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VAN ATTA

C. M.

VAN ATTA

>

VACUUM SCIENCE AND


ENGINEERING
Properties of Gases at

Low Pressure;

0)

Vacuum Measurements;
Design and Operating Features of

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Vacuum Pumps and Systems

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66854

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Properties of Gases at Low Pressure; Vacuum Measurements Design and Operating Features of Vacuum Pumps and Systems
;

C.

M.

VAN ATTA
Vacuum Technology

Consultant on

McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY


New York
San Francisco
Toronto

London

Sydney

FOREWORD

The dynamic character of the vacuum industry caused by the


ever -increasing variety of applications, as well as advances in technology, clearly presents the need for a current text on vacuum science and engineering. On two other occasions in the past the author, Dr. C. M. Van Atta, in conjunction with the Kinney Vacuum Division of The New York Air Brake Company, saw this need and supplied the

b6->lSi*i2**
,,._.

*^*---.--.^.<.^

HARRIS

'X

industry with The Design for High Vacuum Systems in 1945 and a The presence of many revised edition under the same title in 1958.
of these worn, dog-eared manuals on engineers' and scientists' desks, as well as the great demand for new and replacement copies, stands as testimony to Dr. Van Atta's success in meeting the needs of practitioners in the field.

6 '3-^

'>2r

jifi^

c^

797%> - --

^ '^

By comparison,
is

far superior to

prior book.

We

Vacuum Science and Engineering and is certainly much more comprehensive than the believe that Dr. Van Atta has achieved in this new
this

new

effort

and up-to-date coverage of his subject, which should again meet the needs of the industry and become a standard text and reference for all those who wish to study or practice in the
writing a complete
field

of

vacuum

science

and engineering.

been a privilege for the Kinney Vacuum Division to encourage and support this work. It is with admiration and respect for the eminently qualified author that we submit this book for your use.
It has

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Copyright 1965 by McGraw-Hill, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form without permission of
the publishers. Library of Congress Catalog Card

J. E. Chappell, General

Manager

Kinney Vacuum The New York Air Brake Company


Division

Number 65-17497

66854

23456789-MP-9876

PREFACE

Over the past forty years vacuum technology has evolved from an
incidental but essential tool of scientific research to a rapidly growing

branch of engineering. In the 1930s the principal engineering application of vacuum technology was in the manufacture of light bulbs and radio tubes, for which processes ingenious equipment was developed largely by an empirical approach to the problems of evacuating and surface conditioning. The transition from a research tool
to

engineering application was greatly accelerated during World II, particularly by the multilateral attack on the release of atomic energy by the Manhattan Project. Many divisions of that

War

project required the development of


diverse

and greater

capabilities

vacuum equipment of more than had ever been contemplated

previously.

Subsequently the

particle accelerators for nuclear

design and construction of large and high-energy physics and the


distillation,

development of such processes as vacuum coating,

and

metal degassing made further engineering applications of the vacuum technology developed during the war. More recently the requirements of controlled thermonuclear research and space simulation have converted to an engineering scale the techniques of ultrahigh vacuum which had previously been applied only to small scale laboratory experiments.

The process of evolution and growth of vacuum engineering is by no means complete. Requirements in many fields of research and
materials processing are even now inadequately met, either because the desired vacuum conditions cannot be reliably attained, or because the cost of doing so is excessive. Improved methods of vacuum

pumping, surface degassing, and the measurement of low pressures are needed to meet these present requirements. The role of sorption (adsorption, absorption, and chemisorption) on surfaces is imperfectly understood, so that significant further progress will depend upon a concerted experimental and theoretical effort to understand the basic phenomena involved in the interaction between gases and surfaces at low pressure.

Vlll

PREFACE

In Vactmm Science and Engineering the objectives are to give in form the scientific basis of vacuum technology, to describe in some detail the performance characteristics and limitations of vacuum pumps, gauges for measuring gas pressure, and other components of vacuum systems, and finally to provide design criteria in sufficiently general form to be useful in designing vacuum systems for a wide range of applications. Throughout the text an effort has been made to describe in some detail the physical processes which determine the operating features of the various devices which are discussed. The object in doing so has been to give the reader not merely a catalogue of typical vacuum components and perform^ance data, but in addition a basis for judging the importance of various phenomena which occur in vacuum systems. It is my belief that only by this approach can one provide guidance for the optimization of the design of vacuum systems for a variety of uses. Aside from my own experience in large scale experimental research and industrial vacuum development, I have drawn heavily upon the expanding technical literature dealing with vacuum technology. The emergence of the published proceedings of the American Vacuum Society and its predecessor organizations, and those of the International Organization for Vacuum Science and Technology, as well as such journals as Vacuum (Pergamon Press, London), Le Vide (la Societe Francaise des Ingenieurs et Techniciens du Vide, Nogentsur-Marne (Seine) France), and Vakuum-Technik Springer- Verlag OHG, Berlin) has greatly eased the task of locating literature on new developments in vacuum technology. With the kind cooperation of Dr. J. H. Leek, I have found his excellent book. Pressure Measurement in Vacuum Systems (published for the Institute of Physics and the Physical Society by Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London), most helpful in writing Chapter 3 of the text. It is with deep appreciation that I acknowledge the incentive and support provided by the New York Air Brake Company for undertaking the task of writing a book of this character. The critical comments of R. R. Cyr and Z. C. Dobrowolski of the Kinney Vacuum Division of the company contributed significantly to the final version, particularly of Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 8 of the text. I am deeply indebted to Miss Margaret R. Thomas, who not only typed the manuscript with its many revisions, but also maintained order in the growing lists of references, permissions, and credits. I also wish to thank the many authors, publishers, and vacuum equipment manufacturers who have responded so generously to requests to use illustrative material and who, in many cases, have provided the glossy prints necessary to reproduce photographic illustrations. C. M. Van Atta
fairly classical
(

CONTENTS

Foreword
Preface

v
vii

Chapter
1-1. 1-2. 1-3.

1.

The Nature and Behavior

The General Gas Law

......
.

of

Gases
1

Molecular Constitution and Kinetic Theory of Gases Pressure Related to the Average Molecular Kinetic Energy

4
5 8 11

1-4.
1-5. 1-6. 1-7. 1-8. 1-9.

The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Law Velocity of Sound in a Gas Flow of Molecules through a Hole Molecular Mean Free Path

12
13

Van

der Waals' Equation of State

15
18

Dependence of Viscosity on Molecular Diameter

BEFEBENCES

......
Chapter
2.
.

22

Gas Flow
23
23

2-1.
2-2. 2-3.
2-4. 2-5. 2-6.

Gas Flow

in

Vacuum Systems

2-7. 2-8. 2-9.

Pumping Speed and Conductance Viscous Flow Poiseuille's Law Pressure Drop Formula Turbulent Flow in Vacuum Systems Correction to Poiseuille's Law Due to Surface Slip Gas Flow in the Transition Pressure Range Gas Flow at Low Pressure Conductance of a Long Tube at Low Pressure

26
30
31

34 36

....

43 44
47

2-10.

2-11.

Conductance of an Aperture Conductance of a Tube at Low Pressure Corrected

2-12. Clausing

2-13.

and Monte Carlo Corrections to the Knudsen Conductance Formulas Summary of Gas-flow and Conductance Formulas

RErEBENCES
t^*

Chapter

3.

Pressure Measurement in

3-1. 3-2.

Liquid Manometers The Diaphragm Manometer

......... ......... ........ ......

for

End Effect

49
51

57

62

Vacuum Systems
63 65

X
3-3. 3-4.

CONTENTS
The Dubrovin Gauge The McLeod Gauge Thermal Conductivity Gauges Hot-cathode Ionization Gauge The Bayard-Alpert Ionization Gauge Hot -cathode Magnetron Ionization Gauge
.

CONTENTS
6-5.

XI

Pumping Speed

of Diffusion

69
78

6-6.

3-5. 3-6.

90
103 107

Limiting Forepressure for Diffusion Pumps 6-7. Factors Contributing to the Ultimate Pressure of a Diffusion 6-8. Fractionation and Purging
6-9.

)C_3-7.

3-8. 3-9.

Resume of Diffusion-pump Performance BBFERENCBS

Magnetically CoUimated Electron

Beam
.

Ionization

Gauge

111

3-10. Cold-cathode Ionization

Gauges

3-11. The Alphatron Gauge ^3-12. The Knudsen Radiometer Gauge 3-13. Calibration of Vacuum Gauges 3-14. General Remarks on Ambiguities of Pressure Measurement in Vacuum Systems

....

113 122 123


124
7-1. 7-2. 7-3.

Chapter

7.

KEFBBBNCES

.... ......

128
131

jfJ:"^-

Pumping Speed Measurement of Gas Flow Mechanical Pump Speed Measurements Measurement of the Pumping Speed of Diffusion Pumps RBFBBENCES
Alternative Definitions of
. . .

..... ........ ..... .......... ..... .......


Pumps

249 254
257

Pump

268 272 272

The Measurement

of

Pumping Speed

....

274 277
291

293 302

Chapter
Detectors
133
143

8.

The Design

Chapter
4-2. 4-3.

4.

Vacuum Analyzers and Leak

^^-1. The Vacuum


8-2. 8-3. 8-4. 8-5. 8-6. 8-7.

Vessel
Seals

.........
of

Vacuum Systems

303 307

4-1. Magnetic-deflection

4-4.
4-5.

Mass Spectrometers The Omegatron Mass Spectrometer Linear High-frequency Mass Spectrometers Halogen Leak Detector
Leak-detection Techniques

Demountable Motion Seals

313 318

152 159 161


167

Vacuum
Vapor

Valves

BErBBBNCES

Chapter
5-1. 5-2. 5-3.
5-4.

Functions of Mechanical Pumps General Features of Oil-sealed Mechanical Pumps Pumping Speed of Oil-sealed Mechanical Pumps The Effect of Condensable Vapor upon Mechanical
.

..... ......
.

and Traps Absorption Traps


Baffles

328 341
348

8-8. Selection

5.

Mechanical

Vacuum Pumps

The Pumpdown Time of Vacuum Components BEFEBENCES

358
.

362

169 169 172 177


179
9-1.
9-2.

Chapter

9.

Ultrahigh

Vacuum

ance
5-5.
5-6.

Gas Ballast

......... .........
Pump
.

Perform

The Dominance of Surface Phenomena High-temperature Bakeout

9-3

Metal Gaskets 9-4 Bakeable Valves


9-5

..... ....

.....
.
. .

363

365 370 378 382 385 398


401

Other Methods of Preventing Contamination by Condensables 5-7. Mechanical Booster Pumps 5-8. Analysis of Mechanical Booster-pump Performance 5-9. Computed Performance Curves for Mechanical Booster Pumps 5-10. Measured Performance Curves for Mechanical Booster Pumps 5-11. Overheating of Mechanical Booster-pump Rotors 5-12. Vapor Compressor Action of a Mechanical Booster Pump
5-13. Molecular-drag

......

183 185 186 194 199

Two -region Vacuum Systems


Pumping Absorption Pumping
Getter-ion

9-6
9-7

202 204 205 214 218

Evaporative Deposition of Reactive Metals 9-9 Cryogenic Pumping 9-10 Ultrahigh-vacuum Systems
9-8

Pumps

5-14. Axial-flow Molecular Turbine

RErBBENCBS

...... .... ........


Pump
6.

BEFEBENCES
APPENDIX APPENDIX
APPENDIX
I

Chapter
,

Vapor-jet

Vacuum Pumps
219 227

APPENDIX IV APPENDIX
Author Index
Suhj ect Index

6-1.

The Steam Ejector

6-2. Diffusion

Pumps

6-3. Theoretical
6-4.

Compression Ratio for a Vapor-jet


for Diffusion

Pump

Working Fluids

Pumps

230 240

..
III
.
.

II

..... .....
. .

.... .... ....


.
. . .

408 434 435


439

440
441

442 445
447
451

COMMONLY USED SYMBOLS

In some cases it has not been convenient to avoid the use of a symbol for more than one purpose. The most prevalent meaning of each commonly used symbol is defined in the following list. Exceptions are clearly indicated
in the text.

radius of aperture or tube

A B
c

area

magnetic flux density


nozzle coefficient

C
Cj,

conductance
specific specific

heat at constant pressure

C^

D
e

heat at constant volume diameter of aperture or tube electronic charge


energy, electric field intensity

E
/

molecular sticking coefficient, frequency


force

h,

height of a column of liquid


coefficient

R Ho
ij^

positive ion current

i_

electron current
electrical current

1
Ic

gas constant per molecule (Boltzmann constant)

/v

conductance factor
length

mass of molecule
molecular weight

M
n
Wmoi

N
p

number of molecules per unit volume number of molecules in one mole total number of molecules present
probability of ionization

pressure

gas flow in molecules per second

COMMONLY USED SYMBOLS

gas throughput,

PdVjdt
w,,,^]/^

R
Rg

general gas constant

gas constant per mole,

Re
s

Reynolds number
sensitivity

pumping speed
displacement speed of a mechanical

pumping speed
t

at the inlet of a

pump pump

time

T
u

temperature
drift velocity of

a gas

U
V

velocity
velocity

F w

W
z

volume mass flow power, mass of gas

Z
a

number of electronic charges per atomic number


accommodation
ratio
coefficient

ion

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

y
e
r]

GJC^

slip coefficient, efficiency

viscosity

mean

free

path
heat conductivity

A
V

free molecular

number

of molecules impinging on one square centimeter of surface in

one second
I

molecular diameter
density,

p a
T

mass per unit volume

collision cross section

period

CHAPTER

THE NATURE AND BEHAVIOR OF GASES

1-1.

The General Gas Law.


is

of permanent gases

Our understanding of the behavior based upon the experiments of Boyle, Charles,

and Gay-Lussac which lead

to the general gas law. Experiments by Boyle resulted in the conclusion that the volume of a body of gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure, which
is

equivalent to the expression

PV =

const

(1-1)

where the pressure is defined as the force per unit area exerted by the gas on the walls of the containing vessel. Charles and Gay-Lussac observed that if the volume of a body of gas is kept constant and its
temperature varied, the pressure increases linearly with the temperature, so that

^1
in

-Po(l

aT)

(i_2)

which T is the temperature on any chosen scale, such as centigrade F^is the pressure of the body of gas at zero on the same temperature scale, and is a constant. If Eq. (1-2) is multiplied by V^, the initial standard volume of the gas sample,

PiFo Then if the volume


is

PoFo(l

ocT)

(1.3)

changed to some other value, such as V, we have accordmg to Boyle's law

PV =
which can be written as

PF(1

aT)

(1.4)

PV = P.V^T +
The experimental
fact
is

1/a)

(1.5)

centigrade scale, 1/a

the temperature is measured on the 273.I6C, that is, the volume of a body of
if

that

^^^ changes by an amount equal to 1/273.16 of its value T^^o^''?* at C for each degree change in temperature. This constant is essentially the same for a large number of gases (hydrogen, helium

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING and others) and therefore has very broad signifione chooses a new temperature scale such that 273.16 C zero, then one can write
If

THE NATUEE AND BEHAVIOR OF GASES

nitrogen, oxygen,

cance.
is

PV = PoFoaT
where now the temperature
or Kelvin, scale.
is

(1-6)

measured on the absolute centigrade,


is

The implication
at constant

of Eq. (1-6)

that the pressure exerted

by a gas

0K.

volume approaches zero as the temperature approaches Although many common gases follow Eq. (1-6) over a wide
Table
1-1.

temperature and pressure the mass of a standard volume of gas is proportional to its chemical combining (or molecular) weight. Consistent with Avogadro's law, precise experiments have shown that under standard conditions of temperature (0C or 273.16K) and pressure (normal atmospheric pressure defined as 760 torr) 1 gram molecular weight of any gas occupies a volume of 22,415 cm^. This is the volume occupied by 32.00 g of oxygen (0^) at STP standard temperature and pressure, which is the arbitrary standard on the chemical scale of molecular weights. A partial list of molecular weights of
given in Table 1-1. A more comprehensive table of molecular weights of gases is given in Appendix I. By referring to Eq. (1-7) we can now write the general gas law in terms of the molecular weight of the gas, as follows:
gases
is

common

some

Molecular Weights of Some Common Gases*


Chemical Scale
Molecular weight
2.016 4.003 20.18 28.02 28.98 32.00 39.94
44.01

Chemical formula

Ha He Xe
^'2

^^=|^oT
where

(1-8)

Air (mean)

M = molecular weight of the gas


B
The
ratio

W = mass of the sample of gas

O2 Ar

CO2

CL
* See, for

70.91

example, American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill


1957), pp. 7-9-7-12.

Book Company, New York,

molecular weights) of the gas present. The numerical value of E^ depends upon the units of mass, pressure, volume, and temperature used. If the pressure is measured in torr, the volume in liters (1 hter = 1,000.027 cm^), and the temperature in degrees Kelvin, then for 1 mole (W/M 1) of gas

= universal gas constant per mole W/M is the number of moles (gram

range of temperature and pressure,

from this relationship at sufficiently large values of the pressure and low values of the temperature. Thus only for an ideal gas would the pressure actually approach zero as the temperature approaches absolute zero.
all

real gases depart

PV = R,T
Under standard conditions

(i-sa)

Returning to Eq. (1-6), since at constant temperature the product PV for a given body of gas is constant for a given mass of gas, and
since twice the

volume

the product the product


write

not only to the absolute temperature but also to the mass of the body of gas W, and we may

PF is PF in

same pressure contains twice the mass, proportional to the mass of the body of gas. Thus
at the

so that

E(,

P= F = T = = PV
T

760 torr
22,415/1,000.027

22.415

liters

273.16K

0C

760 X 22.415
273.16

62.364 torr liters/K g mole

Eq.

(1-6) is proportional

PV =

P,V^T

WRT

(1-7)

where

i? is a constant of proportionality. Equa,tion (1-7) is one form of the general gas law which describes the behavior of an ideal gas

the numerical value of E^ is given in the mass of a body of gas is of no concern, but the changes in pressure, volume, and temperature are of interest. In this case a convenient form of the general gas law is

For the

Table

1-2.

common choices of units In many situations

PiFi
which follows directly from Eq.

P2F,
(1-9)
(1-8), since for

and

is

approximately correct for

many common

gases over a wide

range of practical conditions. Further understanding of the nature of gases was contributed by Avogadro, who demonstrated experimentally that at the same

PVjT

a given

body

of gas

is

a,

constant.

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


1-2.

THE NATURE AND BEHAVIOR OF GASES

Table

KuMERicAL Values of Bg Gas Constant peb Mole fob Vabious Systems of Units* f

p
dynes/cm^ newtons/m^
torr torr

V
cm^

T
"K K K K "K
"R

i?

molecules present in 22.415 liters of any gas under normal conditions. The number of molecules in a unit of volume of gas under normal conditions is therefore
ti,

mS
cm^
liters

8.314 X 10' ergs/K joules/K 8,314

6.023 X 1023

^^^Y5
It

^-^^^ ^

^^" molecuIes/cm3

atm
psi

cm'
ftS

62,364 62.364 82.057 1,546

torr

cm'/K

torr liters/K

atm cm'/K
lb ft/R

is worthwhile pausing to note the magnitude of this number. Its meaning can perhaps be visualized best by noting that if the molecules in a cubic centimeter of gas under standard conditions were arranged

at the corners of tiny cubic cells, the

number of such
10i8)'/iS

cells in

a centi-

mole of gas occupies 359 ft' at 32F and atmospheric pressure (14.67 psi). The Bankine absolute temperature scale is based upon the Fahrenheit scale for which absolute zero temperature is 459.69F. Thus T R = T F + 459.69 just as T K = T "C + 273.16. Physical Tables (Smithsonian Instit Sources: W. E. Forsythe, Smithsonian tution, Washington, D.C., 1954, 9th rev. ed.; T. Baumeister (ed.), Marks' Mechanical Engineers' Handbook (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York,
*

In engineering units,

lb

meter length would be


(2.687

lO^")!^ <^

(27

10"

sothatthedistancebetweenmolecules would be about 3.3 x 10"' cm, which is approximately the average distance between molecules for a gas under standard conditions.
Actually, in a gas the molecules are not arranged in a simple pattern but are moving randomly relative to one another. During their motion the molecules suffer collisions between themselves and bounce off one another. The average distance which the molecules move

1958), 6th ed.

1-2.

Molecular Constitution and Kinetic Theory of Gases.


the concept that all matter called molecules had been

From the time of the Greek philosophers is made up of tiny indivisible particles
.

sporadically put forward to explain one or another of the observed On the basi s of the experimental results reported properties of matter by a number of independent investigators, Avogadro concluded that

between collisions is called the mean free path (A). The molecules impinge on the walls of the confining vessel and bounce back (or are reemitted) from the wall. The momentum transfer from the
also

equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules. We have already seen that under standard conditions (760 torr pressure and 0C) a gram molecular weight of any gas fills a volume of 22.415 hters. The number of molecules contained in this standard sample of gas is obtained from the precise measurement of the faraday,

molecules to the walls of the vessel produces the outward force exerted by the gas upon the walls of the vessel. This force per unit area is precisely the pressure which appears in the general gas law
discussed in the previous section. The molecules of an ideal gas may be considered as a mation to be elastic spheres about 10"* cm in diameter.
first

approxi-

The random

F =

96,488 coulomb

the electrical charge necessary to deposit a gram equivalent of a substance in electrolysis, and the charge on an electron,
e

1.602

X 10-19 coulombs

which is the unit of ionic charge, determined quantities


"^.^i ''mol

The

ratio of these experimentally

96.488
1.602

10-1-

6.023 X 1023

is

known as Avogadro's number; it is the number of molecules in a gram molecular weight of a substance, and is therefore the number of

motion of the molecules consists of motion in all possible directions with various individual molecular velocities. As will be shown, the temperature of the gas determines the mean square velocity (i.e., the average value of the square of the velocity) for any particular type of molecule and the average kinetic energy for molecules of all types in a mixture of gases. The kinetic theory of gases consists of the statistical mechanical treatment of the microscopic molecular motions and leads to a basic understanding of the gross behavior of a gas in terms of molecular motions. 1-3. Pressure Related to the Average Molecular Kinetic Energy. Consider a box of rectangular cross section filled with a pure gas such that the density in the box is n molecules/cm', each molecule having a mass of m grams. The two walls of the box perpendicular to the x axis suffer collisions by molecules by reason of

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING component of velocity


v^.

THE NATURE AND BEHAVIOR OF GASES


unit

their x

If the molecules in the box are moving in a random manner, half will be moving with positive v^ and half with negative v^. Those moving in the positive x direction

with a specific value of v^ will strike the wall in a time ht if they are contained in a sheet of thickness v^ dt adjacent to the wall. The number striking a unit area of the surface in the time dt is thus n^v^ ?)tj2, so that the number striking a unit area in a unit of time is
If each molecule on striking the surface of the contamer experiences an elastic collision, the magnitude of v^ does not change on collision with the wall but the direction reverses. The other components of velocity, f and v^, are not changed in the collision since the surface

proportional to the kinetic energy of the molecules contained in a volume nmv^j2. If the mass of the molecules is measured in grams and their velocities in centimeters per second, the pressure is measured in dynes per square centimeter. Comparing the expression for the pressure given in Eq. (1-11) with that of the general gas law given in Eq. (1-8), one concludes that

P =
If this expression
is

W R.T VM
2

^/snmv^

(1-12)

divided by 2w/3 the result

is

y^mv'
since

under consideration is parallel with the yz plane. The change in momentum of a molecule on striking the wall is thus 2mv^. If in the above discussion n^ is the number of atoms with x components of
then the number the range dv^ is in velocity the with striking a unit area each second for this group momentum of change of Therefore the rate n^v^ dvj2.
velocity in the range between v^

VM
=

n
K

(1-13)

2 Wmoi

Wmol

W
w
:

and

v^

dv^,

Introducing

- =
i?n

1.3805 X 10-ierg/K

(1-14)

known

of molecules

is

as the Boltzmann constant, which molecule, Eq. (1-13) yields

is

the gas constant per

nv^ dv^

[2mv^

n.mvj

dv^
i.e.,

E =

Yzniv^

= %kT

(1-15)

For the entire distribution in v^, the total rate of transfer of momentum, and therefore the force per unit of area, is
f*CC

dv^

nmv^^

(1-10)

the average kinetic energy of a molecule is proportional to the temperature, and the energy associated with each coordinate direction (x, y, z) in its motion is therefore A;T/2. Combining (1-15) with (1-12) results in the important fundamental expression

Jo

P =
Similarly

%n(}4mv^)

34n(%kT)

= nkT

dynes/cm^

(/^bar)

where

v^^ is

the

mean

square velocity in the x direction.

(1-16)

nmVy^

and

P,

nmv.

Since the motion is random there is no difference in the average motion in the various coordinate directions, so that
,/

The derivation of the preceding relationships from elementary kinetic theory does not depend upon the molecular mass of the gas involved. Remembering that from Avogadro's law equal volumes of gas under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules, it follows that for two different gases
y2miV^^
If

=
V^''

V,

=
V,

J^ma^a^

/4kT

(1-17)

we now

define

Also since

V^

=
in

VJ'

then

Vj

+ =

V,

(;2)'^

(j.jg)

}/3V^

as the root-mean-square velocity, then

and the pressure measured

any direction

P =
From

P^

P^

= P,=

y^nmv^

(1-11)

^=

[m-J

(1-19)

this result it is evident that the pressure exerted

by a gas

is

Thus, in general, the root-mean-square velocities of molecules of

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE NATURE AND BEHAVIOR OF GASES

inversely proportional different gases at the same temperatures are of their gram molecular to the square roots of their molecular masses, or

weights.

From Eq.

(1-11)

P =

root-meannrnv^fZ, so that the value of the


is

exponential term is e = 1. It also goes to zero as v approaches infinity because of the dominance of the exponential term. For all values of v between zero and infinity /^ is positive and therefore must have a maximum value, which is the most probable value of the
velocity.

parameters square velocity of the molecules in terms of macroscopic


(V i\M

(1-20)

\nml

where p

=nm\s the
is

and the pressure


(see Sec. 3-1).

density of the gas in grams per cubic centimeter microbars in dynes per square centimeter or

1-4.

The Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Law.

In

the

to inquire into discussion of the previous section it was not necessary might assume gas of a molecules the which the distribution in velocity the molecules if even that clear is It as a result of mutual collisions. the subvelocities directed randomly but of a gas were to have equal would quickly introduce a wide distribution

0.2 0.4 0.6

08
V

1.0
in

1.2

14 16

1.8

2.0

22 24 26

2.8

30

sequent elastic collisions


particles is

units of vp

in velocity.

and

after each

of the Since in an elastic collision the total kinetic energy is the same before m{v^^ quantity v^)l2 the preserved, molecular collision, even if v^ and v^ must change to

Fig. 1-1.

plot of/, the

Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution function.

satisfy the conservation of

momentum.

For a body of gas composed

By

differentiating /^ with respect to v

of a large

number

of molecules, therefore, (m/2)

^ ' remains
n

constant

to zero, the

and setting the result equal most probable value of the velocity can be determined.
4
/

of even though the individual molecular velocities change because also therefore and mutual collisions. The root-mean-square velocity the velocity the pressure exerted by the gas are independent of features Some collisions. distribution which may result from mutual equilibrium the of form of gas behavior, however, do depend upon the so that a distribution in velocities which gas molecules assume, complete a to essential knowledge of the velocity distribution is understanding of the properties of a gas.

Y"

dv
so that

^\2fcy/

kT ^

'

_ l2kTY
*
\

(1-22)

TO /

The

deduced by

gas was actual distribution in velocity of the molecules of a scope the beyond Maxwell and Boltzmann by arguments

The meaning of the most probable value of the velocity is that more molecules have this value than any other value of the velocity. The most probable velocity is not, however, the arithmetic average value of the velocity, which is calculated as follows
/oo

in of this text. The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law expressed is terms of the velocity in a randomly chosen direction
^

dv

l2kT\^
1.128t;.

(1-23)

dn

l.-mv'ltkT

(1-21)

\2kTj

Finally, the

mean square

velocity

is

obtained from the Maxwellsimilar averaging process.

The quantity dnfn

of molecules in dv is the fracdnjn the velocity range between v and v + dv, bo that of velocity unit per tional number of molecules in this velocity range
is

the fraction of the total

number

Boltzmann distribution function by a


dv

range.
f^

plot of /^

is

goes to zero at v

shown in Fig. 1-1. The distribution function the because of the w^ term, since at

=:
Joo

= 3 kT
TO

(1-24)

IQ

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEBING


is

THE NATURE AND BEHAVIOR OF GASES


Correspondingly for this case
(1-25)
v^y

11

from which the average molecular kinetic energy

without considerconsistent with Eq. (1-15), which was arrived at from Eq. (1-25) ation of the details of the distribution law. Also we have for the root-mean-square velocity

and

V,

= 1.128 X 4.09 X 10* = 4.61 x 10* cm/sec = 1.225 x 4.09 x 10* = 5.01 x 10* cm/sec

In general, the above basic factor may be written in terms of the mass of a molecule of unit molecular weight, m^ = 1.66 x 10-^* g

/2kTY_ /2kY( TY
average Which of the above velocities is of interest as representing the consideration. behavior of a gas depends upon the process under representative Table 1-3 provides a convenient summary of these to another. one from velocities and the numerical factors for converting
2

1.38

vA/ y X io-i\^/y Y^

1.66

10-2*
(

=
when T
is

T\A
cm/sec
(1-27)

1.29

X 10*177)

Table

1-3.

Velocities Most Pbobable, Average, and Root-mean-squarb


Equation
0.887
XV.

expressed in degrees Kelvin and in grams per mole. Sound in a Gas. A velocity closely related to those discussed above is the velocity of sound in a gas, which according to elementary texts on sound is given by
1-5. Velocity of

0.816

(t7
^av

(1-28)

2 /2J;TV^

1.128

0.921

in
1.225

which

(1-29)

1.086

many factors in Table 1-3 are so near unity that for between distinguish to approximate calculations, it is not necessary
The conversion
velocities. the most probable, the average, and the root-mean-square factors numerical with The basic factor (2A;T/m) appears in all three weight molecular average which are not very different from one. The in a gram molecules of of air (28.98 g/mole) divided by Wmoi, the number molecule air an molecular weight, gives for the average mass of

is the specific heat of a gas at constant pressure and G^ is the specific heat at constant volume. According to the kinetic theory of gases the value of y is simply related to the number of degrees of

where C^

freedom of the molecule in terms of the independent coordinates of motion (three represented by x, y, and 2), the axes of rotation, and the

modes of vibration. The result is that for the common gases, the molecules of which are monatomic (one atom per molecule), diatomic (two atoms per molecule), or polyatomic (more than two atoms per
molecule), the predicted values of y are respectively 1.66, 1.40, and 1.33. The observed values of y for a number of common gases are given in Table 1-4. The velocity of sound is

%=

%=

%=

28.98
4.81

6.023

10^3

X 10-" g

Using
(1-14),

this average molecular

mass and the value of h given in Eq. the most probable velocity of an air molecule at 68r = 20C
(

293K)

is

_ lykTf \ m I - (ir(1-30)

2
( \

1.371

X 10-^- X 293 4.81 X 10-23 /

^^^ ^

^^,

J2

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEKING


air at

THE NATURE AND BEHAVIOB OF GASES

13

For

68F
v^

20C, therefore,

= 0.837 X 4.09 X 10* = 3.43 = 1121 ft/sec = 770 mi/hr


sound

10*

cm/sec

by reference to Eq. (1-27) when n is in molecules per cubic centimeter and A is in square centimeters. The volume of gas at the pressure in the vessel escaping each second is obtained by dividing the molecular flow rate q by the density n, so that

in a gas is of the order of threegas molecules. It is evident the of fourths the average speed (vav) of the density (n) independent is speed sound from Eq. (1-30) that the the temperature of the gas, but is proportional to the square root of velocity. as is the average molecular

and

in general the speed of

dV
dt

Av
n
= 3.64

10^

JT\^ A \M

cm^/see

(1-33)

which for

air at

0C would be
dV_

Table

1-4.

Observed Values of y fob Common Gases


Diatomic
1-63

11
1-401

273

\^

3.64

10^

\28.98/

Monatomic

11.2^
1-408 1-402
1-400 1.401

liters/sec

(1-34)

Helium Argon Krypton Mercury (vapor)

Air

1.667
1-66
. .

Hydrogen
Nitrogen

1.66

Oxygen
Carbon monoxide ...
Polyatomic
.

For the flow rate through a hole to agree with this value the thickness of the wall at the point where the hole perforates the wall and the diameter of the hole must be small as compared with the mean free
path for collisions between the molecules, a dimension to be defined and evaluated in the next section.
1-7. Molecular Mean Free Path. The concept of the mean free path of the molecules in a gas is of considerable practical importance in defining the behavior of a gas in a vacuum system. As was previously mentioned, the molecules of a gas may be considered to act in a first approximation as if they were elastic spheres of diameter of the order of 10-^ cm. Let us designate the molecular diameter of a particular gas as | and attempt to calculate the distance a molecule will travel on the average before undergoing a collision with another

Ozone

1-29

Water

(vapor) ....
.

1.305 1.300 1.336

Carbon dioxide ...

Ammonia
1-6.

Flow of Molecules through a Hole. A quantity of some molecules which interest in vacuum technology is the number of
strike a surface in a unit of time.
It

can be shown that the number

of the walls of gas molecules which impinge on each unit of surface area of a containing vessel during a second is given by^-*

molecule.

yinvav

~ 2^1 m

molecules/cm^ sec
/

(1-31)

The above in which the value of v^y given in (1-23) is substituted. molecules of flow of result can be applied to the calculation of the rate is area, of hole through a tiny hole in a very thin plate. If a tiny

A molecule having a velocity v moves a distance v dt in the time dt. The molecule under consideration suffers a collision with another molecule if anywhere its center is within the distance f the molecular diameter, of the center of another molecule and therefore sweeps out the volume
,

dV=TTPvdt
Since there are

(1-35)

cut in the thin wall of the vessel beyond which the gas density zero, the rate at which molecules of gas leave the vessel is

is

nA /2kT\
^

= ''^=2^1"-^) 2^\~m"j =
3.64

n molecules/cm', the volume associated with one molecule on the average is l/n cm^. Thus when the volume in Eq. (1-35) becomes equal to l/n, it must contain on the average one other molecule and a collision has occurred. That is, for a collision to occur on the average

X W^iTIMY'^nA

molecules/sec

(1-32)

when
dt

TTi^VT,

(1-36)

References indicated by superscript numbers are listed at the end of the


chapter.

t,

the average time between collisions.

14

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

path is the distance traveled, that corresponding to Eq. (1-36) and is therefore

The mean

free

is,

THE NATURE AND BEHAVIOR OF GASES


vt^

15

=
TTWl*

(1-37)

Although the above derivation gives the correct general dependence of the mean free path on the density and molecular diameter, it is oversimplified by not taking into consideration the fact that the molecules have a distribution in velocity and that not only the reference molecule but also all others are in motion. The exact calcu25^ in the lation, ^ which will not be given here, introduces a factor of path is free mean denominator so that the corrected value for the

as the dimensions of the tube, both types of important and the flow is of intermediate character. The range of pressure over which the flow is not strictly viscous or molecular is referred to as the transition region. Flow rates for this pressure regime will be discussed in a later section.

path

is

of the

same order

collisions are

of State. From the general gas one concludes that at T = 0K and finite pressure the volume of the gas becomes zero. This conclusion is in contradiction to the concept of a definite molecular diameter, i, Clearly the gas cannot be compressed discussed in the previous section. to a volume smaller than that occupied by the tightly packed molecules without destroying the __
1-8.

Van der Waals' Equation


(1-8)

law as stated in Eq.

kT
since

structure of the molecules themselves.


(1-38)

Even

be-

fore this extremely

compact arrangement of the

from

(1-16)

P =nkT

The mean free path is thus inversely proportional to the molecular density and to the square of the molecular diameter. Alternatively, it is proportional to the temperature and inversely proportional to the pressure. As the pressure in a vacuum system decreases during pumpdown, the mean free path changes from the order of 7 x 10"* cm
10"* torr. at atmospheric pressure to about 5,000 cm at a pressure of Values of the mean free path for various gases, determined from Eq.
different types of
(1-38) using values of the molecular diameter f deduced from two measurement, are given in Appendixes II and III.

The mean free path is a parameter which enters into the determinaIf tion of the flow of gases under the influence of pressure difference. the mean free path is short as compared with the diameter of a tube
through which the gas is flowing, collisions between molecules will predominate and collisions with the walls of the tube will occur only The flow dominated for those molecules which are close to the walls. by intermolecular collision is referred to as viscous flow because the However, if the mean free flow pattern is that of a viscous fluid. path is long as compared with the diameter of the tube, collisions of the molecules with the walls predominate and intermolecular collisions are not important. In this latter regime the molecules move independently of one another and nothing like viscous flow occurs. The molecules move randomly in straight lines, colliding with the On the walls of the tube and proceeding in a chaotic manner. average, more molecules move from a region of higher density (or
pressure) to a region of lower density for purely statistical reasons.

reached the assumption of entirely valid because of the restrictive effect of collisions between closely spaced molecules. Moreover, the finite size of each molecule eliminates a certain amount of Fig. 1-2. Exclusion volume which cannot be occupied by another volume in molecular collisions. colliding molecule, no matter how low the molecular density may be. Consider a molecule A which undergoes a collision by molecule B moving in a given direction, as shown in Fig. 1-2. The center of the molecule B can lie anywhere outside the hemisphere of radius |, the molecular diameter, but cannot lie inside this hemisphere because of the collision process. The center of molecule B is therefore excluded from the volume
molecules
is

random motion would no longer be

V^

%7Ti^

(1-39)

Such an exclusion volume is associated with each molecule so that the volume available for random motion of the molecules is not V, the volume of the vessel, but is V - b where
b

VzttNP

(1-40)

which

This process

is

referred to as molecular flow.

When

the

mean

free

molecules during impact is an between two colliding billiard balls. However, it is known, for example, from the behavior of condensed gases that definite attractive forces act between molecules. Surface tension IS an evidence of the existence of such forces.
elastic force similar to that

no forces acting between the molecules of a gas until a and that the force acting between the

is a volume four times that of the N molecules present. The general gas law is also based upon the assumption that there

are

collision occurs

The

origin of the

16
attractive force
is

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE NATURE AND BEHAVIOR OF GASES


in order that all three roots

17
coefficients of

the mutual electrical polarization of one molecule attraction between the resulting electrical dipoles. the and another by This attractive force is relatively long-range in terms of the molecular separation distances over which it remains effective and is referred to as the

be equal.
see that

Comparing the

(1-44) with those of (1-43)

we

3F.

RT.
6

Po

3F.2 "
is

F3:

P,

'

Ab
P,

Van der Waals force. Van der Waals, largely on an

empirical basis,

had proposed an

from which the

critical

point

defined as that for which

equation of state for gases of the form

F
b)

A
36
2762
b,

7'.=

8t7

276^

(1-45)

{^-v)^^

= RT

(1-41)

Conversely, one can solve for A, parameters and find that

and

R in terms of the
-R

"triple point"

which differs from the general gas law for perfect gases in the correction term AjV^ added to the pressure due to the attractive forces between the molecules and the subtraction of b from the volume to allow for the region in space from which the molecules are excluded by one another
because of their finite dimensions. By multiplying out equation and rearranging terms one has

^=

3F,''P,
'

6=-!-^
3

= ^7^
3T,

8P F

(1-46)

Van der Waals'

PV

A\ A\

1_

(1-42)

V
plus terms of higher order such as b^jV, etc., which are negligible. It has been shown* that Van der Waals' empirical equation (1-41) is consistent with the equation of state for an imperfect gas calculated from basic assumptions about the intermolecular forces to terms of as

Returning to the form of Van der Waals' equation given in (1-42), evident that for large values of the temperature the term b in the coefficient (6 AjRT) dominates and the pressure is higher than that of a perfect gas. Alternatively, when the temperature is very low, the term AjRT dominates and the pressure is less than that for a perit is

fect gas.

In Fig. 1-3 the behavior of the isothermal curves (dependence of pressure on volume for a constant value of the temperature) above
is

high an order as we normally need to consider. For our present purposes it is instructive to write equation (1-41) in descending powers of F as follows

Van

der Waals'

and below the critical temperature shown. Curves for temperatures below the critical tempera-

ture represent three domains.

At

F3

V^

+ jV

Ab

(1-43)

the high-pressure end of the curve the substance is condensed in the

This is a cubic in V for any given values of T and P. In Fig. 1-3 are plotted typical isothermal curves (pressure versus volume) for various values of temperature. For sufficiently small values of the pressure and temperature there are three values of the volume, corresponding to Eq. (1-43), for a given value of the pressure as represented by the horizontal dotted line in Fig. 1-3 passing through the points i,j, and k. However, when the temperature is sufficiently high the isothermal curve

form of a liquid. When the pressure has been reduced to a critical


value,

some of the substance evap-

orates to form a vapor.

From
on the

the
iso-

point

to the point k

has only one root. The critical point is that indicated at c where for specific values of temperature, pressure, and volume all three roots of the equation are equal. At this point

thermal curve the actual behavior of the substance does not follow the Van der Waals equation with a minimum and a maximum in the pressure. In the mixture domain ,, the pressure remams constant as
the volume
is

(7

7^)3

F*

37^7,

3FF,2

_ F/ =

increased until

all

j it o rr, nr i 1-3. Typical Van der Waals isoFig. i values of various thermal curves for the temperature.

(1-44)

18

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


is

THE NATURE AND BEHAVIOR OF GASES

19

converted into vapor. This is illustrated by the horizontal After the liquid is all evaporated, the pressure straight line from i to k. decreases as the volume is further increased in a manner somewhat In this third, or vapor, similar to the behavior of a permanent gas. domain the behavior differs from that of a permanent gas in that it does not quite follow the general gas law since the Aj V^ and b terms of Eq. (1-41) do not become negligible until the volume has become quite large and the pressure small as compared with their values at the
the liquid
point
k.

with the lower plate is zero, whereas that in contact the gas in contact The drift m, the velocity of the upper plate. with the upper plate is to the proportional point is some intermediate velocity of the gas u at that plate, so distance y from the stationary

or

(1-47)

The

drift velocity

temperature the isothermal curve passes through the triple point where the region of liquid-vapor mixture has narrowed down to a zero range in pressure. At all values of the temperature above the critical temperature there is no condensation of the substance into a liquid so that for all values of the pressure, no matter how large, no condensation occurs. This is the condition in which the substance The higher the temperature above the is called a permanent gas. critical temperature the more nearly does the P V curve approach that of a perfect gas as represented by the general law, Eq. (1-8). All substances conform approximately to the behavior described above, the difference being in the values of the parameters given in

At the

critical

molecules and in molecular velocity.

u is superimposed upon the random velocity of the most physical situations is much less than the average

direct proportionality for the above equation is Newton and has been confirmed experimentally of that consistent with of presrange wide for gases over a case the In liquids. ' sure and for

The assumption of

of a gas the uniform velocity gradient can be understood in terms of the transfer of momentum from one layer of gas to the adjacent

W/^^X^^W^^^/^^X^/^/Z/W//^
1

u.

^y

Eqs. (1-45) and (1-46).

In Appendix II values of the critical temperature, the Van der Waals parameters A and b, the molecular diameter | calculated by Eq. (1-40), and the mean free path calculated by Eq. (1-38) are given for several
gases and vapors. 1-9. Dependence

In order to approximate layer. the momentum transfer we note that molecules on the average move up or down because of their random motions a distance A, the

j%mMm^^^%^^%^^^%;^^,
Fig.
1-4. Drift

11/

velocity

distribution

due to viscous

forces.

mean free path. Molecules from a distance A above move the layer under consideration with a momentum given by
(mu).

down

into

of

Viscosity on

Molecular Diameter.

Because the molecules of a gas have an appreciable cross section for collision determined by the molecular diameter discussed in Sec. 1-7, the flow of a gas through a tube or hole due to a pressure difference is characterized by a viscous drag. The viscosity of a gas can be derived in terms of the molecular diameter, which also determines the mean free path and the correction to the volume term in Van der Waals' equation of state. Viscous forces appear when there is a variation in the drift or flow velocity of a gas from point to point. Such variations will occur whenever gas flows through a tube because of the maintenance of a pressure difference, the gas flowing from a region of high pressure to one of low pressure. Our quantitative understanding of viscosity originated in the work of Newton, who assumed that the internal viscous
forces are directly proportional to the velocity gradient in the fluid.

= my +

Wy

(1-48)

However, molecules from the layer at the height y the higher layer at y with a momentum
(mu)_

^ also

move

into

=m

(1-49)

In the random motion one-third of the molecules may be regarded as in the vertical direction and one-third each in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the motion. Only the one-third moving the vertical direction contribute to a transfer of momentum between

moving

Consider a body of gas, as shown in Fig. 1-4, between two parallel by a distance w, with the lower plate at rest and the upper plate pulled to the right with a force F. The drift velocity of
plates separated

Of these one-half are moving upward and one-half downis the average random velocity of the molecules, the number crossing an area A is the number contained in the volume Ava.yt and moving in the required If the total number of direction. molecules per cubic centimeter is n, then the number crossing from
ward.
If
Va,v

the layers.

