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Proceedings of the 14 th International Middle East Power Systems Conference (MEPCON’10), Cairo University, Egypt, December 19-21, 2010, Paper ID 215.

Modeling of Induction Motor Based on Winding Function Theory to Study Motor under Stator/Rotor Internal Faults

Ahmed K. Ibrahim

ahkhibess@yahoo.com

Mostafa I. Marei

Hamdy S. El-Gohary

Somaya A. M. Shehata

Electrical power and Machine department Ain-Shams university Cairo, Egypt

mostafamarei@yahoo.ca

hamdyk@hotmail.com

somayaafify@hotmail.com

Abstract - In this work, a detailed induction motor model is presented, where the stator and the rotor are assumed to consist of a number of electrical circuits or loops. These circuits are coupled together. All self and mutual inductances of these circuits can be calculated using winding function theory. The proposed model is used to simulate the transient and the steady state performance of a healthy motor and a motor under rotor, stator, and mixed faults.

I. INTRODUCTION

Induction motors are widely used in many industrial processes due to their robustness and reliability. Study of the different faults of these motors and their effects on efficiency and performance is a vital requirement due to modern industrial challenges these days. Motor faults cause a reduction in motor steady state speed, thus motor slip increases causing an increase in motor losses and a reduction in motor efficiency. Studies reveal that broken rotor bars are intended to be bended out of rotor slots by the effect of electromagnetic forces and rub stator inner surface causing the fault to be developed into a mixed stator/rotor fault type [1]. Detailed modelling of induction motors helps understanding motor dynamics under different faults, and selecting suitable techniques to detect these faults. Detailed d-q modelling is used to represent healthy motors and motors under rotor faults [2, 3, and 4]. The d-q model reduces the number of equations required for simulation. However it can't give any information about rotor bars and end rings currents, and require a modification in model structure for each fault case. Model based on coupled circuits are successfully used to simulate induction motor at healthy and faulty cases [5, 6, and 7]. It is found that this model gives more information but requires more calculation time due to large number of equations required for simulation.

II. COUPLED CIRCUIT MODELLING OF INDUCTION MOTOR The model is built considering that both stator and rotor are consisting of multiple inductive circuits coupled together, and the current in each circuit is considered as an independent variable. The analysis is based on the following assumptions:

1) Sinusoidaly distributed stator windings. 2) Infinity iron permeability (µ iron = ).

3) Saturation is neglected. 4) Uniform air gap. 5) Neglecting inter-bar currents. 6) Evenly distributed rotor bars. 7) Stator winding of different poles are connected in series. 8) Neglecting flux coupling between different winding without air gap crossing.

A. Voltage Equations

The Stator comprises conventional three phase windings, thus three circuits are required to represent the stator. The rotor consists of n identical and equally spaced bars shorted together by two identical end rings. Fig.1. shows the currents distribution of the rotor loops. Each loop shares two rotor bars with the two neighbour loops and two end ring segments with the two end-ring loops.

Fig.1.Rotor loop current distribution [3].

Thus the overall model can be represented by:

 [V s ] = [R s ][I s ] + d[φ s ]/dt (1) [0] = [R r ][I r ] + d[φ r ]/dt (2) [φ s ] = [L s ][I s ] + [L sr ][I r ] (3) [φ r ] = [L r ][I r ] + [L sr ][I s ] (4)

where, V s is the stator voltages vector, I s is the stator currents vector, I r is the rotor loops currents vector, R s is the stator windings resistances matrix, R r is the rotor resistances matrix, L s is the stator windings inductances matrix, L r is the rotor inductances matrix, L sr is the stator to rotor mutual inductances matrix, and φ s and φ r are the total flux linkage by stator and rotor windings, respectively. From (1) and (3), the stator phase voltage equations can be written as:

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V a = R s I a + (L a + L ls ) dI a /dt + L ab dI b /dt + L ac dI c /dt

+ d/dt (L a1 I r1 + L a2 I r2 + … + L an I rn + L ae I e )

b = R s I b + (L b + L ls ) dI b /dt + L ba dI a /dt + L bc dI c /dt

V

V

+ d/dt (L b1 I r1 + L b2 I r2 + … + L bn I rn + L be I e )

c = R s I c + (L c + L ls ) dI c /dt + L ca dI a /dt +L cb dI b /dt

+ d/dt (L c1 I r1 + L c2 I r2 + … + L cn I rn + L ce I e )

