punches: mosI oI
Ihe 4S,000 Iarge dams In Ihe worId have
cosI Ioo much, were IaIe, damaged Ihe
poor and have IaIIed Io provIde aII Ihe
eIecIrIcIIy and waIer Ior IrrIgaIIon
cIaImed by IheIr pIanners. WhIIe WesIern
consIrucIIon companIes have gaIned bII
IIons oI pounds worIh oI busIness paId
Ior by aId agencIes, consIrucIIon oI
dams has greaIIy added Io Ihe debI oI
some oI Ihe pooresI counIrIes. The
reporI debunks Ihe argumenI IhaI
hydropower Is necessarIIy 'green';
because oI decayIng vegeIaIIon, many
dams produce as much greenhouse gas
as generaIIng eIecIrIcIIy wIIh IossII IueIs.
WhIIe recognIzIng IhaI many dams have
produced beneIIIs, Ihe CommIssIon
Iound IhaI "In Ioo many cases an unac
cepIabIe and oIIen unnecessary prIce
has been paId Io secure Ihose beneIIIs,
especIaIIy In socIaI and envIronmenIaI
Ierms, by peopIe dIspIaced, by communI
IIes downsIream, by Iaxpayers and by
Ihe naIuraI envIronmenI".
The CommIssIon esIImaIes IhaI Ihe
number oI peopIe dIspIaced by dams Is
beIween 40 mIIIIon and 80 mIIIIon, mosI
oI Ihem In ChIna and IndIa. The reporI
urges exporI credII guaranIee deparI
menIs noI Io supporI any IurIher dam
projecIs beIore obIaInIng prIor consenI
oI Ihose aIIecIed and reachIng agree
menI on compensaIIon schemes.
The IuII reporI (wIIh summarIes In severaI Ianguages)
Is avaIIabIe aI: www.damsreporI.org. IurIher InIorma
IIon on dams Is aI www.dams.org and www.Irn.org
Interna tiona l community neglects
unfolding emergency in
Afgha nista n
By Ihe end oI Ihe 1980s, conIIIcI In
AIghanIsIan had produced Ihe worId's
IargesI ever sIngIe reIugee caseIoad, aI
IImes as hIgh as 6.2 mIIIIon persons.
More Ihan a decade aIIer repaIrIaIIon Io
AIghanIsIan began, Ihere are sIIII some
2.6 mIIIIon AIghan reIugees In PakIsIan
and Iran. Huge numbers oI peopIe dIs
pIaced by recenI TaIIban mIIIIary
successes and Ihe unprecedenIed
droughI aIIIIcIIng AIghanIsIan are IryIng
Io IIee Ihe counIry aI a IIme when
AIghanIsIan's neIghbours are bIIIerIy
resenIIuI aI havIng Io share Ihe huge
reIugee burden wIIhouI suIIIcIenI sup
porI Irom Ihe InIernaIIonaI communIIy.
UNHCR puIs Ihe IoIaI number oI AIghan
reIugees In Iran aI 1.4 mIIIIon. IranIan
pubIIc opInIon, IueIIed by medIa repre
senIaIIons oI AIghans as crImInaIs and
smuggIers, Is IncreasIngIy hosIIIe Io
IheIr presence. In SepIember 1999, Ihe
IranIan parIIamenI passed IegIsIaIIon
orderIng IheIr compIeIe removaI Irom
Ihe counIry by March 2001. More Ihan
1S0,000 AIghan reIugees have been senI
home Irom Iran sInce AprII 2000 under a
'voIunIary repaIrIaIIon programme'
joInIIy ImpIemenIed by Ihe IranIan
governmenI and UNHCR. 70 per cenI oI
Ihem have been eIhnIc TajIks.
3 8


up d a te
3 9
Iran's repaIrIaIIon programme Is conIro
versIaI. A desperaIe shorIage oI Iunds
caused by donor negIecI has Iorced
UNHCR Io cuI Ihe repaIrIaIIon granI
Irom USS40 Io USS20 per IamIIy. Some
reIugee groups have condemned Ihe
programme as 'eIhnIc cIeansIng' and
'IorcIbIe deporIaIIons'. Young women
who have been abIe Io access educaIIon
In Iran Iear Ior IheIr IuIure In
AIghanIsIan where IemaIe educaIIon has
ceased under TaIIban ruIe. MedecIns
sans IronIIeres has sIaIed IhaI "AIghan
reIugees cannoI reIurn home In saIeIy
and dIgnIIy" because oI Ihe droughI,
ongoIng IIghIIng In AIghanIsIan, Ihe
massIve IeveI oI InIernaI dIspIacemenI
and ouIbreaks oI dIsease.
UNHCR's esIImaIe IhaI Ihere are 1.2 mII
IIon AIghan reIugees In PakIsIan Is
dIspuIed by Ihe PakIsIanI governmenI
whIch cIIes a IIgure oI 2 mIIIIon.
UNHCR's reIaIIons wIIh PakIsIan have
been sIraIned by PakIsIan's decIsIon In
earIy November Io cIose Ihe AIghan
PakIsIan border. The PakIsIanI move
came In response Io Ihe arrIvaI aI IIs
border oI Ihousands oI IamIIIes Irom
AIghanIsIan's nonPashIun mInorIIIes
IIeeIng recenI IIghIIng In norIheasIern
AIghanIsIan. PakIsIan has denIed
charges IhaI IIs acIIons are eIhnIcaIIy
moIIvaIed and IhaI II Is surrepIIIIousIy
aIIowIng PashIun speakers Io conIInue
Io cross Ihe border. UN CoordInaIor Ior
AIghanIsIan LrIck de MuI has expressed
concern abouI Ihe mInorIIIes who mIghI
be denIed IheIr rIghI Io asyIum as a
resuII oI Ihe cIosure.
TajIkIsIan, aIIhough a sIgnaIory (unIIke
PakIsIan) Io Ihe UN ConvenIIon on Ihe
SIaIus oI ReIugees, has aIso cIosed IIs
border In order Io bIock Ihe enIry oI an
esIImaIed 200,000 IDPs eIIher camped
aIong IIs IronIIer or aIIempIIng Io
reach II.
UNHCR, Ihe anIITaIIban aIIIance and
Human RIghIs WaIch are among Ihose
urgIng PakIsIan and TajIkIsIan Io
reopen borders amIdsI concerns IhaI
Ihe cIosures wIII exacerbaIe Ihe suIIer
Ing oI Ihe vIcIIms oI Ihe conIIIcI In Ihe
mIdsI oI wInIer and Ihe worsI droughI
In memory.