20

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


is

THE NATURE AND BEHAVIOR OF GASES


is

21

above during the time A<


Ap_^

KnAv^v

M and the momentum transfer


I

The above

HnAva,v('mu)+ A<

= Hnm

ndom
Ave.yU A<
(1-50)

calculation of the viscosity is only approximate since the motion of the molecules is treated inexactly by assuming
all

that the molecules

move

in their

random motion with the average


is

thermal velocity and


Similarly, the transfer upward across the boundary due to molecules

since every molecule

assumed to travel a
collisions.

distance equal to the

mean

free

path between

When

the

moving upward
A2)_

is

}4nAva,y(mu)_

M = Hnm

Avs.yU

(1-51)

and the distribution in free paths are distribution in becomes much more complicated and problem the taken into account, approximations.*'^ only successive at by arrived, be the solution can

random

velocities

of the gas below the boundary the difference between these two quantities, so that

The

total increase in the

momentum

The
is

result of the calculation for rigid, elastic, spherical molecules


is

is

that the viscosity

^p = ^p+ -

AiJ_

M
nmXAva,yU,
is

,
(1-52)

0.499

0.499 pvav mvav vA ^ 0.499 -^^p;j^ = ^^^


,

,, ,, (1-58)

Since the rate of change in momentum below the boundary by that above.

the force acting on the gas

where p = nm is the density in g/cm*. then have instead of Eq. (1-57)

Accepting this latter result we

0.998 /mA;T\^

F=

-r-

}/inmVa,\X

A<

(1-59)
-

(1-53)

By definition the coefficient of viscosity is tangential force per unit area divided by the resultant velocity gradient dujdy of the shear motion in the fluid. In this case
?

the ratio

between the

Equation (1-59) provides another basis for measurement of the molecular diameters of various gases. Solving for the molecular diameter,

0.999

/mkTY'

i\i4

(1-60)

=
rj

FjA
dujdy

FjA

ujw

(1-54)

from which the cross section for


gas
is

collisions

between the molecules of a

which according to

(1-53) is

HnmVavX
free

(1-55)
(1-38),

a=
for

0.998 /mA;T\'^
77|2
r]

-)
\
TT

(1-61)

Substituting the value of the the viscosity of a gas is

mean

path A given in

we

find

Substituting numerical values for k and tt and the molecular weight 6.023 x lO^* ^ ^^ ^j^g following numerical results are Wmoim

'

3(2)'^77|2

obtained

in

which f

is

again the molecular diameter.


is

According to Eq. (1-23)

5.22

10-11
iv)

cm
cm'

(1-62)

the average molecular velocity


Va,y 'av

2 /2fcT\^

=-u m
tt'-^V

and

8.52

10-21

(MT) H

(1-63)

/mjfcn^_ 0.667 /mfen^^

Experimental values of the viscosity for several gases are given in


(1-57)

so that

n
(1-56) it

37Tf

'\)

^1^

I)

Appendix III together with computed values of the molecular diameter f from Eq. (1-62) and of the mean free path A from Eq. (1-38). These
values of f

From Eq.
1

can readily be seen that the dimensions of viscosity are mass/length x time. In the cgs system the unit of viscosity is
poise

and A based upon viscosity measurements should be compared with those given in Appendix II based upon the experimental
values of the

g/cm

sec

dyne sec/cm^.

Van

der Waals parameter

b.

22

VACXJUM SCIENCE AND BNGINEEBING

The viscosity result is rather surprising in two respects. to increase and density the of independent predicted to be is a gas of common of case the in whereas temperature, root of the the square as liquids the viscosity is known to decrease as the temperature is Also for two different gases the viscosities at some standard increased. temperature should be proportional to the square roots of their molecAs surprising as these results may be, experimental ular weights. measurements of the viscosity of gases confirm them for a wide range

The above

CHAPTER 2

GAS FLOW

of temperatures and pressures. However, at extreme values of the pressure, both high and low, the viscosity of a gas departs from this prediction. At very high pressure the average distance between the

2-1.

Gas Flow

in

Vacuum Systems. An

understanding of gas

molecules is so small that the intermolecular forces become important and the momentum transfer differs markedly from that assumed above. At values of the pressure which are so low that the mean free path exceeds the distance between the walls, colUsions between molecules only rarely occur so that collisions with the walls predominate. In this case there is no transfer of momentum directly from one layer of gas to another, but only between the moving gas and the walls of the tube or Thus, as mentioned in Sec. 1-7, the mean free path is a vessel. characteristic dimension which determines the behavior of a gas and
in particular determines

flow over a very wide range of pressure is essential to an intelligent approach to vacuum-system design. A system is generally at atmospheric pressure initially, is then "roughed out" by mechanical vacuum pumps, and is flnally evacuated to the desired limiting pressure by diffusion pumps with an appropriate arrangement of water-cooled The mean free path of the gas in the system is baffles or cold traps.
initially

whether the gas exhibits the property of viscous

or of molecular flow. The flow of gas due to a pressure difference will be discussed in the next chapter. In that discussion the relative magnitude of the mean free path as compared with the dimensions of the tube or passage

through which the flow occurs

will

be of basic importance.

REFERENCES
1.

L. B. Loeb, Kinetic Theory of Gases (McGraw-Hill 1927), pp. 94-96.

Book Company, New York,

very smaU (about 7 x 10-" cm), as discussed in Sec. 1-7, so that the dimensions of the pipes and manifolds are many times the mean free path and the flow of gas is limited by viscosity. When very low pressures are finally attained, the mean free path may be large (perhaps hundreds or thousands of centimeters, depending upon the pressure attained), so that the dimensions of the pipes and manifolds are then a very small fraction of the mean free path of the molecules. Viscosity then no longer characterizes the gas flow, which is then referred to as molecular flow. At some value of the pressure, depending upon the cross-sectional dimensions of the particular part of the system under consideration, the molecular mean free path is about equal to those dimensions and the flow is neither purely viscous nor purely molecular in character. This is the transition region for which the
equations for gas flow are rather complex.

2. Ibid.,

pp. 86-88.

3. J. C. Slater

4.

and N. H. Frank, Introduction to Theoretical Physics (McGrawHill Book Company, New York, 1933), pp. 462-465. S. Chapman, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 211 A, 433 (1912); 216A, 279 (1916); 217A, 115 (1918).
D. Enskog, Kinetische Theorie der Vorgange in massig verdilnnten Gasen, Dissertation, Uppsala, 1917.

The characteristics of viscous and molecular flow will be developed some detail in this chapter, and a number of formulas of practical interest given. The transition region will be discussed qualitatively
in

5.

to illustrate the approximate behavior of gas flow in this range of pressure. In addition, the conductance formulas so essential for the design of vacuum systems to meet specifications will be developed.

Applications to typicd vacuum-system situations will be made in Chap. 8, dealing with vacuum-system design. 2-2. Pumping Speed and Conductance. Before proceeding

With a detailed discussion of the characteristics of gas flow it will be useful to define the terms pumping speed and conductance as used in "Vacuum-system design.
23

24

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

GAS FLOW

25

The prime movers in vacuum systems are the mechanical vacuum pumps, steam or oil vapor ejectors, diffusion pumps, and a variety of These specialized pumping devices, such as ion and getter pumps. which at a rate devices all remove gas from the system to be evacuated is measured by the pumping speed Sj,, which is defined as the volume of gas per unit of time dVldt which the pumping device removes from the system at the pressure existing at the inlet to the pumping device. The common units of pumping speed are liters per second, cubic feet per minute (cfm), and cubic meters per hour; several other combinations of volume and time are used occasionally. A convenient table of conversion factors for these units is given in Appendix IV. The gas flow into a pumping device, called the throughput, is defined as the product of the pumping speed and the inlet pressure,
I.e.

The pumping speed of a vacuum pump according to (2-1) is 8^, = QlPm- By analogy with this expression it is convenient to define the pumping speed at any point in a vacuum system as

S
where

=Q

(2-5)

is the gas flow in the system and P is the gas pressure at the the pumping speed is defined. In the case of an opening which point at which the quantity of gas Q is flowing from a region at through or pipe region at Pj, the pumping speeds at the two points in a to pressure Pi given by are the system

and

Sn

T^

Q =
for

P,A =

dV
^i
(2-1)

so that

-^

and

Q P =
into (2-4), the result
is

(2-6)

~di

liters per second, torr cubic feet = micron = 10"^ torr), listed with second per liters minute, per // (n conversion factors in Appendix IV. The throughput is proportional to the mass flow of gas since under conditions of steady flow such that the

which the common units are torr

Substituting these values of P^

and Pa

pressure

is

constant

d Q = ^'7 dt "dt
rl

dV

iW)^
is

/W

R.TdW BoTdW

Dividing through by
(2-2)

Q and

rearranging terms leads to


1 1 1

dt

by

reference to

(1- 8).

Thus the mass flow

8,

(2-7)

dW
(2-3)

dt

The flow of gas entering the pump from the

vessel being evacuated

Thus the pumping speed at any point in the system can be obtained from the known pumping speed at some other point and the conductance of the portion of the system (pipes, holes, or passages) in between. In
particular, for the combination of a

generally passes through a series of pipes or conduits which present a resistance to flow, so that between any two points along the flow path

pump

pipe of conductance

the combined
1

of pumping speed 8 and a pumping speed is, by analogy.


1

between the ends of a pipe leading to the pump) a pressure In fact, a net flow will occur only if such a pressure difference does exist. By analogy with an electrical circuit, the conductance between two points along the flow path is so defined that the quantity of gas flowing through the system is the product of the conductance and the pressure diff'erence, i.e.,
(e.g.,

difference will exist.

^ =

8
or

8,

+C

(2-8)

Q = (P,- P,)G

(2-4)

By reasoning similar to that given above, it can easily be shown that lor several openings, pipes, or conduits in series, each with individual
conductances G^, G^, C3,
etc.,

Since Q is the quantity of gas per unit of time entering the pipe or conduit at the pressure Pj, then if no additional gas leaks into or is removed from the pipe between the points of interest this same quantity of gas comes out the pipe at pressure P^.

the combined conductance

is

given by
(2-9)

(series)

= + G\

Cj

C,

26

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

GAS FLOW

27

Also for several openings or pipes in parallel, so that the gas flow divides between them, the combined conductance is

(parallel)

Ci

C^

C3

(2-10)

center moves faster, and that farther from the center, and thus nearer the wall, moves more slowly than that in our sample cylinder. The component of force due to the faster-moving gas just inside the cylinder under consideration can be written by reference to the definition of viscosity given in Eq. (1-54) as

The analogy with the conductance in an electrical circuit is obvious. The performance of a vacuum system is normally calculated by first
determining or assuming the total gas flow Q to be expected, then choosing a combination of pumping speed and conductance such that the desired working pressure can be maintained. The individual conductances of components {G^, C^, C^, etc.) are first determined, then the combined conductance is calculated by some combination of Eqs.
(2-8). (2-9) and (2-10), and finally the pumping speed is calculated by This resulting pumping speed 8 for the system must then satisfy (2-5) when Q is the gas flow expected from the vacuum process concerned and P is the specified pressure to be maintained. The definition of pumping speed under more complex conditions involving the outgassing of surfaces at reduced pressure, residual leaks into the system,

dv

P,

= coefficient of viscosity of the gas = surface area of the cylinder dvjdr = velocity gradient S = 277r Sx is the area of interest, and the
where
rj
;Sf

viscous force due to the

inside gas

is

thus

Ff where the negative sign


increases.

-27T7]r

dx

dv
(2-12)

arises because the velocity v decreases as r

and variation of the pressure with time is discussed in Chap. 7. Poiseuille's Law. The characteristics of 2-3. Viscous Flow flow of highly viscous liquids, such as "heavy" oil or molasses, have been observed qualitatively by nearly everyone. The flow rate of such

The corresponding viscous

force

due to the more slowly


is

moving gas outside the cylinder under consideration


P

27Tw(r

a hquid through a tube is proportional to the pressure difference causing the flow and to a high power of the diameter of the tube. This same tj^e of behavior occurs for gas flow at relatively high density. The formulas governing gas flow under these conditions will now be
discussed.
cross section (see Fig. 2-1).

8r)

8x(^]
\dr/r+ar
is
i;

However,

a,t

dr the value of the velocity

(dvjdr) dr, so that

dv\ v\

^^
dr

Consider the flow of gas through a long tube of uniform circular Between the ends of a segment of this tube a pressure difference Pj P^ exists, and gas flow occurs along the tube from the region of higher to that of lower pressure, i.e., from Pj to Pj. The gas contained within a thin-walled cylinder of radius
r

Tr) r/r+ir

dr\

and

P,

27Tri{r

dr)

dx\v+^dr
dr\
dr

(2-13)

and wall thickness

dr,

and within a

differential length dx of the tube,

Equilibrium will occur when the force due to the pressure difference given in Eq. (2-11) is just balanced by the sum of the viscous forces

experiences a force in the direction of flow given by the cross-sectional area 2Trr dr multiplied by the pressure difference 8P, so that

F^ and P given in Eqs. (2-12) and


277r

(2-13), so that

^F = 2^r8PJ^r

(2-11)

dP

dr

dv
-27Tri dx

dv

'dr-^"^^-^drV^dr^n.
I
,

The flow quickly reaches a steady state in which an equilibrium exists between this force and the
viscous forces from the gas, both at smaller and larger values of the radius. The gas nearer the

ZTTf)
which yields

dx\dr\

dv
dr

d^v
1-

y r dr

^
dr^
\

d^v

dr^

dr^

L
Fig. 2-1. Viscous flow through a tube,

rdP

(dv

d^v

d^v

28
If

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

GAS FLOW
Since Pj^

29

we drop

{d^jdr^) dr as being a small term of higher order than the

P^^

(Pj

P2)(Pi

Pa),

and

since

we

define Pay

remaining terms we have


1

(Pj

P2)/2, Poiseuille's
Tra*
-*

law can also be written as


rZ)*

dP
dx

= dH
dr^

\dv
1

.-

(2-14)

r]

r dr
is

8rjL

av(Pi "''
'

Pa "

128;L

Pav(Pi

(2-20)

It

is

easily seen that a solution of (2-14)

of the form v

=A +

Br^

and that the

particular solution of interest

is

A in

dP
.

(2-15)

2a is the diameter of the tube. As this equation is written the pressure is measured in dynes per square centimeter and the radius The quantity Q (or diameter) and length of the tube in centimeters. is thus measured in (dynes/cm^)(cm^/sec) = microbar cm^/sec, since

where

D=

4jy

ox

10* djrnes/cm^

by

definition

is

equal to 750.06 torr

bar.

which

is

a constant determined by the boundary conditions. In the event that there is no motion of the gas
in contact with the wall of the tube then ?; a, and in this case at r

Referring to the definition of conductance given in Eq. (2-4), it follows from (2-20) that the conductance of a tube of circular cross section at high gas pressure is

C(cm3/sec)=^-^^=^Pa.
in

(2-21)

(2-16)
4:r)

ox

According to (2-16) the gas velocity as a function of the radius is parabolic with maxiFig. 2-2. Velocity as a function of the radius in viscous flow through a tube.

mum
axis
(r

velocity
(r

Vraa.y.

which the quantities are all in basic (cgs) units, i.e., the dimensions and L are in centimeters, -q is in poises, and Pav is measured in dynes per square centimeter. Since 10* dynes/cm^ = 750.06 torr (mm Hg), the expression for the conductance in (2-21) becomes

{\r)){dPldx)a^

on the

0)

and zero velocity

at the wall

a) as illustrated in Fig. 2-2.

^
when the
conductance

(^^^/^^^)

m^

ttD*

10*

D*

^-

7^6

^''

^ ^ Pav
riL

^^-''^^

cross section of the tube each second


(2-16) across the cross

The volume of gas flowing through the is obtained by integrating Eq. section of the tube, so that the flow in volume F
is

pressure Pav is measured in torr. more usual unit of is liters per second, for which (2-21) becomes

of gas per unit of time

(liters/sec)

= lO-V

(cm^/sec)

3.27

x IO-2

(2-226)

dt

=
Jr=0

2iTrvdr

=-]
^n dxJr=0

(a^

r^)rdr=^'-^
8?^

(2-17)

ox

in
for

define the gas flow as in (2-2), then from Eq. (2-17) the gas flow through the cross section of the tube
If

we

we have

centimeters,

which the pressure is again in torr, the dimensions L and and the viscosity is in poises. Finally, since 28.3 liters, 1 in. = 2.54 cm, and 12 in. = 1 ft,

D
1

are in
ft^

^
If

(2-18)
dt
8r]

(cfm)

3.27

X 10-^
Ift^

dx

^ Pav X ^^ min
rjL
1

2.54

cmV

lin.

we now extend

the pressure drop under consideration to a length

1ft
12 in.

of the tube, where

L =

j dx,

then

28.3 liters

na^j^ri

P(dPjdx) dx
dx

=
na*
(Px'
l6r]L

9.46

X 10-2

Pav
=

(2-22c)

Q =

P^')

(2-19)

m which the diameter


feet,

f
Jo

This is one form of Poiseuille's law describing the flow of a viscous, compressible fluid through a tube of circular cross section.

is measured in inches, the length of the tube in the viscosity in poises, and the pressure in torr. The viscosities of various gases at a temperature of 20C are given in Appendix III. For the particular case of air at 20C 68F the

30
viscosity
is

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEKING


1.829

GAS FLOW

31

X lO"*

poise, so that in this case (2-226)

becomes
(2-23a)

2-5.

Turbulent Flow in

C
in

(liters/sec)(air at

20C)

179

Pav

through a tube

may

Vacuum Systems. The flow of a fluid be characterized by the dimensionless number


Re
pvD
(2-28)

which the pressure is in torr and spondingly, (2-22c) becomes

D and L are in centimeters.


=
517

Corre-

where p
(2-236)

C
in

(cfm)(air at 20C)
is

Pav
Ij

= = D= =
V
rj

density of the fluid flow velocity

diameter of the tube


viscosity of the fluid

which the pressure


2-4.

in torr,

D in inches,
From

and

in feet.

Eqs. (2-23a) and (2-236) a convenient "pressure drop" formula can be derived which provides guidance in the selection of a pipe size to be used for pumping air with

Pressure Drop Formula.

This is known as the Reynolds number. As the fiow velocity increases, the Reynolds number increases and the pressure difiference between two points along the tube increases consistently with Eq. (2-20) (where

a mechanical vacuum pump. Since by definitions Q = PmS^ and Q = (Pi - P,)G,

(2-1)

and

(2-4)

Q = ttD^PvI4:) until the Reynolds number exceeds a critical value. When Re > 2,000 (approximately), then the character of the flow
Instead of flowing in a smooth pattern of continuous flow by viscous flow, the fluid becomes turbulent and erratic with the appearance of eddies and oscillations This is turbulent flow, the onset of which can be predicted for any fluid by evaluating the Rejmolds number. The transition from viscous to turbulent flow will occur for any fluid approximately in the range 1,000 > Re < 2,000.
changes.
lines characterized
.

-P,^^ = -9Il.
If a pipe of diameter

(2-24)

for air at 20C, according to (2-23a).

is

connected to a mechanical vacuum pump of pumping speed Sj,, then, since the pressure at the pump inlet is the same as P^, the gas flow into the pump is Q = PiSj,, so that

pump capacity the rule is adopted that the pressure drop in the pipe must not be greater than one-fifth the pump inlet pressure, since Pav = (Pi + P2)/2, then the quantity
If for the efficient utilization of the

nearly always viscous in character and 2,000 the flow is nearly always turbulent in character, in which case the pressiire difference between two points along the tube no longer is given by Poiseuille's law (2-20), but becomes erratic in value and greater than that corresponding to viscous flow. At what exact value of the Reynolds number the flow
is

For Re

<

1,000 the flow

follows Poiseuille's law.

When Re >

2P,
0.9 to 1.0 (2-26)

Pav
is

Pi

"T

P2

becomes turbulent depends upon the roughness of the surface of the tube and other factors, but in any case is in the range 1,000 to 2,000. The throughput may be expressed in terms of the Reynolds number
as follows

approximately unity, as long as the rule stated for selection of pipe Thus (2-25) yields for the approximate value of sizes is followed.
Pressure drop (torr)

tD^

Q
But
since

Pv

ttD^

fjHe

rjl

pD

ReZ)

S^
D*

5.6X10-"%^
centimeters

(2-27a)

from

(1-8) p

= WjV

PMjR^T
77,?PT
(2-29)

179

when Sj, is in liters per second and D and L are in


Pressure drop (torr)
if Sj, is in

Similarly
(2-276)

1.9

517 D*

X 10-

For

air at 20C,

r]

T =

293.16K, and

M = 28.98 so that
=
(1-829
"L

1.829

x lO^*

poise,

R^

62.364 torr liters/K,

These cubic feet per minute, in inches, and L in feet. expressions provide a means of obtaining a rough check on the selection of the proper size for a given operating pressure range. If the pressure
drop so calculated is not small as compared with the desired operating pressure, a larger pipe size must be selected.

Q
when

(air

20C)

x 10-^)(62.364)(293.16)
.28.98

^^

^
(2-30)

= D is
measured

9.06

X 10-2 Re

torr liters/sec

in centimeters.

32
If

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

GAS FLOW

33

we assume that turbulence


Q,

sets in at

Re

2,000, then the critical


is

throughput above which

the flow will

be turbulent
liters/sec

ISlDtorr

(2-31)

vacuum practice in which turbulence occurs. Consider the case in which a vacuum tank has been evacuated to a very low pressure, and then air is admitted by opening a valve to atmospheric To be specific, assume that the valve is connected to the pressure. vacuum tank by a tube 1 cm in bore diameter and 10 cm in length.
Situations do develop in

pump of 110 cfm or about 50 liters /sec displacement speed is to be used and the connecting pipe length is 2 m. The pumping speed of such a mechanical pump at a pressure of 0.05 torr is about 38 liters/sec. (See Chap. 5 for mechanical vacuum-pump characteristics.) Then according to (2-27a)
assume that a mechanical
0.01

38 X 200

179

D*
is

so that the appropriate internal pipe diameter

According to

(2.19)

and

(2-23a) the throughput will be

179 Z)*

D=
(P,^ -

8.1

cm

3.3 in.

Q
Initially P^*

p^)

< Pi'' so that according to Poiseuille's law Q = i7^Ho(760)2 = 5.17 X 10' torr liters/sec

whereas according to (2-31) turbulence occurs for any value of throughput greater than Q which for our chosen example is just 181 torr liters/ Thus initially, when the pressure Pj in the tank is low, the insec.
rushing air will experience turbulent flow. The flow will continue to be turbulent until the internal pressure has reached a value such that

assuming that the connecting pipe has an inside diameter of length of 200 cm, the question is whether pumping down the system from atmospheric pressure will result in turbulent flow for some portion of the pumpdown cycle. Since at high pressure the pumping speed will be nearly equal to the theoretical displacement speed of the pump, the pumping speed S^ s 50 liters/sec. From Eq.
8.1

Now

cm and

(2-23a)

= S,P = =

C(P,

Pi)

179

P,y(P, Z)<

P,)

Oo or

1^^0(7602

Pa^)

181

179

D*
Ij

P(O.Ol)

759.5 torr, so that turbulent flow occurs essentially that is, until Pj for the entire period of admitting air to the vacuum tank since the throughput does not drop below the critical value for turbulent flow until the pressure in the tank is within about 0.5 torr of atmospheric
pressure.

for the conditions described above.


is

From
179

(2-31) the critical

throughput

Q,

1812)

-
jj

Z)<

P,(0.01)

However, when pumping situations are considered, the occurrence of throughput in excess of the critical value for turbulence is not usual and in any case does not lead to the need for design alterations. At low pressure, the throughput is automatically low since in the region of viscous flow the throughput depends upon the square of the pressure.

so that turbulence will be present during the pressure

pumpdown

until the

P^=
is

181

^-

102

38.5 torr

179 Z)3
reached, below which the flow will be viscous. At this value of the pressure the pipe conductance, according to (2-23a), is

The question is then whether the

flow during the roughing-down period of a system is turbulent during the early (high-pressure) portion of the pumpdown cycle when a reasonable combination of mechanical pump

displacement and connecting pipe is used. According to the criterion suggested in Sec, 2-4, the pressure drop in the pipeline should not exceed one-fifth of the pump inlet pressure when the system is at the operating level. Consider a system for which the mechanical pump must maintain a base pressure of 0.05 torr, so that the pressure drop in the pipeline should not exceed 0.01 torr. To be ouite specific, let us

(at

P=

38.5 torr)

= = =

179

D* -

(38.5)

(8.1)*
' 1'79^177T7^(38.5)

200

1.46

10^ liters/sec

34

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

GAS FLOW

35

is The conductance of the connecting pipe at this value of the pressure of speed the that pump of the so much larger than the pumping speed torr) evacuation is not affected by the very small pressure drop (0.01 difference pressure a creates Even though turbulence in the pipe. from 760 down significantly greater than 0.01 torr at higher pressures,

Molecules experiencing absorption and reemission represent a layer of gas which is at rest next to the wall and provide the viscous drag discussed above. It can be shown that the coefiicient e, which defines
this effect,
is

given

by

measurably decreased to 38.5 torr, the actual speed of evacuation is not the criterion in Sec. as long as by the presence of turbulence. Thus, the occurrence of pipe, connecting 2-4 is followed in the design of the need for altering any present not turbulent flow during pumpdown does be expected to may flow turbulent the choice of pipe size. Although in almost any cycle pumpdown occur during the early phase of the flow in the viscous upon based the design parameters

U R^Tl

-/

(2-33)

where / is the fraction of molecules which are absorbed and reemitted, and 1 / is the fraction which are specularly reflected. By substituting this expression into Eq. (2-32) one obtains for the gas flow through a tube of circular cross section

vacuum system,

dependent upon low-pressure range, where the performance is critically altered by the be not need pipe, the dimensions of the connecting of the pumpportion high-pressure the occurrence of turbulent flow in systems, vacuum in occur does therefore flow down cycle. Turbulent requirement.^ design additional any imposes but not in a way which Slip. 2-6. Correction to Poisseuille's Law Due to Surface confirmed been has (2-20) Eq. given in as flow Poiseuille's law for viscous experimentally over a wide range of gas pressure and tube diameter.

Q
-128j

16\2
c,D^)

-f
I

D^

Pi

f
(2-34)

CiPavi>*

Pl-P2

where

c,

=
128>;

(2-35)

and

However, as the pressure is decreased for a given diameter of tube, the Poiseuille's flow rate eventually begins to deviate from that predicted by the gas that assumed it is law Poiseuille's of In the derivation law.
If this is not the case, but velocity drops to zero at the tube wall. velocity, referred appreciable an wall has the instead if the gas next to of the form expression an given by is the flow to as surface slip, then

'^^

16\2 lW~/

(2-36)

When the pressure Pav is sufficiently high, the term c^P^yD^ dominates the term c^D^ and the flow follows Poiseuille's law as given in Eq. (2-20). When the value of the pressure is such that in (2-34) the term CiPav-D* is equal to the term c^D^, the character of the flow departs
significantly

from that of

Poiseuille's law.

The pressure

for

which

Q = -^Pav(P.-Pi)(l +
128yL

this condition occurs will

be referred to as the transition pressure Pj

and
(2-32)

is

given by

Pi)(

D
16^

c,P,D*
or

c,D3
(2-37)

L
in

\l28rj

the coefficient which determines the velocity of the gas at the inner surface of the tube. The interaction of the gas with the walls can be analyzed in terms of two distinct processes. Some gas molecules in striking the wall experience specular reflection and thus retain the same component of If all molecules velocity in the direction of flow as before the impact. there reflection specular striking the tube wall were to experience

P.=

which

e is

c^D

At pressures

significantly below P^ the viscous flow term c^Ps^vD* is of decreasing importance and the nonviscous term CjD^ dominates. The correction to Poiseuille's law due to slip is therefore negligible at values of the pressure which are large as compared with the transition

pressure, but

would be no "drag"

effect at the wall

and the gas velocity would be

uniform over the cross section of the tube. Other molecules strike microscopic irregularities in the wall and bounce several times. Under these conditions a molecule may be absorbed by the wall and then reemitted later with a random distribution in angle and velocity.

becomes so important below the transition pressure that the character of the flow is completely altered. From (2-34) and the definition for conductance

C=
P.

C^P^yD*

CaD^
(2-38)

-P.

36

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Cj

GAS FLOW
so that

37

where

From the disare given by Eqs. (2-35) and (2-36). and the form of Eq. (2-38), the character of the conductance of a tube can be seen to change radically, depending upon the
and
c^

cussion above
pressure.

K=

3.81

X 103

is 1.

If the pressure

is

large

compared with

P(, the conductance

If the empirical expression for c^ at very low pressure given in (2-39) compared with the theoretical expression given in (2-36), one finds

is

given by Eq. (2-21) and is (a) proportional to D*, (6) proportional to the pressure, and (c) inversely proportional to the viscosity. is 2. If the pressure is small compared with P the conductance inde(c) and (a) proportional to D^, (6) independent of the pressure, pendent of the viscosity.

that the value of / (the fraction of molecules which are absorbed and reemitted randomly when they hit the wall) is approximately 0.74, and therefore the fraction specularly reflected is about 0.26. If the pressure is sufficiently, high the terms k^Pa,^ and k^P&Y are very large

An exact 2-7. Gas Flow in the Transition Pressure Range. treatment of gas flow in the pressure range in which both viscous and molecular flow are important is difficult and unsatisfactory because the coefficient of slip, the e which appears in (2-32) and is defined in (2-33),. An empirical approach to this is not calculable from first principles. problem was offered by Knudsen^* based upon a series of carefully controlled experiments on gas flow. Knudsen found experimentally that the coefficient Cj given in (2-36), which determines the magnitude of the nonviscous term in the corrected form of Poiseuille's law (2-34),
can be expressed in the form

x lO^TIM)'^. The Thus Knudsen's results imply that the fraction of molecules absorbed and reemitted, as contrasted with those which are specularly reflected, changes slowly in the transitional pressure region. Including Knudsen's results in the
3.07

compared with unity and c^ Kikjk^) = corresponding value of/ is then about 0.85.

complete expression for the conductance of a tube given in (2-38), the


final result is

C
in

(cm3/sec)

Pav

128??

^+

3.81

M^f ^-^1^5^ ^
k^Pav
L'

(2-43)

which the values for k^ and fcj are those given in (2-41) and (2-42), the viscosity is measured in poises, the dimensions in centimeters, the
pressure in dynes per square centimeter {fi bars), the temperature in degrees Kelvin, and the mass in grams, so that the conductance is measured in cubic centimeters per second. Converting units to torr
for pressure

=K
in

-f fciPav

(2-39)

kari 2^ av

which

and to

liters for

volume, the above expression becomes

A-=-.,
by

^x4(5^f. 12 n^X m
J

3.81X10.(1)" \M]

(2-40)

(liter/sec)

3.269 X

10-2-^
rj

substituting the value of Vav given in Eq. (1-23) value for {2kTlm)''^ given in (1-27). The values

and the numerical

Z)*

3.81
(2-41)

ITV^l T\^ 1 + \m) 1 +

1. 1.333 1. 333

X X

103A;iPav
lO^jfcoPav

D^
(2-44)

i"

This latter expression can be written

and

k.

1.24

5(i!L)"=1.38xlO-.:?(|| \ TJ n \kT/
rj

(2-42)

C-

=3.269

10-

PavJ>
3.81

/TWl +
\m)
1

0.1 .liliMITf^iP^^DIr])

+0.1 81(MITf^{P^^DIrj)
(2-45)

were obtained by

fitting the experimental results of many measurements of gas flow and pressure difference. At sufficiently small values of the pressure the terms JfcjPav and AjaPav are both negligible compared

with unity, and


1
1

+ +

The quantity on the left side of (2-45), the conductance multiplied by the length divided by the cube of the diameter of the tube, is therefore a simple function of the variable Pav-D/? as shown graphically in Fig.
2-3.

fciPa
1

fc^Pa

Equation (2-45)

is

of the form

References indicated

by

superscript numbers are listed at the end of the

chapter.

ex

ax

-\-

b
I

dx

(2-46)

38

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

GAS FLOW

39

where

y=^CX

L
/MY'

the conductance, reaches a minimum. For pressures less than Pmin the conductance increases asymptotically toward the low-pressure value to be discussed in the next section, and at pressures greater than Pmin

=
n

a
Differentiating

3.269 X 10-2

0.181

(ff

the conductance increases with increasing pressure and eventually becomes proportional to the pressure as given by Poiseuille's law (2-21). In (2-37) the transition pressure P, is defined as that value of the pressure for which the viscous term CjD^Pav in the expression for the
C2D^.

with respect to x and setting the resultant has a derivative equal to zero determines the value of x at which y
(2-46)

conductance of a tube given in (2-38) is equal to the nonviscous term When (2-38) is compared with (2-45) and (2-46) it is evident

that in the notation of (2-46)

when Pav

=
ex

P(,

minimum

value.

The

result

is

3^Tnin

'b(d
,.

14

ax
(2-47)

dx
Solving this expression for x yields

Substituting the values of the various quantities into (2-47) yields

{(be

2ad

-a)

[(be

ay

iabdf"'}

(2-53)

(E^) =5.47(^f
\
ri

(2-48)

/mm

\M/

the value of Pav>/? at which CLjD^ has a According to (1-58) the viscosity is given by

This

is

minimum

value.

in which the negative sign leads to a meaningless negative value for x. Using the positive sign, substituting the values for x, a, b, e, and d given above into (2-53), and noting that Pav is now the transition pressure Pj, we have

T]

0.499 wmUavA

1.497

XP
Vav

(2-49)

^
By
Thus

P.D

= ''-Am)

T\^
^'-''^

by

substituting from (1-11).

Thus from

(2-49), (1-27),

and Table

1-3

combining (2-54) with (2-506) we obtain

1 ^ ^ 1.497 av A

1.145

10^

(2-50a)

\m)

'l

when the

pressure

is

measured

in

dynes per square centimeter

at the transition pressure

(/xbars)

Since 10* dynes/cm^

750.06 torr,

8.59
96?7

D
(2-56)

11.14

1.145

10*

X 750 X 10"'l]^l \
(2-506)

That

''Am)
when the
pressure
is

\
(2-49) it

is, at the transition pressure the diameter of the tube is about 11 times the molecular mean free path. Since for air at 20C the viscosity r] 1.829 x 10"* poise, the mean

free

measured

follows that at the point of

From (2-48) and in torr. minimum conductance

path according to (2-506)


A

is
1

293

8.59

829 X 10-*

x 10-3

-^
so that
,n

\28.98/
(2-51)

1.57i)

(2-52)

where A is given in centimeters and in torr. Thus for air at room temperature the minimum value of the conductance of a tube occurs at a pressure
-i

P P

(2-57)

That

path of the molecules is 1.57 times the diameter of the tube, the parameter GLjD^, and therefore also
is,

when the mean

free

min

X 10-3

X 10-3
1.57Z>

3.18

10-3

40
in

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEBBING


which the pressure
given in torr and the tube diameter in centithe Correspondingly, in the case of air at room temperature
is

GAS FLOW

41

meters.

transition pressure occurs at

so that the transition pressure range within which the character of the lOP, to P, O.IP,. flow changes ranges essentially from P 28.98 and 293K, rj 1.829 x 10^* poise, For air at 20C g,

M=

Ft-

10-3

X 10-3 X 11.14

5.57

10-2
(2-58)

the transition pressure from (2-55)

is

D =

P,

(air

20C)

293
95.7
-

V-^

1.829

X 10-4

1 cm is a tube of i) so that, for example, the transition pressure for 5.57 X 10-2 torr or 55.7 fi. . r dependence ot At the transition pressure as defined above, the The pressure conductance on pressure is inconveniently complex.

28.98,

D
(2-65)

5.57

X 10-2

D
0.557
so that

predominantly viscous region over which the conductance changes from defined in terms of be can character to predominantly molecular in limit P and a lower upper an between bracketed
the second limit Pi. convenience For character. in viscous term, the flow is predominantly Then greater by a factor of 10. let us require that the first term be
is

lOPt
5.57

D
X 10-3

(2-66)

(2-45)

and

(2-46)

and is If the first term on the right

much greater than

and

O.IP,

(2-67)

ax

106
I

+ +

ex

(2-59)

dx

is given in torr and the pipe diameter in centimeters. given the range of pressure for the transition region for various pipe sizes in the case of air at 20C.

when the
In Table

pressure

2- 1 is

Solving this expression for x yields

Table
[(106c

2-1.

-{(106c -a)
2ad

a)'

40abdf^}

Transition Pressure Ranges for Various Pipe Sizes fob Air AT 20C
Transition pressure range, torr

Pipe diameter
Centimeters
0.254 0.635
1.27

meaningless negative in which, as before, the negative sign leads to a for a, 6, c, and d, value of X. Using the positive sign and the values
the result
is

Inches
0.1

Pi
2.2 X 10-2 8.8 X 10-3 8.8

Pt
0.22 X 10-2

Pu
2.20 0.88

^
P
if

= 948(^f

(2-60)

0.25
0.5
1.0

4.4 X 10-3
2.2
1.1

2.54

so that,

by comparison with

(2-55),

9.91P,

(2-61)

5.08 10.16
20.3

2.0 4.0 8.0

X 10-3 X 10-3

4.4 X 10-2 2.2 X 10-2


1.1

0.44 0.22
0.11
5.5 2.8
1.4

X 10-2

5.5 X 10-4
2.8 X 10-4
1.4

5.5 X 10-3 2.8

X 10-3

Correspondingly,

times the

first,

10 the second term on the right side of (2-46) is character. in then the flow is predominantly molecular
1

40.6

16.0

X 10-4

1.4 X 10-3

X 10-2 X 10-2 X 10-2

That

is,

lOax
Solving for the value of x yields

=b

+ cx + dx
rfsM

^2-62)

pressure range

Also for air at 20C the conductance of a long tube in the transition is obtained bj^ substituting the above constants into (2-45), with the result

C
(2-63.)

(liters/sec)

1)4

252.lPavi)-D3
12.12
(2-68)

178.7Pa

=
so that,

10.99

311.7Pavi)T

when the pressure is measured in torr and the dimensions in centimeters.


by comparison with
(2-55),

Pi

0.114P,

(2-64)

Note that the first term on the right side of (2-68) is and is therefore the viscous-flow term. Equation

identical to (2-23a)
(2-68)

may

also be

42

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


D'
1

GAS FLOW

43

written in the form

(liters/sec)

=
=

12.12

^|l4.74Pav-D

252.lPav-D
311.7Pav>
(2-69)

pass through the transition region rapidly as the system is pumped down. In such cases the laborious calculation of conductance in the

12.12

1
1

where

G = 14.74Pav^ +

+ +

252.lPav-P 311.7Pav-D

(2-70)

not justified and the operation of the by using the viscous-flow or Poiseuille form of conductance given in (2-23a to c) from atmospheric pressure down to the transition pressure P^ and the molecular-flow form of conductance to be discussed in the next section for values of the pressure below P^.
transition pressure range
is

system

is

sufficiently well represented

At

sufficiently large values of the


1 1

parameter Pav-D the fraction


252.1

+ +

252.1 Pay J>

311.7Pavi>

r"

r rr
in

0.808

Conductance curve from Eqs.(2-45) and (2-68)


viscous Term only, as given

r
[

311.7
t%\Z-Zt^]

first term which is then negligible as compared with 14.74Pavi>. The viscous for to (2-23a) in the bracket then dominates, and (2-69) reduces becomes However, when P^^D is very small, the first term flow. approaches unity for negligible as compared with the second, which The value of G is then 1 and sufficiently small values of the parameter.

/
1 1 1

[ill
1

/ /
180
1

160
1

low-pressure the conductance is given simply by 12.12D3/L, the next section. In the in discussed be to conductance the of value parameter Table 2-2 are given values of G from (2-70) as a function of the

limiting

/
f f J

140
120

/
/ ;

00
rrJ

Table

2-2.

Values of the Factor O fob Vaeious Values OF THE PaBAMETER P^yD


Air at 20C
7154"

ll

/
/;

100

80 60

/
,

y
12.12

; ;

rt:

i
^

Pe^yD,
torr

yj
K**
2 3 5 7
1

40
20

cm
1

'11

'.-'

^ji
2 3

L
5 7 ]q-I

10-5
io- 10-3
10-2
10-1
1

0.9994 0.9957 0.969


1.002

IQ-5

7jQ-4

7|q-3

7 jq-2

Fig. 2-3. Conductance of a tube as a function of the pressure.

2.289
15.55
148.2

10
102 103

1,475 14,740

2-8. Gas Flow at Low Pressure. At low pressure, i.e., at values of the pressure at which the mean free path for collisions between molecules is long as compared with the dimensions of the tube or

These values may be obtained from Fig. 2-3 by dividing the Pav-D. values of the term CL/D plotted in the graph by the factor 12.12. In designing a vacuum system in which prolonged operation is expected to occur in the transition pressure range, calculation of conductances by (2-45) or (2-68) may be justified. However, in most practical systems the pressure in the forevacuum portion of the system remains in the viscous-flow regime during the crucial period of operation,

conduit through which gas flows, the mechanics of flow are entirely from those at high pressure. The gas molecules move in random directions with a velocity distribution characteristic of the temperature as given by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law
diff"erent

whereas the piping and main chamber beyond the diffusion

pump

(1-21), and by pure chance individually progress from one point in the system to another. Collisions between molecules are very rare events, whereas collisions with the walls of the system dominate so that the molecules, instead of jostling each other by collision processes, move independently of one another. Pressure is not transmitted from one

44

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


per second
is

GAS FLOW
thus

45

momentum from region in the system to another by direct transfer of region of lower molecule to molecule, thus producing a flow toward the the molecules pressure; instead, the transfer of momentum is between character of and the walls of the system. In spite of the independent occur motion of the individual molecules, net flow does nevertheless lower of from the region of higher density (or pressure) to the region a leaving molecules density. Net flow results because the number of the to proportional unit volume of any given region in the system is in the unit of arriving number the whereas region, that density in those other volume from elsewhere is proportional to the density in By a purely statistical effect, therefore, net flow is always in
regions.

dp
'di

dn mn (2kT\^ mu- = ^m su
dt

2tt^\

Az

(2-72)

Since the rate of change of momentum represents a force exerted by the gas molecules on the tube A/ = dpjdt, the tube reacts with a retarding force on the flow of gas of this same magnitude. This retarding force acts over the cross section of the tube so that the change
in pressure
is
1

dp
(2-73)
dt

A
where
(2-72)

and thus from the direction tending to equalize the density everywhere In the pressure regions of higher to regions of lower density or pressure. process is called regime for which the above conditions hold the flow molecular-flow rates molecular flow. Approximate formulas for princithrough tubes and apertures of various shapes were developed
pally 2-9.

is

we have

the cross-sectional area of the tube. for the change in pressure

Combining

(2-73) with

mnl2hT\^s
277-^ \

(2-74)

by Knudsen.^ Conductance

of a

Long Tube

at

Low

Pressure.

In a

Since, according to Eq. (1-16)

nkT, the pressure gradient

is

(see Fig. 2-4) tube through which gas is flowing at very low pressure wall at the the the molecules move in random straight lines, striking Maxwell-Boltzmann end of each free flight. If the molecules have the

AP
"a7

nkTI m \'^g _ _ P m \-^i ~i^\^kT) a'^~ 7T'^\2kT/


-^1

(2-75)

distribution
(1-21)],

of

velocities

[Eq.

The quantity of gas flowing through the tube

is

then the number of gas

Q = PAu
from which

/jh&T cm*/sec

(2-76)

molecules impinging on a square centimeter of surface area each second is given by Eq. (1-31) as
Fig. 2-4. Motion of molecules at low
pressure.
V

Pu =

QjA.

Substituting this expression into (2-75) yields

WWav

/2)fcT\^

2n^
Az of the

For an extended section of a tube of uniform cross section

Thus the number


tube
is

striking the wall each second in the length

AP/Az
in

(Pi

Pa)/^

dn
dt

n /2kTf
Stt'-^V

which Pj and Pj are the values of the pressure at the ends of a section of tube of length L. Substituting this value of AP/Az into
(2-77)

and solving

for

Q gives for the gas flow through a tube of uniform


P,A^
\

cross section

in

the periphery of the cross section of the tube, which might be circular or have any other shape. If each molecule is completely stopped by the impact at the surface and then reemitted randomly, there is a net momentum transferred to

which

s is

(2-78)
I

the wall of the tube, provided that there is a mean drift velocity u in the direction of flow. The momentum transferred to the increment of length Az of the tube will therefore be mu on the average for each molecule hitting the wall in the segment Az. This momentum transfer

The above derivation contains the implicit assumption that a uniform u is superimposed upon the random Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of the molecules. Knudsen has shown that one should more reasonably assume that the superimposed drift velocity of a molecule is proportional to its thermal or random velocity. On this
drift velocity

46

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

GAS FLOW

47

numerical factor in modified assumption Knudsen found that the along a tube of flow the (2-78) must be multiphed by S/Stt, so that uniform cross section is given correctly by

when

D and L are D

measured
Cair

in centimeters,

and
(2-82a)

13.82-

cfm

_ _8_ (2JcTf P^ -Pi A^

(2-79)

when

is

in inches

and

in feet.

Equations (2-80) to (2-82) apply to

of which proves to agree with experimental results. The conductance therefore is section cross uniform a segment of a long, straight tube of

Q
'P^^Hp^

/2fcr\^^^
J

~ 3^\ m

of a long, straight tube well removed from the ends. They also apply to the case of a tube for which the length is very large as compared with the diameter so that the end effect is small. If the tube is short, however, an end correction is required
to obtain results which are even

a segment of length

sL

= ^,(1.29xl0^)y
3.44

^
cm^/sec
(2-80)

approximately correct. Consider a tube of circular cross


section

and

finite

length

L connect-

X 10V?'\'^^'

ing two regions, one at pressure P^

and the other

_34^/T\^^
liters/:

at pressure P^, as indicated in Fig. 2-5. If the length

of the tube

is

decreased to zero,
crossFig. 2-5.

the result

is

an aperture of

Tube end

effects.

by

substttuting from (1-27).

The conductance of a tube of uniform

sectional

area

A =

ttD^I^.

The

circular cross section, for

which A^js

ttD^JW,

is

therefore

C
3.81

103

[mJ
IP

T
and
cfm

cm^/sec

formula for the conductance of the tube must become equal to that of the aperture as the length of the tube shrinks to zero. In order to complete the derivation of the conductance of a short tube, including end effects, it is necessary first to derive the conductance of the aperture. 2-10. Conductance of an Aperture. In accordance with (1-32) the number of molecules which pass through a circular aperture from the region at the left is
(2-81)
1i

liters/sec

when

D and L

are measured in centimeters,

% M =im\) m
277^^

(2kTY^

-^

ttD'^

i2kT^

C
when

4.34

(2-81a)
air at

D^

molecules/sec

(2-83)

B is

measured

in inches

and

in feet.

For

room temper-

Similarly, the number of those which pass through the aperture from the region at pressure P^ on the right is given by

ature (20C)
,

q^=v^A=-i--\
.if,

n^7T''^(2kTY
Z)2

molecules/sec
is

(2-84)

Ml
(7air

28.98/
Z)3

The net flow from the region


9'

so that

at

Pj to the region at Pg

then

(3,810)(3.181)

g-i

277

^2

=
D"^

i)3

8 \

-:-

12.12

X 10^^^

cm^/sec

Y ^i \mkTI
(2-82)

(Pj

(wi

n^)D^
molecules/sec

Pj)

(2-85)

12.12-
Li

liters/sec

since in each region

= PjkT

48

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEBING


If this net flow
is

GAS FLOW
of area

49

put in terms of the volume of gas leaving the flow occurs, then region of higher pressure Pj from which the net
q (molec ules/sec)

at low pressure

is

^JcT

_L-I

J(Pi

Pa)

molecules/sec

(2-91)

^^.^^^^

(2-86)

n^ (molecules/cm^)

Pi

The flow in quantity of gas is defined as Q and in this case from (2-86) is given by

(dldt)PV(fihaT cm'/sec)

of which (2-85) an aperture is

is

a special case.

Correspondingly, the gas flow through

= P,=qkT
n.

