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Fanno Flow

Gas Dynamics

Simple frictional ow ( Fanno Flow )


Adiabatic frictional ow in a constant-area duct
* The Flow of a compressible uid in a duct is
Always accompanied by :-

Variation in the cross sectional area of the duct

Heat transfer
Friction

The above parameters contribute to changes the ow properties.


* Although, it is difcult in many cases to separate


the effects of each of these parameters , yet in
order to provide an insight into the effect of friction
, adiabatic ow thermally insulated in a constant
area duct is analyzed in this chapter.



Gas Dynamics

* The entropy of the system still increase


because of friction .
-Friction is associated with the turbulence and viscous
shear of molecules of the gas .
-Irreversibility associated with friction causes a
decrease in the stagnation pressure , steady 1-D ow
as a perfect gas .

Assumptions:

- Adiabatic frictional
- ow in a constant cross-
sectional area duct .



Gas Dynamics

V
1

V + dV
w
2

X + dX

+ d

V + dV

Momentum equation

B = 4A DH
= wetted perimeter

DH = hydraulic diameter

V
X V

V + dV

X + dX

AP A( P + dP) w Bdx = AV (V + dV V )
AdP w Bdx = AVdV 1 2 w = F ( V ) 2
2

V + dV
1

+ d

1 V 2 2

Dynamic pressure

F is the conventional Fanning friction factor ( circular duct )


F for ow over as the drag coefcient

hloss in pipe


Gas Dynamics

LV LV = 4 FF = f D.W D 2g D 2g
Fanning
coefcient
of friction
Darcy-weisbech
coefcient
of friction

From eq. 1 ( eq.1 / A)



AdP w Bdx = AVdV1

VdV= dV2/2

B dP + w dX + VdV = 0 A

4 F V 2 V 2 dV 2 dP + dX + =0 2 DH 2 2 V

V 2 dV 2 VdV = 2 V2 V 2 w = F 2
4A DH = B

F = f(

Reynolds number , roughness of boundaries

The friction factor for turbulent in smooth ducts is


the Von-Karman Nikurdse formula



Gas Dynamics

1 = 0.8 + 2 log10 (Re 4 f ) 4F

Perfect gas law


Continuity Eq.

P = RT

m = V =Constant
A d dV
ho V2 = h+ = Constant
2

+ V =0

dP d dT = + P T

Energy Eq.

dh + VdV = 0 2
Mach number

2 2
2



Gas Dynamics

dM dV dT = 2 2 M V T

V M = RT

2nd law of thermodynamics


ds 0

4 F V 2 V 2 dV 2 dP + dX + =0 2 DH 2 2 V

2
3
4
5
6
7

Momentum equation
Perfect gas law
Continuity Eq.
Energy Eq.
Mach number
2nd law of
thermodynamics

6 equation

dP d dT = + P T

dV + =0 V
2 2

dh + VdV = 0
dM dV dT = 2 2 M V T

4 FdX M , V , P, , T , S & ( DH


Gas Dynamics

ds 0

Variable )

From eq. 2

Dividing by

2 2

dP 4 F V V dV + dX + =0 2 P DH 2 P 2P V
therefore

4 F V 2 V 2 dV 2 dP + dX + =0 2 DH 2 2 V
2

PV 2 V = = PM 2 RT

dP 4 F M 2 M 2 dV 2 + dX + =0 2 P DH 2 2 V

8
5

from _ Eq.5
dV C P dT = 2
2


Gas Dynamics

dh + VdV = 0
2

dT dV ( 1)dV 1 2 dV = = = M 2 T 2CPT 2RT 2 V

dT dV 2 ( 1)dV 2 1 2 dV 2 dM 2 dV 2 dT = = = M (9), = T 2CPT 2RT 2 V2 M2 V2 T

(6)

Combining eq.(9) with eq. (6)


dV dM 1 2 dV = M 2 2 2 V M 2 V
2 2

dV 1 dM 10
= * 2 2 1 V M 2 1+ M 2 d dV dP dV dT + = 0 (4) From eq. 3 & 4
= + (3), V P V T
From eq. 9