On a vIsII Io Ihe regIon In OcIober, ouI
goIng UNHCR head Sadako OgaIa
sympaIhIzed wIIh IranIan and PakIsIanI
resenImenI aI havIng Io bear Ihe conse
quences oI hosIIng a reIugee popuIaIIon
IncreasIngIy negIecIed by Ihe InIerna
IIonaI communIIy. OgaIa couId do IIIIIe
excepI commIseraIe as InIernaIIonaI
donaIIons Io AIghan reIugees have vIrIu
aIIy drIed up. PakIsIanI caIIs Ior UNHCR
Io reseIIIe reIugees In camps InsIde
AIghanIsIan and TaIIban demands Ior
urgenI UN assIsIance come agaInsI a
backdrop oI a nIggardIy InIernaIIonaI
response Io Ihe crIsIs. The WorId Iood
Programme esIImaIes IhaI beIween haII
and IhreequarIers oI Ihe counIry's 22
mIIIIon peopIe are suIIerIng Ihe eIIecIs
oI droughI and IhaI up Io one mIIIIon
AIghans couId sIarve Io deaIh unIess
emergency sIeps are Iaken. UNHCR
soughI S43m Ior IIs year 2000 pro
grammes In AIghanIsIan, PakIsIan and
Iran buI has so Iar receIved onIy haII Ihe
money. Ior every S200 donaIed Ior each
reIugee In Ihe BaIkans, jusI S20 Is gIven
Ior each AIghan reIugee.
Ior onIIne InIormaIIon, see our exIensIve seI oI
AIghanIsIan IInks aI www.ImrevIew.org/3IInks
Rea ngs
3S,000 members oI Ihe Reang IrIbaI
group Irom Ihe norIheasIern IndIan
sIaIe oI MIzoram have been IanguIshIng
In mIserabIe condIIIons In camps In Ihe
neIghbourIng sIaIe oI TrIpura sInce
beIng dIspIaced In OcIober 1997.
SuppIIes oI Iood and medIcaI assIsIance
are InadequaIe. S00 Reang dIed oI
choIera In Ihe TrIpura camps In 1998.
ConIIIcI came Io a head when Ihe
Reangs, an IndIgenous and predomInanI
Iy HIndu communIIy oI some 8S,000
peopIe, sIarIed campaIgnIng Ior Ihe cre
aIIon oI an AuIonomous DIsIrIcI CouncII
(ADC). Leaders oI Ihe mIIIIanI Bru
NaIIonaI UnIon poInI ouI IhaI smaIIer
IrIbaI groups In MIzoram have ADCs oI
IheIr own and IhaI Ihe Reangs, by vIrIue
oI IheIr sIaIus as a 'backward' IrIbaI
group, have a consIIIuIIonaI rIghI Io ruIe
Reang demands Ior auIonomy are
opposed by Ihe MIzos, an educaIed and
predomInanIIy ChrIsIIan communIIy,
who have ruIed Ihe sIaIe oI MIzoram
sInce IIs creaIIon In 1986. The MIzos
have soughI Io maInIaIn IheIr domI
nance oI Ihe smaII sIaIe Ihey IoughI
hard Io esIabIIsh and Iear IhaI aIIowIng
Ihe Reangs an ADC wouId uIIImaIeIy
Iead Io Ihe IragmenIaIIon oI Ihe sIaIe oI
MIzoram. MIzo auIhorIIIes rouIIneIy
brand Reang and oIher mInorIIy IrIbaI
groups as ouIsIders and deIegIIImIze
IheIr cIaIms by deIeIIon oI names Irom
Ihe voIers' IIsI and quesIIonIng oI cen
sus records. MIzoram auIhorIIIes deny
supporIIng Ihe MIzo sIudenI exIremIsIs
whose vIoIenI reIaIIaIIon aIIer Ihe deaIh
oI a MIzo IoresI guard creaIed Ihe cII
maIe oI Iear whIch drove Ihe Reangs
Irom IheIr homes In 1997.
Ior Ihree years Ihe MIzoram auIhorIIIes
have noI acIed upon demands by boIh
Ihe cenIraI governmenI and Ihe NaIIonaI
Human RIghIs CommIssIon (NHRC) Io
aIIow Ihe reIurn oI dIspIaced Reangs Io
IheIr homes. The NHRC, Ihe sIaIe gov
ernmenIs oI MIzoram and TrIpura and
Ihe cenIraI governmenI have agreed a
IImeIabIe Ior Ihe compIeIe repaIrIaIIon
oI Reangs by Ihe end oI 2000. II remaIns
Io be seen wheIher Ihere Is suIIIcIenI
poIIIIcaI wIII Io end Ihe suIIerIng oI Ihe
UN a dopts resolution on the
detention of a sylum seekers
by BreI ThIeIe
A number oI SIaIes, parIIcuIarIy In NorIh
AmerIca, WesIern Lurope and AusIraIIa,
have Imposed poIIcIes whereby persons
seekIng asyIum are deIaIned, oIIen
IndeIInIIeIy. These poIIcIes are osIensI
bIy Ior Ihe purpose oI conIroIIIng Ihe
movemenI oI asyIum seekers; however,
Ihey may aIso InhIbII persons Irom Iodg
Ing or pursuIng IheIr asyIum cIaIms, or
Induce Ihem Io abandon IheIr cIaIms,
parIIcuIarIy II deIenIIon Is proIonged
and condIIIons poor. IurIhermore,
deIenIIon poIIcIes may acIuaIIy be
desIgned Io dIscourage asyIum seekers
Irom seekIng reIuge In cerIaIn counIrIes.
4 0
RegardIess oI Ihe Irue purpose oI such
poIIcIes, Ihe deIenIIon oI asyIum seekers
raIses a number oI serIous human rIghIs
AI IIs S2nd sessIon, In AugusI 2000, Ihe
UN SubCommIssIon on Ihe PromoIIon
and ProIecIIon oI Human RIghIs
expressed IIs concern IhaI "cerIaIn
deIenIIon pracIIces and poIIcIes may vIo
IaIe InIernaIIonaI human rIghIs
prIncIpIes, sIandards, and norms." In
consIderIng resoIuIIon 2000/21 on Ihe
deIenIIon oI asyIum seekers (UN Doc.
L/CN.4/Sub.2/RLS/2000/21), whIch II
IaIer adopIed, Ihe SubCommIssIon dIs
cussed Ihe roIe oI Ihe UNHCR GuIdeIInes
on appIIcabIe CrIIerIa and SIandards
reIaIIng Io Ihe DeIenIIon oI AsyIum
Seekers whIch were adopIed In 1999.
The GuIdeIInes oIIer a cIear arIIcuIaIIon
oI Ihe mInImum sIandards regardIng Ihe
deIenIIon oI asyIum seekers IhaI SIaIes
musI IoIIow In order Io compIy wIIh
IheIr respecIIve InIernaIIonaI IegaI obIIg
aIIons. IorIunaIeIy, supporI Ior Ihe
GuIdeIInes uIIImaIeIy Iound IIs way InIo
Ihe resoIuIIon, In whIch Ihe Sub
CommIssIon "sIrenuousIy urged SIaIes
IhaI have noI aIready done so Io abIde
by Ihe GuIdeIInes" and oIher InIernaIIon
aI sIandards.