3.64

X lO'(^) '^(Pi

P2)

/^laar

cm^/sec
at

(2-92)

= !^(?^f Z).(P, _
8
\

P :)

(2-87)

Thus the conductivity of an aperture of any shape

low pressure

is

by

substitution from (2-85).

Referring to (1-27), one finds that this

expression becomes

C=

3.64

/ T'Y X lOH T7I ^

cm^/sec

Q=!^(1.29xlO*)(|)V(Pi-P.)

=
(2-88)

3.641

TY A
1

liters/sec

(2-93)

2.86

10^ (-^)

D%Pi -

P2)

/^bar cm^/sec

when

is

measured

in square centimeters, corresponding to (2-89) for

a circular aperture.
is

Also
rp\Vi

The conductivity of a

circular aperture

thus

C=
cm^/sec

49.

cfm

(2-93a)

P,-P
/

2.86

X lOM-

D^

when
(2-89)

2 86

\MI

TY D^

measured in square inches. 20C these expressions become


is

Again, as in (2-90), for air at

liters/sec

C =
when

11.6^

liters/sec

(2-94)

when

is

measured in centimeters, and

A A

is

measured in square centimeters, and

C = C = 39.i/-|f Z)2
when
cfm
(TIM)'-^'

159 A

cfm

(2-94a)

(2-89a)

when

is

measured in square inches.


Let us

D is measured in inches. For air at 20C, since liters/sec C = 9.16Z)2

3.181,
(2-90)

2-11.

Conductance

when

D is measured in centimeters,
C =

and
cfm
(2-90a)

to the conductance of a tube of Joining circular cross section and limited length, as shown in Fig. 2-5. may be tube the two regions at pressures Pj and Pj respectively, separated and the are which considered as an aperture, the two sides of

End

Effect.

Tube return now


of a

at

Low

Pressure Corrected for

125.31)2

when

D is measured in inches. Note that the above derivation could have been carried out for an aperture of any shape since the result given in (2-89) depends only on the cross-sectional area. In general, the net flow through an aperture

tube of length L connected between them. The result is a combination of two conductances in series, that of the tube C^ and that of the aperture Co, so that according to (2-9) the resultant conductance is

-=

or
\

C=

7;

(2-95)

50
in

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


which,

GAS FLOW

51

which C^ is given by (2-81) and Cq is given by (2-89). Thus for a tube of limited length L the conductance at low pressure is

when combined according

to (2-95), yield
a262

C C
2.86
(3.810)(2.86)

9.71

X
'

103

X 10<'(TIM)(D^IL)
-f 3.810

W)

(a

b)L

% ab

cm3/sec

X 103(T/Jf)'^Z)2

X \0^{T j M)'^^
cm^/sec

{D'' j L)

j'VA

9.71

3.810

lO''

(1
2)3

MI

(a

+b)L

+% ab
^

liters/sec

(2-100)

*AD
liters/sec

y\!^

3.810

(2-96)

(I)
measured
in centimeters,

b and in which the length L of In the case of a long slot in which a the slot in the direction of flow is not necessarily very large as compared with the width b of the slot,

when

and

are

and

C
Finally, for a long,

9.71

T ab^ Ml L + %b
slot

liters/sec

(2-101)

narrow

'^ b,

in

which the length in the


is

direction of flow

is

also large {L

> 6),
ab''

the conductance

when

D is measured in inches and L in feet.


is

Comparing this expression

with (2-82) we see that for air

at 20C the conductance of a tube with

"ls

liters/sec

(2-102)

the correction for the end effects

C =

Z)3

12.12

109

L +

cm^/sec

by

In Eqs. (2-100) to (2-102) the conductance for air at 20C is obtained setting 9.7l(TjMy-^^ = 30.9, so that, as an example, the conductance of a slot from (2-102) is

Z>3

12.12

L +

%D
7)3

liters/sec

(2-97)

C =

ab^

30.9

-
Ij

liters/sec (air at 20C)

(2-103)

when

and

are

measured

in centimeters,

and
cfm
(2-97a)

C =

13.82

O.llD

when D is measured in inches and L in feet. The above calculation was carried out for a tube of circular cross section. The conductance of a tube or conduit of uniform cross section of any shape can be derived by combining the conductances
given
in (2-80)

Another geometrical form of interest is the annular region between two coaxial tubes, of which the inside diameter of the outer wall is Dj, and the outside diameter of the inner wall is D2. Considering the periphery to be made up of the sum of the circumferences of the inner and outer walls and following a procedure similar to that for a tube as developed in (2-71) through (2-96), the conductance of an annulus is
found to be
(D,

Hi

liters/sec

(2-104)

D,)

and

(2-93) in accordance with (2-95), using the appro-

which for

priate values for the cross-sectional area

and the periphery s. Thus, for a channel of rectangular cross section with sides a and h and length L, the conductance at low pressure is made up of the two components
C,
9.71

air at

20C

is

C =

{D,'
12.12

D,^)(D,

D,)
liters/sec

(2-105)

103

TV Ml
lO^I

a^ft^

{a

+
ab

(2-98)'

b)L
(2-99)

2-12. Clausing and Monte Carlo Corrections to the Knudsen Conductance Formulas. The method of Knudsen, by which the

/rpVA rpVA

and

Co

3.64

above formulas for conductances at low gas pressure were derived, is only approximately correct, even for simple tubes and conduits of uniform cross section. Clausing3 has carried out a much more exact

52

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

GAS FLOW

53

calculation for tubes of circular cross section and has shown that Knudsen's formula (2-96) gives conductances which are too large for short tubes (i.e., tubes for which the length is not very much larger

3. The walls of the geometries are microscopically rough so that molecules are diffusely reflected according to the cosine law.

than the diameter).

For more complicated configurations, such as occur in manifolds, baffles, and vapor traps, only very crude approximations can be made of the conductance using Knudsen's method. In of this case the procedure is to represent the system by a combination computed are conductances individual tubes, slots, and apertures. The

For some of the configurations investigated conductances can be


calculated either directly by the formulas developed above or by combining conductances calculated from these formulas in accordance

with

(2-9)

and

(2-10).

As an example, consider the

first

geometry

investigated, that of a tube of circular cross section, the conductance

and then combined

in series or parallel

by use of

(2-9)

or (2-10).

of which

is

given according to Knudsen's method by (2-96).

The value
in

Recently, progress has been made in computing conductances at low pressure by applying Monte Carlo methods, i.e., by tracing individual molecules through the system analytically. The availability of large large electronic computing machines has made it possible to trace the determine thereby and molecules numbers of randomly selected

Table

2-3.

Knudsen and Clausing Conductance Factors and Ebbor Knudsen Factor for Tubes of Vaeious LjD Ratios

L/D

Kk
1.000 0.727 0.571

Kc
1.000 0.672 0.514 0.359 0.281 0.232 0.172 0.114 0.0613 0.0420 0.0319 0.0258

Per cent error

conductance from the net behavior of a large sample of molecules. Davis, Levenson, and Milleron*-^ have carried out a series of Monte Carlo calculations for the configurations shown in Figs. 2-6 through 2-13 and have compared the computed conductances with carefully

0.5
1

8.2
11.1

2 3

measured values.

In the computation a randomly selected entering by numerical computation. At each collision followed molecule is is assumed to be effectively absorbed and molecule wall the with the is then assigned random numbers molecule The promptly reemitted.

4
6

10 20 30

0.400 0.307 0.250 0.182 0.117 0.0625

11.4
9.3 7.8 5.8
2.6

2.0
1.2

and direction after leaving the wall. The on the assumption of a Maxwell-Boltzmann based is velocity selection of the wall. The selection of direction temperature the distribution at emission, i.e., the molecules leaving a law of Lambert's is based upon
to specify the velocity / cos Q, unit area of the wall are distributed in angle according to Ig respect with angle the Q at leaving second per number where I^ is the leaving second per number the is and surface the / to the normal to

40 50

0.0425 0.0322 0.0260

0.9
0.8

of Co in this case is the conductance of a circular aperture as given in (2-89). Thus the value of obtained from Knudsen's formulas for this case is

Kr

C
c:

3.810
2.86

Z3

normal to the surface. Davis, Levenson, and Milleron adopt as a reference the conductance geoCo of an aperture of area equal to that of the opening into the
metrical configuration (tube, elbow, baffle system, etc.) being investigated. The computed and measured conductance C is related to Co

D
Dl

3L +y3D

(2-107)

by a geometrical

factor

K such that
C = ZCo
(2-106)
in the calculations

Clausing's corrected values of this factor K^, arrived at by more elaborate methods, cannot be expressed analytically but can be

compared numerically with values computed from (2-107) as given


Table 2-3. In Fig. 2-6 the factors Kj^ and parameter LID for a simple tube.

in

The assumptions made


in the experimental
1.

and the conditions provided

K^

are plotted as a function of the

arrangement are

The flow is steady-state with the molecular mean free path longas compared with the dimensions of the system. 2. The geometries under study connect effectively infinite volumes, i.e., volumes large enough so that diffuse flow is not inhibited.

computed by the shown on the graph. For this case it will be noted that the Clausing and Monte <-^arlo computed values are in excellent agreement and that the measured

The values of Monte Carlo method and the measured values

are also

values approximate these results very closely, but are generally lower

54

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


from
(2-93) is

GAS FLOW

55

than those obtained from the Knudsen formula by as much as 11 per cent. The good agreement obtained in this simple case between the Monte Carlo and Clausing calculated factors and the measured values lends confidence in the results obtained by Davis, Levenson, and Milleron in the more complicated geometries for which the Knudsen and Clausing methods are not so easily applied. The second geometry investigated by Davis, Levenson, and Milleron is a 90 elbow, the conductance factor of which, calculated by the

2.86 (-j (D,^

D,^)
(2-108)

:o
Knudsen Kk
Clausing Kc

h-A-H

The conductance for the annulus according to the Knudsen method The conductis given in (2-104).
ance factor in this case
is

then

Kk

C_

D,-D,
3L
Vz{D,

D,)

X
\

X Monte Carlo calculations


\

(2-109)

Measured values

If the ratio between the inner

and
is

outer diameters of the annulus

denoted
Calculated byClousing tor tube

by

=
1

DJD2,
k

then

(2-109)

becomes

Monte Carlo colculotion

tor

elbow

J Experimental points for elbow


I I I I I
I I

L.

3 (A +

B)/R = L/R

{\-k)+

HiLjD,)
(2-110)

Fig. 2-6. Molecular-flow factors for a tube. [Taken with permission from L. L. Levenson, ^N". Milleron, and D. H. Davis, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press,

Fig. 2-7. Molecular-flow factors for 90 elbow. [Taken with permission from L. L. Levenson, N. Milleron, and D. H. Davis, in 1960 Vacuum, Symposium, Transactions (Perga-

Values of Kj^ computed for various values of the parameters k and

L/Dz

London,

1961).]

mon

Press,

London,

1961).]

Monte Carlo method, is compared in Fig. 2-7 with that of a tube for which the length L is equal to the axial length of the elbow A + B. The computed values of K do not differ significantly from those of a straight tube such that LjD of the tube is equal to (A + B)ID of the elbow. (Note that R = Dj2 is used in plotting the figure.) The conductance measurements are in good agreement with this conclusion.

L/Dj a-re given in Table 2-4 and are shown graphically in Fig. 2-8, together with values of K computed by the Monte Carlo method.

Fig. 2-8. Molecular-flow factors for an annulus. [Taken with permission from L. L. Levenson, N. Milleron, and D. H. Davis, Le Vide 18, 42 (1963).]

It will be noted that deviations of the order of 10 per cent occur between the two calculations, but that the Knudsen formula for the conductivity of an annulus is surprisingly good.

The importance of this result is that in the low-pressure or molecularflow regime very little additional resistance to flow is introduced by the presence of bends in the pipeline. The conductance for a tube with bends is the same as that for an equivalent straight tube with length' equal to the axial length of the bent tube.
Fig. 2-8.

Results for the conductance of a cylindrical annulus are shown in In this case the conductance of the aperture calculated

In Figs. 2-9 and 2-10 the molecular-flow factors for various louver and chevron types of baffles are plotted as a function of the ratio of length to the width of the slots for various baffle angles. Baffles of the chevron type are frequently used in vapor-trap design, the main lunction of which is the trapping of condensable vapor in vacuum ^y^*nis as is discussed in Chap. 8. The experimental and theoretical (Monte Carlo) results of Davis, Levenson, and Milleron are given in the gures. The 45 chevron is most frequently used in vapor-trap design. he value of Kj^ = CjC^ for such a baffle can be computed according

56

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


2-4.

GAS FLOW

57

Table

Knudsen Conductance Factors fob Annuli op Various L/D^


AND
-Dj/Dj Ratios

= DJD2
0.5

the width of the slot required for application of the slot formula The length of the flow path is iy = 2'-^ d, so that on substituting into (2-101) the conductance is

and

is

(2-101).

LID2
0.25 0.75

0.90

^ = ''Am)
The conductance
factor
is

2y^d

%m^) =
0.28

'''''''

(2-112)

1.000
1

1.000

0.571

2 3

4 6 10

0.400 0.307 0.250 0.182 0.117

0.500 0.333 0.250 0.200 0.143 0.0909

1.000 0.400 0.250 0.182 0.143 0.100 0.0625

1.000 0.250 0.143 0.100 0.0769 0.0526 0.0323

1.000 0.118 0.0625 0.0426 0.0323 0.0217 0.0132

thus computed to be
1.030
(2-113)

^K
It

3.64

to Knudsen's formula for the conductance of a long, narrow slot as The area oi given in (2-101), which is applicable if a rf in Fig. 2-10. the aperture is A = ad so that the conductance of the unobstructed aperture is, according to (2-93),

>

is interesting to note that this result is not drastically diff'erent from the value 0.25 calculated for a long 45 chevron slot by the Monte Carlo method and shown in the solid curve in Fig. 2-10. The measured values of conductances reported by Levenson and Milleron for the

45 chevron baffle are generally about 20 per cent below those computed by the Monte Carlo method. Furthermore, in a practical case cooling

3.64

(rplates
is

(2-111)

tubes for liquid nitrogen or other refrigerant will be attached to the baffles with the result that the effective area will be somewhat reduced.
Considering these factors, a realistic value of

K for a carefully designed


is

The perpendicular distance between the chevron

dj2^^

chevron
of the

baffle is

about

0.20.

The

result given in (2- 1 13)

independent

I.O

0.4
Calculated points

-^
Calculoted points
Experimental points

d t~

an aperture of area A Since for such a baffle arrangment the length of the flow path decreases as the spacing between the plates decreases (and therefore
baffle plates

number of 45 chevron

used to

fill

Experimental points
"

A Aa // \

their

60 louver 45 louver

30 louver
0.6

60 chevron 0.3- 45 chevron 30chevran

\iV^ N
\

e=60'

is to be expected as long as the inappreciable as compared with their spacing. In a practical situation it is therefore important to choose a baffle thickness not more than 5 per cent of the perpendicular spacing between

number

increases), this result


is

thickness of the plates

0,2

04

the plates. In Figs. 2-11 through 2-13 the molecular-flow factors obtained by Davis, Levenson, and Milleron for a variety of useful geometrical shapes are shown. 2-13. Summary of Gas-flow and Conductance Formulas.

01
0.2

00
o/d

Cole.

00

Cole.

10 Exp.

o/d

10 Exp.

Fio. 2-9. Molecular-flow factors for louver geometries. [Taken with permission from L. L. Levenson, N. Milleron, and D. H. Davis, in 1960

Fig. 2-10. Molecular-flow factors for chevron baffle geometries. [Taken with permission from L. L. Levenson,Jf. Milleron, and D. H. Davis, in

The following summary of the gas-flow and conductance formulas derived and discussed in this chapter is provided for convenient reference. The gas flow in vacuum systems is usually maintained by a pump for which the pumping speed <Sj, is defined as the volume per unit of time which the pump removes from the system at the inlet pressure to the pump. Conversion factors between the various common units of pumping speed are given in Appendix IV. The gas flow, or
throughput, into the

pump

is

defined as

Vacuum

Symposium

Transactions
1961).]

1960
actions
1961).]

Vacuum Symposium
(Pergamon Press,

Q =
-The

PinS,

(2-1)

Trans-

(Pergamon Press, London,

London,

common

units

and conversion

factors for throughput are given in

Appendix IV.

58

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

GAS ELOW
is

59
It follows

The conductance C between two points


that

in a

vacuum

defined such
(2-4)

P2 are the values of the pressure at the ends of the tube.


that

g =

(Pi

P,)C

C
if

(cfm)

=
L

9.46

X 10~2 _, p^^
rjL
rj

(2-22c)

in which P^ and P^ are the values of the pressure at the two points in The pumping speed at any point in the system is defined as question.
(2-5)

is

measured in inches,

in feet,

torr.
'^

The

viscosity for several gases

is

in poises, and the pressure in given in Appendix III.


rj

=p

For
that

air at

68F

20C the viscosity

1.829

x 10- poises so

where
is

P is the

If Si and respectively

pressure at the point where S is defined. ^2 are the pumping speeds at points where the pressure

C
and

(liters/sec)

=
517

179

- Pav
Pav

D*

(2-23a)

Pj and Pg, then


1

(cfm)

1j

(2-236)

(2-7)

The units for conductance are the same as those for pumping speed. The pumping speed of a system consisting of a pump of speed S^ with
an interconnecting conductance
is

(a pipe or conduit) of

conductance

for the pressure drop in air along a pipeline is applicable if the pressure drop is small (say not more than 20 per cent) as compared with the pressure o r (2-27a) Pressure drop (torr) = 5.6 x 10~^ -y-^

The following approximate expression

given by

11
s
>s

when

Sj, is

measured in

liters

per second and

D and L are measured in


10"

c
(2-8)

centimeters

or

Pressure drop (torr)

.SL

1.9

D*

(2-276)

when Sp
If several conductances are connected in series the resultant confeet.

is

measured

in cubic feet per minute,

in inches,

and

in

ductance of the combination


1 (series)

is

given by
1 1

=++ Oj ^S
1
(^2

(2-9)

Flow in the Transition Pressure Region. When the gas pressure is such that the mean free path is of the same order as the cross-sectional dimensions of the pipe or conduit through which it flows, the conductance of a tube of circular cross section is then given by

If several conductances are connected in parallel the resultant con-

ductance

is

C(parallel)

Ci

C2 -f C3

=
which

3.269 X 10-2

(2-10)

(^)--O^
1

T\^

0.

147(J//r)''^

P^yDIv

181(J//T)'^ Pavi>/?
(2-45)

High-pressure or Viscoiis Flow. The pressure region of viscous flow is that for which the molecular mean free path is short as compared with the diameter of the pipe or conduit. For these conditions the

in

G is measured

in liters per second,

conductance of a tube of circular cross section

is

Pav is in torr, T is in K, 20C the conductance is

L and D are
r]

in centimeters,

is

in grams,

and

is

in poises.

For

air at

7)3/

C
if

(liters/sec)

3.27

10"
rjL

(2-226)

(liters/sec)

_j_

12.12 .^(l4.74

P..D

+
^

252

P D\

3,/,

^J

(2-69)

D and L are measured in centimeters, the viscosity rj is in poises, and the pressure is in torr, where Pav = (Pi + P2)/2, in which Pj and

For accurate calculation of the conductance of a long tube, these formulas should be applied over a range of pressure from lOP^ to 0.1 Pj,

60

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


is

gas flow

61

where P;

the transition pressure given

by
(2-55)

Conduit of Rectangular Cross Section

P,

C = G

a^b^

9.71

95.7

MI D
X 10-2

[mJ

1m, (a

+
+

h)L

+ %ab +
y^ab

(2-100)

which

for air at

20C

is

a%^
(air)

5.57

30.9(a

D
Calculation of conductances
(2-69) is

(2-58)
in

b)L

(2-lOOa)

which a and

b are the

dimensions of the cross section and

by the

seldom

justified in practice.

transition formulas (2-45) and It generally suffices to use the

is

the

length in the direction of flow.

viscous-flow value of the conductance as given in (2-22) and (2-23) from atmospheric pressure down to the transition pressure given in

1.0

and the molecular-flow conductance such as that given in (2-97) from the transition pressure on down. Molecular Flow at Low Pressure. At sufficiently low pressure, i.e., when the mean free path is large as compared with the cross-sectional
(2-58)

o1 T_. n _. L ll-^^ U Ll_L_L


.

Calculated points

1
'

Expenmentol points

fnr(R/R/

dimension of the tube or conduit, the conductance is independent of the For most purposes the conductance formulas derived partly pressure. empirically by Knudsen are sufficiently accurate. In the following
formulas the linear dimensions are measured in centimeters, areas are in square centimeters, conductances are in liters per second, temperature The values for air are given is in degrees Kelvin, and mass is in grams. The less frequently needed equivalents for conductance in at 20C. cubic feet per minute and dimensions in inches and feet are given in the
text.
L/Ro

Circular Aperture

C
C(air)
in

Fig. 2-11. Molecular -flow factors for a tube with two restricted ends.

(2-89)

9.16i)2

(2-90)

[Taken with permission from L. L. Levenson, K. Milleron, and D. H. Davis, Le Vide 18, 42 (1963).]

which

D is the

diameter of the aperture.

Fig. 2-12. Molecular-flow factors for a tube with two restricted ends and a circular blocking plate. [Taken with permission from L. L. Levenson, N. Milleron, and D. H. Davis, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions

(Pergamon Press, London,

1961).]

Aperture of Any Shape

^ ZM{^fA
(air)

Slot of Long,
(2-93)

Narrow Cross Section


C

>

C
in

ab^
9

11.6^

(2-94)

\m] L

+ %b
ab^

(2-101)

which

is

the area of the aperture.

C
Long,
2)3

(air)

=
a

30.9

Tube of Circular Cross Section

+%b

(2-lOla)

C ^ 3.810(-) C
in
(air)

'pVA

Narrow Slot with


C

> 6 and L ^b
IT
\M.

(2-96)

9.71

T
~L

(2-102)

12.12

(2-97)

C L
the length of the tube.

(air)

30.9

(2-103)

which

D is the

diameter and

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Annulxjs between Concentric Tubes

Two

G =
3.810

T\^ {D/ L \MI

- D,^)(D, - D,) + %{D^ - A)


(2-104)

CHAPTER

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

(air)

{D^
12.12

- D,')(D, - -Di) L + %{D, - D,)


(2-105)

Fig. 2-13. Molecular-flow factors for

a tube with one restricted end and a [Taken with circular blocking plate. permission from L. L. Levenson, N. Milleron, and D. H. Davis, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions

By combinations of the above formulas the conductances of many comphcated shapes, such as baffle, structures, can be roughly approximated. The Knudsen formulas are
generally

The most important parameter to be measured in a vacuum system the gas pressure. The pressure of interest may be the total pressure, including both the easily condensable and the permanent gas components present, either the condensable or permanent gas components
is

separately, or finally the partial pressure of each of the constituents,

only

approximate

and

for short tubes give conductances

(Pergamon Press, London,

may be greater than the true value by as much as 11 per cent. The results of more accurate calculations and measurements for some shapes are given in the text and in
which
1961).]

such as oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, etc. The range of pressure over which reasonably accurate measurements are of interest extends from atmospheric pressure down to 10"^^ torr or lower. Gauges and techniques have been developed by which any of the various types of pressure mentioned above can, in principle, be measured with the necessary sensitivity; but particularly for values of the pressure below about 10~* torr ambiguity and error arise from parasitic effects within existing gauges which make accurate determination of the
pressure difficult.

Figs. 2-6 through 2-13.

REFERENCES
1.

rU
is

3-1.

Liquid Manometers.

liquid

manometer

consists of a
is

2. 3.

4.
5.

6.

M. Knudsen, Ann. Physik 28, 75 (1909). M. Knudsen, Ann. Physik 28, 999 (1909). P. Clausing, Ann. Physik 12, 961 (1932). D. H. Davis, J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1169 (1960). L. L. Levenson, N. Milleron, and D. H. Davis, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961), p. 372. L. L. Levenson, N. Milleron, and D. H. Davis, Le Vide 18, 42 (1963).

tube partly filled with liquid. One end of the to the system in which the pressure is to be measured. The other end
either

tube

connected

open to some reference


is
To the

pressure, such as atmospheric, or

closed off with the

volume above

system

the liquid level evacuated.

Open
illus-

To the

and closed manometers are


trated in Fig. 3-1.

system

Open manometers

are generally

used to measure pressure relative to atmospheric pressure and may be filled with any liquid, of which water,

and mercury are commonly The engineering term gauge pressure and units such as inches of water and millimeters of Hg for the pressure difference grew naturally from the use of open manometers.
oil,

used.

Open

Closed

Fig. 3-1. Liquid manometer.

63

64

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

65

Closed manometers are more generally used for measurement of pressure small as compared with atmospheric. An exception to this statement is the mercury barometer, which is in fact a closed manometer designed specifically to measure atmospheric pressure in absolute
units,
i.e.,

Over the range

for

which

it is

effective the liquid

manometer responds

directly to the total pressure in the system and is therefore an excellent absolute standard of total pressure. However, since the reading

relative to zero pressure.

closed

manometer

is

first

thoroughly evacuated and then filled to the proper level while still under vacuum so that the gas pressure over the liquid in the closed arm is negligible as compared with any pressure to be measured. The open end is connected to the system so that a difference in level or head between the surfaces of the liquid in the two arms will be just
proportional to the total pressure in the system. level h is related to the pressure according to

depends upon the density of the fluid, which in turn depends upon the temperature, some care must be taken to control the temperature of the gauge when highly precise measurements are required. As an example, the density of mercury changes about 0.5 per cent over the temperature range from to 30C.
3-2.

The Diaphragm Manometer.


for the

phragm manometer
in Fig. 3-2,

The

difference in

P=gph
in

which is Wallace and Tiernan.^ The diaphragm type of gauge

The principle of the diameasurement of low gas pressures is shown a cutaway view of a gauge manufactured by
is

a very

common

(3-1)

device for the

measurement of pressure

differences, such as the

"gauge" pressure

which the pressure

P is in dynes per square centimeter or /<bars when


is

relative to atmospheric pressure in

many

engineering applications.

measured in grams per cubic centimeter, the density p of the liquid When the liquid is and the head in centimeters, g = 981 cm/sec^. definition equal to level in millimeters is by in mercury the difference mercury at the density of 0C is 13.59 g/cm^, torr. Since the pressure in from we have (3-1) 10 X P(ubar)
P(torr)

For the measurement of absolute pressure

in the range of interest in

ft(mm)
981 X 13.59
7.50

X 10-P

fibaur

(3-2)

thus 10* /^bar

750

mm Hg, which

is

the range of atmospheric pressure

and is defined for some purposes as the standard atmosphere. With some care in the arrangement of a mercury manometer, a pressure of 0.1 torr can just be detected and a pressure of 1.0 torr can
be read with the unaided eye with a probable error of about 10 per cent. For lower values of the pressure, differences in capillarity and sticking However, if the tube in the tube tend to produce significant errors. diameter is sufficiently large (---1 cm) and the tube and mercury kept clean, a manometer can give accurate readings down to 10~^ torr by the use of optical means of magnifying small differences in level. The sensitivity of a manometer can be increased by about a factor of 15 by using a diffusion-pump oil instead of mercury. However, organic fluids are much more susceptible of contamination by dissolving gases than is mercury. For accurate reading of low pressures the oil used in a manometer must be purified frequently by- vacuum distillation

pointer, which on a circular dial viewed through a sealed window in the front of the gauge chamber. Standard models of this gauge are available with scale divisions of 0.2 torr and pressure range from

technology, the reference pressure of interest is zero absolute within the range of sensitivity of the gauge. In the Wallace and Tiernan gauge an evacuated beryllium-copper capsule is used as the pressure-sensitive element. The capsule is mounted in the gauge chamber, which is connected to the system within which the pressure is to be measured. Distortion of the capsule due to the pressure is transmitted through a mechanical linkage to a rotating
indicates the pressure

vacuum

to 50 torr.

diaphragm gauges have been developed with diaphragm for measuring much lower pressures than can be measured mechanically. In the manometer of East and Kuhn^ the diaphragm is in the form of a bellows, into the interior of which the pressure to be measured is admitted. Elongation of the bellows due to the pressure is amplified by a light beam reflected by a small mirror which is tilted by motion of the bellows. By this means pressure changes of 5 x 10^* torr were
sensitive

large variety of

means

for detection of small displacements of the

detected.

and outgassing.i*
* References indicated

using electrical methods of detecting changes in the position of a diaphragm, highly sensitive vacuum manometers have been developed. One such method, as illustrated in Fig. 3-3, depends upon the capacitance between a diaphragm and a fixed electrode. Movements

By

by

superscript

numbers are

listed at the

end of the

chapter.

changes the spacing, and therelore the capacitance, which can be measured with a capacitance bridge or made a part of a resonant circuit, the frequency of which is measured.

diaphragm

of the

in response to the pressure

66

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS


is a function of the pressure, which may be linear over a sufficiently wide range to be convenient in use. The construction

67

In either case the reading

Connecting wire

Insulator

Electrode

of a gauge of this type, in which a plane diaphragm was used, is described by Pressey* and is illustrated in Fig.
3-4.

Diaphragm

The range of linear response was


1

2A

about

torr with a sensitivity of 10-^

Fig. 3-3. changes.

Diaphragm manometer

by fluctuations due to temperature. More sensitive gauges


torr limited

for electrical sensing of pressure

from

J.

[Taken with permission H. Leek, Pressure Meas-

of this t5rpe have corrugated instead of plane diaphragms, the corrugations

urement in Vacuum Systems (Published for the Institute of Physics

and the Physical Society by being concentric rings about a central Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London, plane section. By this construction 1964), 2nd ed.] the sensitivity to pressure changes is increased by about a factor of 10 with no significant change in the response to temperature variations so that sensitivity of about 10^* torr

GEARED SECTOR

ZERO SETTIN6 ADJUSTMENT

[Reproduced 3-2. Diaphragm manometer with mechanical indication. through the courtesy of Wallace and Tiernan, Inc., 25 Main Street, Belleville 9,
Fig.
N.J.]

Pig. 3-4. Cross section of diaphragm manometer designed for capacitance measurement of the differential pressure. [Taken with permission from J. H. Leek, Pressure Measurement in Vacuum Systems (Published for the Institute of Physics and the Physical Society by Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London, 1964), 2nd ed.]

68

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


in

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

69

However, in a panel discussion on the subject of vacuum is achieved. gauges held at the 1960 annual symposium of the American Vacuum Society, P. A. Redhead fexpressed the opinion that mechanical manometers have a lower limit of about IQ-^ torr because of effects, such as
that of vapor molecules with dipole

which p is the density of mercury, L the length of the steel tube, and h the length of the steel tube protruding above the mercury. Then

P =

d^^

^d,^

(^

glpJL
gpm\
is

~h)-

p^L]

moments on capacitance

gauges,

which cannot be controlled. Because the sensitivity of the diaphragm manometer depends critically upon the mechanical properties of the diaphragm, such a gauge cannot be regarded as a primary standard in the sense that a liquid manometer may be. For this reason diaphragm manometers must be calibrated with reference It is also necessary to a liquid manometer. of checking method convenient to have some
'

d^-d,^
d,'

lp

(3-4)

The

zero position of the steel float

obtained by setting

f =

in (3-4)

from which

K=
is

(3-5)

Gloss tube

pressure

the length of steel tube protruding above the mercury level at zero and (3-4) may be written as

and adjusting the zero reading


3-3.

periodically.

The Dubrovin Gauge.

Thin-wall
steel tube

Mercury

brovin gauge ^ is utilizes the displacement of mercury in such a manner as to produce a sensitivity of the order of 10 times greater than that of the simple mercury U-tube manometer. The gauge consists of a glass cylinder partly filled with mercury and a stainless steel tube, closed at the upper end and open at the bottom, floating vertically in the mer-

The Dua type of manometer which

P=
The
sensitivity of the

d.
d,^

d,^

9Pm(K

h)

(3-6)

Dubrovin gauge from


dh

(3-6) is

dj^

dP~d^-d,^'^
for

(3-7)

which is to be compared with (3-1) for the mercury U-tube manometer which the sensitivity is l/gp^. The sensitivity of the Dubrovin gauge is thus greater than that of the mercury U-tube manometer by
the factor

\J>

The gauge is prepared for use by on its side so that the open end of steel tube is exposed and evacuating the
cury.

F
d^^

dx'

laying

it

(3-8)

dj^

For a factor

the gauge so that the residual pressure throughout the gauge, including the region Fig. 3-5. The Dubrovin gauge. inside the steel tube, is very low. While still evacuated the gauge is returned to the vertical position with the steel tube floating in the mercury, as shown When gas is admitted through the connection at the top in Fig. 3-5. of the gauge, the steel tube is pushed down by the pressure more deeply into the mercury. For some pressure P in the gauge the balance is reached when the weight of the tube plus the force exerted on the closed end of the tube by the gas pressure is equal to the change in weight of the displaced mercury. If d^ and d^ are respectively the inner and outer diameters of the steel tube and p, its density, then
Tdi2

10 and d^ 1 cm one finds from (3.8) that d^ 1.05 so that the wall thickness of the steel tube must be about 0.025 cm, or 0.010 in. For such a gauge a change in A of 1 cm represents a

F=

cm

^ +7 4

n
{d^
di^)ps9L

=J

d^')Pm9{^

h)

(3-3)

change in pressure of 1 torr, so that pressure changes of 0.1 torr can be detected with ease. With a sensitivity of this order the Dubrovin gauge is a convenient instrument for the measurement of pressure in the range below that easily read on a manometer, but above that normally reserved for the McLeod gauge discussed below. 3-4. The McLeod Gauge. 7 By combining a liquid manometer with means of compressing a sample of gas as is done in the McLeod* gauge, the range over which the pressure can be measured can be extended considerably below the practical limit of about 10-^ torr for the mercury manometer. The essential elements of a McLeod gauge are shown in Fig. 3-6, and consist of a glass bulb with a capillary tube extension on the top, a side arm connnecting to the vacuum system,

and some means of

raising

and lowering the

liquid level within the

70

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


gauge.

PRESSUBE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS


is

71

The fluid normally used in McLeod gauges

which holds
system.

for all values of h^


(3-11) it
is

and

h^ as the

mercury

is

raised in the

mercury, although in a few exceptional instances organic fluids of low vapor pressure have been used.

From

evident that

When the mercury level in the gauge is lowered below the branch point A the bulb of volume V is connected
to the system through side

{K

K){K

1,000

h)-

PV =

const

(3-12)

arm B. The gas in the as that in the pressure bulb is then at the same raised, the bulb level is system. When the mercury of gas sample the is cut off from the side arm and
compressed into the capillary Cj. The capillary C^ is in parallel with a section of the side arm B and has the same bore as C^ so that the surface tension or capillary effect is the same. The difference in level of the mercury in G^ and Cg is therefore due to the pressure difference resulting from compression of the

provided that the pressure is due to a permanent gas as defined by In using a McLeod gauge this point should be periodically (3-9). checked, i.e., the mercury should be raised to two or more levels, the values of A.2 a-nd h^ measured, and the criterion given in (3-12) checked. In an extreme case the remaining gas present in the system may be due to a substance for which the vapor pressure at room temperature is In that case the pressure will increase during compression only P^. to the point at which P = P^, beyond which condensation will occur and the pressure will be independent of the volume of the sample. In that case for a condensable vapor

sample from the large volume V into the small -'volume of Cj above the mercury level. The pressure of the compressed gas in the closed capillary is proportional to (Ag ^i) + ^O' ^^ which hi and h^ are the heights in millimeters of the mercury
in capillaries G^
Fig. 3-6 gauge.

h^-hi = P^ =

const

(3-13)

and

C^,

and P^
P
is

is

the pressure in

McLeod

the system
ratio
is

still

present in Cg.

Since the compression


negligible as

typically very large,

com-

pared with
hi

A.2

K- The

thus just equal to h^

pressure of the compressed sample of gas is torr within the limit of reading error when
If the

and ^2 are measured in millimeters. manent gas only during the compression
gas law (1-1)

system contains per-

cycle, according to the general

which is in considerable contrast with the criterion in (3-12). If the vapor pressure of the contaminant in the system is fairly low and some permanent gas is also present, a behavior somewhat in between that of (3-12) and that of (3-13) will result. The important point is that if criterion (3-12) is not obeyed, the pressure readings as determined by a McLeod gauge will not be valid. One can then conclude that the system or the gauge itself is contaminated by a condensable material, the room-temperature saturated vapor pressure of which is given approximately by (3-13). Returning to the measurement of permanent gas pressure with a McLeod gauge we find that the pressure from (3-11) is

PV = P'V
in which

(3-9)

P=
A McLeod
level

(^2

hi){hhi)a
(3-14)

and P' are the pressures before and after compression, respectively, V is the volume of the bulb (i.e., the volume of the closed portion of the gauge above the cutoff point A), and V, the volume of the closed capillary above the mercury level h^, is given by
(^0

1,000F
gauge may conveniently be read by bringing the mercury up to the point where ^2 = h^ (i.e., the level in the open capillary opposite the end of the closed capillary) or the mercury level can be set at some standard level h^ in the closed capillary. In the first method
with ^2
(3-10)

hi)a

^0 the pressure

is

F'

1,000
{h,

1,000F

h,Y
k^

= =

ki(M)i^
a/l,000F.

(3-15)

where
is its

the effective height of the closed end of capillary Cj and a cross-sectional area in square millimeters. Then
h^
is

in

which the constant of the gauge


h^

In the second

method with

h.

PV =

(^2

hi){ho

hi)a
(3-11)

1,000

^=

a(h

h,)

1,000F

^^'

^^^

^^^^^^'

(3-16)

72
in

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

73

which the constant of the gauge k^ = a(^o - h^)j\,()()QV. In each method A^ is the difference in mercury level in the open and closed capillary when the mercury level is set in the prescribed manner. The first method leading to the formula (3-15) results in a pressure reading proportional to the square of the reading, whereas the second method leads to (3-16), in which the pressure is proportional to the first power of the reading. The sensitivity can perhaps best be defined from (3-15)

when AA
gauge
is

= 1 mm,

which

is

about as small a value as can be estimated

with reasonable accuracy.

On

this basis the sensitivity of the

McLeod

P.

=
4,000 X 200

3.9

X 10- torr

(3-17)

is a practical and useful sensitivity for vacuum measurements. The McLeod gauge has a unique role in the measurement of pressure in vacuum systems and is frequently used as the standard gauge for calibrating most other types of low-pressure gauges.* As can be seen from Eqs. (3-15) and (3-16), the cahbration of a McLeod gauge depends only upon the measurement of the volume V of the bulb and the crossThe volume of the bulb can be sectional area of the capillary tube. measured with great precision by inverting the gauge, filling the bulb and tubing up to the branch point A with mercury, and weighing the mercury. The cross-sectional area of the capillary can best be measured by filling a measured length of the capillary with mercury and weighing

which

^0 can more easily be determined and also to avoid an exaggerated tendency of the mercury column to stick whenever the mercury level comes within a millimeter or so of the closed end of the capillary. The effective height of the closed end of the capillary cannot, in general, be determined accurately by eye because of irregularities near the end of the capillary produced in sealing the end. The true value of h^ can be determined by applying criterion (3-12) to the gauge, which is thoroughly trapped to eliminate condensable vapors, and choosing a value of h^ which fits (3-12) best for several values of h^ and h-^. The McLeod gauge is inherently a cumbersome instrument to use in the pressure range from 10-3 to 10- torr, in which it is most needed as an absolute gauge. Since it must be made at least partly of glass, it is a fragile device in which the shifting load of mercury must be carefully supported or disastrous breakage will occur. The interior of the McLeod gauge and the mercury used must be scrupulously clean and particularly free of oil and grease, otherwise readings are meaningless and the mercury sticks in the capillary, refusing to come down when

the mercury level is lowered. The connecting tubing for a portable McLeod gauge is frequently a source of error since to be convenient in use its diameter must be fairly small and its length typically a meter or more.

The conductance of such a connecting tubing is very small, usually not more than 0.1 liter /sec, so that a small leak at the gauge end of the tubing can give rise to an unexpectedly large discrepancy between the and that seen by the gauge. Such an error can and estimated if the gauge connection can be closed off next to the system and the pressure rise in the gauge due to leakage measured for a specific time interval, such as 5 min. The procedure is
pressure in the system
easily be detected

the small sample of mercury. Since capillary tubing is not necessarily of uniform cross section, a length of tubing must be tested and a section of sufficiently uniform diameter chosen. By placing a drop of mercury in the tubing, moving it along the tube, and measuring the length of the mercury column formed at several positions along the tube, the
variations in diameter can be easily determined and an acceptable section found for making both the open and closed capillaries Cj

to take a normal reading P^ with the gauge, then close off the line near the system and wait several minutes and take a second reading P^.

and

C2.

is imExperience has shown that a bore diameter less than 1 practical because of the tendency for the mercury column in a finer capillary to separate, leaving a bead of mercury plugging the closed capillary after a reading has been taken and the mercury level lowered For high sensitivity it is therefore necessary to to empty the bulb. increase the volume F of the bulb rather than to decrease the capillary bore to less than 1 mm. The end of the closed capillary must be sealed off as squarely as possible in order that the zero point of the gauge

mm

appreciable increase of P^ over P^ is an indication that the gauge due to leakage may be serious. To evaluate the gauge error the total volume being filled by the leak must be estimated. This total
error

Any

volume consists of the gauge volume (the bulb and side tube) and the volume of the connecting line up to the cutoff point. As an example, assume that
Pj

P2
<

= =
5

10-3 torr 10-2 torr

min

300 sec

ic (the length of the connecting line)


d^ (the

100

Note: See Sec. 3-13 for discussion of the use of a McLeod gauge with a refrigerated vapor trap for calibrating ionization gauges, and Ref. 51 for a report on observed discrepancies.
*

diameter of the connecting 300 cm3

line)

0.5

cm em

74

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


line is

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS


diameter can hardly be overemphasized.

75

then the volume of the connecting


^, "

- L
4
filled

cm^

The leakage

rate

is

the volume

by the gas multiplied by the

pressure rise divided

by the
i

time, or

Q^

P =P

Other types of vacuum gauges McLeod gauge is particularly vulnerable because of the low conductance of the line with which it is connected to the system in many applications. In systems built for the calibration of other types of gauges, such as ionization gauges, in the pressure range 10-^ to 10-^ torr no compromises for reasons of convenience should be tolerated in the manner of connecting the McLeod
are also sensitive to small air leaks, but the

{V,

Fe)

torr cmS/sec

Pt-P^

(7 4-7^)10-3
line
is,

torr liters/sec
Set mark

The conductance of the connecting

according to (2-82),

G =12.12-^

liters/sec

By the definition of conductance in


are related

(2-4)

the flow rate and conductance

760

mm

by
Q.

G,{P,

Ps)

C,

AP
is is
-Flexible

in

the pressure in the system when the gauge reading Pj the pressure taken, so that the difference between these values of

which P,

is

the gauge error,

which

is

hose

AP =
For the above example
F

^0
C.

q)

Fig. 3-7. Methods of controlling the mercury level in

McLeod

gauges.

77

0.25
(100)

19.6

cm^

4
9

Q.=
(7

X 10-^
300

(319.6)10-^

9.6

10- torr liter /sec

12

125 =
100
is

1.5

X 10-2

Hter/sec

and the gauge

error

gauge The system should be made of fairly large-diameter glass tubing with a high-conductance liquid-nitrogen trap between the McLeod gauge and the gauges to be calibrated, and no questionable connectors with rubber or other organic materials should be used. Several methods, as illustrated in Fig. 3-7, have been devised for raising and lowering the mercury level in McLeod gauges. For consistent readings it is important that the mercury be raised smoothly to the proper level, but not beyond, since there is always a slight mechanical hysteresis in the response of the mercury in the closed capillary due
.

to surface effects.
9-^
1.5

X IQ"" X 10-2

0.64

X 10-3

torr

The simplest method


in Fig.
3-7a.

Thus, for the example given of the reading Pj = 1 X 10-^ torr, the greater part, or 0.64 x 10-^ torr, is the gauge error. Errors of this magnitude and sometimes much greater frequently appear when this
simple test is carried out. The need for truly leakage-free connections to a McLeod gauge and connecting tubing of reasonably large-bore

McLeod
tubing.

for controlling the mercury level is illustrated reservoir filled with mercury is connected to the gauge just below the branch point with a length of rubber

The mercury level in the gauge, riding at about a barometric height above that in the reservoir, is adjusted to the proper height by raising and lowering the reservoir. This simple method has been used for many years although its disadvantages are the contamination of the

75

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEBEING


loss of

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

77

mercury by the rubber tubing and frequent


rubber tubing shpping off or rupturing. A somewhat better arrangement for

mercury by the
.

considerations.
capillary of 15

mm length and mm bore has a range as given by (3-9)


1

gauge with a bulb volume of 300 cm^ and a closed

the mercury level is case can be made shown in Fig. 3-76 in which the reservoir, which in this extending below the branch of steel, is coaxial with a long vertical tube barometric height of about point a distance slightly greater than the with relatively small 760 mm. The top of the reservoir can be made the mercury is not a clearance at the top so that contamination of and h For sensitive gauges, however, methods a serious problem. reduce to counterbalancing are cumbersome, even when combined with load. mercury heavy the lift to the effort required is located sufficiently below reservoir mercury fixed a In Fig 3-7c for mercury places the level the McLeod gauge that a barometric height to a high vacuum. below the branch point when the gauge is connected loosely fitting wooden The reservoir is in the form of a cylinder with a down to displace most of the or hollow steel plunger which can be thrust fine control can mercury in the reservoir, raising the level. Relatively near the top plunger a threaded collar on the
lifting

from
2.26
to
5.9

X 10- X

= 10-2 torr for \ =


torr for ^i

150

mm mm

be provided by clamping reservoir housing so arranged to mesh with threads at the top of the by rotating the controlled that the final inch or so of the stroke is
plunger.

achieved by the use In Fig. 3-7d a compact form of McLeod gauge is The level. mercury the of an auxiliary vacuum reservoir to control reservoir the of out mercury in the gauge is lowered by pumping air air, usually above the mercury and raised by admitting atmospheric activated as such through a tube partly filled with a drying agent, convena is valve alumina or silica gel. A two-way stopcock type of reserthe from air removing ient means of switching from admitting to by provided be can Fine control in raising the mercury level voir. of ends both at file notching the inner member of the stopcock with a of development With the the hole through which air is admitted. mercury the as some skill an operator can then reduce the flow rate flow without overshooting level approaches the zero mark and stop the finger or applying a the mark. Tapping the closed capillary with a for the tendency of small mechanical vibrator will help to compensate
the mercury to stick and advance erratically. the The use of a flexible metallic diaphragm for raising and lowering 3-7e. Fig. in illustrated mercury in a compact form of McLeod gauge is The particular model shown is an unusually compact form of McLeod of gauge and has the added feature of a dual range achieved by the use

-,

xu

Dual-range [Taken with permission from J. H. Leek, Pressure


Fig.
3-9.