(5)

(6)

(7)

where, V a , V b , and V c are the stator phase voltages, I a , I b , and I c are the stator phase currents, L a , L b , and L c are the stator phase self inductances, L ab , L bc , and L ca are the stator phase to phase mutual inductances, L ls is the stator leakage inductance, (I r1 , I r2 , …, I rn ) are the rotor loops currents, I e is the end ring current, (L a1 , L a2 , …, L an , L ae ) are phase A to rotor loops mutual inductances, (L b1 , L b2 , …, L bn , L be ) are phase B to rotor loops mutual inductances, and (L c1 , L c2 , …, L cn , L ce ) are phase

C to rotor loops mutual inductances.

Any rotor loop is mutually coupled with the other rotor loops and with the stator windings. From (2) and (4) and with the aid of Fig.1, the voltage equation for any rotor loop k can be written as:

0 = 2(R b + R e ) I rk – R b (I r(k-1) + I r(k+1) ) – R e I e +2( L b + L e ) dI rk /dt – L b (dI r(k-1) /dt + dI r(k+1) /dt) + (L k1 dI r1 /dt + L k2 dI r2 /dt +…+ L kk dI rk /dt +…+ L kn dI rn /dt)

– L e dI e /dt + d/dt (L ak I a + L bk I b + L ck I c )

(8)

where, R b , L b are the rotor bar resistance and inductance, R e ,

L e are the end ring segment resistance and inductance, L kk is

the rotor loop self inductance, (L k1 , L k2 , …, L k(k-1) , L k(k+1) , …,

L kn ) are loop k to the other rotor loops mutual inductances,

and (L ak , L bk , and L ck ) are the rotor loop k to the stator windings mutual inductances. Since both rotor end rings are identical, the number of equations to be solved can be reduced by one if the difference between end ring currents is used instead of using of each ring current. One of the two rings is considered as an active ring and carries I e while the other doesn’t carry current. Thus I e =I e1 -I e2 . This action results in representing the rotor by n+1 circuits (n loops + 1 end ring loop). It should be noted that steady state value of I e = 0 for symmetrical rotor, and the end ring equation can be written as :

0 = nR e I e – R e (I r1 + I r2 + … + I rn ) + nL e dI e /dt

(9)

It is worth mentioning that there is no mutual coupling between the end rings and any other loops because the end rings produce only axial fluxes (L ae =L be =L ce =0).

– L e (dI r1 /dt + dI r2 /dt + … + dI rn /dt)

B. Electromagnetic Torque Equation

From energy conversion principles, the equation of the electromagnetic torque produced by a poly-phase machine can be written as [8]:

T em = [I s ] T [dL sr /dθ r ] [I r ]

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Thus;

T em = I a (I rk dL ak /dθ r ) + I b (I rk dL bk /dθ r ) + I c (I rk dL ck /dθ r )

 (10) where, θ r is the rotor angular position, T em is the electromagnetic torque produced by the motor. C. Electromechanical Equation The rotor mechanical equation can be written as: T em = J dΩ r /dt + FΩ r + T L (11)

Where, J is rotor inertia, r is rotor angular speed, F is the friction coefficient, T L is the load torque.

C. Inductance Equations

The main key of this model is to get inductances formulas. In [2,3] winding function theory is used to calculate motor inductances in terms of rotor angular position θ r . Referring to the appendix, the motor inductances formulas can be written as:

 L a = L b = L c = (N s /2p) 2 (πµ o Lr/g) = L ms (12) L ab = L bc = L ca = - (N s /2p) 2 (πµ o Lr/2g) = -L ms /2 (13) L kk = (µ o Lr/g) (1-α r /2π) α r (14) L k1 = L k2 =…= L kn = L ki = - (µ o Lr/g) (α r ) 2 /2π (15) L ak = L m cos(p(θ r + (k - 1)α r + δ)) (16) L bk = L m cos(p(θ r + (k - 1)α r + δ) - 2π/3) (17) L ck = L m cos(p(θ r + (k - 1)α r + δ) + 2π/3) (18)

where, N s is the effective number of turns of any stator phase,

p is the number of pole pairs, µ o is the permeability of air, L is the effective length of the motor, r is the air gap average radius, g is the air gap length, α r is the angle between any two adjacent bars, L m = (4/πN s ) L ms sin(pδ), where δ = α r /2.