As Ihe UNHCR GuIdeIInes sIaIe, under
InIernaIIonaI Iaw, deIenIIon oI asyIum
seekers shouId be used onIy In excep
IIonaI and sIrIcIIy IImIIed cIrcumsIances,
and even Ihen onIy on a casebycase
basIs. II deIenIIon Is deemed approprIaIe
and In accordance wIIh Ihe GuIdeIInes
and InIernaIIonaI Iaw, II musI be under
humane condIIIons and separaIe Irom
Ihose IacIIIIIes used Io IncarceraIe per
sons convIcIed oI crImInaI oIIences.
AIIernaIIves Io deIenIIon are avaIIabIe
and shouId be uIIIIzed. These IncIude
varIous monIIorIng mechanIsms such as
reguIar reporIIng, Ihe provIsIon oI a
guaranIor or sureIy, reIease on reason
abIe baII, and Ihe use oI 'open cenIres'
where asyIum seekers are housed buI
aIIowed Io Ieave durIng Ihe day. These
aIIernaIIves musI be made parI oI any
asyIum process In order Io ensure IhaI
deIenIIon compIIes wIIh InIernaIIonaI
Iaw by beIng uIIIIzed onIy In excepIIonaI
and IImIIed cIrcumsIances.
IurIhermore, SIaIes musI Iry Io avoId
deIaInIng vuInerabIe persons such as
chIIdren, IorIure vIcIIms, eIderIy persons
and persons wIIh dIsabIIIIIes. In Ihe
evenI IhaI such persons musI be
deIaIned, Ihey shouId be heId In cIrcum
sIances In whIch IheIr parIIcuIar needs
are respecIed. In addIIIon, IamIIy mem
bers shouId noI be separaIed durIng
deIenIIon. II asyIum seekers musI be
deIaIned, Ihey musI be aIIowed adequaIe
opporIunIIIes Io communIcaIe wIIh and
receIve vIsIIs by IegaI counseI and IamIIy
members, access Io necessary IegaI and
reIaIed Iorms and documenIs, and InIor
maIIon In a Ianguage Ihey undersIand.
The adopIIon oI resoIuIIon 2000/21 by
Ihe SubCommIssIon hIghIIghIs Ihe vaIue
and necessIIy oI Ihe UNHCR GuIdeIInes
on appIIcabIe CrIIerIa and SIandards
reIaIIng Io Ihe DeIenIIon oI AsyIum
Seekers. The IexI oI Ihe GuIdeIInes can
be vIewed aI: www.unhcr.ch/Issues/asy
BreI ThIeIe Is LegaI OIIIcer wIIh Ihe Genevabased
CenIre on HousIng RIghIs and LvIcIIons and a human
rIghIs consuIIanI. LmaII: BreIThIeIeJyahoo.com.
Appointment of the UN Specia l
Coordina tor of the Senior Inter-
Agency N etw ork on Interna l
Displa cement
The InIerAgency SIandIng CommIIIee
(IASC) agreed In 2000 IhaI Ihere shouId
be Increased eIIorIs by aII concerned
agencIes and governmenIs Io brIng
abouI concreIe ImprovemenIs In Ihe
deIIvery oI assIsIance and proIecIIon Io
InIernaIIy dIspIaced popuIaIIons aI Ihe
IIeId IeveI. To IhIs end, Ihe IASC agreed
IhaI a SenIor InIerAgency NeIwork
wouId be esIabIIshed Io carry ouI
revIews oI seIecIed counIrIes and Io
make proposaIs Ior an Improved
InIeragency response Io IheIr needs.
DennIs McNamara has been appoInIed as
UN SpecIaI CoordInaIor on InIernaI
DIspIacemenI wIIhIn OCHA In order Io
head IhIs InIeragency revIew process Ior
an InIIIaI perIod.
In addIIIon Io Ihe InvoIvemenI oI UN
humanIIarIan and human rIghIs organI
zaIIons and Ihe specIaI roIe wIIhIn Ihe
NeIwork oI Ihe RepresenIaIIve oI Ihe
SecreIaryGeneraI on IDPs (IrancIs Deng),
Ihe SpecIaI CoordInaIor wIII IIaIse cIoseIy
wIIh Ihe Red Cross/Red CrescenI
MovemenI and Ihe Iarge number oI
NGOs, boIh InIernaIIonaI and IocaI, who
are InvoIved wIIh IhIs Issue. He wIII
underIake reguIar brIeIIngs oI govern
menIs IhroughouI Ihe process; hosI
SIaIes - and In some cases, nonSIaIe
acIors - wIII aIso be cIoseIy consuIIed,
noI IeasI regardIng IheIr prImary respon
sIbIIIIy Ior Ihe proIecIIon and assIsIance
needs oI dIspIaced popuIaIIons wIIhIn
IheIr IerrIIorIes.
The maIn objecIIves oI Ihe counIry
revIews are: IIrsIIy, Io assess - wIIh Ihe
UN counIry Ieam - currenI eIIorIs Io
provIde proIecIIon and assIsIance Io
InIernaIIy dIspIaced popuIaIIons and Io
IdenIIIy any areas where Ihe currenI
response may noI be adequaIe, whaI
mIghI be done Io address such gaps, and
who mIghI do II; and, secondIy, Io make
IongerIerm recommendaIIons Ior
IoIIowup arrangemenIs, as weII as pro
posaIs Ior revIsed InIeragency
approaches Io sIrengIhen Ihe IuIure
PrIorIIy counIrIes proposed Io be
revIewed IncIude AngoIa, BurundI,
CoIombIa, LIhIopIa and LrIIrea, and
IndonesIa. The IIrsI oI Ihese mIssIons, Io
LrIIrea and LIhIopIa, was underIaken In
OcIober 2000. A mIssIon Io BurundI Is
scheduIed Ior IaIe December 2000. The
revIew mIssIons wIII maInIaIn a hIghIy
operaIIonaI Iocus and wIII assess Ihe sII
uaIIon wIIhIn Ihe overaII Iramework
provIded by Ihe GuIdIng PrIncIpIes on
InIernaI DIspIacemenI. The proIecIIon oI
IDPs, IncIudIng parIIcuIar caIegorIes
such as women and chIIdren, wIII receIve
as much aIIenIIon as Ihe provIsIon oI
Ior more deIaIIs, Mr McNamara's oIIIce can be con
IacIed aI: +41 22 917 3111.
Forced Migra tion discussion list
The Iorced MIgraIIon dIscussIon IIsI
aIms Io encourage greaIer exchange oI
InIormaIIon and Io promoIe dIscussIon
on Issues surroundIng
reIugees and InIernaI dIspIace
menI. II currenIIy has 470
members, Irom some 40 dII
IerenI counIrIes. The IIsI Is
moderaIed by LIIsa Mason,
InIormaIIon OIIIcer Ior Ihe
Iorced MIgraIIon PorIaI ProjecI
aI Ihe ReIugee SIudIes CenIre.
To :uL:cLc, ntcc:tcd u:c:
cnn :n) \:t tIc :t': Ionc-
ngc nt \\\.]:cnn.nc.u,:t:,
occd-ngnton.Itn nnd cc on tIc
']on o cn\c' oton. An ncI\c o c-
\ou: o:tng: : n:o n\nnLc tIougI
tIc Ioncngc.