McLeod gauge.

Measurement in Vacuum
Systems (Published for the Institute of Physics and the Physical Society

Fig. 3-8. McLeod gauge with several scales for an extended pressure
range.

by Chapman and
Ltd.,

Hall,
1964),

London,

2nd

ed.l

In many applications it is desirable to extend the range of the gauge to appreciably higher pressure. One way in which this can be done is to make the closed capillary out of short lengths of tubing of different
bore diameters and for each such section provide a Cg capillary, all in with the side arm, as illustrated in Fig. 3-8. An alternative design due to Romann' is shown in Fig. 3-9 in which a small bulb is inserted between the main bulb and the base of the closed capillary with a second closed capillary tubing connected between the two bulbs.
parallel

two closed capillaries connected to the same reservoir. The pressure range of a McLeod gauge is determined by the length practical of the capillary tube, which is limited to about 15 cm by

The

sensitivity for the second capillary

is

VijV[ of that for the main

78

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


is

PEESSUEE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS


inverse

79

capillary so that the pressure range

increased

by about the

of this ratio. 3-5. Thermal Conductivity

Gauges.

The thermal conductivity

K oi

a.

substance

is

defined by the expression

H = -Kds
in

(3-18)

which

direction

amount of heat flowing per unit area per second in the parallel to s, and dTjds is the temperature gradient in this
is

the

For rarified gases the kinetic theory of gases provides a derivation* of an expression for the thermal conductivity by methods

same

direction.

from (1-23) and Table 1-3. If the diameter of the filament is very small as compared with that of the tube, each molecule will strike the wall several times before finally hitting the filament and will therefore be in good thermal equilibrium with the wall temperature T^ before hitting the filament. At the low pressure here assumed, however, each molecule which strikes the filament will do so only once before again colliding with the wall. The molecules leaving the filament, therefore, will not be in equilibrium with the temperature T, of the filament, but will be characterized by some lower temperature T'^. Under conditions of temperature equilibrium with both surfaces, the kinetic theory of gases gives for the energy transferred by a monatomic
molecule

similar to that given for the viscosity in Sec. 1-9.

The derivation

leads
is

to the conclusion that the thermal conductivity of a rarified gas

E=

2k{Tf

- TJ

{k

the Boltzmann constant)

given by

K=

M(9y

5)riC,

(3-19)

which in this case can only be in the form of kinetic energy. However, more generally for diatomic and polyatomic molecules which acquire
vibrational

in

which y

= CJC^ is the ratio of the specific heat of the gas at constant

pressure to that at constant volume, and r] is the coefficient of viscosity. But the expression (1-59) for the viscosity is independent of the pressure so that the thermal conductivity is also independent of the pressure over the same range for which the viscosity is given by (1-59). However, as was pointed out in the discussion of that expression, when the

transferred

is

and rotational as well as translational energy, the energy greater by the factor (y + l)/4(y 1) where y = Cj,/C^,

the ratio of specific heats of the gas. Thus, in general, the energy transferred per molecule under the conditions of thermal equilibrium

with both surfaces

is

gas pressure is so low that the molecular mean free path is about equal to or greater than the distance between the walls of the containing In that case vessel, the gas is no longer characterized by a viscosity. the expression (3-19) is no longer valid and the conductivity is then found to depend upon the pressure. Therefore, in the pressure range for which the mean free path is comparable with or greater than the dimensions across which the flow of heat occurs, the variation of the

^^)HT,-TJ

(3-21)

However, the situation of interest is one in which the molecules do not come into equilibrium with the temperature of the hot filament so that the energy transfer per molecule is given by a similar expression with T'f substituted for T, where T'f < Tf. Thus, in the case of
interest,

thermal conductivity of the gas with the pressure can be used for the measurement of the pressure. The process of heat flow under these
conditions
is called free molecular conduction. Consider a cylindrical tube with a heated filament of circular cross section running along its axis. According to (1-31) the number of molecules per second striking each square centimeter of the surface of

E
Knudsen
defines the
i.e..

5^7^ ^(^-^J

(3-22)

accommodation

coefficient a as the ratio of these

two quantities;

(3-23)
^
f
->

the filament

is

w
is

yinva,T/

so that the energy transferred per molecule

_ n/2kTY
2\ 77m;
(3-24)
(3-20)

n/2RoTY'
2\

uM

Combining

(3-20)

with (3-24) one then obtains for the rate of energy

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS


80
transfer

81

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEBING


(20C) in which the pressure of air
is

10^

(0.01 torr) is

from

cm^ of filament surface


(273\!-2

-I

(100

20)(0.01)

8.87

10-3 watt/cm2
in. (10 cm) long, x 10"^ cm 2 and the gas heat conduction

_
since

gy

2y
from

+ -

-Rq

\^

(rp
^

T )P
'

ergs/sec

cm^

(3-25)

If the filament

is 1

mil (0.0025 cm) in diameter and 4

1\27tMTJ
nifc

the surface area


since
will

is

about

7.9

(1-16)

P/T and

the ratio of diameters of the temperature T hitting the filament will be in equilibrium with may be written (3-25) Eq. evaluation numerical of the tube wall. For
in the

by our assumption regarding the tube, the gas molecules and filament the

form

be of the order of 6.9 x 10-* watt. Even under conditions of perfect vacuum (P = 0) in the tube, heat will be lost from a hot filament by thermal radiation. If the surfaces were perfectly absorbing to radiation of all wave lengths, the rate of energy loss would be given by the Stefan-Boltzmann law for "black

f(T -T _Li/_^2_f( ~27 - l\277i/(273)/ \T/

body" radiation
in
(3-26)

^^
a

^^^^,

^^,^

^3^^)
(3-29)

which

=
e

5.673 x IO-12 watt/cm2

..m\^,
in

T^)P

ergs/sec cm''

All real surfaces, however, are not perfectly absorbing

and are character'

ized

by the emissivity

with the result that the rate of radiation of

which Ao

is

the free molecular conductivity at 0C given

by

energy becomes
If loss of heat

^^

^^^^^^,

^^^^,^
is

^33^^
large as

Ao

Y
2(y

+ 7

Rn

}A

l)\277i/(273)/

llOy
ilf '^

+ -

ergs/sec
1

cm^ C ^bar
watts/cm^ C torr
(3-27)

compared with that due to gas conduction, the latter cannot be used as a means of measuring the pressure because of the large background effect. For the example above, the heat loss by radiation for perfectly "black" surfaces would be

from the filament due to radiation

1.47

10-2 y

jfVi

y-1

W,

= =

5.67

X 10-12(373*

293*)

6.80

X 10- watt/cm2

The free molecular conductivity at 0C for a given gas can be calculated the by (3-27) and the resulting value inserted in (3-26). However, depends value its since accommodation coefficient a cannot be calculated and surface not only upon the gas involved but also upon the material For filament. the condition (roughness and adsorbed gas layer) of
the value of a is in the vicinity generally quite low of 0.9, whereas for hydrogen the value of a is For roughened or blackened surfaces a approaches unity (0.2 to 0.5). Since surfaces are generally not highly polished nor
clean metallic surfaces exposed to
air,

result in a

is 7.9 x IO-2 cm2, this would due to radiation of 5.37 x 10-* watt, which is comparable with the loss calculated above due to free molecular conduction at P = 10-2 torr. However, since the emissivities of sm^faces

Since the surface area of the filament

power

loss

of clean metals at temperatures in the range of to 100C are generally of the order of 0.1, the true loss due to radiation would be of the order of 5 X 10-^ watt, so that radiation loss and gas -conduction loss would

for all gases.

completely free of adsorbed gas layers, the value a for rough approximation. As an example, for air
1.47

0.7

may

be used

become about equal at a pressure of about [(5 x 10-^)/(6.9 x 10"*)] X 10-2 <= 7 X 10-* torr. Inspection of Eqs. (3-26) and (3-30) shows that radiation increases

much

10-2 2.401

1.64

X 10-2 watt/cm2C torr


from a filament at a temper-

(28.98)'-^

0.401

so that the heat conduction per unit area

ature of 100C to the surrounding tube walls at

room temperature

faster with increasing temperature because of the T* dependence than does gas conduction, so that an equality between radiation and gas conduction occurs at higher pressure as the temperature is raised. Therefore, for measurement down to lowest pressure, the filament should be operated at the lowest temperature for which the heat loss due to gas conduction can be measured. Because of the competition with

82

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

PKESSUEE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

83

radiation loss, thermal conductivity pressure gauges are not normally used for pressure measurements below about 10~^ torr.

a third process by which a hot filament may lose heat to by thermal conduction along the filament to the end mountings. However, this loss can be kept sufficiently small by using a filament of small cross section and heat conductivity. As an

There

is

its surroiuidings, i.e.,

^Millicmmeter

Thermocouple

Filament

:=: Battery

Microommeter
(low-resistance

type)

Rheostat for
current

adjustment
ID)

Thermocouple gauge; (6) simple electrical circuit diagram. [Taken with permission from Saul Dushman, Scientific Foundations of Vacuum Technique (John Wiley and Sons., Inc., New York, 1949).]
Fig.
3-10. (a)

example nickel has a nearly constant heat conductivity of k <= 0.14 g cal cm/C in the temperature range from to 200C. Exact calculation
of the heat-conduction loss along the wire is a bit tedious because of the temperature variation along the wire. A crude estimate can be made, however, by assuming the central third of the wire to be at the maximum temperature and the third at each end to have a uniform temperature gradient 3(T^ TJjL. By this approximation the heat conducted out both ends to the mountings is

W,

= = =

dT
2(0.239)jfc^

dL
x
10-)

2(0.239)(0.14)(4.9
7.9

3(100

second to watts. For this choice of dimensions the heat lost out to the end mountings by heat conduction along the wire is smaller than that lost by radiation, as calculated above, by a factor of about 750. In general, therefore, the balance between free molecular conduction and radiation is all that needs to be considered as long as the cross-sectional area of the filament is sufficiently small. As we have seen, this balance occurs at a pressure of about 10~^ torr or a bit less for the example chosen. Since these two processes of energy loss are both proportional to the surface area of the hot filament, the balance point is approximately independent of the diameter of the filament. The thermocouple vacuum gauge is a thermal conductivity pressiu-e gauge in which the temperature of the hot filament is measured by a thermoa- 10 couple. The heating current which is passed through the hot filament is kept constant at a standard value independent of the temperature of the filament. As the pressure increases the heat conduction through the gas increases and the temperature of the 16 24 40 48 56 32 filament decreases until the temperaScale reading ture corresponding to the high-pressure Fig. 3-11. Calibration curve for value of the heat conduction through General Electric thermocouple the gas is reached. The thermocouple gauge for Hg, Nj, and Xe. [Taken responds to the temperature of the with permission from Saul Dushman, Scientific Foundations of filament and provides a direct reading Vacuum Technique (John Wiley which can be calibrated against the and Sons., Inc., New York, 1949).] pressure in the gauge tube. The thermocouple type of gauge was first developed by Voege' and has been refined by a number of other investigators. ^"'^^ The thermocouple gauge manufactured for many years by General Electric Company is shown in Fig. 3-10 together with the simple electric circuit frequently used to heat the filament and record the output of the thermocouple. The gauge element consists of a platinumiridium ribbon 0.0234 by 0.0078 cm in cross section and 3.66 6m in length with a Nichrome- Advance thermocouple welded to its midpoint.

20)

10

10- watt

in

the cross-sectional area of the 1-mil wire in square centimeters and the factor (0.239) converts from gram calories per
is

which

The heating current passing through the platinum-iridium element is held constant in the range 30 to 60 mA depending upon the pressure range of interest. In Fig. 3-11 are shown calibration curves of pressure

84

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEBING

PEESSUKE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

85

plotted against the thermocouple ciirrent for hydrogen, nitrogen, and xenon. About two-thirds of the total deflection occurs in the pressure

range from 0.1 to 0.01 torr. Characteristically the curve becomes very steep at 5 x 10- torr, below which the accuracy of the gauge is
rather poor.

multistation control unit has an auxiliary heating circuit which keeps the elements of all the gauge tubes in the system warm when they are not connected to the pressure-reading circuit, so that there is no delay in obtaining a pressure reading as the control unit is switched from one

tube to another.
Cufrent

Current

Triode
Clevite

CDT1349A
Gauge tube
45 ohms 1wottl7o

Gouge tube

WW
20ohms
Pot

thermocouple Fig. gauge schematic. [Taken with permission from J. M. Benson, in 1956
3-13. Hastings

Vacuum Symposium Transactions


(Pergamon Press, London,
Gouge
tube

Equivalent circuit of thermocouple gauge. Hastings [Taken with permission from J. M. Benson, in 19S6 Vacuum, Sym,posFig.
3-14.

WW

1957).]

ium, Transactions

(Pergamon Press,

CCW

London,

1957).]

Fig. 3-12. Schematic circuit diagram of

Kimiey thermocouple gauge.

very successful design of thermocouple gauge manufactured by is described by Benson. ^^ The sensitive element of the Hastings gauge consists of two thermocouples acting in parallel and a third thermocouple in series to compensate for variations in ambient temperature. The gauge elements and circuit diagram are shown in Fig. 3-13. The two thermocouples (A) and (B) are heated in
Hastings-Raydist, Inc.,

Thermocouple gauges are very useful and convenient in a variety of A number of commercial designs are available, of which applications. that manufactiu-ed by the Kinney Vacuum Division of The New York Air Brake Company is of special interest. The gauge tube is of steel construction and is both compact (length of 4 in. and outer diameter of iK in.) and relatively sturdy. The thermocouple elements are Chromel and Cupron, and the heater element is a timgsten wire. A special feature of the Kinney thermocouple gauge is that the tubes are all matched so that the circuit need not be reset for proper calibration when tubes are changed. This is particularly convenient in multistation installations in which a number of thermocouple gaugetubes are connected to a single control circuit through a selector switch. The Kinney control unit is fully transistorized and features a printed
circuit,

by alternating current from a transformer. Thermocouple (C) connected from the midpoint between {A) and {B) to the center tap on the transformer provides temperature compensation. Since thermoseries

a simplified diagram for which

is

shown

in Fig. 3-12.

The

and {B) are connected "back to back" in the a-c circuit, they act as parallel sources of electromotive force for the d-c circuit for which the lead from (C) through the d-c meter to the center tap is the common return path. The equivalent circuit for the gauge is illustrated in Fig. 3-14, and a cutaway view of the metal gauge tube revealing the thermocouple arrangement is shown in Fig. 3-15. Multiple thermocouple or thermopile gauges are made for several ranges of

couples {A)

Cutaway view of Hastings gauge showing thermocouple arrangement. [Taken with permission from Vacuum J. M. Benson, in 1956 Symposium. Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1957).]
Fig. 3-15.

86

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


1.

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

87

pressure determined mainly by the dimensions of the thermocouple wires and the temperature at which they are operated. The ranges for which commercial units are available are 0.1 to 20 torr, 5 to

The constant-temperature

bridge, in

which the temperature of the

gases are

and 1 to 100 approximately. Calibration curves for several shown in Fig. 3-16. An outstanding feature of the Hastings thermocouple gauge is the speed of response, which is significantly shorter than for most other commercially available gauges. The metal envelope and generally rugged construction are also features of practical
1,000
fj,

fj.,

gauge filament is kept constant by adjusting the bridge voltage to maintain a bridge balance as indicated by zero current through G in In this mode of operation the pressure is approximately a Fig. 3-17.
linear function of the square of the

bridge voltage

P =
in

(3-31)

interest.

10
s.

= "=::

i:r-

"^<
8
6

^
^^:wr
^^.
Acetylene

^^

which Fq is the voltage necessary to balance the bridge when the pressure in the tube is nomThe constant zero. inally

2=-Argo
>

f,

^s

^Carbon dioxide

depends upon the operating temperature of the filament, the chemical

:^N
Air- *C

Mil

makeup

S s

^5^Xv^^ Freon ...^^2^:UJII

geometrical

parameters

of the gas, and the of the


bridge,

gauge tube.
2.

-^T-1
pi<-:::='

The

constant-current

10

50
Pressure, microns

100

500 1,000

which the current through the hot filament of the gauge tube is maintained at a steady value.
in

Fig. 3-17. Wheatstone bridge circuit [Taken for Pirani gauge control. with permission from J. H. Leek, Pressure Measurement in Vacuum Systems (Published for the Institute of Physics and the Physical Society

Fig. 3-16. Calibration curves for Hastings gauge of intermediate sensitivity. [Taken with permission from J. M. Benson, in 7956 Vacuum Symposium Transactions

(Pergamon Press, London,

1957).]

About concurrently with the first appearance of the thermocouple gauge, Pirani^* developed a thermal-conductivity pressure gauge in which the resistance of the hot filament was calibrated as a function of the

As the pressure in the gauge tube increases, the thermal conduction of the gas surrounding the hot filament increases, and the temperature of the filament and therefore also its electrical resistance tend to decrease. The usual control circuit for a Pirani gauge is the
gas pressure.

by Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London, balanced when the 1964), 2nd ed.] pressure in the gauge tube is very low, and the imbalance current registered on the meter designated by G in Fig. 3-17 is used as an indication of the pressure. 3. The constant-voltage bridge, in which the voltage across the bridge Because is kept constant, e.g., by means of a regulated power supply. the because and circuitry of the simplicity of the constant-voltage current imbalance the pressure is approximately a linear function of over a limited range in pressure in this mode of operation, the constantvoltage bridge has been widely adopted in commercial Pirani gauge

The bridge

is

Wheatstone bridge, in which one leg of the bridge is the filament of the gauge tube and the other three legs have resistances nearly equal to that of the gauge tube, as shown in Fig. 3-17. It is sometimes advantageous to use two identical gauge tubes in the circuit, one of which is evacuated to a low pressure and sealed ofi". If the sealed-off dummy tube is mounted adjacent to the gauge tube, fiuctuations due to changes in ambient temperature and bridge voltage are to some degree compensated. In the circuit-in Fig. 3-17 the gauge tube is represented by' R and the compensating tube, if it is used, takes the place of R^. The Wheatstone bridge circuit can be operated in any of three ways to provide an indication of the pressure

The bridge circuit is balanced as in the constant-current bridge when the pressure in the gauge tube is very low (below the range of detectable response) and the pressure observed as a function of
circuits.

the imbalance current.

typical constant-voltage bridge circuiti^

is

shown in Fig. 3-18. Typical calibration curves" for constant-temperature and constant-voltage-bridge operation are shown in Fig.
Although, with special precautions to ensure a constant ambient temperature for the gauge tube, the Pirani gauge can be designed for operation at much lower pressure, commercial Pirani gauges are useful primarily in the range from 10"^ to 1 torr. A thermistor is a semiconductor element which has a high negative
3-19.

*105

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS


temperature coefficient of resistance. The use of a thermistor instead of a wire as the heated element in a Pirani gauge has been well known in the literature for many years. Becker, Green, and Pearson^' have described the properties of thermistors and their use in vacuum The principal advantage of gauges. the thermistor type of Pirani gauge is that the response curve of the bridge current as a function of the pressure may be essentially linear over a very wide pressure range by the proper choice of circuit constants. In spite of this very useful
100

89

10

/
-i.o

/
0.10

/
40

>
B,

/
/

/
; ;

/
(

I /

/
/
/
/

feature,

thermistor-type Pirani

gauges have not until quite recently been successful commercially because of the rather wide variation in propThis producerties of thermistors. tion problem has recently been solved
that thermistors of sufficiently uniform properties can now be obso
tained.

/ / / / /

ll
1/

0.010

1/

20

60

80

100

Relative meter reading

Because of this improve-

Fig. 3-19. Pressure -sensitivity curves for {A) constant-temperature operation, and (B) constant-voltage bridge operation. [Taken with permission from A. R. Hamilton, Rev.
Sci. Instr. 28,

ment

in technology, the thermistor

693 (1957).]

gauge shown in Fig. 3-20 is now commercially available. The circuit diagram for this gauge is shown in Fig. 3-21, and a calibration curve is given in Fig. 3-22. The relatively linear response
is

characteristic of thermistor-type Pirani gauges.

is the extension of the useful range to relatively high values of the pressure by the

However, the special feature of this particular gauge

Insulator

Thermistor bead

Connector pins

Support wires

Fig. 3-18. Typical constant -voltage bridge circuit for Pirani gauge. [Taken with permission from C. M. Schwarz and R. Lavender, Rev. Sci. Instr. 19, 814
(1948).]

Fig. 3-20. Cross-sectional view of

Kinney thermistor vacuum gauge.

88

90

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

91

negative potential V^ relative to the cathode to ensure that electrons emitted by the cathode or created by collision processes in the annular space between the grid and plate are prevented from reaching

lOOohms lOwatts
Ohmite Brown-Devil

the plate and are essentially all attracted to the grid, which is the most positive electrode. If the grid is made of fine wire, most of the electrons from the cathode miss the grid wires as they are propelled outward by the field and continue toward the plate until

they reach a point in the grid-to-plate region at which the electrical potential is the same as that of the cathode; they are then turned back to oscillate radially, passing through the holes between the wires of the grid repeatedly until they finally strike a grid wire and As the electrons pass through the grid they reach their are captured. maximum kinetic energy of eVg, in which e is the electronic charge (-4.80 X 10-1" esu = -1.60 x 10"" coulomb) and F is the grid potential. The kinetic energy is either in ergs or joules, depending upon the units (cgs or practical) in which e and V^ are expressed. Alternatively, this kinetic energy can be expressed in units of electron volts in which case the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons is equal to Vg electron volts, by which one simply means that kinetic energy acquired by a particle with one electronic charge e falling through a difference of potential equal to F, volts. In atomic and nuclear

Victory

25 A 4 5,000 ohms
or

Fenwal

GB 35LI 5,000 ohms

Fig. 3-21. Circuit diagram of

Kinney thermistor vacuum gauge.


\rnV/

enclosure of the thermistor element in a metallic cylinder with small The heat flow through the gas from the thermistor element clearances. to the cylinder therefore occurs along a very short path so that the
conditions for free molecular conduction discussed at the beginning of
this section are realized at relatively high pressure.

J^
50

^s
40

k
k.

ohms/ \ "i R?\


100

ohms

/^"/ir^ N^(mAJ
ohms^CLiJ/

3-6.

Hot-cathode Ionization Gauge.

The hot-cathode

ioni:

zation gauge consists basically of three elements in a gastight tube a thermionic cathode, an electrode usually in the form of a grid for extracting electrons from the cathode, and a positive ion collector or
plate.

30

\\
20
s

volts

ordinary triode-type electronic tube has these elements and can be used as an ionization gauge by opening the tube envelope and sealing on a tubulation by which it can be connected to a vacuum

Any

\
\, \
2

10

system.

N,

V,

The operation of an ionization gauge is illustrated in Fig. 3-23. Electrons from the cathode are accelerated by the electrostatic field through the grid of radius r^, which for this purpose is set at a positive The plate of radius r^ is set at a potential Vg relative to the cathode.

^-2
5

0.001

0.01

0.1

2
Torr

12

10

100

Fig. 3-22. Calibration curve of

Kinney thermistor vacuum gauge

for air.

92

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEKING


and potential energies are which the following conversion

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

93

structure as well as in electronics both kinetic

commonly quoted
factors are useful
1

in electron volts, for

the plate or collector are recorded as positive ion current and contribute to a measurement of the density of molecules in the tube. An alternative method of operating a triode-type vacuum tube as an
ionization gauge
is

to use the grid as the positive ion collector.


Vj, is

In this

electron volt (eV)

or conversely

= = = 1 joule = 1 erg =

1.60
1.60 1.60

x 10"" coulomb x X 10-" joule X x


10-12 erg
10^*

case the plate potential


potential

highly positive
(e.g.,

(e.g.,

+200 V) and the grid


This arrangement of
is

somewhat negative
is

25

V).

potentials

similar to that applied to the elements of a triode used in


circuit.

an electronic

The

electron output from the cathode

then

6.24

eV
and out through the any are present in

6.24

x 10" eV
if

As shown

in Fig. 3-23, electrons oscillating in

grid will eventually collide with gas molecules

heavily space-charge-limited because of the retarding effect of the interposed negative grid. Those electrons which do escape into the gridto-plate region gain energy as they travel outward and strike the plate with their maximum kinetic energy. Ionization occurs mostly in the
region near the plate, and the positive ions are
collected

the tube. If the kinetic energy of the electron at the time of collision with a molecule is greater than the ionization potential of the molecule,
Grid

drawn into and are by the grid. Electronic tubes are traditionally checked after assembly and evacuation by measuring the grid current, which is an excellent indication of the residual gas. This process amounts to
the use of the tube as its own ionization gauge. Because in this mode of operation the electrons do not oscillate back and forth through the grid as they do when the grid is at positive potential, the electron paths
are

an electron
state.

may

be knocked off the

Plate

it in an ionized Each such impact decreases the energy of the electron and de-

molecule, leaving

much

shorter

and the

sensitivity as

an ionization gauge

is

poor.

flects
Cothode

Fig. 3-23. Hot-cathode ionization gauge. A typical electron trajectory is shown. The useful region of positive ion production is the shaded area. [Taken with permission from J. H. Leek, Pressure Measurement in Vacuum Systems (Published for the Institute of Physics and the Physical Society by Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London,
1964),

it from its otherwise purely path so that the electron loses energy during its oscillatory motion and becomes more random in its motion. In any case, it eventually falls into one of the grid wires and is captured. Electrons knocked out of

In practice, ionization-gauge tubes are therefore normally used with


the grid positive and the plate negative with respect to the cathode, as described in the previous paragraphs.

radial

2nd

ed.]

molecules in ionizing collisions may also gain sufficient kinetic energy to cause some additional ionization, depending on the electrical potential at the point at which they are created,

but eventually they also

fall

into one

In order to produce ionization by impact with an atom or molecule an electron must have kinetic energy at least equal to the ionization potential, which ranges from 3.89 eV for cesium to 24.6 eV for helium. Of more practical interest in the formation of ions is the probability of ionization Pi, which is defined as the fraction of electrons at a given energy producing an ionizing collision per centimeter of path and per torr of gas pressure. In Fig. 3-24 the probability of ionization is shown graphically as a function of electron energy for several common gases as measured by Tate and Smith, i* Since at a pressure of 1 torr and temperature of 0C the molecular
density
is

of the grid wires because the grid, being positive relative to both the cathode and the plate, is the only electrode which they can reach.

2.69
'

X 10"
760

Those positive ions which are created in the annulus between the grid and the plate are in an electrostatic field directed radially outward. Being positively charged, these ions are driven outward to the plate, where they register as a positive current. Those ions which are formed in the space between the cathode and grid, however, are in a field which accelerates electrons ( ) outward. These ions are therefore attracted to the cathode, where they are captured and are electrically equivalent to electrons leaving the cathode. Only those positive ions reaching

=
the probability of ionization
Pi
in

3.54

X 10" cm-

Wio-j

3.54

lO^cTi

(3-32)

which a^ is the cross section for an ionizing collision by an electron. The number of ions produced by an electron per centimeter of path from

94
(3-32)

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEBEING


and
(1-16)
is

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

95

then
273

273
(3-33)

The use of ionization of gas molecules by electron collisions as a means of measuring the pressure (or more exactly the molecular density) of a gas was first described by Buckley.^'' A simplified circuit for operating an ionization gauge is shown in Fig. 3-25. The positive ion current
i^ to the plate (or ion collector) for a given value of the grid voltage Vg and grid (electron) current i_ is a direct indication of the molecular

20

15

A
lA ^Vl f/^ ^s
'

density and therefore also of the pressure. ionization gauge is defined by the relation
Plate or ion

The

sensitivity s of

an

i^

= si_P
(3-35)
s i_

collector

or

Pi

10

^:
-15 to
volts

"=H
200

-30 :=:

Z^ -^

IVp+P^Vg to
+180
volts

^
J_

400

^:

600

Electron energy, eV

Fig.
in

3-24. Probability of ionization

Fig.

3-25.

Simple

ionization-gauge

C^HalD, 0^(2), ^^(Z), A(4), n^(5), Ne(6), and He(7). [Taken with permission from J. H. Leek, Pressure Measurement in Vacuum Systems (Published for the Institute of Physics

circuit.

and the Physical Society by


Hall, Ltd., London,

Chapman and
1964),

2nd

ed.]

which n is the molecular density corresponding to the pressure P and temperature T of the gas. For an electron stream of current i_ amperes (6.24 x 10^* electrons/sec = 1 A), the positive ion current i^ amperes, assuming all the ions are collected, is thus given by
in

be calculated from (3-34) and the geometry of the gauge tube. However, the average length of path for the electrons and is not easily estimated for tube geometries of practical interest, grid the of value maximum the energy of the electrons varies from the voltage Vg to zero in a complicated way so that direct calibration of each tjrpe of ionization gauge against a McLeod gauge is the only For sufficiently low practical means of determining the sensitivity. contribute to i_ which electrons pressure only a small fraction of the produce two none essentially produce ionizing collisions, and therefore sensitivity the pressure low Therefore at sufficiently or more collisions. is pressure the when However, s is expected to be independent of more produce electrons of the high enough that a significant fraction than one ionizing collision, then the multiplicity will increase with the In Fig. pressure, and the sensitivity is no longer independent of i_. current i_ is electron on the 3-26 the dependence of the ion current ^+ gas nitrogen with gauges ionization shown for three different makes of

and

in principle could

at a pressure of 5
for all three

273

.
(3-34)

The maxima for the Pi curves for most gases occur in the energy range from 60 to 200 eV, above which p^ decreases steadily with increasing electron energy. For the common gases for which curves are shown in Fig. 3-24, p^ reaches maximum values of about 1.5 for helium to about
17 for acetylene so that the

gauges up to values of i^ from about 10"^ to 3 X 10"* A depending upon the characteristics of the gauge tube. Measurement of the sensitivity 5 as a function of the pressure in the range IQ-* to 1 torr shows that s increases with increasing pressure until a maximum is reached and then decreases^" as shown in Fig. 3-27 for nitrogen and helium. The value of the pressure at which the gauge sensitivity reaches its maximum value for helium is seen to be about
a factor of 10 greater than that for nitrogen. governed by the ionization probability Pi, which
is

lO-^ torr.^"

At

this pressure of nitrogen, i+ oc i_

Since the process is about 6 to 10 times

maximum

values of the cross sections for

ionization

(Tj

vary from about 4 x 10-" cm2 to about 5 x lO-is cm^

as large for nitrogen as for helium in the electron energy range used in ionization gauges, the pressure difference for the maxima is to be expected. The rise in sensitivity in the vicinity of 10"^ torr for

for the gases

shown

in the figure.

nitrogen

is

caused by multiple ion production by each electron when the

96

VACITtrM SCIENCE

AND ENGINEEEING

PRESSTTBE

MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS


H.U

97
0.5

and the grid are drawn toward and bombard the cathode, operation of an ionization gauge at pressures much above 10"^ torr greatly shortens the life of the cathode. The upper limit of operation of commercial gauges
is

''

<''^^T

^n

r^
;'/
fp
t/

ff
0.25!
'

therefore usually

2.0

with the result that except near the upper limit of the pressure range, say from 6 x 10"*
set at this pressure

// // it

i
/

1.0

/
of

J\

"

to

10~* torr, the sensitivity

is

essentially independent of
lO'

both the
pressure.

10"*

10"

10'

electron current

and the

50

100

150

200

250

Electron current,I_,amp

Fig. 3-26. Ion current as a function of electron current for three different gauges operating on the same pressure of nitrogen gas. [Taken with permission from W. B. Nottingham and F. L. Torney, Jr., in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions

However, for precision measurements detailed calibration of each gauge tube against a IMcLeod gauge over the pressure range from 10~*
to 10-* torr
is

Electron accelerotinq voltage.voits

Fig.

3-28. lonization-gauge

sensi-

tivity for nitrogen

and neon as a

(Pergamon Press, London,

1961).]

essential.

ionization

mean

free

path becomes small compared with the average

Since the ionization probability


Pi varies with the electron energy (see Fig. 3-24) the sensitivity s de-

electron path length because of the high molecular density.

The

decrease in sensitivity with increasing pressure beyond the


attributed

maximum is

by Nottingham and Torney^"

to ion-electron or positive-

ion-negative-ion recombination which becomes at high molecular density.

much more probable

pends upon the grid potential V^. As shown in Fig. 3-28 for nitrogen (2) and neon (3) the sensitivity for

function of the grid potential. (1) Relative sensitivity, neon/nitrogen; (2) sensitivity, nitrogen; (3) sensitivity, neon. [Taken with permission from J. H. Leek, Pressure, Measurement in Vacuun Systems (Published for the Institute of Physics and the Physical Society by Chapman and
Hall, Ltd., London, 1964),

2nd

ed.]

Since those ions which are formed in the region between the cathode

a given gas increases with the pressure rapidly for low values of Vg and then much more slowly, changing very little with increasing grid potential above 200 V. Because the ionization potential for neon (21.6 V) is much higher than that for nitrogen (14.5 V) the relative

10

20

200
(b)

400

'0-1

1.0

10

100

0.5

1.0

Electron current.mA
p.torr

Electron occ volts

Collector-v bios
(c)

Pressure, microns (d)

(o)

Fig. 3-27. Gauge sensitivity at very low electron current as a function of pressure for nitrogen and helium. [Taken with permission from W. B. Nottingham and F. L. Torney, Jr., in 1960 Vacuum, Sym,posium, Transactions (Pergamon Press,

London,

1961).]

Fig. 3-29. Characteristics of typical triode ionization gauge for nitrogen. [Taken with permission from J. H. Leek, Pressure Measurement in Vacuum Systems (Published for the Institute of Physics and the Physical Society by Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London, 1964), 2nd ed.]

98

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


is

PEESSUBE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

99
of ionization-

sensitivity changes with grid potential as


figure.

shown

in curve (1) in the

The

circuit constants

and

sensitivity (air) for a

number

of an ionization gauge for different gases are not fixed values but depend upon the gauge design and the value of Vg. The somewhat complex dependences of the positive ion current potential F^, (6) the grid or accelerating on (a) the electron current

Thus the

relative

sensitivities

gauge tubes of different design are shown in Table 3-1. In this table the sensitivity is given in units of ,aA/micron/mA, that is, the positive ion current i^ in microamperes resulting from a pressure of 1 micron (10-3 torr) of air in the tube when the electron current i_ is 1 milliampere. Table
3-1.

the plate or collector potential F,,, and {d) the pressure are shown in the curves in Fig. 3-29. These four ciurves
(c)

Ionization-gauqe Opbbating Data"


Sensitivity (N^), s,

Reference or supplier

are convincing evidence that the sensitivity 5 as defined in (3-35) is not a

F, volts
volts

i_,

mA

/<A/micron/mA

constant but depends upon a number of factors. Commercial ionization-gauge circuits are designed to maintain the
true

parameters (particularly i_ and F^) constant at values for which the sensitivity is approximately
critical

circuit

Jaycox and Weinhart*" Morse and Bowie*^ Bayard and Alpert** Edwards High Vacuum IG.2 Edwards High Vacuum IG.3 * AEI. 29D.15 (miniature) AEI. 29D.2
.

-6
-25

-5 -50 -15

to

to to

-30 -100 -25

120 150 150 125 150

20
5

12.5

40
10
5 12.5
5.5

10
to 10
to 10 to 5 to 5

independent of the pressure.

The prob-

NRC NRC*
CVC GIC.Oll* CVC VG.IA
35

lem of regulating the cathode-emission current was first solved by Ridenour and Lampson^i by means of the circuit shown schematically in Fig 3- 30 The
. .

TG

Eital-McCuUock"

31 Precision Scientific Co.

lifetime

of the cathode becomes quite

1949 RCA" 79512 Western Electric".

short at higher pressures because of bombardment by positive ions formed

KIGT Kinney
VAC-NIG, Vactronis Lab.f.
<
.

-25 -20 -40 -45 -25 -25 -25 -25 -25 -30 + 20 to -50

200 200
150 100 200 150 150 150 150 150 160 150

13

to 5 to 15 to 20 to 5
5 5 5 5
7

20
12.5

18

20
4

12

14 10
14.3

10

10

"

supply

Fig. 3-30. Circuit of Ridenour and Lampson for regulating the emission current of an ionization gauge.

between the cathode and grid, so that commercial gauge circuits are not normally made to operate above 10-^ torr. Modern commercial gauge circuits not only provide reguin the space

These data largely taken with permission from J. H. Leek, Pressure Measurement in Vacuum Systems (Published for the Institute of Physics and the Physical
Society by Chapman & Hall, Ltd., London, 1964), 2nd ed. " E. K. Jaycox and H. W. Weinhart, Rev. Sci. Instr. 2, 401 (1931). " R. S. Morse and R. M. Bowie, Rev. Sci. Instr. 11, 91 (1940). R. T. Bayard and D. Alpert, Rev. Sci. Instr. 21, 571 (1950). " B. B. Dayton, Le Vide, p. 349 (1947).
''

[Taken with permission from J. H. Leek, Pressure Measurement in Vacuum Systems (PubHshed for the Institute of Physics and the Physical

lation of the circuit constants for the

Society

by Chapman and
2nd
ed.]

Hall, Ltd., London, 1964),

gauge but also means of preconditioning the tube by heating and outgassing the electrodes as well as a sensitive vacuum-tube electrometer circuit with
a selector

* t

Bayard-Alpert construction.

Nude Bayard-Alpert

constrviction.

several ranges controlled by switch for reading the positive ion current conveniently over a wide range on a simple panel meter. A sensitive relay in series with the output meter is also frequently provided as a means of shutting off the gauge circuit and performing other protective functions, such as turning off diffusion-pump heaters and closing valves in the event that

Although the elements of the traditional ionization-gauge tube are superficially similar to those of an electronic tube, the function is quite different and therefore also the details of the design. Since for
applications pressures of 10- torr (10"^^) or lower are to be measured, the positive ion current is of the order of 10 x lO-^ x 5 ^A or 5 X 10-8 A. There is no difficulty in amplifying such a current to the milliampere range for the operation of a sturdy panel meter. However, any electrical leakage in the gauge tube, in the leads, or in the power

many

the system pressure should exceed a safe limit.

100

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


must be small
as

PEESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS


plate

101

supply chassis

compared with the minimum

current to be measured. The design of ionization-gauge tubes is therefore such as to minimize In Fig. 3-31 is shown the internal electrical leakage to the plate. plate construction of the RCA 1949, which is widely used. The envelope tube support and lead are brought into the through the opposite end to those for the cathode and the grid, providing a very long leakage path from

The gauges are built on flanges for mounting with their electrodes inside the region where the pressure is to be measured.
commercially.
Initial operation of an ionization gauge just after the system has been pumped down from atmospheric pressure results in the heating

of the electrodes and the emission of large quantities of absorbed gases from the surfaces. Unless the gauge elements are heated vig-

other elements of the tube to the plate. The RCA 1949 also has two spiral-wound tungsten wire cathof odes, only one of which is required for operation other the out, burns the tube. When one filament one can be put into service, thus doubling the life of

orously to drive off absorbed gases, the reading remain high as compared with the system pressure for a long time. The grids of several
will

of the commercial designs are in the form of

the tube. The design of Morse and Bowie^^ shown in Fig. 3-32 has been popular in industrial applicaThe innovation introduced with this gauge tions. tube is the use of a platinum film deposited on the inner wall of the tube as the ion collector. Not only
in this case

which can be electrically heated. The plate can be heated by electron bombardment by connecting the grid and plate together at the same positive potential. Finally,
filaments

the electrical leakage path to the plate large, but also the plate can be easily heated for outgassing by flaming the gauge tube. Connection to the plate is made by a wire sealed into the side wall
is

sometimes necessary to heat the glass or metal envelope of the gauge tube to the safe limit of temperature. After the gauge tube and elements have been thoroughly outgassed, an opposite effect beit is

form of a spiral filament through which a current can be passed for heating and outgassing. Fig. 3-31. RCA Because all glass ionization-gauge tubes must be ionization1949 [Regauge tube. connected to the system by a tubulation, the conproduced through ductance from the gauge to the system tends to be the courtesy of somewhat constricted. In studying the performance CorporaRadio of diffusion pumps. Blears^* connected to the test tion of America.] dome a normal ionization gauge with its usual tubufrom lation and also mounted inside the test dome an identical gauge elements gauge the which the glass envelope had been removed so that were exposed directly in the test volume. Striking differences were a observed, the "nude" ionization gauge always reading higher by the to due mainly factor of 10 or more when the pressure reading was vapor backstreaming from the oil diffusion pump. This effect was attributed by Blears to the adsorption of the oil vapor on the inside
of the tube.

The grid

is

in the

surfaces of the glass tube

and tubulation of the conventional gauge.

Because of the very high conductance into the electrode structure of' the nude gauge, the pressure indicated should be very nearly correct even if adsorption does occur to some degree on the plate and grid. Several designs of nude ionization gauges are now available

Because the surfaces within thoroughly outgassed, gas entering the tube is readily adsorbed, particularly on the tube walls. Chemical reactions induced by the hot filament can further enhance the absorption of gas by the gauge. These processes are responsible for the pumping action of well -outgassed ionization gauges reported by a number of observers beginning with Langmuir.24 Riddiford^s has measured a Fig. 3-32. Ionization gauge designed bypumping speed for oxygen of about Hter/sec and Bowie. due to chemical reaction of oxygen with the Morse [Taken with permission hot filament of an ionization gauge. Gas from R. S. Morse and pumping, either due to adsorption or due to R. M. Bowie, Rev. Sci. chemical reaction, will cause the pressure at Instr. 11, 91 (1940).] the gauge to be lower than that in the system. If the pumping effect includes adsorption of gas on the inside surface of the tubulation, the pressure recorded by a conventional gauge is sometimes a factor of 10 less than that recorded inside a test dome by a nude gauge. Furthermore, according to Reich^s the time necessary for pressure equilibrium to be established between the test dome and the gauge tube through the tubulation can be many hours or even days. The adsorbed layer on the inner wall of the tubulation builds up first at
the tube
are
all

comes noticeable.

102

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

103

the end nearest to the test dome and then progressively grows along the Equilibrium is not estabhshed until the adsorbed layer has tabulation.

grown the length of the tube.

The growth

rates of films for substances

3-7. The Bayard-Alpert Ionization Gauge. In order to reduce the low-pressure limit of the conventional ionization gauge due to photoelectron emission from the plate, Bayard and Alpert^" devised

of high molecular weight, such as oil vapor, are very slow so that the equilibrium time becomes correspondingly long. Investigation of the "Blears effect" by Haefer and Hengevoss^' confirms the original results of Blears^* and leads to the conclusion that if diffusion-pump

a modified ionization gauge as illustrated in Fig. 3-33. The gauge features a cylindrical grid structure with a fine wire ion collector along its axis and a cathode located just outside the grid structure to one side.

vapor is present in a system operating in the ultrahigh vacuum regime (P < 10-^ torr), a normal tubulated ionization gauge indicates little more than the partial pressure of the permanent gases and does not respond appreciably to the organic vapors present due to backstreaming. According to these authors, "this behavior lies in the vastly different conductance of the small connecting tube for oil vapor and permanent gas in conjunction with the cracking of the oil molecules by the gauge." The processes of thermal decomposition and wall adsorption in ionization gauges are not completely understood, but it is clear that these processes do, under some circumstances, lead to large errors in pressure measurement which can be greatly minimized by elimination of the tubulation and the use of the nude type of
oil

Because the plate structure of the conventional ionization gauge is by a fine wire, the total area exposed for X-ray-induced photoelectron emission is reduced by a factor of about 200. The sensitivity of the Bayard-Alpert gauge proves to be comparable with that of the conventional gauge because the electrons in oscillating from the external cathode back and forth through the grid structure spend a large portion of their time in the nearly field-free space (except for the slight field due to the 20 V on the collector wire) within the grid at the kinetic energy (typically 200 eV) at which the probability of ionization 'p^ is near its maximum. The difference in performance between the Bayard-Alpert and the conventional ionization gauge is shown graphically in Fig. 3-34 in which
replaced
is

ionization gauge.

which can be measured with a conventional ionization gauge is determined by a process not anticipated until He found that after all normal it was pointed out by Nottingham. ^^ gauge there remained ionization leakage current was eliminated in an pressure in the system by the a base current to the plate even when ion current of positive produce a other indications was far too low to current to be due plate residual comparable magnitude. He found the striking the grid. electrons to the production of soft X-rays by the energies of photons X-ray When electrons strike a target they produce in turn photons These up to the full kinetic energy of the electrons. release and the grid, go in all directions from the source, in this case conin the Since photoelectrons from whatever surfaces they strike. grid at the produced ventional ionization gauge most of the soft X rays continuously are strike the plate, photoelectrons in significant numbers produced at the plate. The electrostatic field at the plate is such as to attract positive ions and therefore also to repel the photoelectrons, the current of which is recorded by the external circuit as if it were due to positive ions collected by the plate. Results by Nottingham and others demonstrate that conventional ionization gauges never give plate currents less than that corresponding to about 10~* torr even when the pressure is of the order of IQ-i^ torr. Because of the X-ray effect, the lower limit of reliability of the conventional ionization gauge is found to be about 10-' torr.

The lower

limit of pressure

a log-log plot of the collector current as a function of the grid potential shown for each type of gauge for various values of the pressure. At sufficiently high pressure the collector current does not increase signifi-

cantly with grid potential above 200 V, a characteristic also illustrated However, at very low pressure the positive ion current becomes small as compared with the photoemission current. The
in Fig. 3-296.

then increases indefinitely with increasing grid potenbeing proportional to a power of the grid potential lying between 1.5 and 2.0 as indicated by the slope of the log-log curve in the figure. This characteristic can be explained on the assumption that the entire
collector current
tial,

collector current is due to photoemission. For intermediate pressures a characteristic made up of a mixture of the ionization current and photoemission current is obtained. The characteristic of the conventional ionization gauge at P 10-^ torr is a pure power law typical of photoemission with no vestige of any ionization current. The

<

characteristics for the Bayard-Alpert gauge, however, retain the ioniza-

tion
100.

component

for values of the pressure lower

by a

factor of at least

Even

at

P<

x lO""

torr a slight departure

from the pure

power law provides a basis


current.

for crudely estimating the true positive ion

Gauge tubes made

essentially as described

Alpert are

now commercially

available from a

by Bayard and number of sources and

are frequently used on systems even when the operating pressure is not below the limit of the conventional ionization gauge. A. van Oostrom^o describes a modified Bayard-Alpert gauge in which

the X-ray limit

is

reduced to lO-i^ torr or

less

by reducing the diameter

104

VACUUM SCIENCE ANB ENGINEERING


decreasing the The author states that by applying V or more) to the collector relative to
(1
/*

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

105

of the ion-collector wire to 4 /^ electron energy below 100 eV.