Fig.2. Algorithm of simulation.

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The flux technique is used to implement the proposed model. The algorithm for the digital simulation is shown in Fig.2. The integration of flux linkage derivatives with respect to time are calculated to obtain flux linkages, as follows:

d /dt = V source - RI

(19)

The flux derivatives in (19) are used to update the currents as:

= (V source – RI)dt = L self I self + L mutual I i

(20)

MATLAB/SIMULINK is used to simulate the model and ode113 is selected as a solver. The Simulation starts with the rotor at rest and zero initial conditions are used.

A. Simulation of Healthy Induction Motor

The proposed model is used to simulate the dynamic performance of a 4kW induction motor with the parameters given in table I.

TABLE I INDUCTION MOTOR PARAMETERS

 INPUT SUPPLY PARAMETERS Input Supply Phase Voltage 220 Volt Input Supply Frequency 50 Hz STATOR PARAMETERS Effective Number of Stator winding turns: N s 156 turn Stator windings Ohmic resistance: R s 1.5 Ω Stator windings Leakage inductance: L ls 7 mH Number of pole pairs: p 1 ROTOR PARAMETERS Number of rotor bars: n 28 Rotor bar resistance: R b 96.940036 µΩ End ring segment resistance: R e 5 µΩ Rotor bar self inductance: L b 0.28 µH End ring segment self inductance: L e 0.036 µH AIR GAP PARAMETERS Air gap average radius: r 70 mm Air gap length: g 0.28 mm Rotor effective length: L 120 mm MECHANICAL PARAMETERS Inertia: J 0.002N.sec 2 Friction coefficient: F 0.001N.sec

Time(sec)
Time(sec)
Phase A Current (A)
Torque (Nm)
Speed (RPM)

Fig.3. Dynamic behaviour of the healthy motor.

Time(sec)

Rotor bar peak currents (A)

Rotor bar number

Fig.4. Healthy rotor bars current distribution

B. Simulation of Motor Under Rotor Faults.

Broken rotor bar faults can be simulated by increasing bar resistance [6]. The more the resistance is increased the more severity is added to the fault. It is enough to increase bar resistance to 100 time of its original resistance to represent complete open rotor bar. Figs.5-7 show simulation results for different rotor fault types. It is worth to mention that motor under rotor faults draws a stator steady state balanced three phase currents [9], hence only phase A current is shown. Figs.8, 9, and 10 present a comparison between steady state speed, torque, and stator current at loading for healthy motor and motor under previous simulated rotor faults. It is noticed that ripples level increases as fault severity does.

TABLE II SIMULATION RESULT OF MOTOR UNDER FAULTY ROTOR

 Fault type RPM at no load RPM at T em at no load(Nm) T em at loading loading(N m) One broken 2996.09±0.01 2859±3 0.312 10.3±0.02 rotor bar Two broken 2996.05±0.1 2853±10 0.31±0.1 10.3±0.1 rotor bars One rotor bar 2994.25±0.15 2780±80 0.305±0.1 10.6±1 and one end ring segment are broken

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As shown from table II, both RPM and T em are not greatly affected by rotor fault at no load. This is because at no load rotor only draws small no load currents and effects of rotor asymmetries can be neglected. While at loading, rotor currents are significant and rotor asymmetries cause both RPM and torque ripples to increase as fault severity does. Fig.11 illustrates that the broken rotor bar current (bar 1) is dropped to 4A and current is distributed so the nearest bars carry the highest currents. In Fig.12 rotor steady state currents distribution for the motor under two broken rotor bars is shown. Current of the two broken bars are dropped and more current is carried by neighbour bars. Fig.13 shows that when one rotor bar and one end ring segment are broken the steady state rotor bars currents are distributed so the healthy bar (bar 2) sharing the same loop with the faulty bar (bar 1) and the faulty end ring segment carry the highest current.