Gas Dynamics

dP dV 1 2 dV = M 2 P V 2 V

dV dV = 2 V 2V

dP dV 1 1 2 11
= 2 ( M ) P V 2 2 2 dV dP The
term and the
term in eq. 8 can 2 V P
be replaced to give

dP 4 F M 2 M 2 dV 2 + dX + = 0 (8) 2 P DH 2 2 V

dV 2 1 1 2 M 2 dV 2 4 F M 2 ( M )+ + dX = 0 2 2 V 2 2 2 V DH 2
From Eq. 10

dV 2 1 dM 2 = * 2 (10) 2 1 V 1+ M2 M 2

2 1 1 dM 2 4 F M 2 2 [ ](1 ( 1) M + M ) + dX = 0 2 2 1 + 1 M 2 M DH 2 2


Gas Dynamics

1 1 dM 2 4 F M 2 2 2 [ ](1 ( 1) M + M ) + dX = 0 2 1 2 1+ DH 2 M2 M 2

4 FdX (1 M ) dM = * 2 1 2 DH M 2 M (1 + M ) 2

dM = 2 M

M (1 +

2 2 (1 M )

M )

4 FdX . DH
M>1

12

M<1



Gas Dynamics

dM +ve

dM -ve

dV 2 = 2 V

From continuity eq. ( eq. 4 ) & from eqs. 10 & 12



1 dM 2 * (10) 1 2 2 M 1+ M 2 1 2 2

dV 2 2VdV 2dV = = (11) 2 2 V V V

dM 2 = 2 M

M (1 +

2 (1 M 2 )
2

M )

4 FdX . DH

12

13
dV d M 4 FdX dM = = . = 2 1 2 V 2(1 M ) DH M (1 + M ) 2 M<1



Gas Dynamics

M>1
dV -ve
+ve

dV +ve
-ve

From eqs. 11 & 13


dP M 2 (1 + ( 1)M 2 ) 4FdX (1 + ( 1)M 2 ) = . = [ ]dM 2 ( 1) 2 P 2(1 M ) DH M (1 + M ) 14


2 From eqs. 3,13& 14

dT ( 1)M 4FdX (MdM ) = . = ( 1)( 2 1 2 T 2(1 M ) DH (1 + M ) 2


15



Gas Dynamics

Entropy changes are determined from



dT dP ds = C P R T P
dP M 2 (1 + ( 1) M 2 ) 4 FdX (1 + ( 1) M 2 ) = . = [ ]dM (14) 2 ( 1 ) P 2(1 M ) DH M (1 + M 2) 2 4 dT ( 1) M 4 FdX ( MdM ) = . = ( 1 )( 1 T 2(1 M 2 ) DH (1 + M 2) 2

R From eqs. 14 & 15 &


CP = 1
(15)

Then

ds =

RM
2

ds 0


Gas Dynamics

4 FdX R(1 M ) dM . = 1 2 M DH M (1 + M ) 2

16

F
2

Is positive

ds ( 1) M 4 FdX = . CP 2 DH

R(1 M 2 ) dM ds = 1 2 M M (1 + M ) 2

(16)

Also as a result of frictional ow


- For subsonic ow the Mach number increases

M <1

(1 M ) + ve
2

ds = +ve
M >1


Gas Dynamics

dM = +ve
2

- For supersonic ow the Mach number decreases


ds = +ve

(1 M ) ve

dM = ve

The stagnation pressure can be calculated from


dPO dP M / 2 dM = + 2 1 P0 P 1+ 2 M M 2
From eqs. 12 & 14 then
dM = 2 M
2

1 P0 = P(1 + M ) 2 2

2 1

M 2 (1 +

2 (1 M 2 )

M 2) .