IQ-^

mm) and

a high negative voltage (-200 is comparable the grid, the sensitivity with the small-diameter collector and Stork" with that of the standard Bayard- Alpert gauge. Schuetze

Between the suppressor electrode and the grid is a grounded shield, the function of which is to prevent rays from the grid from striking the suppressor, causing emission of photoelectrons, which would then

be attracted to the ion-collector plate and subtract from the ioncollector current. Schuemann states that this arrangement completely suppresses the photocurrent and thus removes the X-ray limit entirely. Pressures as low as 2 x lO-i^ torr have been measured with the photocurrent-suppressor gauge.

Conventional
Ion

New

Ion

Gouge

Gouge

torr

The Bayard-Alpert gauge displays the same tendencies either of outgassing or of "pumping" by gas absorption as were described for the conventional ionization gauge. According to Redhead,^^ the pumpFilament ing speed of a Bayard-Alpert gauge, (+50 volts) operated at 8 electron current
_

mA

and 250 eV electron energy,


P=4xl0-'
torr

is

about

ie-t-

~^.

2 liters/sec for nitrogen

put into
action
is

when first operation. This pumping made up of ion pumping

-Sh

Ionization grid

(+200

volts)

100

1,000

100

1,000

Grid potentiol, volts


(a) (b)

Fig.

3-33.

The Bayard-

Alpert ionization gauge.


tive

(A) one of two alternacathodes; {B) the grid structure; (C) the ion
collector.

permission

[Taken with from R. T. Bayard and D. Alpert, Rev. Sci. Instr. 21, 571
(1950).]

Fig. 3-34. Ion collector current as a function of grid potential for (a) conventional ionization gauge and (6) Bayard-Alpert gauge. [Taken with permission from R. T. Bayard and D. Alpert, Rev. Sci. Instr. 21, 571 (1950).]

and chemical pumping. The ion pumping results from ion bombardment of the electrodes and the glass envelope. The chemical pumping is due to chemisorption of gas on the electrode and any metal films which may have formed, e.g., on the inner surface of the glass envelope. Redhead reports that the chemical pump-

Shield (ground)

J
/
/

Suppressor wng (-300 volts)-'


Collector

Fig. 3-35. Schematic of photocurrent suppressor gauge. [Reprinted with permission from The

Macmillan

Company,

from

1962

Vacuum Symposium Transactions. Copyright 1962 by American Vac-

uum

Society.]

ing ceases for nitrogen after about lO^^ molecules have been pumped. The ion pumping continues at about 0.25 liter/sec until 10" molecules

markedly reduced X-ray limit (5 x lO"" torr) by using an diameter ion-collector wire oflO /i diameter as compared with the usual and by reducing the electron energy to 50 eV. of about 150 A further advance in the suppression of the X-ray photo current in an ionization gauge is reported by Schuemann,*'' whose gauge modifialso report
fj.

suppressor ring electrode cation is shown schematically in Fig. 3-35. located adjacent to the collector electrode is maintained at a high negative potential ( 300 V), imposing a strong electric field such as to drive any photoelectrons emitted by the collector back into its surface.

have been pumped, at which point it decreases rapidly. Chemical changes in gases are produced by the hot tungsten cathode normally operated at a temperature of about 1700C, which is high enough to dissociate water vapor, hydrogen, and hydrocarbons. Carbon impurities in the tungsten cathode react with oxygen to form carbon monoxide and dioxide. Also at this temperature an appreciable fraction of hydrogen molecules incident on the cathode are converted to atomic hydrogen. Since atomic hydrogen is readily absorbed at glass surfaces and reacts chemically with components of the glass envelope and metal electrodes of the gauge tube to produce other gases such as carbon monoxide, any hot-cathode gauge, such as the Bayard-Alpert, has an anomalously high pumping speed for hydrogen. Chemical changes which occur at the surface of the hot filament result in serious errors in pressure measurement when hydrogen, oxygen, water vapor, or hydrocarbons

106
are present.

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

PEESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

107

These effects are particularly troublesome in ultrahighvacuum systems in which the predominant gas is hydrogen. These rhenium troublesome effects can be largely eliminated by the use of a emits an ample which (LaB,), boride lanthanum with coated filament (1,000C) than electron current (10 mA) at a much lower temperature that (1,700C) required for a tungsten
filament.

The Bayard-Alpert gauge is much more susceptible to gross error due to the accumulation of an insulating coating on the ion collector than is the conventional ionization gauge. Lauer^* reports that this condition, which can result in gauge readings which are too low by a factor of 10 or more, can be easily corrected by connecting the ioncollector electrode to the grid potential

n
Fig. 3-36. Nude Bayard-Alpert gauge. [Reproduced through the Lab. Vactronic of courtesy

for

a few minutes, thus cleaning the

collector electrode

by electron bombard-

ment.
Discrepancies between gauge readings and the true system pressure are greatly reduced, as in the case of the

In a study of the operation of Bayard-Alpert gauges, Winters, Denison, and Bills^s conclude that many of the conditions leading to no'nlinearity in response can be greatly alleviated by the simple expedient of reducing the filament temperature and electron emission current. According to Nottingham,^' one cause of anomalous behavior in the original design of the Bayard-Alpert gauge is the loss of positive ions out the ends of the grid structure. He has shown that this defect can be corrected by closing both ends of the grid structure with wire mesh. The uncertainty which develops at low pressure, particularly for P < 10- torr, is due to the fact that the composition of the residual gas cannot, in general, be predicted. Since the gauge sensitivity is a function of the gas composition, varying by a factor of about 5 for the common gases, interpretation of gauge readings in terms of molecular density at low pressure becomes quite uncertain. Because of this obvious difficulty, low-pressure readings taken with a Bayard-Alpert type of ionization gauge are usually quoted in terms of the equivalent air pressure based upon a calibration against a McLeod gauge using a controlled air flow. A much more precise measurement at low pressure involves vacuum analysis, i.e., the measurement of the partial pressures of the gas components present in the system, a topic which will be discussed in a later section.

conventional ionization gauge, when the glass envelope is removed from a Bayard-Alpert gauge and the gauge
unit immersed in the vacuum space. In Fig. 3-36 is shown a flange-mounted nude Bayard-Alpert gauge constructed

Equipment,
port,

Inc.,

East North-

ceramic and metal parts which thorough allegedly will withstand baking at high temperature for strucgauge outgassing. Even if the elements of such an open the with ture absorb, desorb, or chemically react to some degree intergas for gases present in the system, the very large conductance
of
will be change ensures that the molecular density within the gauge gauge the essentially the same as that in the surrounding volume and nude a that reading will be reasonably accurate. Santeler^^ states lO"" about Bayard-Alpert gauge cannot measure pressures less than gauge the torr, however, unless the backing plate which supports elements can be baked at high temperature for thorough outgassing.

Long

Island, N.Y.]

In the origBayard-Alpert gauge the X-ray limit (i.e., the pressure corresponding to the photoelectron current emitted by the ion collector because of X rays emitted by the grid) was reduced by a factor of about 200, compared with the conventional hot-cathode ionization gauge. This was done by reducing the solid angle subtended at any point of the grid by the ion collector, thereby reducing the probability for an X-ray photon emitted by the grid to be intercepted by the ion collector. A further improvement in this respect has been accomplished by Lafferty,38 whose hot-cathode magnetron ionization gauge is shown in Fig. 3-37. According to Lafferty,
inal design of the

3-8.

Hot-cathode Magnetron Ionization Gauge.

modified in such a way that the electrons by the positive grid or anode, the probability of them colliding with and ionizing a gas molecule will be greatly enchanced and the sensitivity of the gauge will be improved with no increase in x-ray photoemission. One obvious way of increasing the path length of the electrons is to employ a magnetic field.
is

It

evident that

if

the gauge

is

travel in longer paths before they are collected

Also in the nude Bayard-Alpert gauge, space- and surface-charge effects completely are frequently bothersome unless the gauge element is potential. ground enclosed in a metal-screen cylinder connected to

netron, after which

The Lafferty gauge has certain features in common with the magit is named. The hot-cathode filament is approximately on the axis of symmetry of a cylindrical electrode, which is the
Electrons leaving the cathode in the absence of a magnetic

anode.

108

VACXTTJM SCIENCE

AND ENGINEERING

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

109

field are attracted directly to

the anode. However, when an axial magnetic field is superimposed, the electron paths are bent. Finally, anode-to-cathode as the magnetic field is increased in intensity, with the the anode reaching potential held constant^ the electron current field value magnetic The decreases to a much smaller value.

suddenly
at

which

this

sudden drop occurs corresponds to the magnetron

cutoff.

diameter as the cylindrical anode, and is supported over one end of the anode with a sufficient gap to stand off a voltage. The lead for the ion collector is at the end of the tube opposite that at which all the other leads are located, to provide minimum electrical leakage. The lower or opposite end of the anode is closed by a similar disk, referred to as the shield, which catches any positive ions leaving in that direction.

The electrical potentials relative to the cathode are typically as follows anode, 300 V; ion collector, -45 V; shield, -10 V. Typical magnetic field intensity is 250 oersteds, which can be maintained either by a
solenoidal coil placed around the tube. increased slightly beyond the magnetron cutoff value, the length of the electron orbits, and thus also the number of ions produced per electron, is increased by a large factor. The ion current registered on the ion collector is also shown in Fig. 3-38 as a
is

cylindrical alnico

Ep= 300 volts = -45 volts Ec


Es
=

magnet As the magnetic field

or

by a

-10 volts

V-i,lon collector

Filament

function of the magnetic field intensity. It will be noted that this current is a maximum for a value of the magnetic field only slightly
Ion current

Magnet
XIOO
Anode

Shield

above the magnetron cutoff value. The positive ion current increases by a factor of 10* or 10^ as the magnetic field is changed from less than the magnetron cutoff value of about 100 oersteds to about 150 oersteds, at which the ion current is a maximum. As the magnetic field is
further increased, the electrons emitted by the cathode are confined more closely to the vicinity of the cathode as their orbits are contracted,

and thus sweep a shorter path through the gas, producing fewer ions. The maximum ratio of positive ion-collector current to electron anode
100

200

300

400

500

600

Magnetic tield, oersteds

Fig. 3-37. Hot-cathode magnetron ionization gauge. [Taken with permission from J. M.
Lafferty, in 1960
Press,

Fig. 3-38. The anode electron current and positive ion-collector current of the magnetron gauge as a function of the

is thus reached at a magnetic field value about twice as large magnetron cutoff value. These are the most favorable conditions for operation in order that the X-ray limit be as low as possible.

current
as the

is

Vacuum Sym-

posium Transactions (Pergamon


London,
1961).]

applied axial magnetic field. [Taken with permission from J. M. Lafferty, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions

In Fig. 3-39 the ion-collector current, as a function of the pressure, plotted together with similar data taken with a Bayard-Alpert gauge.

(Pergamon Press, London,

1961).]

Based upon a determination of the X-ray limit of the ion magnetron gauge, which proves to be about 6 x 10"" torr, and a calibration against the Bayard-Alpert gauge at higher pressures, the readings of
the former were assumed to be a linear function of the pressure down to the lowest readings obtained. The Bayard-Alpert gauge readings begin to deviate noticeably from a straight line at lO-^" torr and reach

For higher values of the magnetic field, an electron emitted by the cathode performs a cycloidal orbit which fails to reach the anode and turns back toward the cathode. Only those electrons which are disturbed from this orbit, either by high-frequency electrostatic fields due to electron space-charge oscillation or by collision encounters with gas molecules, ever reach the anode under these conditions. The electron current curve, shown in Fig. 3-38 from Lafferty's paper, decreases by about a factor of 10 as the magnetic field is increased from
zero to 200 oersteds. The ion collector for the Lafferty gauge
is

a disk of about the same

an asymptotic value corresponding to an X-ray limit of about 3 x lO-^* torr, whereas the ion magnetron gauge indicates collector current as low as that corresponding to a pressure of 4 x 10"" torr. Operating parameters for both gauges are given in the figure. It will be noted that for the ion magnetron gauge, / = 10-' A for the run, where I^ is the emission current read on the anode when the magnetic field is zero. To produce approximately the same ion-collector current at higher pressures, the Bayard-Alpert gauge is operated with /j = 5 x 10-3 A,

no

VACTJTJM SCIENCE

AND ENGINEERING

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS


10-' A or less and is also normally used only for measuring relatively low pressures, say 10"' torr as the upper limit.

111

indicating a greater sensitivity for the ion magnetron gauge by a factor 5 X 10*. of 5 X 10-3/10-' At high pressure the secondary electrons produced by ionizing col-

Electron
multiplier

lisions

add

to the electron space charge in the

magnetron gauge, with

WGauge Operating Conditions


o Magnetron gouge

A further improvement in the hot-cathode magnetron ion gauge has been described by Lafferty.^^*'
By drawing the ions produced in
the

First

dynode

Boyard-Aipert gouge

Ep= 300
=

volts

Ep= ISOvolts
Ec
=

-45

volts
volts

-45 volts
5

10-'

Es= -10
H
=

Io=

mA

250 oersteds

10-'

10-'

magnetron gauge out one end by an electrostatic lens system designed to focus the ions on the first dynode of an electron multiplier tube, as shown in Fig. 3-40, the sensitivity of the gauge has been increased by a large factor. The soft X rays from the magnetron anode were prevented from falling on the dynode, with the result that the X-ray level was decreased to such a low level that a pressure of 10"" tonshould be detectable by counting
individual ions
striking

Electrostatic lens

Multiplier

^/shield

cylinder

^
"--I
I

Focusing
cylinder

Aperture

.,

i-^-Alnico

magnet

Ion accelerator

-Magnetron gauge
LaBfi

the

first
Filament
detail

dynode of the electron

multiplier.

To prevent
10-'

direct light emitted

by

LJ

the thermionic cathode from producing a response on the electron

10-'

"I
,0-13

>
I

III

'

ml
10-'

'

i_

io-'2

IQ-"
Pressure, torr

10-'

10"

comparison of the ion-collector current characteristics of the BayardFlQ. 3-39. linear relationship between the Alpert gauge and the magnetron gauge. magnetron-gauge ion current and pressure is assumed at pressures below 10~* [Taken with permission from J. M. Lafferty, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium torr. Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961).]

a lanthanum boride (LaBg)-coated rhenium filament, which produces electron emission at much lower temperatures, was substituted for the tungsten cathode. As shown in the figure, the lowtemperature cathode consisted of a lO-mil-diameter rhenium wire, with
multiplier,

Fig. 3-40. Hot-cathode magnetron ionization gauge with electrostatic lens system to focus ions on the first dynode of an electron multiplier tube. Also detail of low-temperature, lan-

thanum boride (LaBg) coated cathode. [Reprinted with permission of The Maomillan Company from 1962 Vac-

uum Sym.posium
right

Transactions. Copy-

1962 by American

Vacuum

Society.]

an open helix of a 5-mil-diameter rhenium wire wound on it and then coated with lanthanum boride. The lower-temperature cathode should also contribute to a reduction
in the anomalies caused section.

the result that the space charge becomes large enough for oscillations to set in because of cooperative electrostatic forces. The gauge tends to become unstable in operation, with frequent reversal of the ioncollector current because of the ejection of high-energy electrons against the repelling field of the collector. Because of this phenomenon, the magnetron gauge is normally operated at low emission current of

by a hot cathode

referred to in the previous

3-9. Magnetically Collimated Electron-beam Ionization Gauge. An ionization gauge in which the ions are produced by an electron beam collimated by a carefully aligned magnetic field has been described by Klopfer." As is apparent from Fig. 3-41, electrons

112

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

113

are emitted from a thermionic cathode K, coUimated through a series of apertures at various electrical potentials, traverse an isolated chamber in which ions are produced, and finally collected by an electron-trapping electrode T. Ions produced within the chamber between G^ and G^ are attracted to the ion-collector plate / at ground potential, which is

negative relative to the electron

beam and

magnetic

field

of about 1,000 oersteds intensity

the chamber walls. The is carefully aligned

10'

10
field

1,000 gauss

:10'

10"

30 volts
10-"
IQ-12

/ /
,0-10

Vk= + 30,V5= VA=+180volts


B
=

l,000gauss

a consequence, the pumping effect of the gauge is determined primarily by the rate of production and collection of positive ions. For nitrogen the pumping speed of the gauge is calculated to be about 3 x 10"^ One side of the liter/sec with an electron beam current of 1 mA. ionization chamber is covered by an open screen providing high conductance to the surrounding space, so that the gauge error due to pumping is believed to be very small. As is illustrated in Fig. 3-42, the response of the gauge is linear from about 10~^ torr to at least as low as 10~i^ torr. The linear response up to such a high pressure is apparently due to the fact that only the electrons coming directly from the cathode and not those produced by The ionization along the beam are effective in producing ionization. electrical potentials are arranged such that the electrons traverse the ionization chamber at an energy of 100 eV, a value at which the specific ionization is near maximum. Electrons formed by collision processes in the chamber, however, have very little energy and no means of gaining energy from the electric fields present in the chamber. 3-10. Cold-cathode Ionization Gauges. The useful life of a hot- cathode ionization gauge is determined by that of the cathode.

10-8

10-6

10-4

,0-:

10"

Pressure, torr

3-41. Schematic diagram of magnetically coUimated electronbeami ionization gauge. [Taken with permission from A. Klopfer, in 1961 Vacuum Symposium Trans-

Fig.

actions
1962).]

(Pergamon Press, London,

Fig. 3-42. Relative ion current vs. nitrogen pressure for the electronbeam ionization gauge of Fig. 3-41. [Taken with permission from A. Klopfer, in 1961 Vacuum Symposium. Transactions (Pergamon Press,

lOcm

London,

1962).]

relative to the series of apertures


(t4

through the electrodes G^ through

so that at

all

the electrons pass through the apertures and are caught

on the electrode T. The geometry of the gauge is such that X-ray photons emitted by the electron-trapping electrode T because of electron impact cannot irradiate the ion-collector electrode J directly, so that electron emission from the ion collector is minimized. The presence of the magnetic field further reduces the X-ray effect by causing any
electrons emitted at the electrode surface to

Fig.

move

in circular orbits

Penning cold-cathode ionization gauge. [Taken with permission H. Leek, Pressure Measurement in Vacuum Systems (Published for the Institute of Physics and the Physical Society by Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London, 1964), 2nd ed.]
3-43.

from

J.

and return to the electrode. Emission of photoelectrons due to light from the cathode striking the ion collector is avoided partly by the geometry of the gauge, which shields the collector from direct irradiation by the cathode, and also by the use of a low-temperature cathode, such as a lanthanum boride-coated rhenium filament. The use of a low-temperature cathode also serves to reduce substantially the pumping effect due to chemical reactions at the cathode. As

Particularly at relatively high pressures, approaching 10"' torr, chemical attack by some gases and bombardment by positive ions limit the
life of hot cathodes. In 1937, Penning*^ described a cold-cathode gauge, sometimes called the Philips ion gauge or PIG. As shown schematically in Fig. 3-43, Penning's original gauge consisted of two parallel plates P at cathode potential separated by a distance of about

useful

114
2

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


at either

PBESSUBE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

115

a ring electrode R at anode potential suspended in the midplane between the two plates. A magnetic field of about 500 oersteds, with the lines of magnetic flux perpendicular to the planes of the electrodes, was provided by a permanent magnet with a pole on either When a potential difference of 2,000 V was applied side of the tube.

cm and

creased

end of the cylinder. The sensitivity of the gauge was inby about a factor of 10 to about 1 mA at 10"* torr for a circuit

voltage of 2 kV, the range of linear response extended down to less than 10^' torr, and the amplitude of the erratic changes in the discharge current reduced to 2 per cent or less. With a gauge of similar geometry, but with nickel instead of zirconium cathodes, Leek and Riddoch** obtained the calibration curves shown in Fig. 3-45, which are in good agreement with those obtained by Penning and Nienhuis. The current

between the plates as cathodes and the ring as anode, a current was observed to flow and was found to be
approximately proportional to the pressure for the range 10"^ to 10"^ torr. In the absence of the magnetic field the electrode structure of the Penning gauge

100

4kV

0.3

2ky

i\y

would not

a discharge current pressure, of 10"^ high relatively at except The presence of the magnetic torr or more. field changes completely the character of the
result
in

=1.

50

0.15

discharge because electrons emitted by the cathodes are constrained to move in tight helical paths along the lines of force and are
H

l^

j.-1kV
1

thereby prevented from going directly from the cathode plates to the anode ring. The electrons, instead, oscillate through the ring

2
torr

"

J^
Pressure,

^
10^ torr

TkV

2.5

Pressure,

X 10^

Fig.

3-45.

Penning gauge calibration curves

for air obtained

by Leek and

3-44. Cold-cathode Fig. ionization gauge of Penning

and Nienhuis with cyhndrical anode.

permission

[Taken with from F. M. Penning and K. Nienhuis, N. V. Philips' Tech. Rev.


11, 116 (1949).]

between the plates and slowly drift outward across the magnetic field toward the ring only as a result of collisions with gas molecules, which are ionized to form positive ions and additional electrons. The positive ions are attracted immediately to the cathodes and, in contrast with the usual gaseous discharges, account for most of the current flow
in the discharge.

Riddoch

(these characteristics are independent of the magnetic field over the

range 500 to 1,000 gauss). [Taken with permission from J. H. Leek, Pressure Measurement in Vacuum Systems (Published for the Institute of Physics and the Physical Society by Chapman and Hall, Ltd., London, 1964), 2nd ed.]

is

from about 10"' to 10"*

proportional to the pressure over the useful range of the gauge, i.e., torr. Also the sensitivity is proportional to the anode-to-cathode voltage over the range 1 to 4 kV. At a pressure of

The additional

electrons

contribute to further ionization. Because of the comparatively long electron path, which results from the oscillatory motion, the gas breaks down into a discharge even when the pressure is as low as 10~^ torr.

Penning gauge, characterized by the ring proved to be somewhat unsatisfactory in that the discharge is unstable and the current as a function of the pressure exhibits unpredictable changes of magnitude between 2 and 5 per cent. Below 10~^ torr the discharge becomes erratic and frequently fails entirely at pressures of 10~* torr and below. These difficulties were partly overcome in an improved form of the coldcathode gauge described by Penning and Nienhuis*^ and illustrated in Fig. 3-44. The anode of the improved gauge is in the form of a cylinder of about equal length and diameter, with flat plates as cathodes located

The

original design of the

tjrpe of

anode illustrated

in Fig. 3-43,

about 10-* torr the current decreases suddenly to a much lower value so that the gauge is not considered reliable below about 10"' torr. Since a ballast resistor must be put in series with the power supply for protection in the event of a short circuit, the gauge is somewhat nonlinear from 10-* to 10-3 torr, above which the current increases steeply with the pressure. The steep increase of the current with increasing pressure above 10-^ torr can be used to protect a system against pressure bursts. A relay in the circuit set to operate in this range can be used

and perform other protective functions event of an excessive gas burst. The Penning cold-cathode ionization gauge cannot be relied upon for pressure measurements of high precision, even with great care in calibration, because of the slightly unstable character of the discharge. However, this type of gauge is sufficiently reliable as a pressure indicator for many vacuum process applications and has a very long
to shut off gauges, close valves,
in the

116
useful
life

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


as

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

117

compared with the hot-cathode ionization gauges because

of the rugged character of the cold cathodes. A cross-sectional view of a commercial Penning discharge type of gauge is shown in Fig. 3-46. The anode in this design is shaped to provide a maximum area while keeping the exterior dimensions of the

gauge tube to a minimum. A shield protects the high-voltage insulator from accumulating spluttered atoms and ions, contributing to a long The gauge tube and life against electrical leakage and breakdown. features the gauge these of Because tubulation are of stainless steel. conditions up to favorable under is said to provide an operating life

Section

AA

Fig. 3-46.

Cross section of Kinney

all-metal Penning discharge

vacuum

Note;S -Fully

CCW

rear view of switch

shown

gauge.
Fig. 3-47. Circuit diagram for

50,000 hr. However, as with all cold-cathode gauges, excessive exposure to hydrocarbons will result in contamination due to decomTo remove position products deposited on the electrodes and insulator. washing with recommends manufacturer the the gauge, from oil trichlorethylene, rinsing with acetone, and drying by gentle heating in To remove decomposition products, a cleaning solution made up air. 225 of g of ferric chloride, 500 cm^ of hydrochloric acid (38 per cent HCl) and 1,400 cm' of distilled water is recommended. The gauge tube is placed in a beaker and filled nearly to the top with hot cleaning solution which is maintained at the boiling point for about 15 min;

Kinney Penning discharge vacuum gauge.

~^
000
L

-n
">
1 1

/
1
1 1

100

50/iAatO.Ol/i^
1 1 1

N.
y

then rinsed with distilled water followed by acetone, alcohol, the tube or ether and finally thoroughly dried by warming in air. Although the Penning discharge gauge described above is mechanically rugged and is not damaged by exposure to atmospheric pressure
is

11
1

lu

while the voltage is on, observing certain precautions will contribute The gauge tube to greater operating life by avoiding contamination. should not be mounted in a position where it is in a direct line with a source of hydrocarbon vapor. It should not be operated at pressures in excess of 10 torr nor during the pumpdown period. A simplified circuit diagram for the Penning discharge gauge is shown in Fig. 3-47, and the pressure response curve is shown in Fig. 3-48.

/
10"

10'

10"*

10"*

10"

10"

10"'

Pressure, torr

Fig. 3-48. Calibration curve for Kinney Penning discharge gauge.

118

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


in

PRESSUEE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

119

The gauge

is calibrated over the pressure range from 2 x 10~' to 10 torr, the response above about 2 x 10~* torr being much flatter than at lower pressures as shown in the figure. A further development of the cold-cathode ionization gauge was

carried out by Beck and Brisbane,*^ Haefer,** and Redhead*' and has culminated in a gauge of high sensitivity and reliability. The added

is which E is the electric field intensity in volts per centimeter and is velocity oersteds. Since the drift in strength field magnetic the in H, electrons move E and the both perpendicular to everywhere circular cycloidal paths at a constant average radius from the center. Only upon collision with a gas molecule is the electron disturbed from Each time such a this path because of energy loss in the collision. collision occurs the electron moves into a new circular cycloidal path

closer to the anode.

With a proper

Auxiliory

cathode

-Anode

choice of the parameters the drift velocity of the electrons is sufficient to ionize gas atoms so that an

appreciable fraction of the collisions results in the production of


positive ions which are attracted imCothode

start of electron

o o o

oo oo o oo o

ooo

A xiol magnetic
field

Fig. 3-49. Schematic of the Haefer inverted -magnetron type of cold-cathode ionization gauge. [Taken with permission from Hel-

mut Schwarz, Vacuum


151 (1961).]

11,

Cutaway view of inverted magnetron cold-cathode ionization gauge. [Taken with permission from P. A. Redhead, in 1958 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1959).]
Fig. 3-50.

mediately to the cathode. By this process each electron emitted from the cathode produces a large number of ionizing events before it finally spirals into the center of the gauge and is caught on the anode. In Fig. 3-50 is shown a cutaway view of an inverted-magnetron

,0-11

,0-9
Pressure, torr

,0-7

feature

is the use of crossed electric and magnetic fields to increase by a large factor the path of the few electrons emitted by the cold cathode, and thus also the efficiency of the electrons in producing positive ions.

schematic representation of the Haefer inverted-magnetron gauge is in Fig. 3-49. The cathode is a cylinder (actually the metal case of the gauge tube) about 5 cm in diameter, and the anode is a small diameter metal rod located on the axis of the cathode. A magnetic field of about 2,000 oersteds intensity parallel with the axis of the tube is maintained by an external coil. A potential difference of several

shown

gauge developed by Redhead*' in Fig. 3-51. lon-current-vs. -pressure which the cathode is surrounded by relationship for inverted-ion-magnean auxiliary cathode outer shell tron gauge. [Taken with permission with cylindrical shields protruding from P. A. Redhead, 1958 Vacuum through the openings into the cath- Symposium, Transactions (Pergamon ode. The auxiliary cathode acts as Press, London, 1959).] an electrostatic shield and protects the edge of the openings through the cathode from field concentrations, thus preventing field emission. The cathode and auxiliary cathode are both grounded, but the current to the cathode alone is taken as the measure of the true positive ion current. The anode rod is typically maintained at 6 kV and the magnetic field intensity at 2,000 oersteds. In the pressure range from 10"" to 10"* torr the positive ion current was found to conform to the relationship
i+
in

kilovolts

is

applied between the anode and cathode so that a radial

cP"

electric field is

anywhere
given by

superimposed upon the axial magnetic field. An electron between the anode and cathode will move on a cycloidal path in the E x (azimuthal) direction with a drift velocity
in the region

which n varied from 1.10 to 1.15 and c was a constant. Above 10-3 torr the space charge changes from negative to positive with

v^

lO^E/H)

cm/sec

the result that the characteristics of the gauge change completely. Calibration curves for several models of the inverted-magnetron gauge are shown in Fig. 3-51, together with a similar curve for the

120

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

PEESSUBE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

121

Table
Gauge

3-2.

Cold-cathode Gauge Chaeactebistics*


Anode
Ion-current
pressure.

voltage,

kV
Bayard-Alpert, 10

A/mm Hg
0.1

Pretreatment of gauge

Pumping
Gas
rate, 1/sec

mA.

Outgassed

Argon Argon
Nitrogen

0.080

5.0

4.0

Baked

at 400C

Anode
5.0 4.0

Oxygen
Operated
hotirs in for several

0.200 0.140 0.150 0.050 0.100 0.120 0.018


0.042 0.350

Argon
Nitrogen

oxygen

Oxygen
Cathode

Reduced -size cold


5.0 4.4

Fig. 3-52. Cold-cathode magnetron gauge. [Taken with permission from P. A. Redhead, 1958 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London,
1959).]
Reduced-size cold
1.2

Operated for several hours in argon Baked at 400C Induction heated to 800-900C
Induction heated Induction heatedf Induction heatedf

Argon Argon Argon

0.46

Bayard-Alpert gauge. As in the case of the hot-cathode magnetron gauge discussed in the previous section, the X-ray hmit of the inverted-magnetron gauge is well below that of the Bayard-Alpert
gauge.

Argon Argon Oxygen

0.110 0.330 0.340

Reduced-size cold
0.3

0.03t

The type of gauge generally

referred to as the Redhead gauge

is

an

and designated the coldcathode magnetron gauge by Redhead.** The cathode, as shown in Fig. 3-52, is in the form of a spool consisting of a small-diameter central cylinder and two end disks. The anode is a cylinder with a diameter about equal to that of the end disks and is perforated with many holes to ensure good conductance beinversion of the geometry discussed above

* Taken with permission from T. N. Rhodin and L. H. Rovner, in 1960 Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961), p. 228. f Prolonged treatment with some evaporation of metal. % Ratio of ion current to pressure is not constant.

Vacuum Symposium

for

nitrogen
i^

is

given approxi-

mately by

lOP
10-'

Helium

Pressure, torr

Fig. 3-53. lon-current-vs. -pressure relationship for magnetron gauge in the range 10"* to 10-9 tQj.r. [Taken

with permission from P. A. Redhead, 1958 Vacuum, Symposium, Transactions


1959).]

tween the regions inside and outside the gauge volume. An auxiliary cathode in the form of an electropolished ring is placed at each end of the cylindrical anode in the gap between the anode and cathode to reduce field emission currents to a minimum. Redhead found that in the pressure range from 10~^ to 10~* torr the cold-cathode magnetron gauge with anode potential of 5 kV and magnetic field of 1,070 oersteds has a linear characteristic

which the pressure is given in It was also observed that at a pressure of about 2 x lO^^" torr there is a break in the response curve so that below this
in
torr.

,y
-->

eio''

value of the pressure the curve is no longer linear but takes the

Run
1-12 10'

Magnetron gauge
operating alone

form

Run 2 'SkV Run 3 J B=l,060 gauss


,/59'
X

Bayard-Alpert gauge
operating alone

(Pergamon Press, London,

As can be seen from the graph, the ion current in amperes

shown in and helium.


as

Fig. 3-53 for nitrogen

shown for helium in Fig. 3-54. Redhead reports that the coldcathode magnetron gauge has a pumping speed of approximately 0.15 liters/sec. Rhodin and Rovner** have made extensive measurements of the pumping speed of cold-cathode magnetron
as

10
10

10"

Pressure, torr

Fig. 3-54. lon-current-vs.-pressure relationship for magnetron gauge in the range 10~' to 10~l^ torr. [Taken with permission from P. A. Redhead, in 1958 Vacuum Sym,posium Transactions

(Pergamon Press, London,

1959).]

122

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


2

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

123

gauges similar to that of Redhead and report that the principal disadvantage is the high pumping speed of such gauges, leading to some ambiguity in interpretation of the ion current reading. The results of their measurements are summarized in Table 3-2 in which the pumping speeds of the normal size (Redhead) cold-cathode magnetron gauge and one of reduced size are compared with that of a Bayard- Alpert type of hot-cathode ionization gauge. In spite of the high pumping speed and its dependence upon the
Section

1 torr of dry air. An improved version of Vacca'^ is provided with six ranges with full described by the Alphatron scale readings of 10-^, 10"^, 10, 100, and 1,000 torr. The low range is accomplished by an improved electrometer tube and circuit capable of amplifying currents as low as 10-^* A. The higher ranges are obtained by using a second ionization

10-1"

A for a pressure of

chamber of very small volume.


linearity of the

The

new gauge

is

said to

A-A

30 to 40
contoined

volts
in

amplifier

previous history of the gauge, as illustrated in Table 3-2, the cold-

be within 2 per cent of


all

full scale for

ranges.

power supply

Qutput

cathode magnetron gauge is useful 10~ii in the pressure range below the well below torr, a pressure Alpert gauge. Bayardrange of the The high pumping speed is apparently associated with the very high
efficiency of ionization

3-12.

The Knudsen Radiometer


The Knudsen*^ radiometer
perhaps the most widely
elements of the Knudsen radiometer vacuum gauge. [Taken with permission from J. H. Leek, Pressure Measurement in Vacuum Systems (Published for the Institute of Physios and the Physical Society
Fig. basic
3-56.

Gauge.
gauge
is

The

two

alternative

known and described^' of the less common vacuum gauges. The basic element of the radiometer gauge consists
of two parallel plates, one of which is heated, separated by a distance which is small as compared with the dimensions Fig.

Housing

by the

elec-

trons
orbits,

in

their

circular

cycloidal

in a high positive ion high sensitivity, with that of compared current, as operating gauge the Bayard- Alpert

which

results

by Chapman and HalI,Ltd., London,


1964),

i.e.,

of the
3-56a.

plates,

as

shown
plate

in
is

2nd

ed.]

The unheated

at the
1

same

pressure.

3-11.
2
I

The Alphatron Gauge.

l'Mi|i|i|

II

Any

alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays are all ionizing agents, the advantages of which may be considered as possible means of ionizing gas for the
rays,

3-55. The Alphatron gauge. [Taken with permission from J. R. Downing and G. Mellen, Rev. Sci. Instr. 17, 218 (1946).]

Fig.

process which causes ionization of the residual gas in a tube or

supported on a sensitive suspension so that a small force acting upon An alternative form is shown in Fig. 3-566 in which it can be measured. the unheated vane is suspended between two fixed plates, one of which The force per unit area on the susis heated and the other cooled. pended vane or plate is given approximately by

chamber

can, in principle, be used


f

as a basis for an ionization gauge.

-I

% {^
w^ m
T,V^"

dyne/cm^

(3-36)

purpose of measuring its molecular density. A practical development of this type is the Alphatron (National Research Corporation) gauge of Downing and Mellen'" which utilizes a small source of alpha particles, for example, 0.5-mg piece of an alloy of gold and radium sealed in a capsule. The gauge consists of a source holder and two grid structiires inside a small metallic ionization chamber which serves as the gauge tube (see Fig. 3-55). A diiference in potential of 30 to 40 V is maintained between the two grid structures to sweep out the ions and electrons formed by the ionization process. The ionization current is found to be substantially a linear function of the pressure over a wide range, from 10-* to 40 torr for the first version of the Alphatron, the current being

which T^ and T^ are the temperatures respectively and the vane, T is the ambient temperature of the In the second case walls of the gauge tube, and P is the gas pressure.
for the first case in

of the heated plate

/2

dyne/ cm ^

(3-37)

in

which T^ and T^ are respectively the temperatures of the heated and cooled plates and T is the ambient temperature. In this latter case the force on the vane does not depend on its temperature T^. In either
case the force depends directly

upon the pressure

in the strictest sense,

124

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


system.

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

125

the force per unit area exerted by the gas, with no dependence upon the molecular weight of the gas. In this respect the Knudsen gauge may be considered an absolute pressure-measuring device. A more exact treatment of the theory of the Knudsen gauge, taking into account the accommodation coefficients for the vane surfaces and the inside surface of the gauge tube, leads to much more complicated
expressions for the force per unit area on the vane. Differences in accommodation coefficients at the various surfaces result in responses which differ for various gases, with the response to helium and hydrogen

A needle valve is provided so that any chosen gas can be admitted to the system at a controlled rate to vary the pressure. For calibrating thermocouple and Pirani gauges, usually from 10'^ to large1 torr, only a rather insensitive McLeod gauge (small bulb and diameter capillary) is required, and no serious difficulties are reported. However, for calibrating ionization gauges over a sufficient pressure range in the region of linear response, the greatest McLeod gauge sensitivity
Gas input
through drying tube

being particularly low for some gauge designs. The linear expressions for the response of the Knudsen gauge are valid only in the pressure region for which the molecular mean free path is large as compared with the spacing between the vane and fixed By using the smallest practical spacing and a closed plate or plates. box structure about the vane system, linear response up to a pressure
of 10- torr can be obtained. At higher pressures the response is always less than the linearly extrapolated value and eventually begins to decrease with increasing pressure. The useful range of the radiometer gauge thus tends to be from about 10"* to 10-* torr. practical designs of the Knudsen gauge pressures as low as 10-^

Gauges
to be

coiibrated

Severe

McLeod gauge

locations

around

chamber

In

torr are detectable.

Since a sensitive suspension is required, all designs of the Knudsen gauge thus far developed are too cumbersome and Many special adaptations have been fragile for most applications. made and successfully applied, however, when the unique features of

Liquidnitrogen trap
ffiK^'\K.'\K<^K
I

Liquidnitrogen trap

Liquid-nitrogen and
water-cooled baffles

the Knudsen type of gauge are important, such as freedom from chemical decomposition of heavy organic molecules, a process which

Diffuion

pump

does occur in all types of ionization gauges. 3-13. Calibration of Vacuum Gauges. For many years the accepted standard for calibrating other vacuum gauges in the pressure range below that easily accessible to the simple mercury U-tube manometer has been the McLeod gauge. The limitations of the McLeod gauge and the precautions necessary to obtain consistent It is clear from that discussion that results are discussed in Sec. 3-4.
the calibration of other vacuum gauges is limited to gases which obey Boyle's law up to the maximum pressure to which it is compressed Accepted practice has been to in the operation of the McLeod gauge. provide a glass- or metal-walled chamber evacuated by a liquidnitrogen-trapped diffusion pump to which the McLeod gauge and the

Fig. 3-57. System for calibrating

vacuum gauges

against a

McLeod

gauge.

is

the lowest pressure which can be rehably measured with sufficient precision by means of a McLeod gauge is about 10-5 torr. Thus ionization gauges are normally calibrated from 10-5 to 10-^ torr, in the upper portion of which range the response of
required.

Even

so,

most ionization gauges

is

no longer

linear.

The range of

linear

response available for calibration in this manner is a factor of 30 in pressure for determination of the gauge constant. Recently, however, a much more serious objection to this method of
calibration of ionization gauges has been raised by Ishii and Nakayama,^* who find a pronounced dependence (up to 25 per cent) of the calibration

therefore only about

gauges to be calibrated are connected each through a liquid-nitrogen-

The use of liquidthe ionization gauges is essential to protect from mercury vapor from the McLeod gauge and also to protect the McLeod gauge from contamination by hydrocarbon vapor from the
cooled trap, somewhat as

shown

in Fig.

3-57.

nitrogen-cooled traps

upon the ambient temperature. They attribute this effect to the pumping action of the mercury vapor stream from the McLeod gauge
into the liquid-nitrogen-cooled vapor trap.

By

cooling the

McLeod

126

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


IS

PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

127

gauge at the cutoff point with dry ice before the mercury is raised, thereby reducing substantially the vapor pressure driving mercury vapor into the cold trap, this particular gauge error was eliminated.

S,=

Gi

S2

G1S2
G,

The

result of these observations brings into serious question the long-

accepted method of pressure measurement involving large temperature differences when condensable vapor pressure dominates in some portion of the vacuum system.

G2
(3-39)

as long as Cj

<

S^.

For a measured flow of gas


given by
Throttle
valve

the resulting change in pressure

AP is
(3-40)

To (reference) gouge

Gouge to be
calibroted

Gas
inlet

Q ^^ = ^-^- = ^.-C,-fC;.
The pumping apertures are most conveniently in the form of which the conductance given by (2-89) is

G-fi^

circular

holes for

C =

2.861

\^r

11)2

liters/sec

and is accurately determined as long as the diameter of the aperture and the ambient temperature are known. The method also requires an accurate measurement of the gas flow Q, alternative methods for which are discussed in Chap. 7. This type of system may be extended by the addition of several pumping chambers with apertures between
Fig. 3-58. Apparatus for calibrating vacuum gauges at low pressure by gas flow through apertures. [Taken with permission from J. R. Roehrig and J. C. Simons, Jr., in 1961 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London,
1962).]

stages to permit calibration

down

to very low pressure.

method for calibrating ionization gauges has been by Roehrig and Simons^^ and results compared with calibrations against a McLeod gauge. The apparatus as illustrated in Fig. 3-58 consists of a test chamber and an adjoining pumping chamber connected by an aperture of small conductance Cj. The pumping chamber is evacuated by a high-speed trapped diffusion pump through a second aperture of conductance C^ which is small as compared with the pumping speed Sj, of the trapped diffusion pump. The pumping speed out of the pumping chamber is then, according to (2-8),
alternative

An

developed

Co

S^ Go
s^ Go
(3-38)

Gauges to be calibrated are connected to the test chamber, and the gauge responses are compared with a series of pressure increases AP. The authors state that results obtained in this manner on a four-stage system were in agreement with results obtained by calibration of the same gauges with a McLeod gauge within 2 per cent over the pressure range from 10"^ to 10""^ torr, with poorer agreement below 10"* torr because of the inaccuracy of the McLeod gauge in this range. This agreement appears to be inconsistent with the discrepancies reported by In any case, the Ishii and Nakayama^* for McLeod gauge calibration. action of pumping aperture method is free of criticism based upon the apparently is a liquid-nitrogen trap associated with a McLeod gauge and the most reliable method yet developed for ionization gauge calibration. This method has the further advantage of being applicable, according to Roehrig and Simons, for accurate calibration of gauges down to 10-9 torr. Precautions which seem to the author to be important are
to ensure
1. That the diameters of the apertures between the test chamber and the pumping chamber and between the stages are very small compared with the dimensions of the chambers

which

differs only slightly from G^ if Cj < S^. Thus the pumping speed out of the pumping chamber is relatively constant and independent of small changes in S^. The pumping speed out of the test chamber

128
2.

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

PBESSUHB MEASUREMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

129

That the actual pumping speed of each diffusion pump is large as compared with the conductance of the pumping apertures 3. That the base pressure P, is small as compared with the pressure P at which calibrating measurements are made
Requirement
1

ensures that the gas in the test chamber

is

essentially

due to dynamic flow will be negligible. Requirement 2 allows the use of the approximate expression in (3-40) involving the conductances only. Otherwise the value of *Si given in (3-39) must be estimated and substituted for Cj in (3-40).
static so that directional pressure effects

determined by the X-ray effect, from lO-" to about 10-" torr by mtroducing an additional electrode and superimposing a voltage modulation. Torney and Peaks*' have used this technique to extend the range of comparison between the modulated Bayard- Alpert and the cold-cathode ion magnetron gauges, confirming the results reported by Redhead" down to 10-" torr and observing ion current readings
corresponding to a nitrogen pressure of about 3 x 10-" torr. Results such as these suggest that, in spite of the difficulties listed above, reasonably reliable pressure measurements can be made even in the range below lO-" torr if the proper precautions are observed. These processes have been discussed in relation to relatively
static

For precision calibration S^ should be at least of the order of lOCj. Requirement 3 ensures the elimination of subtle questions regarding the propriety of simply subtracting P^ from P for determining the pressure rise P due to the gas flow Q.
3-14.

urement
used in

General Remarks on Ambiguities of Pressure Measin Vacuum Systems. In describing the instrumentation measuring the pressure in vacuum systems some of the pre-

systems in which the pumping speed is relatively small so that directional effects are not important. In this case the isotropic pressure is given by the familiar P = QjS, where Q is the total gas load due to leaks and outgassing, and 8 is the pumping speed. In
i.e.,

systems,

cautions required to obtain consistent results have been mentioned. However, the extent of the ambiguity in measurement at low pressure (e.g., less than 10~* torr) has perhaps not been stressed sufficiently.

order to attain a very low pressure in such a system (as in the usual ultrahigh vacuum systems), the gas load Q is reduced by eliminating all leaks and outgassing the internal surfaces by baking the system at

high temperature.

The processes which occur


types of gauges.
1

in ionization gauges

and contribute to

uncertainties have been discussed in the descriptions of the various

These processes are

Surface adsorption (gauge pumping) and desorption Chemical decomposition, dissociation, or reaction with the hot filament
2.
3. 4. 5.