Time(sec)
Time(sec)
(Nm)Phase
A Current (A)
Speed (RPM)Torque

Fig.5. Motor with one broken rotor bar

Time(sec)

Time(sec)
Time(sec)
A Current (A) Torque (Nm)Phase
Speed (RPM)

Fig.6. Motor with two broken bars

Time(sec)

Time(sec)
Time(sec)
Phase A Current (A)
(Nm) Speed (RPM)Torque

Fig.7. Motor with one broken bar and one broken end Time(sec) ring segment

Time (sec)

Time (sec)

Time (sec)

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Speed (RPM)

Torque (Nm)

Phase A Current

(A)

Phase B Current

(A)

Phase C Current

(A)

Rotor bar peak currents (A)

Rotor bar peak currents (A)

Rotor bar number Fig.11. Rotor current distribution of the motor with one broken rotor bar

Rotor bar peak currents (A)

Rotor bar number Fig.12. Rotor current distribution of the motor with two broken rotor bars

Rotor bar peak currents (A)

Rotor bar number Fig.13. Rotor current distribution of the motor with one broken rotor bar and one broken end ring segment

C. Simulation of Motor Under Stator Faults.

Stator windings faults can be classified into:

1) Phase to ground short circuit. 2) Phase to phase short circuit. 3) Phase to phase to ground short circuit. 4) Three phase to ground short circuit. 5) Open circuit faults.

None of these cases will happen suddenly. Stator faults start with inter-turn short circuits then develop into one of the previous cases. In this work inter-turn short circuits are considered at the earlier stages and simulated as follows[10]:

1) The effect of the shorted turns are neglected. Hence the number of useful turns producing the main MMF is reduced. 2) Inter-harmonic components generated due to shorted turns are neglected.

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3)

Winding geometry distortion is neglected.

4) 20% shorted turns are considerd. This violates previous assumptions but it is only assumed to amplify the effect of the fault. Fig.14 shows simulation results for motor with a 20% inter-turn fault at phase A. Motor speed is 2995±35rpm at no load and 2880±30rpm at loading. The generated torque is ±2.5Nm at no load and 10.5±3.5Nm at loading with unbalanced three phase current at stator. Fig.15 shows that rotor bars currents are raised to 250A due to the unbalance component generated by the stator inter-turn fault.

Time(sec)
Time(sec)
Time(sec)
Time(sec)

Time(sec)

Fig.14. Motor under stator faults of 20% inter-turn
short circuit

Rotor bar number Fig.15. Rotor current distribution of the motor with 20% inter-turn short circuit at phase A

D. Simulation of Motor Under Mixed Faults.

Mixed faults are the most cases that can be found practically. Actually, one type of fault can lead to another. For example, stator inter-turn faults lead to overloading the rotor

bars thus increases the probability of building of cracks. Fig.16 shows the simulation of the motor under mixed fault, where one rotor bar and one end ring segment are broken and 20% of phase A are shorted. It is found that the motor runs at 2995±25rpm at no load and 2800±100rpm at loading. The torque generated is ±3Nm at no load and 10.5±4.5Nm at loading. Unbalanced three phase stator currents due to the inter-turn fault are obvious from the results. Fig.17 reveals that rotor bars currents distribution of the motor under the mixed fault is similar to the case of one broken end ring segment and one broken bar with an overall increase in rotor bars currents due to stator unbalance component. It is clear that bar 2 currents jumps to 420A which greatly increase probability of crack building in this bar.

Time(sec)
Time(sec)
Time(sec)
Time(sec)
Time(sec)
Fig.16. Motor under a mixed fault
Phase C Current
Phase B Current
Phase A Current
Torque (Nm)
Speed (RPM)
(A)
(A)
(A)
Rotor bar peak currents (A)

Rotor bar number Fig.17. Rotor current distribution of the motor under a mixed fault.

Figs. 18 and 19 show the frequency spectrums of phase A current for a healthy motor, and for a motor under different rotor and stator faults. It is noticed that rotor faults cause the stator current to be modulated with inter harmonic components or side bands around the fundamental (50Hz), while stator faults produce frequency components at multiple of the fundamental frequency.

Magnitude w.r.t. fundamental
(50Hz) in dB

Frequency (Hz) Fig.18. Frequency spectrum of Phase A current for healthy and motor under rotor faults.

Magnitude w.r.t. fundamental
(50Hz) in dB

Frequency (Hz) Fig.19. Frequency spectrum of Phase A current for the motor under stator inter-turn fault.