4 FdX (12), DH

dP M 2 (1 + ( 1) M 2 ) 4 FdX (1 + ( 1) M 2 ) = . = [ ]dM (14) 2 ( 1) 2 P 2(1 M ) DH M (1 + M ) 2


2 2


Gas Dynamics

dP0 M 4 FdX (1 M ) dM = . = 1 2 M P0 2 DH M (1 + M ) 2

17

dP0 M 2 4 FdX (1 M 2 ) dM = . = (17) 1 P 2 DH 0 M (1 + M 2) M 2

- For subsonic ow

M <1

(1 M ) + ve

dM = +ve

dPO = ve

ds = +ve
(1 M ) ve
2

- For supersonic ow

dM = ve


Gas Dynamics

M >1

dPO = ve

ds = +ve

1 2
M 2 (1 + M ) dM 4 FdX 2
= . 2 M 2(1 M ) DH
2
dV d M 4 FdX
= = . 2
V 2(1 M ) DH

dP M 2 (1 + ( 1) M 2 ) 4 FdX . 2
P = 2(1 M ) DH
4 dT ( 1)M 4 FdX
= . 2
T 2(1 M ) DH

RM 2 4 FdX R(1 M 2 ) dM ds
= 2 . D = 1 2 M H M ( 1 + M )
2

2 2 dP M 4 FdX ( 1 M ) dM O

P = 2 . D = 1 2 M 0 H M (1 + M )

Gas Dynamics

M<1
dM
dV
d
dP
dT
dS
dPo
ho
+ve
+ve
-ve
-ve
-ve
+ve
-ve

M>1
-ve
-ve
+ve
+ve
+ve
+ve
-ve

Constant

Fanno table relations.


M, 4FL*/D, V/V*, P/P*, T/T*, /*, Po/Po*, (S-S*)/Cp

By separating the variables and by establishing the limits
M=M1 at the duct entrance.
M=M2 at distance L.
If M2=1, then L2 =L*, V2 =V*, P2 =P*, T2 =T*, 2 =*, Po2 =Po*,
and S2 =S*

dM M

M 2 (1 +
=

2 2(1 M 2 )

M 2) .

4 FdX DH

dV d M 2 4 FdX = = . V 2(1 M 2 ) DH
dT ( 1) M 4 4 FdX = . T 2(1 M 2 ) DH
dPO M 2 4 FdX (1 M 2 ) dM = . = 1 2 M P 2 DH 0 M (1 + M ) 2

dP M 2 (1 + ( 1) M 2 ) 4 FdX = . P 2(1 M 2 ) DH
ds =

RM 2 4 FdX
2

R (1 M 2 ) dM = 1 M (1 + M 2) M 2

Gas Dynamics

The Fanno Line


* It is dened by the

From Continuity eq. (4)
From Energy eq. (5)

Continuity eq.
Energy eq.
Eq. of state

V = 2CP (T0 T )

dV = V

dV d (TO T ) = V 2(TO T )

The change of entropy for the perfect gas


d (TO T ) dT ds = Cv R T 2(TO T )


Gas Dynamics

dT d ds = Cv R T R = 1 Cv
19

ds dT 1 d (TO T ) = Cv T 2 2(TO T )

ds dT 1 d (TO T ) = Cv T 2 2(TO T )
h, T

(19)

Eq. 19 is integrated , the change of entropy may be described in terms


Of temperature for a given value of T0 (To = constant ) and m./ A=constant .

hO = const.

hO , TO

hO , TO

h, T

hO = const.
M <1 M >1

V2 /2 M =1
h

Fanno Line



Gas Dynamics

S S = Max

S S = Max Prove that, this


curve is right.