Electrical oscillations

Radiation (the Nottingham X-ray limit) Electrostatic effects due to surface and space charges

cation depends not only


to which
it reflects is

Whether a vacuum gauge meets the requirements of a given appliupon its sensitivity, but also upon the extent
to be measured.

without excessive distortion the conditions where The distortions due to sorption processes are greatly minimized by making the conductance into the sensitive portion of the gauge from the region of interest as high as possible. The nude ionization gauge represents the logical extreme in this regard. Proper electrostatic shielding, use of a low-temperature cathode, thorough outgassing of the gauge components all contribute further to minimizing the discrepancy between the gauge reading and the true pressure. Specialized techniques have contributed to an extension of the range of measurement with improved assurance of reliability down to exceedingly low values of the pressure. Redhead^* has extended the lower limit for a Bayard- Alpert type of gauge, as
the pressure

An alternative approach to the attainment of low pressure is to provide the highest possible pumping speed. The additional problems arising in this instance because of directional effects have been discussed by Santeler.58 In space-simulation systems the objective is to expose a test body to an environment as nearly like that of outer space as possible. Since such test bodies cannot generally be baked at high temperature, the simulation must be accomplished as well as possible in the presence of surface outgassing so that the gas load Q remains high. In outer space, molecules leaving a space vehicle fly off into space and very few ever return. Thus true simulation of the outer space environment would be accomplished by surrounding the test body with perfectly absorbing walls. If this could be done, then at low pressure at which the mean free path exceeds the dimensions of the system, gas molecules desorbed from the test body would travel on straight-line paths to the wall of the vacuum vessel and there be absorbed, whereas
no gas molecules would be received by the surface of thg test body. The pressure would then be highly directional. An ionization gauge located in a recess in the wall of the vacuum vessel would receive a flux of molecules which could produce an ion current corresponding to a
pressure reading. An ion gauge located in a recess in the test body shielded from direct access by molecules from the surface of the test body would receive nothing, as would be the case in outer space. In practice no such perfectly absorbing surfaces exist. Liquidnitrogen-cooled or cryogenically cooled surfaces condense some gas

130

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

PEESSUEE MBASUEEMENT IN VACUUM SYSTEMS

131

molecules more or less completely, but not generally on a single bounce. Evaporated surfaces of active metals absorb certain gas molecules very Other gases must be well, but again only after several encounters. the ratio of the total as defined is If A pumps. diffusion pumped by exist if all the walls would which that system to of the speed pumping

The extent to which the techniques described by Santeler can be used to correct for the directional pressure effect in systems of very high pumping speeds is difficult to assess. However, the directional
effect exists

and

results in large

gauge errors which cannot be easily

evaluated unless special precautions are exercised.

were perfectly absorbing, then, as Santeler shows, the directional pressure effect is given by 1/(1 - A). An ordinary ionization gauge
Liquid-nitrogen
extension

REFERENCES
C. D. Hickman, Rev. Sci. Instr. 5, 161 (1934). Wallace and Tiernan, Incorporated, 25 Main Street, Belleville Absolute Pressure Indicator Type FA- 160. 3 H. G. East and H. J. Kuhn, J. Sci. Instr. 23, 185 (1946). 4 D. C. Pressey, J. Sci. Instr. 30, 20 (1953). 5 J. Dubrovin, Instruments, 6, 194 (1933).
1
.

K.

9,

N.J.,

Gouge
Electrical

electrodes

leads

6
Perforations
7,

8,

H. McLeod, Phil. Mag. 48, 110 (1874). M. P. Romann, J. Sci. Instr. 3, 522 (1948). E. H. Kennard, Kinetic Theory of Gases (McGraw-Hill Book Company New

Chamber wol
Chamber liquid-nitrogen
surface

9.

W.

York, 1938), pp. 162-168. Voege, Physik Z. 7, 498 (1906).

10,

11, 12. 13.

Fig. 3-59. Gauge mounting designed to compensate for directional pressure [Taken with permission from D. V. Santeler, Rev. Sci. Instr. 33, 283 effect.
(1962).]

and H. Klumb, Physik Z. 37, 440 (1936). G. C. Dunlop and H. G. Trump, Rev. Sci. Instr. 8, 37 (1937). R. J. Webber and C. T. Lane, Rev. Sci. Instr. 17, 308 (1946).

T. Hasse, G. Klages,

14.

located in the wall of the test vessel will then receive a flux of molecules times the flux received by the surface of the test body. 1/(1 In order for a gauge located in the wall of the vacuum vessel to produce a reading corresponding to the flux arriving at the surface of

15. 16.

A)

17.

the test body, Santeler developed the gauge arrangement illustrated in Fig. 3-59. A Bayard-Alpert nude gauge is mounted in a cylindrical extension from the liquid-nitrogen-cooled inner surface of the chamber. The liquid-nitrogen-cooled surface is perforated with an array of holes through which gas is admitted from the center of the test chamber. The ratio of the area of the holes to the total area of the cooled surface
is

19,

20.

21.

22. 23. 24.

made equal to the wall pumping efficiency A Because the pumping speed for permanent gas

of the
is

main chamber.

M. Benson, in 1956 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1957), p. 87. M. Pirani, Verhandl. deut. physik. Ges. 8, 686 (1906). C. M. Schwartz and R. Lavender, Rev. Sci. Instr. 19, 814 (1948). A. R. Hamilton, Rev. Sci. Instr. 28, 693 (1957). J. A. Becker, C. B. Green, and G. L. Pearson, Trans. A.I.E.E. 65, 711 (1946); and Bell System Tech. J. 26, 170 (1947). P. T. Smith, Phys. Rev. 36, 1293 (1930); Phys. Rev. 37, 808 (1931); J. T. Tate and P. T. Smith, Phys. Rev. 39, 270 (1932). 0. E. Buckley, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S. 2, 683 (1916). W. B. Nottingham and F. L. Torney, Jr., in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961), p. 117. L. N. Ridenour and C. W. Lampson, Rev. Sci. Instr. 8, 162 (1937). R. S. Morse and R. M. Bowie, Rev. Sci. Instr. 11, 91 (1940). J. Blears, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A188, 62 (1947). 1. Langmuir, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 37, 1139 (1915).
J.

small both for the gauge and for the main chamber, the pressure due to permanent gas is isotropic and essentially uniform throughout the test chamber and the

25. L. Riddiford, J. Sci. Instr. 28, 26. G. Reich, in 1960 Vacuum 27.

375 (1951).

Symposium Transactions (Pergamon

Press,

However, only the fraction of condensable vapor which returns from the surrounding walls to the test object is admitted to the gauge recess. Thus the gauge reads the full value of the permanent gas, all of which the test object receives, but only that portion of the nonisotropic pressure of the condensable vapors which the test object
gauge
recess.

28. 29.
30.

31.

receives.

London, 1961), p. 112. R. A. Haefer and J. Hengevoss, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961), p. 67. W. B. Nottingham, J. Appl. Phys. 8, 762 (1937). R. T. Bayard and D. Alpert, Rev. Sci. Instr. 21, 571 (1950). A. van Oostrom, in 1961 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1962), p. 443. H. J. Schuetze and F. Stork, in 1962 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1962), p. 431.

132
32.
33.

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


W.
Sohuemann in, 1962 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Tho Macmillan Company, New York, 1962), p. 428. P. A. Redhead, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press,
C.

London, 1961),
34.

p. 108.

E.

J.

Lauer,

Lawrence

Radiation

Laboratory,

Livermore,

private

35.

36.
37.

38.

39.

40.
41.

communication D. J. Santeler, Rev. Sci. Instr. 33, 283 (1962). H. F. Winters, D. R. Denison, D. G. Bills, Rev. Sci. Instr. 33, 520 (1962). W. B. Nottingham, in 1954 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Committee on Vacuum Techniques, Inc., Boston, 1955), p. 76. (Pergamon Press, J. M. Lafferty, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions London, 1961), p. 97. Transactions (Pergamon Press, J. M. Lafferty, in 1961 Vacuum Symposium London, 1962), p. 460. Transactions (The Macmillan J. M. Lafferty, in 1962 Vacuum Symposium

CHAPTER 4

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTORS

The measurement of the "total" pressure as represented by the response of an ionization or thermal-conductivity gauge is a very useful indication of the state of a vacuum system, but is insufficient as a guide
toward further improvement. Measurement of the partial pressures (or molecular densities) of
Cover
cut away

Company, New York,

1962), p. 438.

A. Klopfer, in 1961 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press,

42. F.

London, 1962), p. 439. M. Penning, Physica 4, 71 (1937). 43. F. M. Perming and K. Nienhuis, Phillips Tech. Rev. 11, 116 (1949). 44. J. H. Leok and A. Riddoch, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 7, 153 (1956). 45. A. H. Beck and A. D. Brisbane, Vacuum 2, 137 (1952). 46. R. A. Haefer, Acta Phys. Austr. 7, 251 (1953); 8, 213 (1954). 47. P. A. Redhead, Can. J. Phys. 36, 255 (1958). Elec48. P. A. Redhead, Report on the 18th Annual Conference on Physical
tronics,

the

component

bined effects gauge reading,

comof which produce the


gases, the

provides

much

more which
ment.

insight
limit

into

the processes

performance and stimspecific

MIT
Press,

(1958);

and

in

1958 Vacuum Symposium

Transactions (Per-

ulates ideas for further improve-

London, 1959), p. 148. 49. T. N. Rhodin and L. H. Rovner, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961), p. 228. 50. J. R. Downing and G. Mellen, Rev. Sci. Instr. 17, 218 (1946). 51. R. H. Vacca, in 1956 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1957), p. 93. 52. M. Knudsen, Ann. Phys. 31, 633 (1910). 53. J. H. Leok, Pressure Measurement in Vacuum Systems (Published for the Institute of Physics and the Physical Society by Chapman & Hall, Ltd., London, 1964), 2nd ed.. Chap. 4. 54. H. Ishii and K. Nakayama, in 1961 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1962), p. 519. 55. J. R. Roehrig and J. C. Simons, Jr., in 1961 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1962), p. 511. 56. P. A. Redhead, Rev. Sci. Instr. 31, 343 (1960). 57. F. L. Tomey, Jr., and F. Feakes, Rev. Sci. Instr. 34, 1041 (1963). 58. D. J. Santeler, in 1959 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1960), p. 129; and Rev. Sci. Instr. 33, 283 (1962).

gamon

Measurement of

partial pressures also permits the

use of a gas not normally present


in significant quantities as a

means
sys-

of detecting leaks in

vacuum

tems more quickly and with greater sensitivity than by other methods.

4-L

Magnetic- deflection
The mass spectrometer ana[Taken with permission from A. Guthrie and R. K. Wakerling (eds.), Vacuum Equipment and Techniques (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1949).]
Fig. 4-1.
lyzer.

Mass Spectrometers. The first


systematic application of partialpressure

measurement or vacuum

analysis for the purpose of under-

standing and improving vacuumsystem performance, to the author's knowledge, was that

carried out at the University of California Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in connection with the development of the electromagnetic method (Calutron) for separation of uranium isotopes in 1943 and 1944. The

apparatus developed by Backus^'* was an adaptation of the simplest form of mass spectrometer due to Dempster,^ as illustrated in Fig. 4-1.
*

References indicated by superscript numbers are listed at the end of the


133

chapter.

134

VACUUM SCIENCE AND BNGINBEEING

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTORS

135

Ions of the various gases present in the system are produced in a Penning (PIG) type of discharge, drawn out of the discharge through a narrow source sht by means of an electric field, and deflected through approximately 180 by a magnetic field normal to the direction of motion of the ions. Por appropriate values of the applied voltage and magnetic field all ions of a given charge-to-mass ratio zejm are refocused at the 180 point of a receiver slot, through which they pass to impinge on a collector electrode, and can be recorded. The kinetic energy of the
ions issuing from the ion source
is

{z=l,M

1.008)

would be
6.35

Vh{p

cm)

16.0

X 1,560
1.008

24,700

which would be somewhat impractical. Rather than attempt to apply such high voltages, a second receiving slot was provided in the Backus analyzer at a distance 2p = 5.7 cm from the slit of the ion source so that ions of p = 2.85 cm were also recorded. From (4-4)

y^mv^

108

zeV
(4-1)

if\144.5/
so that

where

m= V =
= z = V = c =
e

Gc p2 for fixed

values of

mass of the ion


its velocity,

M and B.
=
/2 85\^
I

Thus
1,560

cm/sec
carried

Fo(p

2.85 cm)

electronic charge, esu

^
85\^

number of electronic charges


velocity of light, cm/sec
orbit for

by the ion
and

315

V
(2

applied potential difference in volts

^24,700
6.35/
'

The radius of curvature of the


P
in

an ion

in a

magnetic

field is

5,000

cmv

cm
Combining
(4-1)

(4-2)

which

B is

the magnetic flux density in gauss.

and

A wide range of masses could thus be focused on one or the other of the two slots with a reasonable range of the accelerating potential. Ionic masses from 1 to 40 could be scanned by varying the accelerating
potential from 5,000 to 625 V. horizontally on an oscilloscope

(4-2) yields

By

imposing the accelerating voltage

cm /2zeV
108

and the current received through the

zeB\ mc

slots vertically, a trace showing current peaks roughly proportional to the partial pressures of the residual gases in the chamber was dis(4-3)

1.12

X 10 ,,hI_Y-

range.

Since the mass of an atom of unit atomic weight is 1.66 x 10~^* g, the mass of an atom of atomic weight if is m = 1.66 x 10"^* M, so that (4-3) becomes

played by sweeping the accelerating voltage repeatedly over the desired In Fig. 4-2 is shown a schematic diagram of the mass spectrometer vacuum analyzer together with its circuit diagram.

144.5/ifF\^

B
As an example,
gauss
for a singly

\~

(4-4)

accelerating potential of 1,560 V,

charged atomic oxygen ion [M = 16), an and a magnetic flux density of 3,600

p{M
so that the focus
is

= =

16)

6.35

cm
the
slit

mass spectrometer which the central orbit of the ion beam and orbits diverging by a radians from the central orbit are shown. If the source is a narrow slit parallel with the magnetic fleld, which is perpendicular to the plane of the figure, the central ray reaches the base line drawn through the source and the center of curvature of the central ray at a distance x^ = 2p from the source. Prom the figure it is apparent that both the + a and a rays return to this same base line at a distance x^ = 2p cos a = 2/3(1 ol^j2) =
can be readily determined by reference to Fig.
4-3, in

The

resolution of the 180 magnetic-deflection

2p
located 2p
12.7

cm from

of the ion source.

angle.

pa^ since cos a 1 <x.^l2, approximately, when a is a small The width of slot to accept all orbits from +a to a is

With a choice of

this dimension for the location of the receiving slot, the accelerating potential necessary to record an atomic hydrogen ion

therefore

Ax

Xg

x^

poL^

(4-5)

136

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


(4-4)

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTORS


from
(4-5)

137

From

M
\

and the corresponding angular

half- width of the

beam

is

144.5/

V
32
^

so that

144.5/

and

^M

Ap = 2 2 X
p

or
(4-6)

0.177 radian !^ 10"

Aa;

In the instrument the beam was limited by metal vanes at the 90 point to a total angular width of 20 ( 10). The receiving slot was located 12.7 cm (p 6.35 cm) from the ion source and had a width equal to 6.35/32 fn 0.2 cm. Ionic mass

Magnetic field
perpendicular
to paper

peaks of If = 15, 16, 17 were then completely resolved, and ionic masses up to about 50 were reasonably distinct.

The gas-discharge ion source


Receiving

Phase-shifting

produces a wide variety of ions slot from the residual gas in a vacuum system. Atomic ions such as H+, C+, N+, and 0+, and molecular ions such as H2+, N2+, O2+, CH+, CH3+, CH,+, C0+, CO2+, and B.fi+ Fig. 4-3. Quality of focus for 180 magnetic -deflection mass spectrometer. are nearly always observed. Some of the ions result from dissociation and ionization of atmospheric gases present because of small leaks in the system. Water is usually present and produces not only the H2O+ ion but also H+, H2+, and 0+ ions. Decomposition of hydrocarbon diffusion-pump fluid and of oil left on inner surfaces of the vacuum system results in C+, CH+, CH2+, and

PIG
supply

network

Fig. 4-2. Schematic circuit diagram for the vacuum analyzer. [Taken with permission from A. Guthrie and R. K. Wakerling (eds.), Vacuum Equipment and Techniques (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1940).]

since x

vacuum
for Jf

analysis the slot width

For acceptable resolution of ion masses of interest in Ax was made to equal a half mass unit 16 (oxygen). Thus the slot width must be
2p.

CH4+ ions as well as additional H+ and H2+ ions. The relative magnitude of the peaks corresponding to these ions on the oscilloscope trace changes as the pressure in the vacuum system decreases and the internal surfaces outgas. The if = 18 (II2O+) peak usually dominates for some time after the system has been pumped down from atmospheric pressure. Later, if the system is pumped by trapped oil diffusion pumps, the hydrogen, carbon, hydrocarbon, C0+, and CO2+ peaks become predominant and the water peak decreases and finally disappears. If the = 16 and = peaks remain high, there is a

A.=^^ 16
2

Po

32

PoK

(4-7)

strong possibility of a leak admitting air into the system. If this should be the case the mass spectrometer vacuum analyzer can be used very effectively for locating the leak by directing a jet of gas other than air in turn over the flanges and other parts of the system vulnerable to developing leaks. When the jet falls on the leak, the air leaking into the system is mixed with probe gas, and ion peaks appropriate to the probe gas appear or increase on the oscilloscope trace. Because

138

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


is

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTORS


Since the pioneering use of the magnetic-deflection mass spec-

139

there

normally no if = 4 peak on the oscilloscope trace, helium 4 makes an ideal choice as a probe or leak-hunting gas since the ilf = strikes jet helium the when quickly line very zero peak rises from the
the leak. The use of helium gas in leak hunting was found to be so effective as shown in that a simplified version of the mass spectrometer analyzer, California of University the at Loevinger^ by Fig. 4-4, was developed

trometer in
leak

vacuum

analysis

and
Electron torget

^^\m% of mass

detection,

many

ments have been made

improveand a

^^12 or greoter
Plate

Electrons

P
Mognetic
field

number of excellent units of far greater mass resolution and sensitivity

Accelerator

are

mercially.

now available comThomas, Williams, and


Helium target
j

Hydrogen

To pumps

Hippie* substituted a hot-filament type of ion source for the PIG and
generally refined the electronic
cuits,
cir-

Filament

Helium ions

with resulting improvement

in resolution, sensitivity,
bility.

and

sta-

Fig. 4-5. Ion source, beam focusing, and collector for 180 magnetic-deflection helium mass spectrometer. [Taken with permission from D. E. Charpentier,

In Fig. 4-5 is shown a perspective drawing of the ion source,


Tank

1956 Vacuum, Sym'posium, Transactions

(Pergamon

Press,

London,

1957).]

beam

focusing,

and

collector

Removable

arrangement used by Charpentier^ in a simplified mass spectrometer type of helium leak detector. The author states that the sensitivity of his improved instrument for relatively rapid detection of leaks is

Cathode

faceplate

Filament
Kovor seal

/
t

The mass spectrometer helium leak detector. [Taken with permission Techniques from A. Guthrie and R. K. Wakerling (eds.), Vacuum Equipment and
Fig. 4-4.

(McGraw-Hill Book Company,

New

A
Section

York, 1949).]
Magnetic
field

A-A

Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. The ion source used was a PIG one receiving similar to that in the Backus vacuum analyzer, but only reduced to was beam the of width angular the slot was provided, and intended was detector leak the Since focus. increase the sharpness of
4 beam due to helium, the amplitude of the to respond only to the If potential was only large enough accelerating a-c sweep applied to the 4 on the oscilloscope. The pulsating Jlf to cover the full width for and applied to the vertical amplified was current to the ion collector

ollector

Baffle'-

Collector slit-

plates of

meter through a tuned amplifier. vacuum system all self-contained a with The design of the apparatus, mounted in a compact cabinet on casters, made the helium leak detector a convenient and effective instrument for vacuum-system

an oscilloscope and

also to a

Suppressor^

100,000 megohms^

diagnostics.

mass spectrometer designed for helium leak detection. [Taken with permission from Saul Dushman, Scientific Foundations of Vacuum Technique (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1949).]

Fig. 4-6. 60 deflection

140
10-8

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTORS

141

atm cm^/sec

or 7.6

x lO-"

torr liter/sec,

magnitude lower

for detectability over

and about an order of background when care in the

use of the instrument is exercised. For the accurate measurement of the masses of the isotopes of the Hght elements a 60 magnetic- deflection mass spectrometer was developed by Nier^ several years before initiation of the Manhattan Project work reported above. Subsequently a vacuum analyzer and helium leak detector of high resolution was developed for the Manhattan Project operations at Oak Ridge under contract with the University
of Minnesota

when the accelerating voltage is set at about 270 V and the magnetic field at 900 oersteds. The preamplifier tube for the ion current to the collector is mounted inside the spectrometer tube to ensure high resistance and to minimize leakage currents. The vacuum system for the mass
spectrometer tube consists of an oil difi"usion pump and dry-ice-cooled vapor trap with a resultant pumping speed of about 30 liters /sec. The authors claim a sensitivity of about 1.5 x 10~^ torr liter /sec of helium. A 90 magnetic-defiection mass spectrometer especially designed for ultrahigh-vacuum applications has been developed by Davis and Vanderslice. 1" The instrument is of unusually compact design, consisting of an electron-bombardment type of ion source and an electronmultiplier tube connected by a 90 elbow of welded stainless steel as shown in Fig. 4-7. After bakeout is completed, a magnet is put in place with poles on either side of the 90 elbow to bend the ion beam The ion detector is a 10-stage commercial photointo the detector. multiplier tube with the glass envelope removed and the unit remounted For ions incident upon the first dynode in a stainless steel housing. multiplier the gain is 10^ at 300 V/stage before bakeout the electron of 10' after bakeout at 425C. Slit dimensions and becomes about and alignment in the ion source are so chosen that the mass peak width is just equal to the separation due to one mass unit at an ion mass of 140. Partial pressures of the order of 10-^* torr can be measured with the instrument. Fast electronic sweeping of the ion-accelerating voltage, using a sawtooth sweep generator, provides a continuous oscilloscope trace of the gas components present. A double-focusing magnetic-deflection mass spectrometer, the beamfocusing scheme for which is illustrated in Fig. 4-8, is described by The ion beam passes through a 90 deflection magnet and is Peters. ^^ focused on the interstage slit, which becomes the source 8^ for an identical second-stage deflection magnet which refocuses the beam on the collector slot. The author states that by the double-focusing technique the signal-to-background ratio is improved relative to the The backtypical single-focusing apparatus by about a factor of 100. ground signal in the normal mass spectrometer consists mainly of ions, other than that for which the instrument is focused, entering the collector slot either because the normal breadth of the focus overlaps the mass separation or because ions which are well separated initially are scattered and enter the receiving slot. In the double-focusing instrument the intensity of the Jf = 4 beam is not changed significantly, but the background due to random ions other than ilf = 4 is reduced by a large factor. The author claims a sensitivity to helium of 10-^* cm^/sec of helium at atmospheric pressure, or slightly less than 10-^^
torr liter/sec.

by Hustrulid and Nier' and was later perfected for commercial manufacture in the form described by Nier, Stevens, Hustrulid, and Abbott.8 An instrument of the Nier type, designed specifically as
a helium leak detector by Worcester and Doughty,^ is illustrated in 4 peak is focused on the collector slot In this design the Jf Fig. 4-6.

Fig. 4-7. Sensitive 90 magnetic-deflection mass spectrometer for ultrahighvacuum applications. [Taken with permission from W. D. Davis and T. A Vanderslice, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London,
1961).]

142

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEBING


Median energy

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND

LEAK. DETECTOBS

143

-i-s,l'"
Moss spectrum of propane (C3Hg
H

St

anolyzer

Interstage
slit

2nd anolyzer
pole piece

pole piece

Fig.
eter.

4-8.

Ion

beam
with

trajectories

for double -focusing

mass spectrompermission

[Taken

from

J. L. Peters, in

19S9 Vacuum

Fig. 4-9. Ion trajectories in a cycloidally focused mass spectrometer. [Taken with permission from G. D. Perkins and D. E. Charpentier, in

Symposium Transactions (Pergamon


Press,

1957
actions
1958).]

Vacuum,

London,

I960).]

Sym,posium Trans(Pergamon Press, London,


Fig. 4-11. Complete mass spectrum of propane obtained with cycloidally focused mass spectrometer. [Taken with permission from G. D. Perkins and D. E. Charpentier, in 1957 Vacuum Symposium Trnasactions (Pergamon Press, London,
1958).]

Robinson and Hall^^ describe a cycloidally focused mass spectrometer, the operating principles of which are illustrated in Fig. 4-9 and Fig. 4-10. The structure of the instrument consists of three parallel, equally spaced plates. An electric field is maintained between the
plates

by application of voltage across the outside positive and negative field plates, and a magnetic field is applied parallel with the plate The region between the field plates is thus one of crossed structure. The center plate has a source slit, an electric and magnetic fields.
ion-resolving

independent of the ion energy, and (3) unusually compact structure compared with other magnetic-deflection mass spectrometers. The complete ion mass spectrum obtained with a similar instrument developed by Perkins and Charpentier^* is shown in Fig. 4-11 and demonstrates the resolution of individual

and a collector slit, all running parallel to the magnetic field. Ions are formed by an electron beam and projected through the source slit by application of a substantial voltage to a repeller electrode. The resulting beam of Positive field plate ions is roughly focused on an4
slit,
Ion

mass units in the range 16 to 44. The sensitivity of the instrument is reported to be about 1.7 x 10"^
torr partial pressure of nitrogen.

Signal

Path

of ions

generotor

at resonance

Sensitivity to other gases depends

collector

passes through the resolving

slit

upon the
varies

and
at
resolving ^
slit

is

then brought to a good focus


ion-collecting
is
slit.

ionizing probability and from about one-tenth to

Ion collector

h-

V
Trapping
voltage

the

The

twice

the

nitrogen
is

sensitivity.

End view

Side view

lectron

node

Negot
field

Fig. 4-10.

Cutaway view of

ion source

and beam-focusing scheme for cycloidally focused mass spectrometer. [Taken with permission from G. D. Perkins and D. E. Charpentier, in
1957 Vacuum Symposium, Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1958).]

such that ions of a given charge-to-mass ratio all come to a sharp focus at the collector slit, even though the spread in energy gained from the repeller is large. The advantages of the design are (1) high resolving power due to the double-focusing feature resulting from the use of the resolving and collector slots, (2) high ion efficiency because the focus is
cycloidal focusing

The spectrum

maintained on an
at the

oscilloscope of medium persistence

by sweeping the voltage


ing

rate of about 5 sweeps/sec, provid-

The omegatron of Sommer, Thomas, and Hippie. [Taken with permission from H. Sommer, H. A. Thomas, and J. A. Hippie, Phys. Rev.
Fig. 4-12.

an almost continuous record of 82, 697 (1951).] the gas components in the system. 4-2. The Omegatron Mass Spectrometer.

Sommer, Thomas, and Hippie^* reported a precision determination of the charge-to-mass ratio of the proton by measurement of the cyclotron resonance frequency in a device illustrated in Fig. 4-12, which has since been referred to as an omegatron. A singly charged ion moving in a direction perpendicular

144

VACTJUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


field

VAOUtrM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTORS


Lost ion Collected ions

145

to a uniform magnetic that

moves
Bev

in a circular orbit of radius R, such

V
mv^
(4-8)

and the radius of the

orbit in centimeters

is

>tt\
/
/
/

P,

mcv
J?

(4-9)

15

V2> /oc^ ^^^

C:n^
*\

where

m=
= = V B= e =
c

mass of the

particle

'

velocity of light, cm/sec


velocity of the particle, cm/sec
flux density of the magnetic field, gauss
15

''

/^

\\^

^v ix^

unit atomic charge, esu


is

x^ _

The period of rotation

, Ro=10

277i?

=
is

mc
27

>

sec

Be

so that the rotational frequency

'

=
x

=
2TTCm
e

<
cycles/sec
'
'

-^

-
13

Substituting the numerical values


cm/sec,

4.80

and

m=

1.66

10-^*

M,

in

which

x
is

IQ-i" esu, c

lO^"

the mass

number of the

Fig. 4-13. Spiral orbits of ions in an omegatron. [Taken with permission from D. Charles and R. J. Wamecke, Jr., in 1959 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, I960).]

ion in question, this expression becomes

1.53

10=

Ion collector

R-f electrode
Electron beam

cycles/sec

(4-10)
Slit
.

which depends only upon the flux density of the magnetic


charge-to-mass ratio of the ion.

field

and the
in a

If the kinetic energy of

an ion

uniform magnetic

field increases,

the radius of its circular path increases

according to (4-9), but the frequency of the motion remains constant. The cyclotron type of particle accelerator is based upon this principle; thus the term cyclotron frequency is used to refer to the rotational frequency given in (4-10).

Box (trapping voltage)

> RN
L->-To electrometer

Electron-source
filament

The omegatron is somewhat similar to the cyclotron in that ions are produced at the center of the device and spiral outward as shown in Fig. 4-13 under the influence of a high-frequency field which is perpendicular to the steady magnetic field. The body of an omegatron is in the form of a metal box, along the axis of which and parallel with the magnetic field a beam of electrons is directed as shown in Fig. 4-14. The electrons are drawn from a hot filament by an accelerating potential pass through holes in opposite sides, of the box, and are collected on an

Ion-collector shield r-f,

d-c and electrometer

ground point

Fig. 4-14. Electrode arrangement of an omegatron.

from

W. R. Watson, R.

[Taken with permission A. Wallace, and J. Lech, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium

Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961).]

146

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEEING

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTORS


of the omegatron as developed

147

Ions produced by ionization of the residual gas molecules in the metal box are extracted from the If the electron stream by an applied high-frequency electric field. frequency of the applied field is equal to the cyclotron frequency for a particular type of ion formed in the electron column, ions of this type
electrode on the far side of the box.

by Watson, Wallace, and Lech" is shown in Fig. 4-15. As the frequency of the applied field is varied, the ion-collector current varies from some low background value to peak values occurring

whenever the

oscillator

frequency corresponds to the cyclotron

Variation of

magnitude

of

peak

R-f
supply

^^
'^/iA

44

OS a function of

the amplitude Eq
of the electric field

for various

values

of the ionizing

current

+015volt
-0.48volt

-With
1,0 volts

2,820gauss

P = 410"^torr

221/2
volts d-c

90

volts

dic

Filament
supply

Electrometer

Recorder
1.5

20

2.5

to

cmp

10" 'to 10'^ amp

Eo, volts/cm

Oto

2 volts o-c

Fig. 4-15. Electrical circuit for the omegatron. [Taken with permission from W. R. Watson, R. A. Wallace, and J. Lech, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions

(Pergamon Press, London,

1961).]

Fig. 4-16. Influence of the amplitude of the alternating field on the magnitude of the peaks for an omegatron. [Taken with permission from D. Charles and R. J. Warnecke, Jr., in 1959 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press,

London,

I960).]

gain transverse energy and spiral outward until they strike the ioncollector electrode at the side of the box. If the frequency of the applied field is not equal to the ion cyclotron frequency, ions spiral out from the
electron

beam a

short distance

and then

spiral

back

in again, oscillating

Such ions are end plates of the box. At high gas pressure nonresonant ions tend to accumulate and produce an excessive space charge near the electron column and reduce the effectiveness of the applied high-frequency field in extracting ions. At very low pressure insufficient positive ions are formed to neutralize the spacein radius but never getting out to the ion collector.
lost along the lines of force to the

ions

charge potential of the electron beam with the result that resonant must be extracted from a potential well by the alternating field. To counteract these effects a weak positive d-c trapping voltage is applied to four sides of the box relative to the two sides across which the alternating voltage is applied. A schematic diagram of the circuit

frequency of some type of ion present. The height of the current peak for a given partial pressure is a measure of the sensitivity of the instrument and has been examined by Charles and Warnecke. i In Fig. 4-16 are shown their results on the influence of the amplitude of the = alternating electric field on the magnitude of the current peak for 44 (CO2+). When the alternating-field amplitude is very small, extraction of ions from the negative space charge of the electron beam is inefficient, and furthermore the spiral path for ions to reach the collector is long as compared with the collision mean path. As a result, ions are lost to the walls of the box by scattering along the magnetic field before they reach the collector and the collector current is low. As the alternating field is increased from about 0.5 to 1.0 V/cm, the magnitude of the peak current increases rapidly as the spiral path to the collector becomes progressively shorter. However, beyond 2.0 V/cm the magnitude of the peak current is observed to decrease again, and the authors

148

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEBING


Variation of the magnitude of the peak 44 as function of the intensity

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTORS


dependence of the peak ion current
of
for ilf

149

250-

Ic of the ionizing

current

|U--f(Ic)|
for different volues of the

amplitude Eq

of the electric field

Vpi=t0.15volt

200
with

Vp2 = -0.48volt
B P
Vo
=

l.57volts/cm

2,820 gau

= =

4xlO'Sn
Vo

Eo=1.256volts

=90

150

0.942 volt/cm

Eo 100

2.I98volts/cm
1.884 vol ts/ci

En

\Eo
50

0.628 volt/cm

0123456789
Press,

Eo= 0.314

volt/cm

44 on the partial pressure current. It is noted that the peak current is proportional to the partial pressure up to about 4 X 10-* torr for small electron -beam currents (1 to 3 //A) and up to about 2 X 10-* for an electron-beam current of 5 /lA. These authors report that under favorable circumstances and with an electron-beam current of 10 /lA a partial pressure of the order of 5 X lO-^^ torr can be detected. The corresponding ion-collector current is about 5 X lO-is A. Charles and Warnecke also report that the sensitivity of a similar omegatron designed specifically as a leak detector using argon as the probe gas is 2 x lO-^^ torr liter /sec in a dynamic system and as low as 2 X 10-1* torr liter /sec in a well-baked system using an accumulation process. The authors state that for the omegatron leak detector, argon, because of its relatively high ionization probability, is preferable to helium as a probe gas. In a detailed discussion of the potentialities of an omegatron as a leak detector Nicollian^' reports results in agreement with those of Charles and Warnecke, 1* using argon as the probe gas. However, he finds that the alternating-field gradient can be increased tenfold when using helium as the probe gas without causing broadening and splitting

CO2 for various values of the electron-beam

Fig. 4-17. Influence of the electron-beam current on the magnitude of the positive ion peaks for an omegatron. [Taken with permission from D. Charles and R. J. Warnecke, Jr., in 7959 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon

London,

I960).]

Relotion between amplitude of peak 44 and the corresponding partial pressure Pp

n7^(p
for different values of the

state

and broadened.

that the ion-ciirrent-versus-frequency peaks become distorted This latter condition develops when the increase in
is

60
.50

ionizing current Iq
Vp|= 0.17 volt

some of the resonant ions take the outer orbit shown in Fig. 4-13 and miss the collector entirely. Thus an optimum alternating-field amplitude was found to be about 2 V/cm, at which the collector current was maximum and the current peaks (as a function of frequency) were sharp and undistorted. The influence of the electron-beam current on the magnitude of the ion peaks as measured by Charles and Warnecke is shown in Fig. 4-17 for various values of the amplitude of the alternating field. For an alternating-field amplitude of about 1 V/cm or more the ion-collector
radius per turn in the spiral path
so large that
,

Vp2=-0.48volt

B =2,820 gauss

,40

=0.94volt/cm
=

Vo

Vo =90 volts.

30

20

/
la)
......
lc
=

10

^.
0'

l/iA

current

approximately proportional to the electron-beam current as is expected. At lower values of the alternating-field amplitude the curves are badly distorted, probably because of failure of the small alternating field to extract ions from the negative space charge of the electron beam. Finally, Fig. 4-18 shows the results of Charles and Warnecke for the
is

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

P 10'^ torr

= 44 on the partial Fig. 4-18. Dependence of the peak ion current for pressure of COj for various values of the electron -beam current for an omegatron.
Symposium Transactions (Pergamon
[Taken with permission from D. Charles and R. J. Warnecke, Press, London, I960).]
Jr., in

1959

Vacuum

150 of the

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VACUUM ANALYZEKS AND LEAK DETECTOES


magnetic-field flux densities in the range of 2,500 gauss.

151

i peak. By taking advantage of this effect NicolHan obtains about the same leak-detection sensitivity with hehum as with argon. In either case a Hmiting partial-pressure sensitivity of about
10-12 torr

M=

Omegatron mass spectrometers have generally been operated with


In order to = 2to = 50, using this strength of cover the ion mass range from magnetic field, the range of alternating-field frequency required, according to (4-10), is from 1,915 kilocycles/sec down to 87 kilocycles/sec. Since the ionization cross section for the formation of H2+ ions in

and an ultimate leak-rate

sensitivity of

about 10-" torr

liter/sec are reported.

hydrogen gas is 30 to 50 times greater than for H+, the frequently not seen on vacuum-analyzer traces.
Table
4-1.

M=

peak

is

Pressures and Sensitivities of Omegatron to Methane and

Neon*
Omegatron sensitivities calculated from ionization-gauge "pressure" readings and the heights of the principal peaks of the respective gases, that is, ikf = 16 = 20 for neon. for methane and

Hydrocarbon
fractions

Methane
Pressvire, torr

Sensitivity, div/torr. Sensitivity, {*+/'_)/-?

5.8

1.15 X 10- X 10'


5.8

2.7 X 10-' 5.7 X 109


5.7

6.5 6.2

X 10-8

X 10"
6.2

ICeon
Pressure, torr
Sensitivity, div/torr ....
Sensitivity,
(i_,_/'J_)/P
. .

2.4
6.1

X 10-5
X 109
6.1

3.9 X 10-'
8.1

X 109
8.1

* Taken with permission from W. R. Watson, R. A. Wallace, and J. Lech, in 1960 Vacuum, Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961), p. 421.

12 13 14 15

1617 1819 202122

26 27 28 29 30 3132

4041424344

Mass number

Mass spectrum during bakeout of reflex klystron, (a) Just before' development of an air leak; (6) just after development of a small air leak. Temperature 320C, total pressure 5 x 10-^ to 1 x lO-^ torr by ionization gauge. [Taken with permission from D. Lichtman and A. Hebling, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961).]
Fig. 4-19.

Watson, Wallace, and Lech^^ have investigated the sensitivity in terms of (i^/O/P,,, in which i^ is the peak current for a given ion, i__ the electron-beam current, and P^, the partial pressure of the gas from which the ion current is produced. Table 4-1 gives some typical values The gases for the sensitivity obtained by Watson, Wallace, and Lech. used for these measurements were neon and methane. The "pressures" quoted are the nominal readings of an ionization gauge calibrated against
nitrogen.

The use of an omegatron

in the analysis of the residual gases dilring

the processing of ultrahigh-vacuum power tubes is discussed by Lichtman and Hebling." In Fig. 4-19 are shown the residual gas spectra obtained (a) during the advanced stage of bakeout of a reflex klystron and (b) just after the development of an air leak. In (a) the residual gas is made up mainly of hydrogen (H2+), water vapor,

Since the sensitivity of ionization gauges, i.e., the ratio about four times greater for nitrogen than for neon, the actual pressure of neon present was greater by about a factor of 4 than
{i+liJ)P,
is is

that indicated in the table.

not

known

to the author.

The conversion factor for methane (CH*) The decrease in sensitivity for neon at

methane, and hydrocarbon fractions. When the leak develops in (&), the carbon dioxide, argon, oxygen (O2+ and 0+), nitrogen (N2+ and N+), and neon peaks become dominant.

is consistent with the general observation that the sensitivity of the omegatron decreases noticeably for pressures in excess of lO^^ torr. This trend is illustrated most clearly in Fig. 4-20 from the paper of Watson, Wallace, and Lech, in which the response to carbon monoxide is plotted as a function of pressure, giving a

2.45

X 10^5 torr partial pressure

152

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTOBS

153

low-pressure sensitivity of about 9.5 x 10^ div/torr for the Jf 28 peak and dropping off rapidly with increasing pressure beginning at about 10~^ torr.

Considering that the omegatron element

about one inch on a

side, the sensitivity

is a small metal box of only and mass resolution achievable

Omegatron
Carbon monoxide calibration

Oiv.mass28
o ^

Sensitivity

^^q-9

Torr pressure

,_^o9.*o%

oo-

/:o?^o^
o

atomic mass discrimination. One advantage of these systems is that a magnetic field is not required to effect mass separation. The linear accelerator scheme was adopted by Moody^' in the design of a mass spectrometer helium leak detector and vacuum analyzer. The arrangement of ion source, r-f accelerator, and ion detector is illustrated schematically in Fig. 4-21. Ions are produced in a chamber by a beam of electrons which are emitted from a filament outside the chamber, pass through small collimating holes in the walls, pass completely through the chamber, jywvA*o+ Resolution and are stopped by an electrode adjustment outside the chamber on the far
side.

o o

o o
(fe

Positive ions formed

by the
of the

o o o o
cP

electron

beam are drawn out

o o

.-,.
-

rf

t^

D1V12

column by an extracting voltage between the ionization chamber and the focusing electrode. The extracted ions are focused on a collector through apertures in a series of plates which serve as

Ion

R-f
analyzer

Kinetic-energy

chamber

selector

Fig. 4-21. Schematic of linear mass analyzer. [Taken with permission from R. E. Moody, in 1956 Vacuum

(Pattern coefficient,

m/e

12)

(100

OiV28

i
1

10-7

10"6

10-5
Pressure, torr

10"

FiG. 4-20. Sensitivity of omegatron as a function of partial pressure of CO as = 28 peak. The pattern coefficient ratio between indicated by current in the = 12 (C+) and the = 28 (CO+) ion currents remains nearly constant as the sensitivity decreases at pressures above 1 x 10~^ torr. [Taken with permission from W. R. Watson, R. A. Wallace, and J. Lech, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961).]

are remarkably high. A problem which has not to the author's knowledge been satisfactorily resolved arises from the fact that the omegatron element is almost completely closed and has an enormous ratio of surface to volume. Both absorption and desorption effects must be present so that pronounced differences in the partial pressures of component gases must generally exist between the system being tested and the interior of the omegatron. 4-3. Linear High-frequency Mass Spectrometers. Linear resonant systems which depend upon the selective processes familiar in

high-frequency linear accelerator design or upon the differences in time of flight for ions of different mass have been utilized effectively for

electrodes for applying a high- Symposium Transactions (Pergamon frequency accelerating field. Alter- Press, London, 1957).! nate elements of the high-frequency electrode system are driven 180 out of phase by an oscillator. Actually, one set of alternate plates is grounded and the other is driven by the oscillator. The electric field in the gaps between any two adjacent plates varies as (EgjG) sin 2TTft, during the positive half-cycle of which ions coming from the source will experience an accelerating pulse. During the negative half-cycle, ions will be decelerated. Thus, if the ions pass through the series of high-frequency gaps in random phase, the net gain or loss in energy will be very small. However, if the spacings G^ between the electrodes increase in the proper sequence, ions of a particular ejm ratio and initial velocity entering the first gap in the proper phase will arrive at each succeeding gap at the proper time to receive an accelerating pulse at each gap. Such ions gain energy about proportional to the number of high-frequency gaps and attain considerably higher energy than those ions which are not so synchronized. By changing the applied frequency, ions of other e/m ratios can also be accelerated. Sweeping the frequency of the oscillating voltage through a sufficient range brings different ions into synchronism in succession. The ion beam leaving the high-frequency section is electrostatically deflected. Those ions which are not in synchronism, and thus have

154

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


potential

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTORS

155

not gained much energy, are bent sharply by the deflecting field, whereas those which are in synchronism and do gain maximum energy are only In order to discriminate slightly deflected and enter the ion collector. between the true ion current and the background current, the ion beam is modulated by imposing a 15 cycle/sec voltage to an electrode between the ion source and the accelerating electrode and detecting only the a-c component of the collector current through a tuned amplifier. A block

f/j^, and the r-f grid structure at negative d-c potential. Between the ion source and the r-f filter is a grid at high negative potential so that ions are drawn out of the source by a high accelerating electric field then decelerated somewhat to attain an energy eUg (as indicated on the diagram) on entering the r-f filter. Only those ions which gain an energy AW >
e?7j(,t ill passing through the r-f filter will reach the partial collector and be recorded as a partial pressure. The highly negative grid between the ion source and the r-f filter is designated the total collector since it intercepts a uniform fraction of ions of all masses and thus provides a current indication which is proportional to the total pressure as read by an ionization gauge. The grids of the r-f filter are equally spaced, and are alternately connected to the opposite polarities of a variable-frequency r-f oscillator so that successive grids are driven 180 out of phase. Each group of three adjacent grids constitutes a sorting structure of the Bennett type.^^ In passing through the sorting structure, ions, in general, experience a succession of accelerating and decelerating impulses and on the average gain or lose kinetic energy. The change in energy AlFy for an ion depends

diagram of the complete

circuit for the

helium leak detector version of

Ion

gouge
(21

-^

-^

i_

,..,.,
.'.,

In |U

Filament
regulator
(2)

375

volts

power
supply
(4) -

15modulotor
(2)

^^-i

R-f
oscillator

250

volts

1-

power
supply

(4)
(4)

/
"a

z'

+
Preomplifie
(2)

\
A-c
amplifier
(2)

-^

Fig. 4-22. Block circuit diagram for linear r-f helium leak detector. [Taken with permission from R. E. Moody, in 7956 Vacuum Symposium Transactions

(Pergamon Press, London,

1957).]

the device is shown in Fig. 4-22. In the vacuum analyzer version the applied high frequency is swept over the range necessary to bring into = 100. In Fig. 4-23 is 2 to synchronism ion masses from

M=

shown the electrode structure

for the r-f

vacuum
filter,

analyzer.

An

alternative form of linear r-f

mass spectrometer featuring an


illustrated in Fig. 4-24,

upon the number


the
structure,
?7o,

of Bennett stages in

Fig. 4-23. Linear r-f mass spectrometer vacuum-analyzer

array of equally spaced grids as an e/m

the

entering

accelerating

electrode

structure.

was originally proposed by Redhead^" for use as a vacuum analyzer. Ehlbeck et al.^i have discussed the theory of this type of mass spectrometer and given results of measurements on the resolving power and Ions are produced sensitivity as a function of operating parameters. by electron bombardment in the ion source, accelerated through an r-f filter consisting of {2N + 1) precision-made grids, decelerated by a retarding grid, and finally selectively recorded on the partial-collector
electrode, provided a particular type of ion has gained sufficient energy

potential

the amplitude
cp

of the r-f

potential, the phase

of the r-f at the infirst stage,

stant the ion enters the


transit angle
oc

and the

where

[Taken with permission from R. E. Moody, in 1956 Vacuum Symposium, Transac(Pergamon Press, tions London, 1957), and through
the courtesy of Beckman Instruments, Inc.Fullerton,
CaUf.]

2nfd\2-U

surmount the potential applied to the retarding grid. Between the ion-retarding grid and the collector is an additional grid at high negative As potential to prevent any electrons from reaching the collector.
to

The transit angle is the phase interval of the applied r-f which a particle would spend in traversing the distance d between two adjacent grids of the ion sorter at the velocity v = [2(e/m)f7] at which it enters the sorting structure. The entering phase
interval

shown in the d-c potential plot in Fig. 4-24, the filament and partial ion collector are at ground potential, the ion chamber at a positive

99

positive

and the

over which the change in energy ^- after stages is fractional gain in energy AW^I^U^ are both critical

AW

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTORS


156

157

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

Table

4-2.

Operating Parameters for R-F Mass Spectrometer Vacuum

functions of the ion e/m ratio when the remaining parameters (d, U, U, f) are held constant. Alternatively, if all other parameters are held constant and the radio frequency varied, then ions of different e/m ratios receive the maximum energy gain at discrete values of the frequency.