La test RSC Working Pa per
Relugees on Screen
by Terence WrIghI
See PubIIcaIIons secIIon (p46) Ior deIaIIs
or vIsII www.qeh.ox.ac.uk/rsp/maIn
The La w of Refugee Sta tus
Weekend workshop: 19 - 20 May 2001
A comprehensIve workshop on Ihe scope
oI Ihe reIugee deIInIIIon whIch gIves par
IIcIpanIs Ihe opporIunIIy Io grappIe wIIh
dIIIIcuII Issues oI appIIcaIIon oI Ihe IegaI
norms In Ihe conIexI oI IacIuaI scenarIo
based on acIuaI reIugee cIaIms.
InsIrucIor: ProIessor |ames C HaIhaway,
DIrecIor oI Ihe Program In ReIugee and
AsyIum Law aI Ihe UnIversIIy oI
MIchIgan Law SchooI and auIhor oI TIc
In\ o Kcugcc 5tntu: (1991) and edIIor
oI Kcconcc\ng Intcnntonn Kcugcc
In\ (1997). SoIIcIIors aIIendIng Ihe
course can cIaIm CPD hours.
lee: 1120 (IncIudIng course maIerIaIs
and Iunches)
IutIc nonnton nnd ncnton
on: on: \\\.qcI.ox.nc.u,:c,
o contnct Ionnquc Attnn nt: Kcugcc
5tudc: Ccntc, IH, 21 5t Cc:,
Oxod OX1 3IA, UI.
Tc: +44 /)1U5 27272.
Inx: +44 /)1U5 27721.
Inn: :cn:tqcI.ox.nc.u
4 1
www.qeh.ox.ac.uk/ rsc
Kcugcc 5tudc: Ccntc,
uccn IznLctI Hou:c,
21 5t Cc:, Oxod OX1 3IA, UI.
Tc: +44 /)1U5 27722.
Inx: +44 /)1U5 27721.
Inn: :cqcI.ox.nc.u
Da vid Tur ton retires
DavId TurIon reIIres as DIrecIor oI Ihe
ReIugee SIudIes CenIre aI Ihe end oI
December 2000. He wIII be reIurnIng Io
hIs anIhropoIogIcaI
research and wrIIIng on
Ihe MursI oI souIh
wesIern LIhIopIa and
spendIng more IIme
wIIh hIs IamIIy. In Ihe
ImmedIaIe IuIure
(|anuary and Iebruary
2001), he wIII be In
LIhIopIa Io make a IIIm
on Ihe MursI, deaIIng,
among oIher IhIngs,
wIIh Ihe Irade In smaII arms. The IIIm
wIII be shown In Ihe UK's ChanneI 4
serIes 'True SIorIes' In May 2001.
Interna tiona l Summer School in
Forced Migra tion 2 0 0 1
2 - 2 0 July 2 0 0 1
IuIIy Iunded schoIarshIps are avaIIabIe
Ior naIIonaIs Irom SouIh AIrIca,
NamIbIa, ZImbabwe, MozambIque,
LIhIopIa, Kenya, Uganda and TanzanIa.
ThIs Ihreeweek resIdenIIaI course pro
vIdes a broad undersIandIng oI Ihe
Issues oI Iorced mIgraIIon and humanI
IarIan assIsIance; parIIcIpanIs examIne,
dIscuss and revIew Iheory and pracIIce.
DesIgned Ior managers, admInIsIraIors,
IIeId workers and poIIcy makers In
humanIIarIan IIeIds. InvoIves IecIures
and semInars by InIernaIIonaI experIs,
smaII group work, case sIudIes, exercIs
es, sImuIaIIons and IndIvIduaI sIudy.
The course Is heId aI Wadham CoIIege
In Ihe hearI oI OxIord. Course Iees:
12,2S0 (IncI B&B accommodaIIon In
Wadham CoIIege, weekday Iunches,
IuIIIon Iees, course maIerIaIs, socIaI
acIIvIIIes). CIosIng daIe Ior appIIcaIIons
Ior bursarIes: 1S March 2001; cIosIng
daIe Ior appIIcaIIons Ior pIaces: 1 May
Contnct tIc I55 Adnn:tnto nt
tIc K5C. Tc: +44 /)1U5 27723.
Inn: :unnc.:cIooqcI.ox.nc.u
Addc:: nt to o ngc.
Ioccd Mgnton Kc\c\ Is Iunded maInIy by granIs Irom InsIIIuIIons and
agencIes InvoIved In deveIopmenI and humanIIarIan work. We wouId IIke
Io Ihank Ihe IoIIowIng organIzaIIons Ior IheIr commIImenI Io Ioccd
Mgnton Kc\c\ In 2000 and 2001:
DanIsh ReIugee CouncII
Luropean CommIssIon
LuIheran WorId IederaIIon
NorwegIan ReIugee CouncII
OxIam GB
The Iord IoundaIIon, CaIro OIIIce
SpecIaI Ihanks Io UNICLI Ior IheIr
sponsorshIp oI IhIs Issue on
Gender and DIspIacemenI.
4 2
he ReIugee ConsorIIum oI Kenya
(RCK) aIIended IIs IIrsI LxCom
meeIIngs In Geneva In SepIember
2000. LxCom was a grand and IormaI
aIIaIr, provIdIng a gIobaI perspecIIve on
Ihe reIugee sIIuaIIon. II was heIpIuI Ior
an organIzaIIon such as ours, Irom Ihe
SouIh, Io know whaI major pIayers are
doIng and especIaIIy Io hear IheIr
response Io AIrIcan reIugee concerns.
II aIso aIIowed us Io underIake advocacy
Ior reIugees In Kenya and Ihe LasIern
AIrIca regIon, as weII as Io exIend our
neIwork and IInkage wIIh oIher NGOs In
sImIIar work.
However, whIIe we acknowIedge IhaI
consuIIaIIons such as Ihese are neces
sary Ior raIsIng InIernaIIonaI awareness
oI reIugee sIIuaIIons and Ior mobIIIzIng
supporI boIh In IInancIaI and human
resources/experIIse, we aIso IeeI IhaI
more needs Io be done In IransIaIIng Ihe
goodwIII expressed In such Iora InIo
pracIIcaI soIuIIons.
Irom a SouIhern NGO perspecIIve, Iwo
Issues sIand ouI Ior us, nameIy: I) Ihe
Iack oI adequaIe represenIaIIon oI
SouIhern InIeresIs aI Ihese consuIIaIIons
and II) Ihe InconsIsIency beIween pro
nouncemenIs and acIIons.
i) Lack ol represenIaIion ol Ihe SouIh
GIven IhaI AIrIca produces and hosIs
sIgnIIIcanI numbers oI reIugees, Ihere Is
a worryIng Iack oI adequaIe represenIa
IIon oI IhIs parI oI Ihe worId aI LxCom.