The Fanno Line equation is


explained as a function of Mach

The Fanno Line equation is a function of Mach



From the 1st & 2nd law of thermodynamics

dh 1 = 1 R dP ds T P dh
d
2

ds =

dh dP R T P

20

dh dT

Continuity

dh = V

dV = 0, V

Energy

dh + VdV = 0
2

dh = VdV
dP dT ) P T

dP C P dT dh = V ( ) P C PT
2

Eq. of state

dP dT P T

dh = V 2 (

dP P P = 2+ dh V C PT


Gas Dynamics

V 2 dP (1 + )dh = V CPT P
21

From 20 & 21

dh 1 = 1 R R dS 2 T V C PT

R CP = 1

dh V 2CPT V 2RT = 2 = 2 dS V CP RC PT V R ( 1)[V 2CP RC PT V 2 R]

dh 1 = 1 R R dS 2 T V C PT

R CP = 1

V 2 = M 2RT

dh TM = 2 dS M 1 At M<1 dh/dS -ve

22

dS 0

This equation describe fanno


line as a function on Mach

dh -ve dT ve dV +ve
At M>1 dh/dS +ve dS 0
dh +ve dT +ve dV -ve
At M=1 dh/dS h which corresponding
to the state of maximum entropy
This means that, A Fanno line moving only

in the direction from left to right
M1 >1, or M1 <1 then Po -ve.

Gas Dynamics

hO , TO

h, T

hO = const.
M <1 M >1

V2 /2 M =1
h

If m./A increase Smax decease.


S S = Max

It was noted that L*,the maximum length of duct which doesnt cause choking.

1
Flow
M1
L1-2
(L*) M1
2
M2
(L*) M2

*

M=1

L1-2



Gas Dynamics

(L*) M1

(L*) M2

Multiply the equation by (4F / DH)


(4FL1-2)/DH
=
((4F L*)/ DH) M1-

((4F L*)/ DH) M2

Fanno ow in a constant cross-sectional area duct proceeded by an isentropic nozzle



isentropic
nozzle
Flow
1
2
P/Po
3
Fanno ow (

Ld)

Back pressure

Pb

e

M2 <1

The ow in
nozzle& duct
are affected
by Ld & Pb

X



Gas Dynamics

M2<1

the gas will accelerate in the duct owing to friction and pressure decrease
Me <1 or 1 depend on Pb & Ld
If Me =1 (m./A)max choked condition

G*=(m. /A)
max =

Po To

[2/(+1)] (+1)/(2(-1))



Gas Dynamics

To increase mass, by decreasing To


and/or increasing Po at the nozzle inlet.
In this case Me=1, but Pe would be higher.

Changes in duct length do not affect the mass ow rate


M2>1, the gas will decelerate in the duct due to


friction, if no shock occur, the ow will approach Me=1 directly.

In this case (Me=1) , m. max is determined by the throat area of the nozzle and also by the area of the duct



Gas Dynamics

Effect of increasing duct length



isentropic
nozzle
(

(M duct entr <1)



Po
ho=const.

L2d)
Fanno ow

L1d

1
2

h
ho

P4*

M=1

3

* P2*isen
P3

P/Po1



Gas Dynamics

S
(m./A)2> (m./A)3 >(m./A)4

(M duct entr >1)


At certain length, the M=1 at exit duct crosssectional area
Subsonic conditions can also be attained at exit area, if discontinuity occurs.
If [ Ld > Ld* at Me =1 ] , a shock appears in the duct
If the duct length is increased further, the shock will position itself further upstream.
If the duct is very long, the shock will be at the throat of the nozzle. Beyond that length, there will be no shock at all. Then, the ow is subsonic at all point.



Gas Dynamics

Effect of reducing back pressure (Mach at duct inlet 1)


c
b
m,

1
Pback<Pexit

a
Pback/Po1
1

ho=constant

P/Po

h
a
Pa
Pb
Pc
X

a
b

M=1



Gas Dynamics

Effect of reducing back pressure (Mach at duct inlet >1)



Supersonic
nozzle
Flow
1
P/Po
2
Pb
Fanno ow critical length L1*

In the duct L12 <L*, there are 5 cases:-


L12 < L1*


Design case Pe=Pb


Expansion wave Shock wave stand somewhere N.S.W stand inside the at
duct exit
duct Oblique shock wave *

M1 >1

M=1
Pe=Pb



Gas Dynamics

Pb>Pe
Pb<Pe

P /Po= Pb/Po

The ow in nozzle& duct are affected by Ld & Pb