Analyzer*
electron current. Total yield of ion source at 4 Half width of energy distribution of ions Total current sensitivity (signal to total ion collector) Partial current sensitivity at U (r-f amplitude) = 140 volts Resolving power at U = 140 volts Upper limit of pressure at which the partial current is proportional to the partial pressure
.

mA

x 10~^ A/torr

4.5

eV

8 x 10"^ A/torr 2 X 10-" A/torr

Pump

100
5 x 10* torr,

approx

Taken with permission from H. W. Ehlbeck, K. H. Loecherer, J. Ruf, and H. J. Schuetze, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961), p. 407.
*

Resolving power of 100 could only be attained by using such a highA mass spectrogram obtained with the precision grid structure.

instrument at a total pressure of 1 X 10"^ torr and resolving power of about 100 is shown in Fig. 4-25. Assuming that a partial-collector current of 10-1* A can be detected above 3.10""amp background, the minimum partial pressure detectable with the sensitivity of 2

X 10- A/torr

is

X 10-

By sacrificing resolving power torr. this limit of detectable partial pressure


bution for
Fig. 4-24. Schematic drawing of electrode arrangement and d-c potential distri[Taken with permission r-f mass spectrometer according to Redhead. from H. W. Ehlbeck, K. H. Loecherer, J. Ruf, and H. J. Schuetze, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961).]

can probably be reduced somewhat, at least for the lower range of mass
values.

oLLuIIL
10 12 14 16
18

JL
28

22

In the instrument developed by EhllDeck et

al.^i

using five stages as

shown

in Fig. 4-24, the resolving

power

is

defined as

R=

/m

100

compact and relatively simple type of r-f mass spectrometer, called the Farvitron, has been described by Reich. 23 The electrode system for the Farvitron is shown schematically
in Fig. 4-26 together with the axial

Fig.

total

Mass spectrogram at of 1 x 10^^ torr and resolution of i? = 100 from


4-25.

pressure

r-f sorter

type of

r-f

spectrometer

X(f2-A)

potential
in which /max is the radio frequency for a given e/m value at which the collector current is maximum and f^ and /a the frequency values below' and above /max at which the collector current reaches half the maximum value. The operating parameters of the instrument are given in Table

distribution.

Because

of

the geometry of the electrodes and the d-c voltages applied, the axial potential

of Ehlbeck et al. [Taken with permission from H. W. Ehlbeck, K. H. Loecherer, J. Ruf, and H. J. Schuetze, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon
Press,

London,
is

1961).]

distribution

is
99

parabola, that

is,

approximately a = F kx^, in which

the voltage applied

The authors emphasize that the transparency of the grid structure They found is a critical feature in determining the resolving power. that a grid structure in which each grid was a square mesh of 5 X 10"* cm diameter molybdenum wire with a spacing of 0.05 cm transmits only 7 per cent of the incident ions, whereas a structure in which each grid
4-2
.

between the two end electrodes and the central ring electrode. An ion of charge-to-mass ratio e/m injected into such a field experiences an
axial oscillation of frequencj^

C!\-

consists

of parallel wires precisely aligned transmits

35 per cent.

158

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTORS

159

where which the

C =

4/7rL

electrical potential

frequency / is satisfying the above frequency relation will resonate and gain sufficient energy to escape from the potential pocket.

the distance between the end electrodes at 0. If an alternating potential of g9 superimposed upon the d-c potential, an ion of e/m
is

and

frequency is varied periodically by a 50 cycles/sec wobbler signal over the range of 0.13 to 1.8 megacylces/sec. For the dimensions and d-c voltages chosen by Reich the resonant frequencies are given by

/
where

= 2AM-

megacycles/sec

is

the molecular weight of the atomic or molecular ion involved.

D-c supply

r-'r-i-ii

I"-!-"!

:
I

Tube
R-f
amplifier

The frequency swing imposed by the wobbler can be varied in breadth anywhere over the available frequency range so that either the full mass range from ilf = 2 to ilf = 250 can be displayed, or a much narrower mass range can be chosen and expanded to the full width of
the oscilloscope trace.

i^i'-r-'.

1
Demodulator

R-f generator

0,l3-l8Mc

The Farvitron is a relatively simple and compact form of r-f mass spectrometer which can be conveniently constructed for baking out at high temperature. The sensitivity is apparently limited, at least in the form described by Reich, to partial pressures not less than about 10~^ torr. The high scanning rate of 50 cycles/sec makes the Farvitron
particularly useful in following rapidly changing conditions in a

Wobbler

50cps

D
(Pergamon

Oscilloscope

vacuum

LflMfiiJ

Fig. 4-26. Schematic diagram of the electrodes and of the axial potential distribution of the Farvitron mass spectrometer. [Taken with permission from G. Reich, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions

Fig. 4-27. Circuit diagram for the Farvitron mass spectrometer. [Taken with permission from G. Reich, in 1960 Vacuum, Symposium, Transactious
1961).]

system.
4-4.

Halogen Leak Detector.


of leak
detectors

discussion

Press,

London,

would not be complete without mention of the halogen leak detector based upon the enhanced positive
ion

(Pergamon
1961).]

Press,

output

of

halogen-sensitive
Air flow-

London,

diode.

Langmuir and Kingdon^*'^^


FiG.
4-28. Schematic

In the Farvitron the ions are produced by accelerating a regulated current of electrons from a tungsten filament axially into the electrode on the left, the end of which is a wire mesh. The electrons start from a cathode potential of 100 V, as shown in the schematic circuit diagram in Fig. 4-27, and will therefore penetrate the parabolic field to a depth of 100 V, producing positive ions by collisions with any molecules present. These ions oscillate in the parabolic field, most of them not having sufficient energy to reach the cup-shaped electrode on
the far end. However, when an r-f voltage is applied to the electrode on the left, ions of the e/m corresponding to the above frequency relation gain in amplitude of their motion and escape to the collector
electrode

had demonstrated the production of positive ions by ionization of gas


molecules coming into contact with a hot surface provided the thermionic
is

diagram of halogen leak detector. [Taken with permission from W. H. White and
J.
S.

Hickey, Electronics 21, 100

(1948).]

work function of the surface White greater than the ionization potential of the gas molecule. and Hiokey^" utilized the greatly enhanced production of positive ions
which occurs when a gas containing any one of the halogens (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine) comes in contact with a hot (^^900C) platinum surface as the basis for a leak detector. Their detector consists of a platinum cylinder mounted on a ceramic-clad heating element placed centrally within a larger platinum cylinder, as shown

on the right. The r-f current to the collector electrode is amplified and then rectified to produce a d-c voltage which is applied to the vertical deflection electrodes of an oscilloscope. The radio

The heated inner cylinder is made positive and the ion current is read on a microammeter, as shown in the diagram, or by means of an
schematically in Fig. 4-28.
(100 to 500 V) relative to the outer cylinder,

160
amplifier.

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING The halogen detector is most effectively used as a leak by placing it inside the vacuum system and probing the
fine jet of

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTORS


Loudspeaker
Sensing

161

detector

system with a

Freon-12 or other halogen-containing gas. Torney^' has made a study of the optimum conditions for operating a halogen detector to ensure stability and sensitivity. The platinum diode produces a background current of positive ions even when no halogens are present. The background current due to this effect varies with the gas pressure and the temperature
of the

element

^C;

Amplifier
relaxation
oscillator

ond
power
supply

Requloted
voltages
,.

inner

element.
Fig. 4-30. Block diagram of circuit for halogen leak detector. [Taken with permission from F. L. Torney, Jr., in 1957 Vacuum Symposium Transactions

The

signal

due to the enhanced


presence of a

ionization in the

(Pergamon Press, London,

1958).]

halogen- containing gas also depends upon the gas pressure (of
air).

The dependence of the

re-

sidual ionization current for

two

different values of the heater cur-

though this change is small as compared with typical changes in the background ion current. One feature of halogen leak detectors which can cause difficulty is the relatively long "memory" of the detector once it has been exposed
to a surge of halogen gas.

rent
20

40

100 200

400

ipOO

and of the signal in detecting a calibrated leak of 10~^ cm^/sec

To

reSensing head

Pressure,;!

Halogen leak detector backgroand positive ion current for 1.60-A and 1.75-A heater current and signal
Fig. 4-29.

on the pressure in the system is shown graphically in Fig. 4-29. The operating range (70 to 200 fi)
crosshatched in the figure is so chosen that the background current
is

duce the memory period, Torney^' devised a mounting for the detector which provides for the purging
of the detector
as
is

by the introduction
The unit
system as

From system
under test

current for standard leak of 10~* cm^/sec as a function of the pressure in the system. [Taken with permission from F. L. Torney, Jr., in 1957 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon
Press,

of gas free of halogen contamination,

shown

in Fig. 4-31.

From regulated source of


clean uncontaminoted air

To vacuum pump

relatively independent of

either connected in series in the


line of the

London,

1958).]

the pressure in the system and the ratio of signal to background


is

forevacuum

shown
The

in Fig. 4-31a or connected

relatively large, resulting in

an

in parallel as

shown

in Fig. 4-316.

Coble to
control unit

optimum

ratio of signal to background.

principal disadvantage of the


To vacuum

Torney also observed that the background positive ion current changes slowly with time provided that the pressure and circuit parameters are steady, whereas the signal due to the introduction of a halogen gas rises much more rapidly. Utilizing this difference in response, Torney developed a circuit which facilitates discrimination between background fluctuations and signals due to a leak. The circuit, a block diagram of which is shown in Fig. 4-30, contains a network between the detector and the amplifier which constitutes a bandpass filter which bypasses through C2 the high-frequency noise generated in the detector, is unresponsive to the very low frequencies associated with changes in the background ion current, but transmits an intermediate band of frequencies typical of changes in the signal due to detection of a leak by use of a halogen gas. Subsequent amplification of the signal beyond the bandpass filter then permits the sensitive detection of the enhanced positive ion current due to the application of a halogen gas to a leak even

series arrangement is the resulting low conductance for gas flow. The parallel arrangement in Fig. 4-316 may be permanently installed in a system without impairing pumping

pump
From system
under test

performance. According to Torney, 2' leak rates of 2 X 10~* atm cm^/sec will produce a full-scale deflection on his
version of the halogen leak detector, and leak rates as small as 2 x 10"^

Fig. 4-31. Methods of connecting halogen leak detector into a vacuum system. [Taken with permission from F. L. Torney, Jr., in 1957 Vacuum. Symposium Transactions

(Pergamon

Press,

London,

1958).]

atm cm^/sec can be detected when proper precautions are observed. 4-5. Leak-detection Techniques. Leakage through flange seals,
welded or soldered joints, and flaws such as cracks and porous sections of metal is an important cause of vacuum-system failure. The degree

162
to

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


for this

VACUUM ANALYZEBS AND LEAK DETECTORS


as a function of the time, as

163

which leakage must be eliminated in vacuum systems is far greater than that required for pressure and most other vessels in common engineering experience. Because of the importance of eliminating leakage, methods of detecting and localizing leaks constitute an important element in vacuum practice. Larger leaks in vacuum systems
relatively crude methods.

shown

in Fig. 4-33.

The system assumed


over the diffusion

example has a liquid-nitrogen-cooled

baffle

pump. When the pressure has reached a nearly steady value during pumpdown, the trap is cooled by liquid nitrogen removing the condensable vapor, after which a base pressure is reached depending upon the outgassing and leak rates. The valve between the diffusion pump and

may be detected by any of several The system may be pressurized slightly by closing the valve to the pump and
connecting a tank of nitrogen to the system through a regulating valve set at a gauge pressure of a few pounds per square inch, carefully avoiding the risk of applying

the liquid-nitrogen-cooled trap

is

then closed and the pressure

rise

Hole to view flame

Burner

Copper plote

flir-intoke tube used


to hunt for leaks

an unsafe overpressure. Gas will then flow out through the leaks, the larger of which can then be
located

by

painting

suspicious

areas with soap solution


Fig. 4-32. Halide torch and auxiliary equipment. [Taken with permission

and lookI
Punnping
storted
Liquid nitrogen

ing for bubbles.

A very large leak


into

eokoge

rote

from A. Guthrie and R. K. Wakerhng (eds.), Vacuum Equipment and Techniques (McGraw-Hill Book Company,

can be detected most easily if the gauge pressure is kept very low. Alternatively, the system may be Now York, 1949).] pressurized with a halogen-containing gas such as Preon-12 and a sniffing method used to detect the halogen gas coming out through the leaks. A hahde torch such as that illustrated in Fig. 4-32 is convenient for this purpose and reasonably sensitive. The air-intake hose shown in the figure is used to explore the system for leaks. When the inlet end of the hose sniffs the halogen gas, the flame in the torch turns green. Small components of a vacuum system can be
separately sealed, connected to a compressed-air supply, and immersed
in water.

Pump
volved off

introduced

trap

from system

Time

>

vacuum system with a significant leak present. [Taken with permission from W. F. Briggs, A. C. Jones, and ,T. A. Roberts, in 195S Vacuum. Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1959).]
Fig. 4-33. Pressure vs. time for a

followed in time.
is

Since the outgassing rate diminishes with time, the pressure-rise curve typically has a decreasing slope as long as the curve

dominated by outgassing. However, if the curve becomes a straight some time, the pressure rise may be assumed to be dominated by a leak, the value of which \s Q = V dPjdt, where V is the volume of
line after

A trail of bubbles indicates the location of a leak.

According

the system.
to localize the source.

to Guthrie

and Wakerling,^* the pressurizing methods are limited in sensitivity to a leak rate of the order of 10^^ atm cm'/sec, which is entirely adequate for locating the larger leaks that would prevent pumping a system down to the region of ionization-gauge operation. When the leak rate in a vacuum system is low enough that the diffusion pumps can be put into operation and a pressure less than 10~^ torr attained, more sensitive methods are required to locate the remainIn this case ionization gauges may be operated in the portion of the system and heat-conductivity gauges in the forevacuum section. The behavior of a vacuum in this condition has been described by Briggs, Jones, and Roberts^^ in terms of the pressure
ing small leaks.
fine

has been determined that a leak is present, the next step is The procedures which may be used are many, but only some of the most efficacious will be mentioned. Briggs et al.29 describe the use of a null method in the circuit of a cold-cathode (PIG) type of ionization gauge as shown in Fig. 4-34 to detect with high
it

When

sensitivity

any change

in the

system pressure.

Usually when a definite

leak

present, the system pressure remains fairly steady at a value determined by the leak rate and the pumping speed of the system.
is

vacuum

Under these conditions the steady reading due to the system pressure can be balanced out as shown schematically in the figure and any changes in pressure, up or down, detected with increased sensitivity.

164

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


If

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTORS


can

165

the

leak

rate

now be
thus roughly localizing any leaks present. The is very widely applied since it facilitates localizing the leak within a small area. A tank of helium with a regulator valve and a hose terminated by a small nozzle is used When the probing gas jet hits to explore the vacuum system in detail. the leak, the helium leak detector responds in a time depending upon the capacity of the system and the size of the leak. Most leak detectors produce an audible signal, the sensitivity of which can be set for detection of small or large leaks. The sensitivity of a helium leak
in

D-c power
supply
I

Ionization

gouge

d^

changed by squirting water or other liquid on suspicious parts of the system to cause a momentary
decrease in the leak rate or using some gas other than

hoods of plastic

foil,

gas probe

method

illustrated in Fig. 4-36

by
air,

Sr
To

vacuum system

Shunt

Null indicotor

such as Freon, COj, or helium, to cause a change in the gauge response, the balance in the gauge circuit will be disturbed and the of a leak indicated. location Methods such as these are generally capable of detecting leak
rates

detector

is

defined in terms of the


'

smallest air leak rate to which the

C3

Reference voltage

J.

of the

order of lO""

atm
is

cm'/sec.

The next order of


P"iG. 4-34. Null method for detecting changes in system pressure during

sensitivity

the halogen leak detector described


in the previous section.

As was

respond when air is replaced by pure helium at atmospheric pressure. In the earlier sections of this chapter the sensitivities of several helium leak detectors are given on this same
instrument
will

S7

rn
Equipment
Leak detecto
Roughing
under test

/?=^

^^|,^^

pump

hunting. [Taken with permission from W. F. Briggs, A. C. Jones, and J. A. Roberts, in 195S Vacuum Symposium Transactions
leak

already stated, this device is installed in the forevacuum line of the vacuum system and has a
sensitivity of

basis.

However,
in

in searching for

leaks
ditions

vacuum systems conare much less favorable


sensi-

Fig. 4-36. Gas probe method of apply[Taken with ing helium leak detector. permission from W. F. Briggs, A. C. Jones, and J. A. Roberts, in 1958

Vacuum Symposium Transactions gamon Press, London, 1959).]

(Per-

(Pergamon Press, London,

1959).]

about 2 X

lO"**

atm

cm*/sec.

than those under which the tivity is measured. In any


is

case, detection of leaks of 10"^

atm cm^/sec

By far the most sensitive and versatile of the leak detectors is the mass spectrometer helium leak detector, several types of which are
described earlier in this chapter.
detector,

In application the helium leak which has its own complete vacuum system, is connected into the forevacuum of the system being tested through a control valve as Equipment under test\ illustrated in Figs. 4-35 and 4-36. In Fig. 4-35 the system to be leak tested is enclosed in a hood into which helium is injected so that the system is surrounded by a mixture This method is of air and helium. particularly effective if the problem Envelope containing is to determine whether a vacuum helium-air mixture device has a leak greater than some Fig. 4-35. Hood method of applying specified value, but it does not
help to locate the leak.

and detection of leaks as small as 10^1" atm cm^/sec is entirely possible under good conditions. No matter what probe gas is used in leak detection, precautions must be taken to avoid excessive flooding of the system and its surroundings with probe gas. The objective is to determine the precise location of the leak, not simply to determine whether one is present. If there is an
usually relatively straightforward,
excessive

amount of probe gas about the system, the leak detector will continue to respond for some time, whether or not the gas probe is A fine gas directed at a leak, so that time is lost in localizing a leak. jet which is turned on only for brief intervals and then turned off again
is

best.
will

and

The leak detector can then be kept operating at high sensitivity respond when the leak is struck by the gas probe with whatever

delay

is characteristic of the system. In Chap. 9 the operation of getter-ion pumps is discussed in some detail. Ackley et al.^" describe how the current drawn by a Vac-Ion type of pump may be used as a sensitive indicator for leak detection.

very large systems the hood method can be applied to sections of the system by enclosing portions of the system

On

helium leak detector. [Taken with permission from W. F. Briggs, A. C. Jones, and .T. A. Roberts, in 1958 Vacuum Si/mposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1959).]

One property of this type of pump is that for a given type of gas the current drawn by the pump is proportional to the throughput. Thus
for gas of type a

Qa

S,xPa
in the system,

(4-11)

and

similarly for each

component gas

where

7 is the

166

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VACUUM ANALYZERS AND LEAK DETECTORS


electrometer circuit.
in the value of the current resulting

167

current

drawn

for a given

throughput Q^, P the resulting partial

pressure of the gas component in question,

and S^ the pumping speed

Since the measurement depends upon the change from the substitution of the gas at

of the getter-ion

pump
I

for that

of a system with a leak present.

same component. Consider the case The getter-ion pump current is

=h
SPh
(4-12)
'

the leak, the limit of sensitivity for leak detection by this method depends upon how small the fluctuations in the getter-ion pump current may be before making the substitution. The authors state that by taking proper precautions the fractional change in the getter-ion pump
current can be of the order of 1/2,000.

value of the getter-ion

pump

current determined

The smaller the equilibrium by Qg, the throughput

where Qg represents the internal outgassing load and Q^ is the leakage throughput of gas of type 1. If, now, at time t = 0, gas of type 1 is replaced by gas of type 2, then after a time t the change in the getter-ion

'r.\BLE 4-3.

pump

current

is

Relative Values of Pumping Speeds, Leak Rates, and IjP Factors Used in Determining the Change in Getter-ion Pump Current Due to Substitution of One Gas for Another*
Probo gas

Mit)

lit)

(IlnjillPh
1.25

SJS,
0.834
0.30 0.50
1.73

Q2IQ,
0.85
2.7 2.7 3.8 3.8

Ai//t

(^b' (^h.
since

-exp(^^^)_
-

A
He He
(4-13)
(with increased (with increased

0.5

0.167

-1-0.5

pumping speed)

0.167
0.50

-exp(-^<)_
remains constant.

Ha Hj
Oa

+ 0.1
-0.1 -0.5 -0.5

pumping speed)

0.50
1.0

2.12
1.25

0.95

presumably

Qg, the internal outgassing,

The

CO,

detailed form of the current change with time depends critically on the
relative

pumping speeds and

leak rates for the

sufficient

time the exponential factors change in the current is


CO)

two gases. After a approach zero and the fractional

* Taken with permission from Ackley, Harrington, Francis, Jopsen, Lothrop, and MandoH, in 1902 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (The Macmillan Company,

Xcw
I

York, 1962),

p. 380.

The vahies of A/// were experimentally determined.

[IIP). S, Q,
1

(4-14)

(IIP), S, Q,
for the parameters (IjP)2l{IIP)i, S^jS^, and Q^jQi and the observed values for A/// are given in Table 4-3 for several gases and +1 are observed conditions. It is noteworthy that values of A7/7 in response to the substitution of one gas for another, providing an excellent sensitivity for leak detection. The value of IjSP for air was measured and found to be about 20. Using the data from Table 4-3 and the above parameter for air, one finds from (4-14) that by substituting helium for air at a leak in the system, the change in current drawn

The data

due to outgassing, the smaller the minimum detectable leak rate. The consequence is that the minimum detectable leak rate is generally in the range from 10^" to IQ-^^ torr liter/sec, depending upon the condition of the system. Whatever the limiting value may be, it is comparable with that achieved using a mass spectrometer type of leak detector and is very convenient in systems in which getter-ion pumps are used.

REFERENCES
1.

by the

getter-ion

pump

is

M=

lOQair
2. 3.

in

amperes when Qair is the leak rate for air in torr liters per second. Ackley et al. claim that since a simple electrometer circuit can easily measure currents of lO^^^ A, the corresponding minimum detectable leak rate is about 10^^' torr liter/sec, and that even smaller leak rates may be detected by using a more sensitive
is

which A/

in

4.

R. Loevingor and A. Guthrie, in A. Guthrie and R. K. Wakcrling (eds.), Vacuum Equipment and TccliHiques, National Nuclear Enei-gy Series (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1949), pp. 207ff. A. J. Dempster, Phys. Rev. 11, 316 (1918). Locvinger and Guthrie, in op. cit., pp. 212ff. H. A. Thomas, T. W. Williams, and J. A. Hippie, Rev. Sci. Instr. 17, 368
(1946).

5.

D. E. Charpentier, in 195G Vacuum. Symposium, Transactions (Pergamon


Press,

London, 1957),

p. 114.

6.

A. O. C. Nior, Rev.

Sci. Instr. 11,

212 (1940).

108
7.

VACUUM SCIEKCE AND ENGINEERING


A. Hustrulid and A. O. C. Nier, The Mass Spectrometer as a Leak Detector for High Vacuum Systems, University of Minnesota Report A-578, Apr. 5, 1943. A. O. C. Nier, C. M. Stevens, A. Hustrulid, and T. A. Abbott, J. Appl. Phys. 18, 30 (1947). W. G. Worcester and E. G. Doughty, Trans. AIEE 65, 946 (1946). W. D. Davis and T. A. Vanderslice, in 19G0 Vacuum Symposium Transactions

8.

9.

10.

(Pergamon Press, London, 1961),


11. J. L. Peters, in

p. 417.

CHAPTER 5

1959 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press,

12. C. F.

13.

14.
15.

16.

17.

London, 1960), p. 94. Robinson and L. G. Hall, Rev. Sci. Instr. 27, 504 (1956). G. D. Perkins and D. E. Charpentier, in 1957 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1958), p. 125. H. Sommer, H. A. Thomas, and J. A. Hippie, Phys. Rev. 82, 697 (1951). W. R. Watson, R. A. Wallace, and J. Lech, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961), p. 421. D. Charles and R. J. Warnecke, Jr., in 1959 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1960), p. 34. E. H. Nicollian, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press,

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

18.

19.

20. 21.

London, 1961), p. 80. D. Lichtman and A. Hebling, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961), p. 187. R. E. Moody, in 7956' Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Pr(>ss, London, 1957), p. 119. P. A. Redhead, Can. J. Phys. 30, 1 (1952). H. W. Ehlbeck, K. H. Loocherer, J. Ruf, and H. J. Schuotzo, in 19G0 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961), p. 407.

Functions of Mechanical Pumps. Mechanical vacuum variety of functions in vacuum systems. Tiie first requirement is that of removing most of the atmospheric air from the system to some acceptable operating pressure; this operation is sometimes referred to as roughing out the system. The final operating level
5-1.

pumps perform a

as far as the mechanical roughing pump is concerned is in many cases the forepressure required for safe operation of a diffusion pump. The roughing pump must also maintain a satisfactory operating pressure

22.

W. H.

23. G.
24.

Bennett, J. Appl. Phys. 21, 143 (1950). Reich, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions

(Pergamon Press,

25. 26. 27.

London, 1961), p. 396. I. Langmuir and K. H. Kingdon, Science 57, 58 (1923); Phys. Rev. 21, 380 (1923); Proc. Royal Soc. (London) A107, 61 (1925). K. H. Kingdon, Phys. Rev. 23, 774 (1924). W. H. White and J. S. Rickey, Electronics 21, 100 (1948). F. L. Torney, Jr., in 1957 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon
Press,

London, 1958),

p. 115.

28. A.

Guthrie and R. K. Wakerling (eds.). Vacuum Equipment and Techniques, National Nuclear Energy Series (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, Chapter 5 of this book provides an excellent review of leak-detection 1949). instruments and techniques developed by the Manhattan Project during

World War
29.

II.

F. Briggs, A. C. Jones, and J. A. Roberts, in 1958 Vacuum. Symposi^im Transactio7is (Pergamon Press, London, 1959), p. 129. 30. J. W. Ackley, A. E. Barrington, A. B. Francis, R. L. Jepsen, C. F. Lothrop,

W.

and H. Mandoli, in 1962 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1962), p. 380.

whatever gas evolution occurs during the operation these two functions are essentially oil-sealed gas compressors in which the inlet pressure is that of the system and the outlet pressure is that of the atmosphere. Two other types of mechanical pumps which are effective in vacuum systems when backed by a roughing pump as a second stage are the positive displacement mechanical booster pump (sometimes called a blower) and the molecular-drag pump. The function of these latter two types of pumps is to provide high pumping speed at low pressure. 5-2. General Features of Oil-sealed Mechanical Pumps. Any mechanical pump capable of maintaining a high pressure ratio when used as an air compressor may be used as a vacuum roughing pump. Of the many possible types those which are most successful are oil-sealed rotary pumps of positive displacement, i.e., pumps which isolate at each revolution a specific volume of gas at the pressure in the system, compress the sample, and exhaust it to atmospheric pressure. In Fig. 5-1 is shown a cross section of a rotating plunger type of pump in several phases of operation from suction to exhaust. Figure 5-2 illustrates one type of vane pump in which an eccentric cylinder rotates within a hollow, cylindrical casing with a reciprocating vane mounted in the casing and maintained in contact with the eccentric rotor to provide a seal between inlet and outlet ports. Another type of vane pump in which vanes are mounted in a balanced, rotating member is shown in Fig. 5-3. Pumps of all these types are commercially available
in the presence of

of a system.

Pumps which commonly perform

169

170

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS


Discharge valve

171

Inlet port

Rotor

II

II

Seal
I

Fig. 5-2. Vane type of |3ump in which an eccentric cyhnder rotates within a hollow, cylindrical ca.sing with a reciprocating vane mounted in the casing and maintained in contact with the eccentric rotor to provide a seal between inlet

and outlet ports.


in

both single- and double-stage versions.

compound

or double-

stage
(a)
(b)

Kinney

KC pump

is

illustrated in Fig. 5-4.

Two important characteristics to be considered in rating mechanical roughing pumps are the pressure ratio which the pump can maintain between inlet pressure and the exhaust pressure, and the pumping speed with which the pump removes gas while decreasing the pressure from atmospheric pressure down to the limiting pressure of which the pump is capable. As a mechanical pump removes air or other gas from a tight system, the pressure decreases with the time until the pressure reaches the ultimate vacuum of the pump. As long as the system is free of leaks, the ultimate pressure is the atmospheric pressure divided by the compression ratio capability of the pump. As compared with

(c)

Fig. 5-1. Cross section of a rotating-plunger oi- Kinney type of pump beginning of the suction stroke, (6) at an intermediate position, and end of the exhaust stroke.

(a)
(c)

at the
at the

Fig. 5-3. Vane type of pump in which \-anes are mounted in a balanced, rotating member.

Fig. 5-4. Schematic drawing of a compound, or double-stage, Kinney KC

pump.

'

172

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


revolution of the

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

173

ordinary air-compressor performance, the compression ratio required of mechanical vacuum pumps is very high, typically from 10^ to 10'. In the design of pumps to be used for vacuum service great care is exercised to ensure that during each cycle the entire volume of gas which is taken in during the suction stroke is exhausted at the end of the cycle. Any small sample of gas which is not forced through the exhaust valve will be added to the subsequent displacement volume and tend to limit the ultimate pressure of the pump. Single-stage mechanical vacuum pumps are typically capable of maintaining an ultimate pressure of 5 x 10~^ torr partial pressure of air as indicated on a McLeod gauge. This performance represents a compression ratio of over 10^ and in practice can be achieved more effectively by a rotary rather than

This quantity multiplied by the rotational the displacement speed 8j). Mechanical pumps generally are rated in terms of the displacement speed rather than the true pumping speed, which is the displacement speed multiplied by

pump.
is

speed of the

pump

Table

5-1.

Displacement Speeds or Kinney Mechanical Vacuum Pumps

Model no.

Pump

rpin

cfm

liters/min

liters/sec

rc?jhr

Rotary Piston Type, Single Stage

KS-13 KS-27 KS-47

by a

reciprocating compressor.

Because mechanical vacuum pumps must have positive clearances between the operating parts which communicate directly between the exhaust port and the inlet port, a sealing medium is required to prevent leakage through the clearances and ensure the maintenance of a high compression ratio. Because the closely mating parts require lubrication, the most satisfactory sealing medium is lubricating oil of low vapor pressure and high lubricity. In addition to sealing the pump against blow-by from the exhaust into the intake, the proper flow of oil through the pump is essential to ensure lowest attainable ultimate vacuum. When the pressure on the inlet side of the pump is low, the gas admitted to the pump during the early portion of the cycle is compressed into a tiny bubble by the time it reaches the exhaust port. If there is a sufficient flow of oil through the pump, this small bubble of gas is carried out through the exhaust valve with the slug of oil admitted during the cycle. Because the oil in a mechanical vacuum pump serves these two separate functions, the rate of flow and the distribution of Unfortuoil through the pump are important features of the design.
nately, the processes of sealing the clearances in a rotary

KD-30 KD-850

KDH-65 KDH-80 KDH-130 KDH-150 KDH-250


KT-300 KT-500

450 360 360 530 444 440 555 535 630 476 880 796

13 27 47 31

369 765
1,330

6.14
12.7

22.1 45.9

22.2
14.6

80
52.7

850
65 80 131 154

880 24,100
1,840 2,260 3,710 4,360

401
30.6 37.8 61.9

1,445 110.5

136
221.1

72.6

250
301

520

7,090 8,540 14,700

118 142 245

262 425
510.2

885

Rotary Piston Type, Compound

KC-2 KC-3 KC-5 KC-8 KC-15 KC-46 KTC-21

755
1,135

2
3 5 8

57

0.944
1.42

3.4
5.1

630
1,000

525 500
1,725

15

85 142 226 424


1,300

2.36 3.78
7.08 21.7

8.5

13.6

25.3
78.1

46
21.2

600

10

36

Vane Type, Compound

pump, the

entrainment of air in the oil stream, and the final ejection of the slug of oil with entrained gas bubbles are not understood in detail so that the design of mechanical vacuum pumps depends much more upon experimental development than upon analytical procedures. 5-3. Pumping Speed of Oil-sealed Mechanical Pumps. In Sec. 2-2 the pumping speed of a vacuum pump is defined as the volume of gas, measured at the inlet pressure, which the pump removes from the system per unit of time. In the case of positive displacement pumps the pumping speed can be defined as the product of two performance factors, displacement speed and volumetric efficiency. The displacement per revolution of such a pump is a purely geometrical quantity and is the free volume exposed to the inlet port at each

KCV-2 KCV-3 KCV-5 KCV-7

479 646 378 650

2.3 3.2

65.3

1.09
1.51

3.91

4.4 6.8

91 124.2 192

5.44
7.47 11.6

2.04
3.2

the volumetric efficiency, that


various models of

is, Sj,

eSjj.

In Table 5-1 are listed the

vacuum pumps together with their displacement speeds at designated rotational speeds. For convenience the theoretical displacements are given in cubic feet per minute (cfm), liters per minute, cubic meters per hour, and liters per second, all of which units are commonly used in designating the pumping speed of mechanical pumps. (See Appendix IV for conversion factors.)
Kinney rotary
oil-sealed

174

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


of the

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

175

varies from a atmospheric speed at displacement value which is nearly equal to the performance The pump the of pressure to zero at the ultimate pressure curve of a mechanical vacuum pump consists of a graph showing the actual pumping speed as a function of the pressure from atmospheric pressure down to the ultimate pressure of the pump. Such curves can be obtained only by detailed measurement of the pumping speed over many decades in the pressure by methods such as those described in detail in Chap. 7. Air is bled through a needle valve at a constant rate into a small, vacuum-tight vessel connected to the inlet of the pump and the equilibrium pressure read on a McLeod gauge. The flow rate of air at atmospheric pressure is measured by any of several methods,
.

The true pumping speed of mechanical vacuum pumps

pumping speed of the pump but is only an indication of what is pump as a sealing medium. The pumping speed of Kinney oil-sealed mechanical pumps depends upon the inlet pressure in a manner indicated by the graphs in Figs. 5-5 and 5-6, in which the pumping speed is plotted as a function of the permanent gas pressure. It will be noted that, whereas the pumping
put into the
speed of the single-stage pump falls to practically zero just below 10"^ torr, the pumping speed of the compound pump is greater than 50 per

19,824

depending upon the magnitude of the flow at each point. rate is then

The flow

16,992

Q =

760 vol of atmospheric air in


:

time

r^ in

mm

ft'

torr

cim

760 vol of atmospheric air in

liters

torr liters/sec

(5-1)

time in sec

when atmospheric pressure is 760 torr. The reasons for the particular choice
3) for these

of the McLeod gauge (see Chap. measurements are of some interest. One reason is that the McLeod gauge is an absolute gauge for permanent gases, which obey the general gas law PV = RT, and can therefore be calibrated by straightforward measurement of gauge dimensions. The other reason is that the McLeod gauge measures only the permanent gas pressure and does not respond significantly to condensable vapor pressure unless the vapor pressure is much higher than occurs under the conditions here The permanent gas pressure rather than the total pressure described. (permanent gas plus vapor) is also the only logical pressure to use in the method described above. The gas flow which is measured and enters the pump is that of the permanent gas, such as atmospheric air. Therefore the equilibrium partial pressure of the permanent gas determined by this flow is the pressure which should be measured to determine the pumping speed. The vapor pressure present during these measurements is mostly that of the sealing oil used in the pump and has nothing directly to do with the mechanical pumping action being measured. Moreover, the vapor pressure can be varied over a wide range, depending upon whether the oil is vacuum-processed or ordinary
lubricating
oil,

0.001

0.005 0.010

0.050 0.100

0.500

500

1,000

Pressure, torr

Pumping speed of Kinney single-stage oil-sealed mechanical a function of inlet pressure.


Fig. 5-5.

pumps

as

cent of the theoretical displacement at 10~' torr and does not

fall

to

zero until the pressure reaches the range of 1 to 2 x 10^* torr McLeod gauge reading or about 10~* torr on a liquid-nitrogen-trapped ionization

gauge.

pump for permanent gas.

without noticeably affecting the pumping speed of the The vapor pressure is thus not an indication

Equation (2-1) defines the gas flow through a pump as Q = P-m^j,^ which is equivalent to Eq. (2-18) in which the gas flow is defined as the volume flow dVjdt multiplied by the pressure. This quantity is sometimes called the throughput and is the same at all points in a system consisting of pumps and conductances, as long as there are no leaks. The throughput of a pump as a function of the pressure is a useful representation of pump performance for the design of vacuum systems.

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

177

226,4

KCV-7
Displocement;/ cfm (198 liters/mm)
ot

650 rpm
169.8

KCV-5
Displacement
:

at

cfm (142 liters/min) 378 rpm


I

KCV-3 ^ Displacement: 3.2 cfm (91 at 646 rpm

113.2

liters/min)

KCV-2'
Displocement; 2.3 cfm (65 liters/mini
ot

56.2

479 rpm
10 50 100

0.0001

00005

0.001

0.005 0.010

0.050 0.100
Pressure, torr

0500

10

(a)

0.0001 0.0005 0.001 0.005

QOlO

0.050 0.100
Pressure, torr

0.500

50 100

2832

(c)

Fig. 5-6 (continued). Pumping speed of Kinney vacuum pumps as a function of inlet pressure.
2264

compound

oil-sealed

mechanical

169.8

In Fig. 5-7 the throughput for typical single- and double-stage mechanical roughing pumps is shown as a function of the pressure from "blank-off" to atmospheric pressure. The use of throughput curves in vacuum-system design is discussed in Chap. 8.
5-4.

The

Effect

of

Condensable Vapor upon Mechanical

113.2

After the pressure has been reduced to the operating level, a mechanical vacuum pump removes the gas from a vacuum system at a very low pressure and compresses it by a large factor to somewhat above atmospheric pressure during ejection through

Pump

Performance.

56.6

the exhaust valve.

For permanent gases this process entails no serious complications. However, condensable vapors are frequently present. These materials tend to condense during compression and seriously
impair pumping efficiency. The condensable materials of concern in the operation of mechanical vacuum pumps are those which have a vapor pressure which at moderate temperatures is high as compared with, or at least comparable to, the desired total pressure in the system being evacuated, but low Such a material enters the as compared with atmospheric pressure.

0.0001 0.0005 OOOl

O005 QOlO

0.050 0.10
Pressure, torr
(6)

0.500

10

50 100

Fig. 5-6.

pumps

Pumping speed of Kinney as a function of inlet pressure.

compound
176

oil-sealed

mechanical vacuum

(Continued on next page.)

178

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

179

vacuum pump
pression.

as a vapor but condenses inside the pump during comPerformance of the pump is adversely affected in two ways: (1) That portion of the condensed material which is not ejected through the exhaust valve with the slug of sealing oil is added to the gas in the subsequent displacement volume and reexpands, thereby reducing the capacity of the pump for the subsequent stroke; (2) that portion which is carried out in the ejected slug contaminates the sealing oil in the

pressure decreases correspondingly, and the pump capacity occupied by the vapor is even larger. Thus, aside from questions of contami-

10^
10^

^^

10'

10
10'

...,.,_^
pump
10"
"

y ^ y
f^

^ ,^

''

_^^

pumping of condensables such as water disadvantageous because of the extremely low density of the material as it passes through the pump as compared with its much higher density as a liquid or solid in the system. Whereas the condensable material which most persistently causes trouble in mechanical vacuum-pump applications is water, other materials, such as the Freons encountered in the reconditioning of refrigerator units and the various solvents encountered in vacuum processing of many materials, also cause difficulties. Because of the wide range of contaminants encountered in vacuum processes and the wide range of requirements as to desired operating pressure, no one
nation of the
in a

pump

sealant, the
is

vacuum system

solution to the problem of contamination of vacuum-pump sealing oil has been found, but a variety of remedies applicable to specific situations have been developed.

10-2

10-3

>

^ ^^
10

^
-3

y"

/
:/

h 47-cfm single-stage pump


10" 10"
1

1-4 10"

10^

lO""

Inlet pressure, torr

pumps

Fig. 5-7. Throughput for typical single- and double-stage mechanical roughing as a function of the pressure.

The contaminated oil eventually reenters the vacuum pump and further impairs pumping efficiency. In some cases the contamreservoir.

inant also causes sludge formation in the reservoir with the result that the oil does not flow properly and is no longer an effective sealant. In

contaminated by a condensable no very effective cleanup action in the standard operation of the pump, and the contaminated oil must be replaced by fresh oil to restore good pumping efficiency.
case, once the oil is excessively
is

any

material there

An important factor contributing to poor performance of a vacuum system, in which an appreciable quantity of water or other condensable material is present, is the fact that the condensed material expands by a very large factor in evaporating and thus occupies a disproportionpump capacity. As an example, water at 72F expands by a factor of 50,000 in changing from the liquid to the vapor phase, so that 1 lb of water becomes about 800 ft^ of vapor, provided the temperature of the source of vapor is maintained at the initial value. In practice, because of the high latent heat of vaporization, the temperature of the source of vapor drops significantly, the equilibrium vapor
ately large

In connection with the problem of contamination of vacuum-pump oil by condensable materials a word of caution is needed on the Such installation of an exhaust pipeline to carry away the discharge. lines, unless steam or electrically heated, normally provide very large condensing surfaces. If the pump discharge contains water vapor or other condensable material, condensation will occur in the exhaust line. This line should not, therefore, run directly upward from the outlet of the vacuum-pump separator tank because the condensate formed in the line would then drop back into the oil reservoir and recontaminate the sealing oil. An appropriate "drop-out" tank or trap with a drain should be installed beside the separator tank and the exhaust line taken up from the drop-out tank. Any condensate from the line is then caught where it can be drained periodically without The interconnection between getting back into the pump reservoir. the separator tank and the drop-out tank should preferably be heated to eliminate condensation at a point where flow back into the reservoir would be possible. This precaution should be taken on any installation involving an exhaust line, no matter which of the several methods for dealing with condensable contaminants is adopted. 5-5. Gas Ballast. The term gas ballast was applied by Gaede^-* to a method of preventing condensation in mechanical vacuum pumps invented by him and first applied to pumps manufactured by E. Leybold's Nachfolger of Cologne, Germany. The principle of gas ballast is to admit sufficient air into the cylinder during the compression stroke to prevent condensation of any vapor
sealing
*

References indicated by superscript numbers are listed at the end of the

chapter.

180

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

181

In the adaptation of Kinney pumps for gas ballast a through the head at the end of the cylinder in such a position relative to the eccentric cam that the hole is uncovered only during a portion of the compression stroke when the body of air being compressed in preparation for ejection is sealed off from the intake by the position of the piston. A valve is provided, which controls the
being pumped.
is

hole

drilled

temperature of the vacuum system is 68F (20C), the exhaust temperature is 140F (60C) and dry air is admitted as gas ballast at a flow rate equal to a fraction / of the displacement speed >S^, then from the general gas law (1-9)

where T^
Outlet

T^
Gas-bollast
line

= 273 = 273

20
60

= =

293 abs 333 abs

fSi,

X 760

needleodjustment
valve

293
F.,

_ ~

Fex

X 900
(5-2)

333

333^93

X 76^00 XfSjj

0.96 /<S^

(5-3)

Gas-ballast
air inlet

For the above example the exhaust volume V^^ must be no less than (l/15)Sjr where Sj) is the initial volume per unit of time of the body of vapor being pumped. Thus

Fex=^'S^ =
Admission of gas ballast

0.96/^^

(5-4)

Compression
harge to atmosphere

so that

0.069
(15)(0.96)

(5-5)

180

360
ot rotation

540
-

720

Amount

Functional Piston Performance


vs

Amount

of

Rotation
is

This means that for the assumptions in the above example the gasdry air flow must be about 6.9 per cent of the displacement of the pump in order to prevent condensation when water vapor at 10 torr
ballast

Fig. 5-8. Gas ballast arrangement

shown schematically.

vapor pressure

pump through the hole from zero up to about 10 per cent of the displacement of the pump. The arrangement is shown schematically in Fig. 5-8. Under conditions of gas-ballast flow the exhaust temperature, taken
flow of atmospheric air entering the

is being pumped. The ultimate pressure of a single-stage mechanical vacuum pump is impaired by the introduction of gas-ballast air because the average gas pressure across the seals between intake and exhaust is greatly in-

creased with a corresponding increase in internal leakage past the seals. The curve shown in Fig. 5-9 illustrates the performance of a gasballasted

Kinney KDH-130 vacuum pump.

From

these

tests

it

conveniently as the temperature of the sealing oil in the vicinity of the exhaust valve, may, for example, be 140F (60C), at which temperature the vapor pressure of water is 150 torr. Thus in order to prevent condensation when pumping water at a vapor pressure of 10 torr, the

appears that a single-stage, duplex Kinney pump will blank off" at approximately 1.0 torr with a full gas-ballast flow and 5 x 10-=* torr with gas ballast turned off".

body of vapor cannot be compressed

of about 15/1 bled into the cylinder during the compression stroke to prevent the volume of gas mixture during e:khaust from being less than 1/15 that of

volume by more than a factor without causing condensation. Sufficient air must be
in

Gas ballast is even more attractive for two-stage mechanical vacuum pumps. To prevent condensation in the sealing oil, only the second or
backing stage requires gas ballasting.
of

In the case of the older models


stages are of equal displacement,
in the interstage

Kinney compound pumps the two


is

so that there

no danger of condensation
full

volume.
3
:

the displacement. 2 The exhaust pressure is about 900 torr, determined by atmospheric pressure plus the load of the valve spring. If the

The newer models of Kinney compound pumps, however, have a


displacement ratio so that during

gas-ballast operation of the second

182

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

183

120

.^
100 6 sb alia St
off

V
7 f/
/

/
1

.*-'

/
/

80
60

/
40
20
/

/
1

L 1z% ^"
gas ballast

^
t
/

5%gc s

bollos

/
0,001
0.01

-f 1.
0.1

r
1

10

100

Pressure, tcrr

Fig. 5-9. Performance curves for a gas-ballasted Kinney pump with zero, 2 per cent, and 5 per cent gas-ballast flow.

KDH-130 vacuum

some interstage condensation is possible during the early phase of pumping down a system which has been exposed to humid atmosstage,

pheric pressure.