When dIscussIng major Issues such as
proIecIIon chaIIenges currenIIy IacIng
UNHCR or when proposIng recommenda
IIons Io deIend Ihe rIghIs oI reIugees
wIIhIn Ihe conIexI oI IncreasIngIy vIoIenI
sIIuaIIons, Ihe SouIhern perspecIIve Is
crucIaI. ChaIIenges Io asyIum quesIIons
boIh oI access and quaIIIy Is aIso a
serIous Issue aIIecIIng AIrIcan reIugees,
and Ihe consIraInIs experIenced by Ihe
SouIh In gIvIng asyIum Io Ihose seekIng
reIuge and proIecIIon musI aIso be
Iaken on board.
LxCom seeks Io expIore ways oI Increas
Ing compIemenIarIIIes beIween NGOs
and UNHCR In Ihe IIeId buI IhIs cannoI
be achIeved wIIhouI Ihe InvoIvemenI oI
Ihose In Ihe IoreIronI. More needs Io be
done In concreIe Ierms Io secure Ihe
parIIcIpaIIon and InvoIvemenI oI Ihe
SouIh. The annuaI LxCom meeIIngs are
noI adequaIeIy adverIIsed In Ihe regIons
and In Ihe IIeId; SouIhern NGOs are noI
IuIIy aware oI Ihe reIevance oI Ihe
LxCom and parIIcIpaIIon Is IhereIore
Iow. In addIIIon, SouIhern NGOs IInd II
dIIIIcuII Io aIIend such consuIIaIIons,
parIIy because oI Iack oI IundIng. A
more concerIed eIIorI musI be made
boIh Io adverIIse LxCom more wIdeIy In
Ihe SouIh and Io assIsI SouIhern NGOs
Io aIIend by makIng approprIaIe IundIng
ii) lnconsisIency beIween pronounce-
menIs and acIions.
The Iheme oI Ihe LxCom ConsuIIaIIons
In SepIember 2000 was 'UNHCR aI S0:
Irom Response Io SoIuIIons'. A revIew oI
UNHCR sInce IIs IncepIIon IndIcaIes a
mIxed pIcIure oI successes and Inade
quacIes. We are weII aware IhaI Ihe
chaIIenges IacIng UNHCR are Immense.
IIs budgeIary aIIocaIIons are InsuIIIcIenI;
some governmenIs do noI cooperaIe;
and IheIr sIaII are IncreasIngIy IargeIed
In sIrIIeIorn areas. As an NGO Irom Ihe
SouIh, II aIso hardIy escapes our knowI
edge, however, IhaI assIsIance Ior
reIugees In Ihe SouIh Is noI comparabIe
Io IhaI oIIered Io reIugees In Lurope.
The quaIIIy oI reIugee care, assIsIance
and proIecIIon varIes Irom Ihe NorIh Io
Ihe SouIh. In Ihe SouIh, access Io sheI
Ier, basIc rIghIs, Iood, reseIIIemenI as a
durabIe soIuIIon and proIecIIon Is
InadequaIe, and many reIugees, espe
cIaIIy Ihose In desIgnaIed proIecIed
areas (Ie camps), Iace a daIIy regIme oI
rape, abducIIon and murder, whIIe we
hear IIIIIe denuncIaIIon by UNHCR oI
such acIs.
ReIugees Ihe worId over Iace Ihe same
probIems oI dIspIacemenI, Irauma and
Ioss oI IIveIIhood, dIgnIIy and Ioved
ones; why Ihen Is Ihe suIIerIng and
paIn oI one parIIcuIar group more
deservIng oI aIIenIIon and assIsIance
Ihan Ihe oIher7
Over Ihe years, LxCom dIscussIons have
aIways Iocused on how Io IurIher Ihe
proIecIIon oI reIugee rIghIs. ResuIIs on
Ihe ground, however, do noI IavourabIy
reIIecI Ihe recommendaIIons made.
WhIIe we seem Io be aware oI Ihe Issues,
conf er ences
a Southern view
ExC om 2000

4 3
Interna tiona l Conference on
Refugee Women Fleeing Gender-
Ba sed Persecution
46 May 2001: MonIreaI
The CanadIan CouncII Ior ReIugees wIII
be hosIIng an InIernaIIonaI conIerence
brIngIng IogeIher some 200 parIIcI
panIs: reIugee women, reIugee rIghIs
groups, reIugee decIsIon makers, acade
mIcs, governmenI represenIaIIves,
UNHCR and oIhers InIeresIed In ensur
Ing IhaI women IIeeIng genderbased
persecuIIon receIve proIecIIon. SpecIaI
eIIorIs wIII be made Io ensure IhaI
Ihere Is parIIcIpaIIon Irom aII regIons
oI Ihe worId (and noI jusI Irom WesIern
counIrIes). The goaIs oI Ihe conIerence
wIII be Io Increase awareness abouI gen
derbased reIugee cIaIms, Io deveIop
sIraIegIes Io promoIe recognIIIon oI
genderbased reIugee cIaIms and Io
sIrengIhen neIworkIng InIernaIIonaIIy
among Ihose workIng on Ihese goaIs.
In preparaIIon Ior Ihe conIerence, Ihe
CCR has creaIed a neIwork oI over 120
IndIvIduaIs and organIzaIIons InIeresIed
In Ihe Issue, communIcaIIng by emaII.
To joIn Ihe neIwork, emaII AIsaneh
HojabrI aI ahojabrIJIoIaI.neI.
RegIsIraIIon Iee: S1S0 Ior NGOs and
S200 Ior governmenI and InIergovern
menIaI organIzaIIons (CanadIan doIIars).
Where Ihe Iee wouId presenI a barrIer
Io parIIcIpaIIon, II can be reduced or
waIved. Some IraveI subsIdIes avaIIabIe.
Io noc nonnton on tIc nct\o
nnd conccncc, \:t \\\.\cL.nct,~cc,
gcndc:.Itn o contnct A:nncI
Ho]nL nt: CCK, U3 Ioct #32,
Montcn, ucLcc, H25 2T1, Cnnndn.
Tc: +514 277 7223. Inx: +514 277
1447. Inn: nIo]nLtotn.nct.
Please reIurn lorm Io:
lMR SubscripIions, RSC, Queen ElizabeIh House,
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lree (IranslaIion)
SpanIsh edIIIon
ArabIc edIIIon
SubscrIpIIons run Ior one
caIendar year. SpanIsh and ArabIc
IransIaIIons: lREE oI charge.
for thcoming
eIIecIIve ImpIemenIaIIon oI Ihese recom
mendaIIons Is noI readIIy evIdenI.
The IIme has come Ior UNHCR and oIher
reIevanI auIhorIIIes Io Iake acIIon Io cor
recI Ihese ImbaIances and Io be seen Io
acI on Ihese Issues and concerns, In
order Io make LxCom 2001 a more pro
ducIIve and IruIIIuI experIence.
Kcugcc Con:otun o Icn)n
Contnct: KCI, IO ox 2534, In\ngton,
NnoL, Icn)n.