IV. CONCLUSION This paper presents a model based on coupled circuits and winding function theory for squirrel cage induction motors. The proposed model successfully simulates the steady state and the transient response of the healthy induction motor and the motor under stator, rotor, and mixed faults without the need to change the model structure. The simulation results reveal that the rotor faults increase speed and torque ripples levels as fault severity increases. In addition, the rotor bars currents distribution are affected and the nearest rotor bars to the fault carry highest currents which add a probability for easier fault development. It is worth mentioning that the rotor failure effects on motor performance are not great. Simulation of motor under stator faults reveals that the speed and torque ripples are greatly affected by the faults. Furthermore, the motors draw unbalanced stator currents. Finally, simulation of motor under mixed faults shows that mixed fault are more severe due to overall increase in rotor bar currents because of unbalanced magnetic field

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produced by stator. Thus fault severity development will be faster.

APPENDIX WINDING FUNCTION THEORY

 Winding function states that the mutual inductance between any two circuits can be calculated from: L ij = (µ o Lr/g) N i (θ r , Ф) N j (θ r , Ф) dФ (21)

where, Ф is a particular point along the air gap, and N i (θ r , Ф), N j (θ r , Ф) are winding function of circuit i and j and they are defined as the magneto motive force (MMF) distribution along the air gap for a unit current flowing in winding. For a sinusoidal distributed stator windings the winding function is:

N a (θ r , Ф) = (N s /2P) cos (PФ)

N b (θ r , Ф) = (N s /2P) cos (PФ – (2π/3)) N c (θ r , Ф) = (N s /2P) cos (PФ + (2π/3))

(22)

(23)

(24)

where, N s = (4/π)NK d K p K s = effective number of turns of winding, N = pN tsp N spp = actual number of turns of windings, K d , K p and K s are distribution, pitch, and skew factors, p is number of pole pairs, N tsp is the number of turns per slot per phase, and N spp is the number of slots per pole per phase. For the rotor, the winding function of each rotor loops can be written as [2]:

N k (θ r , Ф) =

 -(α r /2π) , 0 < Ф < θ k 1-(α r /2π) , θ k < Ф < θ k+1 -(α r /2π) , θ k+1 < Ф < θ k

(25)

where, α r = (2π/n) = angle between any two adjacent bars, θ k = θ r + (k – 1)α r = bar k angular position.

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[1] William T. Thomson, Ronald J. Gilmore, " Motor Current Signature Analysis To Detect Faults In Induction Motor Drives-Fundamentals, Data Interpretation, And Industrial Case Histories", Proceedings of the thirty- second turbo machinery symposium-2003.

[2] Samir Hamdani, Omar Touhami, Rachid Ibtiouen, “A Generalized Two Axes Model of a Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor for Rotor Fault Diagnosis”, Serbian journal of electrical engineering, Vol. 5, No. 1, May 2008, 155-170.

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[4] Mohamed Boucherma, Mohamed Yazid Kaikaa, Abdelmalek Khezzar, "Park Model Of Squirrel Cage Induction Machine Including Space Harmonics Effects", Journal of Electrical Engineering, VOL. 57, NO. 4, 2006, 193–199.

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[6] C. Kral, A. Haumer, and C. Grabner, "Modeling and Simulation of Broken Rotor Bars in Squirrel Cage Induction Machines", Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering 2009, Vol. I, WCE 2009, July 1 - 3, 2009, London, U.K.

[7] Y. Lipo, T.A. Lipo, H.A. Toliyat, and M.M. Rahimian, "Transient Analysis of Induction Machines Under Internal Faults Using Winding Functions", Wisconsin Electric Machines and Power Electronics Consortium, RESEARCH REPORT 92 1.

[8] Mohamed E. El-Hawary, "Principles of Electric Machines with Power Electronic Applicatios", ©1986 by Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, A Reston Book Published by Prentice-Hall, A Division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.,

[9] C. J. Verucchi†, G. G. Acosta†‡ and F. A. Benger, "A Review On Fault Diagnosis Of Induction Machines", Grupo INTELYMEC – Facultad de Ingeniería – Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos, Aires, Argentina.2008.

[10] Djalal Eddine Khodja, and Aissa Kheldoun, "Three-phases Model of the Induction Machine Taking Account the Stator Faults", World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 52 2009.