Tc,Inx: +254 2 5U41
Inn: cconconncct.co.c
he GIobaI IDP ProjecI can Iook
back aI a very busy and produc
IIve year durIng whIch InIernaI
dIspIacemenI has IeaIured hIgh on Ihe
humanIIarIan agenda. The InIernaIIonaI
debaIe whIch IoIIowed UN Ambassador
HoIbrooke's sIaIemenI Io Ihe SecurIIy
CouncII In |anuary 2000 generaIed sub
sIanIIaI InIeresI In Ihe pIIghI oI Ihe
InIernaIIy dIspIaced. As a resuII oI Ihe
ProjecI's IongsIandIng roIe In promoIIng
an Improved InIernaIIonaI response, we
were weII pIaced Io saIIsIy Ihe subse
quenI IncreasIng demand Ior InIorma
IIon and IraInIng on InIernaI
SInce IIs Iaunch In 1998, Ihe GIobaI IDP
DaIabase has become Ihe worId's cenIraI
InIormaIIon source on InIernaI dIspIace
menI. By Ihe begInnIng oI 2001, Ihe
daIabase wIII IncIude 30 proIIIes oI
counIrIes wIIh ongoIng InIernaI dIspIace
menI, and we aIm Io Increase counIry
coverage Io SS proIIIes by |une 2001.
The daIabase wIII Ihen be In a posIIIon
Io acIIveIy cover all conIIIcIInduced
dIspIacemenI sIIuaIIons. The daIabase Is
servIng a Iarge audIence. II Is aIso Ihe
oIIIcIaI source oI InIormaIIon Ior Ihe
SenIor InIerAgency NeIwork on InIernaI
DIspIacemenI aI whIch NRC serves as
ICVA's NGO IocaI poInI. OIher servIces
IncIude IraInIng maIerIaIs, IhemaIIc
InIormaIIon and useIuI IInks, whIch we
hope conIrIbuIe Io Ihe useIuIness oI Ihe
In 2001, NRC wIII expand IIs servIces Io
IncIude an expanded news page on
InIernaI dIspIacemenI and dIssemInaIIon
oI InIormaIIon Irom Ihe daIabase In dII
IerenI IormaIs Ior Ihose wIIhouI InIerneI
connecIIon (Ie CD Rom and hard copIes
oI counIry proIIIe summarIes). The Ieed
back we have receIved so Iar Irom
varIous user groups such as Ihe UN,
NGOs, governmenIs, research InsIIIu
IIons and sIudenIs, reIIecIed In Ihe
growIng number oI vIsIIors, conIIrms
IhaI Ihe GIobaI IDP DaIabase Is IIIIIng a
crucIaI InIormaIIon gap. The daIabase
aIso IuncIIons as an ImporIanI advocacy
IooI Ior Improved assIsIance and proIec
IIon Io Ihe InIernaIIy dIspIaced.
BesIdes makIng InIormaIIon abouI sIIua
IIons oI InIernaI dIspIacemenI easIIy
avaIIabIe, Ihe GIobaI IDP ProjecI aIms Io
carry ouI more analyIical work In Ihe
IuIure. WhIIe Ihe InIormaIIon In Ihe
daIabase wIII remaIn neuIraI, NRC wIII Io
a Iarger exIenI use Ihe daIabase Io wrIIe
specIaI brIeIIng papers, sIudIes and evaI
uaIIons. Such papers couId, Ior exampIe,
address exIsIIng gaps In proIecIIon and
assIsIance Io IDPs In a gIven counIry.
NRC consIanIIy aIms aI IncreasIng Ihe
scope oI InIormaIIon In Ihe daIabase.
Today, Ihe daIabase counIs over 90
InIernaIIonaI and naIIonaI NGOs among
IIs InIormaIIon sources. We wIII conIInue
Io prIorIIIze inlormaIion-sharing
arrangemenIs wIIh oIher organIzaIIons
workIng wIIh IDPs and esIabIIsh cIoser
IInks wIIh IIrsIhand sources oI InIorma
IIon, parIIcuIarIy naIIonaI NGOs and
research InsIIIuIIons.
One parIIcuIarIy eIIecIIve way oI cooper
aIIng wIIh naIIonaI NGOs Is Ihrough
Iraining. As an acIIve IIeId NGO, NRC
recognIzes IhaI Ihe maIn chaIIenge Ioday
Is Io IInd pracIIcaI ways oI ImpIemenIIng
Ihe UN GuIdIng PrIncIpIes on InIernaI
DIspIacemenI aI Ihe naIIonaI and IocaI
IeveI. Under Ihe GIobaI IDP ProjecI, NRC
acIIveIy promoIes Ihe ImpIemenIaIIon oI
Ihe GuIdIng PrIncIpIes aI counIry IeveI
Ihrough a programme oI IraInIng work
shops on Ihe GuIdIng PrIncIpIes. These
aIm Io encourage dIaIogue beIween
naIIonaI NGOs, governmenI represenIa
IIves, InIernaIIonaI organIzaIIons and
Ihe InIernaIIy dIspIaced IhemseIves. So
Iar, IIve workshops have been heId
(PhIIIppInes, Uganda, ThaIIand, AngoIa
and GeorgIa) and IIve more are pIanned
Ior 2001.
NRC's IraInIng workshops have been
requesIed noI onIy by counIrIes IacIng
InIernaI dIspIacemenI buI aIso by donor
governmenIs. DependIng on Ihe avaII
abIIIIy oI sIaII resources, NRC wIII
IhereIore Increase IIs IraInIng compo
nenI nexI year. In addIIIon, NRC wIII
conIInue Io coIIaboraIe wIIh UN proIec
IIon IraInIng InIIIaIIves reIaIed Io
InIernaI dIspIacemenI.
IInaIIy, Ihe GIobaI IDP ProjecI Is pubIIsh
Ing a book on response mechanisms
among Ihe InIernaIIy dIspIaced. We are
cooperaIIng wIIh auIhors Irom 12
dIIIerenI counIrIes and Ihe book wIII
be reIeased IaIer In 2001.
4 4
The Global IDP Project expands
by Tone Faret
The Directora te
The Global IDP Project is a project of the
Norwegian Refugee Council and is adminis-
tered through its Geneva office.
Sta ff
Project Coordinator: Marc Vincent
Information Officers: Christophe Beau,
Andreas Danevad,
Bjorn Pettersson, Frederick Kok,
Stacey White, Greta Zeender.
Donor Relations: Tone Faret
Ma jor Donors
The following governmnets have contributed
to the project: Canada, Denmark, Norway,
Sweden (SIDA), Switzerland, UK-DFID.
Other donors: ECHO, Inernational
Development and Research Centre
(Canada), Norwegian Church Aid, OCHA,
UNDP, WFP, World Vision International
and private donors.
Visit our database on internal displacement
and get more information about the Global
IDP Project on www.idpproject.org
Conta ct us
If you have any questions or comments,
please contact us at:
Globa l IDP Project
Chemin Mose-Duboule 59
CH 1209 Geneva, Switzerland
Tel: +41 22 788 8085
Fax: +41 22 788 8086
Email: idpsurvey@nrc.ch
Sprea ding the word:
tra nsla tion of the
Guiding Principles
Over Ihe pasI Iwo years, Ihe GuIdIng
PrIncIpIes on InIernaI DIspIacemenI have
gaIned sIgnIIIcanI sIandIng aI Ihe InIer
naIIonaI, regIonaI, naIIonaI and IocaI
IeveIs as a useIuI IooI Ior Ihe proIecIIon
oI IDPs. A cIear sIgn oI IheIr appeaI and
reIevance In dIIIerenI parIs oI Ihe worId
Is IheIr IransIaIIon InIo an IncreasIng
number oI Ianguages.
InIIIaIIy made avaIIabIe In aII UN Ian
guages (Arabic, Chinese, English,
lrench, Russian and Spanish) Ior IheIr
presenIaIIon Io Ihe CommIssIon on
Human RIghIs In 1998, Ihe PrIncIpIes
have sInce been IransIaIed InIo a num
ber oI IocaI Ianguages reIevanI Io
parIIcuIar sIIuaIIons oI InIernaI dIspIace
menI: Armenian, Azerbaijani, Georgian,
Burmese, Sgaw Karen and Chin (Ior
Burma/Myanmar); Dari and PashIu
(AIghanIsIan); PorIuguese (AngoIa);
Sinhala and Tamil (SrI Lanka). Abkhaz,
Bahasa lndonesia, lilipino and TeIum
(LasI TImor) Ianguage versIons oI Ihe
PrIncIpIes are underway. NoIabIy, Ihese
eIIorIs Io IransIaIe and pubIIsh Ihe
PrIncIpIes have been underIaken aI Ihe
InIIIaIIve oI a varIeIy oI acIors - Ihe UN
and IIs agencIes, InIernaIIonaI and IocaI
NGOs and governmenIs, oIIen workIng
In parInershIp. AddIIIonaI such IransIa
IIons oI Ihe PrIncIpIes InIo IocaI
Ianguages are needed Io make Ihe
PrIncIpIes more accessIbIe Io IDPs as
weII as Io Ihe naIIonaI and IocaI auIhorI
IIes responsIbIe Ior ensurIng IheIr
proIecIIon and assIsIance. Indeed, doIng
so Is very much In IIne wIIh Ihe
PrIncIpIes IhemseIves, whIch aIIIrm IhaI
IDPs have Ihe rIghI Io communIcaIe In a
Ianguage IhaI Ihey undersIand and Io
educaIIon IhaI respecIs IheIr cuIIuraI
IdenIIIy and Ianguage.
LIIorIs Io IransIaIe Ihe GuIdIng
PrIncIpIes InIo Ihe IocaI Ianguages oI
counIrIes conIronIed wIIh Ihe probIem
oI InIernaI dIspIacemenI may be eIIgIbIe
Ior supporI (IncIudIng IInancIaI) wIIhIn
Ihe Iramework oI IechnIcaI cooperaIIon
projecIs oI Ihe OIIIce oI Ihe HIgh
CommIssIoner Ior Human RIghIs
(OHCHR). OHCHR Is posIIng Ihe varIous
Ianguage versIons oI Ihe GuIdIng
PrIncIpIes on IIs websIIe (www.unhcr.ch/
hImI.menu2/7/bprIncIpIesIang.hIm) In
order Io IacIIIIaIe IheIr dIssemInaIIon.
Contuct Lrn Moone), 5pecuI
Assstunt to the Representutve o]
the 5ecretur)-GeneruI on 1OPs, ut:
OHCHR, PuIus des Nutons,
1211 10 Genevu, 5wtzerIund.
TeI: +41 22 91? 92S0.
1ux: +41 22 91? 9006. LmuI:
emoone).hchr@ unog.ch
4 5
The GIobaI IDP ProjecI has achIeved a
greaI deaI over Ihe IasI Iwo years and
In 2001 wIII conIInue Io Improve whaI
has become an essenIIaI InIormaIIon
and IraInIng IooI Ior a more coherenI
and eIIIcIenI response Io Ihe needs oI
Ihe InIernaIIy dIspIaced.
Tone 1uret s Oonor ReIutons
O]]cer ]or the GIobuI 1OP Pro]ect.
1 ReporIs oI workshops heId Io daIe and deIaIIs oI
IorIhcomIng workshops can be Iound on Ihe GIobaI
IDP ProjecI websIIe aI www.IdpprojecI.org
lorced MigraIion Review
Editorial Advisory Board
AIIhough Ihe LAB members' InsIIIuIIonaI aIIIIIaIIons are IIsIed beIow, Ihey serve In
an IndIvIduaI capacIIy and do noI necessarIIy represenI IheIr InsIIIuIIons.
|on BenneII
O xford Development C onsultants
B S Chimni
Professor, School of International Studies, Department of International Law,
Jawaharlal N ehru University
Khadija Elmadmad
Professor, Law Faculty, C asablanca University
Maurice Herson
O xfam International Humanitarian O perationsC oordinator
Erin Mooney
Special Assistant, Representative of the UN Secretary-G eneral on IDPs;
O ffice of the UN High C ommissioner for Human Rights
Eigil Olsen
Head of Latin America Section, N orwegian Refugee C ouncil, O slo
BonavenIure RuIinwa
Lecturer, C entre for the Study of Forced M igration,
Faculty of Law, University of Dar esSalaam
|ill RuIIer
N ational Education Adviser, The Refugee C ouncil (London)
Lyndall Sachs
Public Information O fficer, UN HC R, Branch O ffice, G reat Britain and Ireland
Dan Seymour
SC F UK representative to the UN , N ew York
David TurIon
Director, Refugee StudiesC entre
Marc VincenI
C oordinator, G lobal IDP Project, N orwegian Refugee C ouncil, G eneva
Laurence WhiIehead
O fficial Fellow in Politics, N uffield C ollege, University of O xford
Gender a nd Refugee Sta tus
by ThomasSpijkerboer, C entre for M igration
Law, N ijmegen, N etherlands. 2000. 255pp.
ISBN 0 7546 2034 4.
A deIaIIed anaIysIs oI reIugee sIaIus
deIermInaIIon and case Iaw whIch shows
IhaI, aI IeasI In Ihe NorIh, women are
now more IIkeIy Ihan men Io be recog
nIzed as reIugees. ThIs Is an ImporIanI
overvIew oI Ihe posIIIon oI women In
reIugee Iaw.
Contnct: A:Igntc IuL:Ing Intcd,
Co\c Hou:c, Cot Kond, Adc:Iot,
Hnn:Ic CU11 3HK, UI. WcL:tc:
Wa rs Offensive on Women: The
Huma nita ria n Cha llenge in
Bosnia , Kosovo a nd Afgha nista n
by Julie A M ertus, Humanitarianism and War
Project, TuftsUniversity. September 2000. ISBN
1 56549 118 1 (hardback); 1 56549 117 3
(paperback). US$50 (hb); US$19. 95 (pb).
UsIng women's own voIces and case
sIudIes, IhIs book Iooks aI Ihe roIe
pIayed by women In war, humanIIarIan
crIses and posIwar reconsIrucIIon. II
deIaIIs how humanIIarIan aId operaIIons
IrequenIIy manage Io Ignore Ihe experI
ences and needs oI women In war zones.
Contnct: Iunnnn Ic::, 124 uc H:
A\cnuc, ooncd, CT U2, U5A.
Tc: +1 U 233 55.
Inx: +1 U 243 2U7.
Odc onnc nt \\\.Loo:.con.
Inn: Loo:no.con.
The Sta te of the Worlds Refugees:
Fifty Yea rs of Huma nita ria n Action
UN HC R. N ovember 2000. 350pp. ISBN 0
19 829778 5 (hardback); 0 19 829779 3
(paperback). 40 (hb); 12. 99 (pb).
A IImeIy and ImporIanI pubIIcaIIon Irom
UNHCR examInIng Ihe major reIugee
crIses oI Ihe IasI S0 years and Ihe chang
Ing naIure oI InIernaIIonaI responses Io
Ihe probIems oI Iorced dIspIacemenI.
A good encapsuIaIIon oI S0 years oI
IearnIng and guIdeIInes Ior Ihe IuIure oI
Ihe proIecIIon regIme.
Inn odc:: /UI & Iuoc)
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UNHCK, CI 25, CH-1211 Ccnc\n 2,
5\tzcnnd. Inx: +41 22 73 73U7.
Inn: cdunIc.cI.
Refugees on Screen
by Terence Wright, Refugee StudiesC entre.
N ovember 2000. 28pp. 3. 00/ $4. 80.
The IaIesI RSC workIng paper Iooks aI
how vIsuaI represenIaIIon oI reIugees
creaIes sIereoIypes. HIsIorIcaI arche
Iypes and conIemporary Images are
anaIyzed aIong wIIh recenI IechnoIogIcaI
and InsIIIuIIonaI changes In medIa prac
IIce. The auIhor Iays ouI guIdeIInes Ior
IuIure research IopIcs.
Contnct: Kcugcc 5tudc: Ccntc, uccn
IznLctI Hou:c, Un\c:t) o Oxod,
21 5t Cc:, Oxod, OX1 3IA, UI.
Inn: :cqcI.ox.nc.u. Odc onnc nt:
4 6
World Migra tion Repor t 2 0 0 0
edited by Susan ForbesM artin, International
O rganisation for M igration. N ovember 2000.
297pp. ISBN 92 9068 089 X. US$39. 00.
An auIhorIIaIIve accounI oI conIempo
rary Irends, Issues and probIems In Ihe
IIeId oI InIernaIIonaI mIgraIIon, boIh voI
unIary and Iorced. There are regIonaI
overvIews oI Irends, reporIs on Ihe vasI
scaIe oI dIspIacemenI In AIrIca and
deIaIIs oI "one oI Ihe mosI expIosIve
branches oI organIzed crIme" - mIgranI
smuggIIng and IraIIIckIng.
Contnct: UN IuLcnton:, Koon IC2-
53, Ict 132, 2 UN Inzn, Nc\ Yo,
NY 117, U5A. Inx: +1 212 U3 34.
Inn: uLcnton:un.og.
Odc onnc: \\\.on.nt,on,IuLc
nton:,WMKINC2.Itn A :unnn) o
tIc Loo : n\nnLc nt: \\\.on.nt,
Welcome to Hell : Arbitra r y
Detention, Tor ture a nd Extor tion
in Chechnya
Human RightsWatch. O ctober 2000. 99pp.
ISBN 1 56432 253 X. US$10. 00.
ChIIIIng reporI deIaIIIng Ihe cycIe oI
IorIure and exIorIIon Iaced by Ihou
sands oI Chechens deIaIned by
RussIan Iorces. Human RIghIs WaIch
urges Ihe InIernaIIonaI communIIy Io
more eIIecIIve acIIon.
Contnct: IuLcnton: Icntncnt,
Hunnn KgIt: WntcI, 35 ItI A\c,
34tI Ioo, Nc\ Yo, NY 111-32,
U5A. Tc: +1 212 21U 113.
Inn: gcnno:I\.og
TIc u cot : n\nnLc onnc nt
Rw a nda Recover y: UN HCRs
Repa tria tion a nd Reintegra tion
Activities in Rwa nda from 1 9 9 4
to 1 9 9 9
UN HC R January 2001. 116pp. Free.
A IuII coIour commemoraIIve book
chronIcIIng UNHCR's roIe In Ihe repaIrIa
IIon and reInIegraIIon oI Ihree mIIIIon
Rwandans In Ihe IIve years IoIIowIng Ihe
genocIde and devasIaIIng war oI 1994.
Io utIc dctn: :cc \\\.unIc-
5.og,uLc,\nnd.Itn. To odc,
cnn KWAIIunIc.cI /:uL]cct:
K\nndn Loo cquc:t).
Huma nita ria n Action in the
2 1 st Centur y
Inter-Agency Standing C ommittee. 2000.
80pp. ISBN 0 9701247 4 0. Free.
ThIs pubIIcaIIon presenIs a compIIaIIon
oI essays on Ihe IIIIe subjecI by Ihe
Heads oI IASC agencIes and NGOs:
IederaIIon, InIerAcIIon, IOM, SIeerIng
CommIIIee Ior HumanIIarIan Response,
RepresenIaIIve oI Ihe SecreIaryGeneraI
on IDPs, UNHCHR and Ihe WorId Bank.
AIso IncIudes mIssIon sIaIemenIs by and
conIacI InIormaIIon Ior Ihese agencIes.
Io n cc co), contnct: M: Utc Ioc:-
Cunnng:, Occ o tIc Coodnnton
o Hunnntnnn An:, UN,
1211 Ccnc\n 1, 5\tzcnnd.
Inn: oc:-cunnng:un.og
4 7
N a shra Al-Hijra Al-Qa sriya
a nd Revista sobre
Migra ciones Forzosa s
Ioccd Mgnton Kc\c\ Is aIso prInIed In SpanIsh and ArabIc.
All subscripIions Io Ihe Arabic and Spanish ediIions are lree ol charge.
II you wouId IIke Io receIve one or Ihe oIher, or II you know oI oIhers who
wouId IIke Io receIve copIes, pIease send us Ihe reIevanI conIacI deIaIIs.
LmaII Ihe LdIIors aI ImrJqeh.ox.ac.uk or wrIIe Io us aI: IMR, ReIugee SIudIes
CenIre, QLH, UnIversIIy oI OxIord, 21 SI GIIes, OxIord OX1 3LA, UK.
If you produce or know of publica -
tions which might be of interest to
other FMR rea ders, plea se send
deta ils (a nd prefera bly a copy) to
the Editors (a ddress p2 ) with deta ils
of price a nd how to obta in a copy.
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tmS h um0HH tvH 0 h /U ALF (A]Itu/LuItDDuH/Fut]t) SuS.
Ruud Lubbers becomes Ihe new High Commissioner lor
Relugees in |anuary 2001. Will his period ol ollice see
acIion Io puI Alrica's displacemenI crises aI Ihe lorelronI
ol inIernaIional aIIenIion? The sIarIling lacIs:




UN HCR/ R Cha la sa ni