Since the ultimate pressure at the intake of such a pump is not sensitively dependent upon the interstage pressure, the interstage pressure can be raised considerably by gas-ballast air injection into the second stage without seriously impairing the ultimate
typical gas-ballasted Kinney KC-15 pump pressure at the intake. blanks off at 2 x lO^^ torr with the gas-ballast valve open. In Fig. 5-10 are shown the performance curves for a KC-15 Kinney vacuum pump with zero and full gas-ballast flow (10 per cent of the displacement

A problem of some concern in the application of gas ballast is the water content of the injected air. Although dry air is obviously preferred, in most cases it is inconvenient or impractical to use anything but regular atmospheric air. Consider a gas-ballast flow of 10 per cent displacement with air at 78F and 80 per cent relative humidity. Since saturation water vapor pressure at 78F is 24 torr, the water vapor partial pressure is about 20 torr in the gas-ballast air. The water vapor injected into the pump with 10 per cent gas-ballast flow of humid air is thus equal to that which would be pumped at an inlet vapor pressure of about 2 torr. Since a dry air gas-ballast flow of 10 per cent would normally permit pumping water vapor at 10 torr, the use of air at 78F and 80 per cent relative humidity would limit satisfactory operation to 8 torr water vapor pressure, about a 20 per cent reduction in the amount of water vapor which the pump can handle without condensation in the sealing oil. For the worst conditions of temperature and humidity likely to be encountered, the capacity of a gas-ballasted pump for water vapor should not be decreased to less than about 3^ of its capacity with dry gas-ballast air. A single-stage mechanical pump with adequate gasballast flow performs with good pumping efficiency with water vapor inlet pressure in the range 5 to 20 torr. However, the pumping efficiency of a single-stage pump with adequate gas-ballast flow is poor at pressures below 5 torr. For operation with gas ballast in the range 0.02 to 5 torr a compound pump is required for satisfactory pumping
efficiency.

speed).

vacuum pumps make somewhat more noise when the near the ultimate attainable by the pump. The hydraulic noise due to action of the exhaust valves can be eliminated by opening the gas-ballast valve slightly without impairing the inlet pressure to the
All mechanical
is

pressure

~1
16
14

pump
5-6.

significantly.

Gas ballast off\^


12
s

--'

10

/ / /
_} ?7
/gas
t

/X
'

^
(

"/
/[

?*

Other Methods of Preventing Contamination by ConAlthough gas ballasting is a satisfactory method of preventing contamination of vacuum-pump sealing oil by condensables in many applications, other methods are more effective in some applications. One disadvantage of gas ballast is the impairment in pump performance, especially in the case of single-stage vacuum
densables.

/
/

-10%
gas ballast

pumps.

ballast

/
0.0001
0.00)

1
0.01
0.1

Pressure, torr

Fig. 5-10. Performance curves for a KC-15 Kinney 2 per cent, and 10 per cent gas-ballast flow.

vacuum pump with

zero,

Furthermore, gas ballast is particularly applicable to batch operations in which condensables are pumped for only a brief period followed by a period of relatively vapor-free operation during which the pump can rid itself of contamination. However, for continuous pumping of saturated vapor, such as water, and in very large installations other methods, some of which are briefly described below, are more
effective.

184

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINBEKING

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

185

of the most obvious methods of preventing concondensable material in any system is to maintain of a densation so high that the saturation vapor temperature the system a throughout

Hot Pump.

One

pressure is in excess of the maximum gas pressure. Since the pressure at the discharge of a mechanical vacuum pump is typically about 900 torr, a temperature throughout the pump and separator tank of 230F (110C) is normally sufficient to prevent condensation of water

vapor.

pump

temperature water vapor should pass through the were a permanent gas. Kinney has developed a hot-pump installation and has applied it The hot pump is successfully in a number of large installations. particularly applicable to large installations involving very long running

At

this

Chap. 8 the use of refrigerated traps in this connection is discussed in some detail. When systems of very large volume must occasionally be let down to atmospheric pressure, the vapor load on condensers and traps can frequently be greatly reduced by drying the air bled into the system. Such a precaution can in some installations save hours of outgassing time in restoring the system to operating pressure after each letdown to atmospheric pressure. As can be seen from Fig. 5-6, 5-7. Mechanical Booster Pumps.

as

if it

periods and saturated water vapor, such as large freeze-drying and vacuum-cooling installations and water deaeration, and for maintaining

vacuum in power-plant condensers. The hot-pump installation should

consist of a lagged

pump and

compound vacuum pumps consisting of two conventional, oil-sealed pumping units connected in series are generally capable of maintaining good pumping efficiencies down to pressures of the order of 10"^' torr and of maintaining limiting pressures of 10~^ torr or lower. However, in such a two-stage vacuum pump the compression ratio maintained by the first or high- vacuum stage is very low. Thus the useful work done by the first-stage unit in pumping the low-pressure gas is very small indeed, whereas the power required for operation is large because of
In spite of doing little useful work, the viscous drag of the sealing oil. a conventional, mechanical oil-sealed pump as a high-vacuum stage is limited to operating at low rotational speeds in part because of the viscous drag of the sealing oil and in part because of mechanical
limitations.

separator tank with thermostatic control at 230 to 235F connected to a drop-out tank, as previously described. An oil of higher viscosity must be used in place of the standard sealing oil so that the viscosity at the elevated running temperature will be in the correct range to seal the

pump

effectively.

In some installations a method of Air Stripping. consisting of blowing dry air into the discharge pipe between the exhaust valve and the separator tank has proved to be effective in

Knox Method

preventing contamination. This method was devised by F. A. Knox' at Oak Ridge during World War II and applied to large Kinney pumps The method has been independently discovered by in the Y-12 plant. others, particularly for application to small single-stage pumps where the Freons are troublesome sealing-oil contaminants. One advantage of the Knox method over gas ballast is that gas is not introduced into the pump interior so that the ultimate pressure capability of the pump For optimum effectiveness the air stream should be is not impaired.
injected just above the exhaust valve assembly.
Oil Purifier Systems. large mechanical

The net pumping action of a mechanical pump may be considered as pumping speed or displacement speed minus the rate at which gas migrates back through the pump because of internal leakage If the forward pumping speed is large as compared or other causes.
the theoretical

In many large installations involving several vacuum pumps, such as cable vacuum impregnation

and purification systems has proved to be advantageous. Oil from the discharge of all the pumps is pumped through a purification system and thence into a reservoir for purified
plants, the use of oil circulating
oil.

reservoir, rather

oil for all the pumps is supplied directly from this than from the separator tanks on the pumps. Condensers and Vapor Traps. In some installations, particularly for high-vacuum systems, it is preferable to prevent condensable In materials from passing through the mechanical vacuum pumps.

The

sealing

with the reverse migration, then the volumetric efficiency will be high even with a high pressure ratio between outlet and inlet, and the compression ratio which the pump can maintain at zero fiow (no fiow into the inlet) will be large. For operation at or near atmospheric pressure positive displacement gas compressors of a variety of different types are used successfully without the use of a sealing oil. Such pumps are built with wellbalanced interleaving rotors and definite clearances between the moving parts so that operation at high rotational speeds is common practice. Thus compressors or blowers of this type have high displacement speed for relatively modest dimensions. In normal use, however, the pressure ratio against which compressors of this type are required to pump is small. The loss in pumping speed with increasing pressure ratio, moreover, is very rapid even in the case of axial flow compressors, which are designed specifically to extend the range of operation into
the region of higher compression ratios. To adopt an unsealed, positive displacement compressor for use as a

vacuum pump would seem

at first thought unpromising since

good

186

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEEING


efficiency

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

187

with a high pressure ratio is a normal requirement service. However, the hmitation on the attainable comfor vacuum displacement blowers is the reverse flow ratio for positive pression difference maintained by the pump. due to the pressure slip called

pumping

In any multistage vacuum pumping system the throughput determines the pressure at the inlet of each successive stage in accordance with the continuity equation (2-1) of Chap. 2, which for our present purpose we shall write as

This reverse-flow rate is given by the pressure difference across the pump multiplied by the average conductance of the clearance slots between the internal parts of the blower. As we have seen, gas conductance is proportional to the pressure in the viscous-flow range and at reduced pressure finally reaches the comparatively low value char-

Q
where

^nPn

const

(5-6)

Q =
S^

gas throughput

= =

pumping speed of any of


in series

several stages of

pumps arranged

The effectiveness of the positive disacteristic of molecular flow. placement type of blower in terms of maintaining a high compression ratio should therefore improve as the outlet pressure is decreased until
the transition pressure range, discussed in Sec. 2-6, is reached. Below the transition pressure the conductance through the clearance slots in the pump is constant, and the compression ratio of the pump should As the first-stage unit of a twotherefore be expected to remain high. stage vacuum pumping system, a positive displacement blower does
therefore have considerable potentiality.
5-8. Analysis of Mechanical Booster-pump Performance. The pumping speed of a typical single-stage, oil-sealed vacuum pump

P
This
is,

resulting inlet pressure

in general, true for

permanent gas flow


all

as long as the gas

enters the first-stage unit goes through

stages in series

additional gas
stages.

is

admitted, as for example by a leak,

which and no between the

Then, in a two-stage pumping system the compression ratio


first-stage

which the

pump

sustains

is

(5-7)

Pi
Thus,
if

S9.

the first-stage

begins to decrease appreciably as the inlet pressure

falls

below

torr.

sion ratio, the second-stage

pump is capable of sustaining a high comprespump may have a correspondingly small

At 5 X

pressure the mean free path for air [see Eq. (2-57)] is 10~3 cm Thus for mechanical clearances of several 2 X 10-3 j^. thousandths of an inch, which are tjrpically maintained in positive
this

pumping speed, resulting in an overall economy in the size and cost of the two -stage system. The net forward pumping speed of a positive displacement booster

^^^

Pi

^^^

displacement blowers, the maximum compression ratio is attained ^.gll within the range for good performance of a single-stage backing

pump may

be stated as
Oj

Si

Q
S,-

(5-8)

Pi

where

Sj)

= =

displacement speed
flow of gas into the
loss in

pump.

An example

of the type of

pump

Q =
S^

pump

at inlet pressure

P^

pumping speed due

to internal leakage

backward

which can be designed and constructed to meet these requirements


is

When

through the pump there is no flow into the

pump

inlet, i.e.,

that

commonly

when Q

0,

the

referred to as a

inlet pressure reaches

Roots blower, as illustrated in Fig. 5-11. Because of the high rotational speed at which pumps of this type can be operated, very large displacement speeds can be obtained
Fig. 5-11. Schematic cross section of a mechanical booster pump. [Taken with permission from C. M. Van Atta,
in 1956

the limiting value determined by the internal leakage parameter and the interstage pressure, i.e., the pressure Pj maintained at the discharge by a backing pump. Under these conditions of zero net flow the forward
Sjj is

pumping capacity of the pump


S,-

completely balanced

Sr

(5-9)

dimensions. The operation of such a pump has


in

relatively

small

by the
1.

internal leakage,

which

is

due to two causes

Vacuum Symposium Trans(Pergamon Press,


London,

actions
1957).]

been analyzed in some detail by Van Atta and Sylvester,* Van Atta,^ Ziock,'' and Winzenburger.'

pressure difference (P2

The flow back through the clearances of the pump due to the Pi) maintained by the pumping action. This

188

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


since

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

189

properly be referred to as the pump slippage, as a result of which an amount of gas (5-10) Q, = (P, - Po)C,

may

now

the inlet pressure

is

Pj instead of Pj.

By

combining this

result with

Eq.

(5-6)

we have
P.Sr,

Q = P^S, =
where S2
is

Q,

P,S,

(5-16)

back into the inlet side of the pump from the discharge side through the clearances. Here P^ respresents the inlet pressure under conditions of zero flow and C^ is the conductance through the clearances in the pump mechanism. 2. The reverse pumping action due to the existence in the pump mechanism of small pockets of gas which get trapped and carried back from the discharge port to the inlet port. If S^ is the volume per unit of time of gas at discharge pressure which is thus carried back, the amount of gas due to this cause which must be again pumped out is
leaks

pressure Pj.

the speed of the backing pump which maintains the foreSince P^ is now the inlet pressure, by analogy with
Qi __ 2
"1

Eq. (6-13) we have

JL.

^V

(5-17)

so that (5-16)

becomes

PiSn
from which

{P2

Pi)Os
s,

c,

PA = P,S,
+
s^

(5-18)

Qr

Pj'S'r

(5-11)

P,

+
is

(5-19)

The combined effect of these two mechanisms accounts for the entire pumping speed. Thus the quantity of gas which flows back from the discharge to the inlet because of these two internal processes
loss of
is

The pumping speed

at pressure

P^

then

S,
Qi

(5-20)

^Qs +

Qr

(5-12)

from which

From Eqs.

(5-9)

through (5-12) the


is

loss in

pumping speed due

to this

pump

internal leakage
o ^i

it appears that the pumping speed of the mechanical booster a magnification of that of the backing pump. Moreover, since from Eqs. (5-14) and (5-19)

is

^D =-B-^

Qi

= Qs+Qr 5
-^

p
-^0

p
(5-13)
*

Pi
Sj,

(So

C,

'

K
is

(5-21)

so that the compression ratio

K
Po

maintained under conditions of zero


Sj)
C',

flow

is

K=

+ +

the pumping speed of the first-stage compression ratio in accordance with

pump
1

related to its zero-flow

C,
(5-14)

S^

S^

Sj,

(5-22)

c.

In order for the compression ratio to be high, the two quantities in the denominator must be small, i.e., both the gas conductance C^ through the clearances of the pump and the reverse pumping speed S^ must be
small.

pression ratio,

The above discussion applies to the compressive action of the pump against the forepresssure when no net gas flows into the intake. Now consider the result of admitting a gas flow Q, as in Eq. (5-8), which by reference to Eq. (5-13) becomes
S,
a Qi
(5-15)

obtained from Eqs. (5-20) and (5-21). Thus if K, the zero-flow comis very large and therefore both 0^ and S^ are very small, the pumping speed S-^ is nearly equal to the displacement speed Sj). By a similar analysis Winzenburger' arrives at an expression slightly
different

from

(5-21) for the pressure ratio,

namely

Pi

= T^ + K SD

S.

by

Px

considering the reverse flow through the clearances to be of the nature of gas flow through a nozzle in which the pressure ratio exceeds

190

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


critical value.

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS


in

191

the

For

this case the

mass flow
PiS,

is

given by

which the
is

first

term becomes negligible as compared with the second


Since 61/62
is

cAP, T^^

when Pav

sufficiently large.

a quantity somewhat
(2-37)

less

RT^

than unity as has been shown for the case of a tube in Eq. (5-25) can be written in the form

and

(2-38),

This assumption appears to be valid for P^ > Pc defined in (5-30), i.e., in the region of viscous flow, in which (5-21) reduces to a simflar exHowever, for P^ < P^ the pression to that given by Winzenburger. and an expression of the molecular, flow through the clearance slots is form given in (5-21) is then valid. In the foregoing discussion the conductance through the clearances of the pump G, and the reverse pumping speed 8^ due to imperfections in the rotor contours have been tacitly treated as constants independent
of the pressure. This is true only for limited ranges of the pressure. In Sec. 2-6, the Knudsen formula for the conductance of a tube of circular cross section in the transition pressure region is discussed. By analogy with Eq. (2-39) the conductance of a slot of long, narrow
cross section in the transition pressure region
is

C where
in

Co

C,(^P..

62

^) 61 Co
62

-1

av

^
4

(5-26)

(5-27)

Ci

of the form

which the constant 4 is arbitrary so far as the consistency in this is concerned but is chosen to conform with the definition of the An approximation to the transition pressure P^ discussed in Sec. 2-6. conductance of a tube to replace the more exact expression given in (2-43) leads to an expression like (5-26) in which the transition pressure Equation (5-26) approximates the true is that given in (2-55). conductance (5-23), which has the same general form as Eq. (2-43), shown graphically in Fig. 2-3 by two straight lines, a horizontal
step

C =
in

&lPa

C,P^

(5-23)

KP: 2-* av

by (5-24) for Pav Pt/4 extending the molecularfiow value up to the transition pressure and a straight line proportional P/4. to the pressure for the viscous-flow region for Pav
straight line given

<

>

the average pressure through the slot, Co is the low pressure or molecular-flow conductance of the slot similar to that given in (2- 102), 6^ and 62 are constants similar to k^ and Ajj used in (2-39), and Ci is a constant which replaces the constant TrD*ll28rjL of (2-39)

which Pav

is

Since
is

by

definition the average pressure

through the clearance

slot

Pav

^^^
approx

(5-28)

The clearance slot, the conductance of which we wish to represent in general form, is one for which the width is a minimum at the line of near contact between the rotors or between rotor and cylinder and increases with the contour of the parts on either This slot can be represented by one side of this minimum clearance. of a uniform width equal to the minimum clearance and of a length in the direction of flow, which depends on the details of the geometry. The conductance is in any case given by an expression of the general form of (5-23), although the exact values of the constants Cq and C^ which depend upon the geometry must be determined empirically. Note that for very small values of the pressure Eq. (5-23) reduces to
in the case of a slot.

then if the operating conditions are such that Pj is very small as compared with P2 the former may be neglected in (5-28) so that

-t

Pav

^r^

(5-29)

and Eq.

(5-26)

becomes

C.

~r

-^ (P2

p.>4'

(5-30)

C =

1
'

in
(5-24)

which P^

Pj/2 will be called the critical pressure.

Co

Pav

"<

-^av "^ 7~

Several rather gross approximations are made in the transition from the exact expression (5-23) for the conductance through a slot to the

and that for large values of the pressure mate expression

(5-23) reduces to the approxi-

Co

CjPa
61

(5-25)
62

combination of Eq. (5-24) for Pg < P(/2 and Eq. (5-30) for P2 > Pf/2. For an analysis of the performance of a mechanical booster type of vacuum pump, however, these approximations lead to a sufficiently accurate representation of the conductance through the clearances

192
since in practice

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Pj
(the interstage pressure)

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

193

is 10 or more times P^ of interest. range (the inlet pressure) over most of the pressure narrow slot for air at low low-pressure The conductance of a long, pressure is given by Eq. (2-102) of Chap. 2. For our present purposes

when the interstage pressure Pg = P(/2 = P^, at which pressure the mean free path is twice as long as it is at the pressure P^. Thus at
the value of the pressure Pa at which the sharp break appears in the approximate conductance curve

we

write this equation in the following form

d
(5-31)

62,

^2

C,
in

Pc
free

(5-35)

For

air at

20C we have from (2-57) for the mean


A

path
(5-36)

which the constant k depends upon the units used. The clearance between the rotors of a Roots type of compressor, however, is not of uniform width for a clearly defined depth z, but is defined by curved surfaces. Nevertheless it can be seen that the low-pressure conductance of such slots will have the form
Co

= -'
in. is

where
torr.
is

/Ij

x 10-^ cm

x 10~^

the

mean

free

path at

P =

Thus at the

critical

pressure P^ the width of the clearance slot

related to the corresponding

mean
or

free

path as follows

k^d^

(5-32)

where d is the root mean square of the mechanical clearance between the rotors or between each rotor and the cylinder wall, and fcj is in part a geometrical constant averaged over all orientations of the rotors. What is of main significance is that the low-pressure conductance
varies as the square of the radial clearance d.

=^ d
vacuum

(5-37)

in

it

is the average rotor clearance. the above discussion of the conductance of gas through slots can be seen that the conductance through the mechanical clearances

which d

From

high values of the pressure the conductance through a slot is proportional to the pressure. Also in the case of a slot the conductance at high pressure is proportional to the cube of the slot width. Thus it is clear that in Eq. (5-30) as applied to the conductance through the radial clearances of the pump, Cj must be of the form
(5-30), for sufficiently

As can be seen from Eq.

of a positive displacement type of compressor used as a

booster
fol-

pump may

be represented with reasonable approximation by the lowing expressions, each applied to its proper pressure range
C,
k^d^
for

P,

<

6Ai

(5-38)

Ci
in

fc^rf*

(5-33)

and

C^

k^d^

k^d^

which k^ is in part a geometrical constant. Note that in the above discussion no mention is made of conductance through the clearances at the ends of the rotors. The reason for this omission is that the flow path \z in Eq. (5-31)] for the end clearances is very long between flat surfaces. Thus for very adequate end clearances this conductance is negligible as compared with that through
the radial clearances.

(--^)

for

P,

>

'-^

(5-39)

The general form of the pumping speed 8^ of the mechanical booster

pump
The

The transition pressure Pj has been related to the mean free path arid diameter in the case of gas flowing through a tube. In Eq. (2-56) it is seen that at the transition pressure the diameter of the tube D is about 11 times the mean free path 1< of the gas molecules. Approximately this same factor applies to a slot in which case the width of the slot d at the transition pressure is
d

12L

approx

(5-34)

The sharp knee

in the

approximate conductance curve in (5-30) occurs

now be seen from Eq. (5-20). independent of the pressure until the interstage pressure reaches the transition value and then increases linearly with the pressure above this value, as given in Eqs. (5-38) and (5-39), is of fundamental importance. When the gas flow Q is zero and the interstage pressure is at the limiting pressure of the backing pump, that is, 82 = 0, the pumping speed 8-^ of the booster pump will also be zero. At this point the limiting value Pq of the inlet pressure will be determined by the zero-flow compression ratio as in Eq. (5-14). The pumping speed will then rise rapidly as the gas flow and pressure increase, primarily because the pumping speed of the backing pump is increasing. When the pumping speed of the backing pump reaches its normal plateau value at an interstage pressure of about 0.1 torr, the pumping speed of the booster pump will also reach a plateau value.
as a function of the pressure can
is

fact that C^

T
194

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


is

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

195

As the pressure
will

further increased this plateau value of the

pumping

then be maintained until the interstage pressure reaches the speed 5' P^, which in practical cases may be in the range 1 to value critical Above this point the pumping speed is expected to decrease with torr. increasing pressure, primarily because C the internal leakage through the clearances, is increasing rapidly with the pressure. Thus one expects a very broad pumping-speed curve which rises from zero at the ultimate pressure to a flat plateau value and then decreases as the
interstage pressure

the preceding test and Eq. (5-14) amounts to a determination of the parameter S^. In addition, the value of the interstage pressure at which begins to decrease as the pressure increases is identified as

the critical pressure P^.

f I

14
h-i
.,

70

12

^~60 Q_

increased beyond the critical pressure. If the zero-flow compression ratio given in Eq. (5-14) is high as compared with the staging ratio between the displacement of the booster and its backing pump, the plateau pumping speed should be very nearly equal to the
is

^"110

--J

-/

50
''

r"
.

._.. ._..

Hj /[
Average
=

1.J

^
<L>

30
20
10
10"'
10"^
10"'

8.0 cfm

pumping speed

by the staging ratio. 5-9. Computed Performance Curves for Mechanical Booster Pumps. By; choosing reasonable values for the parameters C^ and function 8^ and knowing the pumping speed of the backing pump as a
of the backing

pump

multiplied

"

I O

45

90

135

180 225 270 315 360

10

100

Angular position of rotors, deg

Interstage pressure, torr

of the pressure, the performance curve of a positive displacement compressor used as a mechanical booster pump can be computed point by point from Eq. (5-20). The performance of the first experimental

Fig. 5-12. Curve for obtaining experimental value of conductance through pump clearances. [Taken with permission from C. M. Van Atta, in 19S6

Fig.
for

Compression -ratio curve mechanical booster pump. [Taken with permission from C. M. Van Atta, in 19S6 Vacuum, Sym,5-13.

mechanical booster pump was predicted in this manner and was later confirmed in its general features by pumping speed measurements. However, for a more accurate test of the theory and a better understanding of mechanical booster-pump performance subsequent calculations of pumping-speed curves have utilized the results of two preliminary tests designed to measure directly the parameters C,

Vacuum

Symposium

Transactions
1957).]

(Pergamon Press, London,

Press,

Transactions posium London, 1957).]

(Pergamon

The significant dimensions of the positive displacement type of mechanical booster pump, on which extensive calculations and tests were carried out, were as follows
Cylinder length: 16 Cylinder bore 9-M
:

in.

and K:
1.

in.
:

With the pump

rotors at rest but set in turn at equally spaced

positions throughout a complete revolution, the conductance through the clearances of the pump was determined by admitting a measured flow of air into the inlet with the forepump in operation and measuring the pressure at the inlet P^ and that at the interstage P^. By appli-

Radial clearances, d 0.008 in. average Displacement speed at 1,740 rpm, Sj^: 1,230 cfm Displacement speed of backing pump: 130 cfm

cation of the conductance formula

Q =

C,{P,

P,)

to these observations for a small gas-flow rate and averaging these results, the low-pressure value Co of the conductance C, through the

clearances
2.

in operation but without any flow into the was varied from the limiting pressure of the backing pump up to several torr, and the pressures at the inlet and interstage were measured. The ratio of these pressure readings, K = P2IP1, is the zero-flow compression ratio, which combined with C^ from
inlet the forepressure

was determined. With the booster pump

measurements on the conductance through the clearances as described in the first of the two preliminary tests outlined above are given in Fig. 5-12. From these measurements the average value of Co = 8 cfm. The dependence of the compression ratio on the Although these latter results interstage pressure is shown in Fig. 5-13. show an unanticipated droop in the compression ratio at the lower limit of the pressure range, an average value for the low-pressure range is taken to be ii' = 50. These values of Co and K substituted into Eq.

The

results of the

(5-14) yield S^

16.8 cfm.

results of the second test also yield a value for the critical pressure. Since begins to decrease sharply at an interstage pres-

The

sure of 1.5 torr, P^

1.5 torr, consistent

with a rotor clearance of

0.008

in.

196

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

197

The remaining undetermined constant is C^ appearing in Eq. (5-30). The value of this constant has been arrived at by trial-and-error fitting of the high-pressure end of the experimental performance curve. The value chosen by this procedure is Ci = 2.8 cfm/torr.

experimental performance curve of the 130-cfm backing pump used. Dotted lines connect points on the booster-pump performance curve with those on the backing-pump curve from which they were computed.

The staging
repetition

ratio for the standard


1.

combination

is

1,230 to 130, or

From

these results

we have

for

Eq. (5-30)

very nearly 10 to

C,

8.0

1.4(P2

The curve plotted in Fig. 5-15 as Case I is a of the computed performance curve shown in Fig. 5-14.

1.5)

cfm

1,200

Mechanical booster pumf

1,000

\,

r
'i"
\
\ \

wn
\ \

\
\ \ \

;;'K
I

800

>
1 \
\

/ \'
600

>

\ \ \ \

\ \

I
Q.

/.
\

^
\

\
\

\ V \
1

f:
\

\
\

V
*

400

\
I

\\
\

>

\\
1 .

\
\ \

\ V

200

/
S

\
\

s.
10"

;^

^^

-^

^
10-

1 ^Backing pump
',J
1

_i..l

10-"

10"

10"

10

100

McLeod gauge pressure,

torr

Fig. 5-14. Pumping-speed curve for a mechanical booster pump. [Taken with permission from C. M. Van Atta, in 1956 Vacuum Symposium Transactions

Pressure

(McLeod

(Pergamon

Press,

London,

1957).]

With the numerical values of the above constants measured or assumed and the pumping speed 8^ of the backing pump as a function of the interstage pressure Pg known from previous measurements, the

pump performance upon the permission from C. M. Van

Fig. 5-15. Pumping-speed curves showing dependence of mechanical boosterdisplacement of the backing pump. [Taken with Atta, in 1956 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1957).]

pumping speed S^

of the booster

pump as a function of the inlet pressure


(5-20).

Case II of Fig. 5-15

is

a similarly calculated performance curve

illus-

Pj can be calculated using Eq.


8i

Thus we have
1.5 torr

trating the expected effect on booster-pump performance of doubling the staging ratio, i.e., decreasing the displacement of the backing pump

-;;;

8^

S, TT^ 24.8

for

Pj

<

1,238

1.4(P2

1.5)

8^

24.8

1.4(P2

8,.

for

P,

>

1.5 torr

1.5)
is

by a factor of 2 from 130 to 65 cfm. For simplicity it is assumed that the pumping speed of the smaller backing pump would be just half that of the measured value for the standard backing pump at each value of the pressure.
Conversely, the performance curve
illustrates the

The corresponding value

of the inlet pressure

shown

as Case III in Fig. 5-15

^2

Pi
8,

The calculated performance curve for the standard combination of parameters given above is shown in Fig. 5-14 together with a typical

on the booster-pump performance of decreasing the staging ratio by a factor of 2, that is, by increasing the displacement of the backing pump from 130 to 260 cfm. Figure 5-16 illustrates the effect of radial clearances on the performance of the mechanical booster pump. The calculated performance
effect

expected

198

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

199

.,,

"*

..

1,000

/:^
800
1

y' "
,.

\^
s

^^
'

CoseE

/
/

Case

600

/
1

/
Cose
Rotor
(

\,
s
'''

mechanical booster pump of 1,234-cfm displacement speed backed by a roughing pump of 130-cfm displacement speed is shown in Fig. 5-17. The shaded area where the two curves join represents the changeover from the booster-pump operation to the booster bypass. 5-10. Measured Performance Curves for Mechanical Booster Pumps. The pumping speed at any point in a multistage system may be defined in accordance with Eq. (5-6) as
*s

\
Q_

//
400

//
1
i

IJ
[

0.008 0.004
0.01 6

in. in. in.


= =
1

Case!

\,
30cf I 230cfm

P.

200

Ro cking-pump displacement Bo oster-pumpdisplocement

'.
\

in

which Q

is

the system, and

the throughput admitted as a steady flow at the inlet to P is the resulting pressure at the point of interest.
definition of pumping speed
is

n
10"^
10"'
10"-'

However,
10"^
10

if this

to bear

any

relation-

100

ship to the analysis of the

pumping action given

in the previous

Pressure (Mc Leodl, torr

sections, the significant pressure at

each point in the system where

Fig. 5-16. Pumping-speed curves showing the effect of radial clearances on the performance of the mechanical booster pump. [Taken with permission from C. M. Van Atta, in 195(i Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press,

London,

1957).]

curve for Case I with standard clearances of 0.008 in. is shown for comparison with similar curves calculated for radial clearances of 0.004 Note that for this latter case in. (Case IV) and of 0.016 in. (Case V). curve falls off pumping-speed the and the plateau has disappeared that at the peak. below and pressure above rapidly for values of the of a consisting combination typical a The throughput curve for

pumping speed is to be measured is that due to the gas admitted at the inlet. Under the usual conditions of test, the pressure of permanent gas in the system is due to air and the remaining pressure is due to condensable materials originating, for example, in the backing pump. Since a McLeod gauge measures the pressure due to the permanent gas and is very little affected by the vapor pressure present under these circumstances, the pressures used for pumping speed measurements are McLeod gauge readings. The role of condensable materials backstreaming from the backing pump is a separate matter and will be
the
discussed later.

10

,10'
^
10*

^^--'

-^ 'i^ T
,-<<^

10

jio^
10'

,^ ^ y^
0.010

s o

Backing

pump-KOH-130
10*

10^

0.001

0.001

0.100

1.0

10 15

100

1,000

Inlet pressure, torr

Experimental results for the pumping speed of a 1 ,230-cfm mechanical pump backed by a 130-cfm forepump are shown in circles in Fig. 5-14. These results compare favorably with the calculated pumping-speed curve for which the basic parameters are in good agreement. Experimental pumping-speed results are also shown as circles in Fig. 5-15 for the 1,230-cfm booster pump backed by a 220-cfm forepump. These results should correspond fairly closely with the calculated curve designated as Case III of Fig. 5-15, although the backing speed is not quite as high as that assumed for the calculated curve. Comparison between the experimental and calculated pumping speeds shown in Fig. 5-15 indicates that the theory developed for the operation of a positive displacement rotary compressor as a vacuum booster pump is approximately correct. However, examination of the experimental results reveals minor deviations in behavior from that
booster
predicted.

Fig. 5-17. Throughput curve for a typical combination consisting of a mechanical booster pump of 1,234 cfm displacement speed backed by a roughing pump of 130 cfm displacement.

ance

The greatest and most fundamental deviation from expected performis exhibited by the zero-flow compression ratio. From Eq. (5-14)

'

200
it is

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


generally are
in the

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

201

apparent that the compression ratio should be independent of the pressure from the lowest attainable pressure up to the point where the interstage pressure equals the critical value. Above this point the slippage conductance G^ through the rotor clearance is no longer constant, but increases linearly with the pressure. Measurements, as shown in Fig. 5-13, show that the compression ratio decreases as expected as the pressure is increased above the critical value. However, as the pressure is decreased from the critical value, the compression ratio, instead of remaining constant at its maximum value as
expected, drops off appreciably.
Tests carried out by Dobrowolski^ show a pronounced dependence of the zero-flow compression ratio of a mechanical booster pump on the mechanical clearances and surface finish of the rotors. Three booster pumps of 1,300-cfm displacement speed but with different rotor

known to be
for
tests

steep functions of the pressure


for polished surfaces.

and to be much
Since

more pronounced
above

rough than
is

pump C

had

large rotor clearances, the zero-flow compression

ratio at high pressure

so, its compression ratio at low surfaces than either pump polished pressure is much better owing to the with smaller clearances pump B, A, with about equal clearances, or

poor.

Even

but with the standard rough machined rotor surfaces.


80

60
s ee Fig. 5

40

with a 220-cfm backing clearances and surface finish were tested, booster pumps was the of the in two pump. The rotor svirface finish in the case of the third surface whereas the standard machined surface
all

20

pump was

polished (64-microinch finish). surfaces of the three pumps were as follows


Average rotor
clearance, in.

The

clearances

and rotor
10"
10'

^ =^ i ^ ^
>' ^A
10"

-13-

\\
s.
10"

F^ ^^ ^
10

\^

10'

Interstage pressure, torr

Pump

Slippage

conductance
18.2

(Cg),

cfm

Rotor

finish

Fig. 5-18. Zero-flow compression ratio as a function of rotor clearances and surface finish.

A B
C

0.012
0.008 0.0115

8.35
16.8

Machined Machined
64-microinch polished

The pumping-speed curves also show a minor deviation from the expected shape. The predicted pumping-speed curve rises very
sharply from zero for values of the pressure slightly in excess of the ultimate value for zero flow. Although accurate measurements on the steep part of the performance curve are difficult, the results indicate that the rise in pumping speed with increasing pressure above the ultimate value is not as steep as predicted. Furthermore, the experimental results shown as circles in Fig. 5-14 are not quite as good a confirmation

In Fig. 5-18 the measured zero-flow compression ratio is shown as a function of the interstage pressure for the three pumps. The curves show the anticipated marked increase in compression ratio with decreasing clearances in the high-pressure region above the maximum compression point. However, for pressures less than that for the

maximum,
pressure for

the compression ratio

falls

off rapidly
less

with decreasing

pumps A and B, but much

rapidly for

pump

C.

The

compression ratios is 0.27 for pump A, 0.21 for B, and 0.67 for C. The very marked improvement in low-' pressure compression ratio due to improved surface finish largely explains the discrepancy between the theoretically predicted performance curves and the measured curves. The zero-flow compression ratio at low pressure is theoretically expected to be independent of the pressure. When the rotor surfaces are rough they may be expected to carry gas back from the high-pressure outlet side of the pump to the lowpressure inlet side in the form of adsorbed gas. The dependence of this effect upon pressure cannot be predicted except that outgassing effects
ratio of low pressure to

maximum

drop in compression ratio in the low-pressure range on the pumping speed was partly compensated by the fact that the performance of the
of the predicted performance as first appears.

The

effect of the

130-cfm backing pump used in the tests was somewhat better at low pressures than had been assumed for the calculations. The minor differences between the observed and predicted performance noted above can best be explained by assuming that the reverse pumping parameter, by which some gas at outlet pressure is carried back to the inlet side of the pump, is not a constant but increases as the inlet pressure decreases. Experimental study of this effect has
particular
is partly due to an outgassing process, that of alternating absorption and reemission of gas

demonstrated that the reverse pumping action

202

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


in the case of the

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

203

by the inner surfaces of the pump, which are alternately exposed to the interstage and to the inlet pressure. 5-11. Overheating of Mechanical Booster-pump Rotors. Compression of a gas in the process of pumping, as occurs in all mechanical vacuum pumps, involves doing work on the gas. Unless there is some process by which heat can flow easily from the gas to a heat
In the case of mechanical sink, the temperature of the gas increases. roughing pumps, oil is circulated with the gas stream and the exhaust gas bubbles through oil in the reservoir. The result is that heat is removed from the gas and rather efficiently distributed throughout the pump. Because of this process, cooling the pump as a whole dissipates
the heat satisfactorily. Thus small roughing pumps are cooled by air convection and large roughing pumps by water circulated through portions of the pump housing. However, in the case of mechanical booster pumps there is no oil present for distributing the heat generated throughout the pump structure. Furthermore, the rotors are not in immediate contact (except indirectly out through the shafts to the

pump, the test results of which are given in detail in the pumping power as computed from (5-42) with Sjj = 1,230 HO cfm at an inlet pressure P^ 10 torr 690 cfm, S2 cfm. Si = 5.47 hp, which is in good agreement watts 4,080 be IT out to turns this pump operating at an inlet For power input. measured the with A is therefore put into the gas fiow. pressure of 10 torr, about 4
Sec. 5-9,

kW

portion of this power is dissipated in the pump rotors which heat up and expand. If the pump is operated at inlet pressure above 10 torr for an extended period, the expansion of the rotors exceeds the available

end clearances and the


seize.

pump

will

Two remedies have been applied


to extend the range of operation of mechanical booster pumps to

higher pressure. Thees^" describes a design of booster pump in

pump housing and therefore tend to overheat when the pressure difference across the pump is too great. As is pointed out by Noller^ the power required for pumping the gas is
bearings) with the

which the rotors are cooled by oil circulated through hollow shafts. He also describes the use of an
interstage cooler at the outlet of

Fig.

5-19.

Exhaust

gas

cooler

in-

W = SniP, in

Pi)

(5-40)

which

Sjy is the

displacement speed of the booster pump.

From

the

the mechanical booster pump to cool the exhaust gas and therefore Figure 5-19 indirectly the rotors.
illustrates the

stalled at discharge port of mechanical booster pump. [Taken with per-

mission from R. Thees,


(1955).]

Vacuum

V, 25

continuity equation (5-6)

arrangement of an

PA = P,S = PA
where
S-^

exhaust cooler used in systems for


(5-41)

installations in

and S2
its

are the

pumping speeds
e

respectively of the booster


is

pump and

backing pump, and

S^ISj^

the volumetric efficiency


yields

vacuum melting of steel and similar which the operating pressure is high. Because of the limit on pressure differential imposed by the expansion of the rotors due to overheating, mechanical booster-pump
installations frequently include a pressure-sensitive switch set to operate at 10 to 50 torr, depending upon the characteristics of the particular

of the booster

pump.

Combining these two equations

W = S '^'ik~^)

(5-42)

From this equation there are obviously two ways of limiting the power requirements of the booster pump: (1) The upper value of the inlet pressure P^ during operation can be limited to some maximum value riot to be exceeded in operation or (2) the pumping speed S^ of the backing pump may be increased as needed to tolerate a larger value of the pressure. In practice either remedy is applied, depending upon the requirements of the system. In the pressure range below 1 torr the power requirements of mechanical booster pumps is determined almost entirely by the frictional
;

booster and backing-pump combination. At pressures greater than the set value the pressure switch holds a valve in a bypass connection open so that the gas flows directly into the backing pump from the system and the booster-pump power is turned off. When the pressure becomes
less

starts the booster

characteristics (shaft seals, bearings, gears, etc.).

the power required for

pumping has become

significant.

However, at 10 torr For example.

bypass valve and system so equipped, when started from atmospheric pressure, will pump down initially through the bypass with only the backing pump in operation and will then switch over to pump as a two-stage system as soon as the pressure passes through the Figure 5-20 illustrates such a two-stage selected switch-over value. around the mechanical booster connection bypass with the system valve is an obvious alternative the bypass of Manual operation pump.

than the

set value, the pressure switch closes the

pump.

which

is

entirely suitable for

some

installations.

204

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Observations

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

205

made on

the performance of a mechanical booster

pump

lonization-gauge readings are consistent with this expectation. at the inlet of the two-stage system consisting of a 1,230-cfm booster pump backed by a 130-cfm single-stage backing pump show limiting plate currents corresponding to a pressure of 5 x 10"* torr on an air

A very small two-stage mechanical booster pump of only 30-cfm displacement backed by a conventional compound forepump produced McLeod gauge readings of 1 X IQ-" torr or lower and untrapped ionization-gauge readings corresponding to 8 x 10~^ torr. Since the true calibration of the ionization gauge for the vapor concerned is not known, it can only be concluded that the true total pressure is considerably below the latter value. Another observation of interest is that the limiting pressure indicated by an ionization gauge in a system evacuated by a mechanical booster pump is not changed by putting dry ice in a trap situated between the
calibration.

the gauge tube. However, substituting liquid nitrogen for dry ice in the trap results in the ionization-gauge reading dropping to the pressure indicated by a McLeod gauge. This observation demonstrates that the vapor compression action of the mechanical booster pump is such as to decrease the vapor pressure in the system
booster
Fig. 5-20. Mechanical booster

pump and

pump, backing pump, and bypass connection.

due to backstreaming from the forepump below that corresponding to the equilibrium at dry ice temperature. Noller' confirms that the vapor pressure "is 1 or 2 powers often lower behind the blower than it is
in front of it."

5-12.

Vapor Compressor Action


As was emphasized

of a

Mechanical Booster
pumping-speed

Pump.

in the discussion of the

and referred to throughout in this connection is the partial pressure of the permanent gas which is admitted in controlled and measured amounts at the inlet of the pump. This procedure is justified on the grounds that only in terms of the pressures at various points in the system of the gas admitted as a measured flow at the inlet can one hope to understand the performance of a multistage system. The condensable vapors present are generally progressing backward through the system and therefore have nothing directly to do with the processes by which the permanent gases are pumped. The behavior of condensable vapors originating from the sealing oil used in the backing pump, however, is determined directly by the zerocurves, the pressure measured

In 1912 Gaede^^ introduced a 5-13. Molecular-drag Pumps. type of mechanical pump which does not operate on the positive displacement principle but upon the principle of imparting momentum to gas molecules preferentially In the molecin the direction of the desired flow. ular-drag pump there is an open passage from the inlet to the outlet, between which a pressure difl'eris maintained by the high-velocity motion of one side of the passage relative to the housing of the pump in which the inlet and outlet are located. In Fig. 5-21 the principle of the molecular-drag

ential

Fig.

5-21. Prin-

pump

is

illustrated.

cylindrical

member

rotates

ciple of the molec-

flow compression ratio. Since the mechanical booster pump itself can be clean and free of sources of volatile materials, the condensable vapors of concern are those incident on the interstage side of the booster

pump.

Therefore the vapor pressure on the high-vacuum side of the will be that in the interstage region due to backstreaming from the forepump divided by the zero-flow compression ratio of the booster pump.
booster

pump

ular-drag pump. within a casing with a radial clearance h between them. At the top of the cylinder the clearance space is blocked by a projection of the cylinder wall which reduces the clearance At either side of the projection the clearance locally to essentially zero. passage opens into a closed volume. If there are no leaks in the system the total amount of gas in the system remains constant, but some gas is shifted by the motion of the rotor with a reduction of the pressure Pj

206

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS


viscous force from the gas above the sample layer
is

207

and increase in the pressure P^. The equiUbrium relationship between P^ and Pa depends upon the rotational velocity of the rotor and upon
the pressure regime in which the

pump

is

operating,
large

i.e.,

whether

(du\
TjW

0X1-I
\dy/y+dy

viscous or molecular flow

is

involved in the process.

If the average pressure Pav

(Pi

P-Sl"^ is

enough so that
is

the

mean

free

path of the gas molecules

<

A,

then the process

rjW

bx-\u

du
dy ^y)
(5-45)

Assuming that the layer of gas at each surface is at rest with or moving with the surface, then the gas in contact with the outer cylinder is at rest and that in contact with the rotor is moving with the peripheral speed rw, in which r is the radius and w is the rotational speed in
dominated by viscous behavior.
r, the radians per second. If A curvature of the annular space can be ignored and the problem reduced to that of two plane surfaces

Equilibrium will occur when the force due to the pressure difference given in (5-43) balances the sum of the viscous forces in (5-44) and (5-45), so that
IV

bP

by^F, +
riw bx

F,

<

by

(5-46)

y//////////////A^7>my//.

dy^

which yields
d^v __
1
7}

Fig. 5-22. Plane representation of the molecular-drag pump.

with the upper surface moving with respect to the lower surface with
separated by a distance
A,

bP
(5-47)

dy^

dx

velocity v

the solution of which

is

of the form

rio,

as illustrated in

The peripheral disFig. 5-22. tance between the inlet and outlet in Fig. 5-21 is L, which is the length ofthelower or stationary plate in Fig. 5-22 in the plane case. Following a procedure analogous to that in Sec. 2-3, the gas contained in a thin layer of thickness by at height y above the stationary plate, and of length bx in the direction of the motion, experiences a force opposite to the direction of motion of the upper plate given by the crosssectional area w by, where w is the width of the plates perpendicular
to the plane of the figure, multiplied by the pressure difference which occurs in the distance bx, so that

Ay^

+ By + C

(5-48)

By

differentiating (5-48) twice

and comparing the

result with (5-47),

one finds that


(5-49)
2rj

bx
is

Since the gas in contact with the lower plate


so that the constant

at rest,

at y == 0,

bP

C =
its

0.

Also, since the gas in contact with the


v,

upper plate moves with

velocity
is

v at y ==

Ji.

Putting these

conditions into (5-48), the result

F
At equilibrium

=wbP by

(5-43)

1
2,7]

bP
h^

Bh

(5-50)

bx
1

this force is balanced by the difference between the viscous forces from the gas above and below the thin layer under The component of viscous force from the gas below consideration. the layer can be written by reference to the definition of viscosity given

so that

^-P,
(5-51)

2rj

bx

Substituting the above values for A, B,


velocity distribution
1

in (1-54) as

and C
I

into (5-48) gives for the

F,

= -.,^s'^=-yjwbx[^^^
dy

(5-44)

ir^y bx
2r]

^P

/v

bP
bx

2r]

h y

(5-52)

in

which u

is

the velocity of the gas in the sample layer, since the area

which

is

a parabolic form.

=w

bx.

layer

is

The negative sign arises since the gas below the sample moving more slowly and therefore retards its motion. The

The net volume flow of gas from the region at the pressure Pi to that at Pj is given by integrating the flow from y = Since to y = h.

208

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


is

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS


wii by, the

209

level y the volume flow in the layer of thickness by at the total flow is

dV
'dt

wu
v=o

by
1

=W
Jy=i Jy=0

bP
bx

dy
\h
2ri

.2rj

bx

wvh ~^

w bP
h^

The compression ratio P2IP1 for the pump described above large, therefore, unless the outlet pressure were only become not would The simple molecular-drag pump here 1.71 torr. than greater slightly as the first stage of a two-stage only effective therefore is described is fairly low. By decreasing pressure interstage the which in system difference pressure maintained the channel h, pumping of the depth the also the therefore backing and regime, viscous-flow the in pump by the substantially can be ratio, compression large for a required pressure
cylinder.

(5-53)

Ur] bx

increased since the pressure diff'erence depends inversely on h^. If the molecular-drag pump is backed by a pump which maintains

Under equilibrium conditions the pressure difference (Pj such a value that the net flow is zero. Thus from (5-53)
wvh ~2~
so that If the length of the channel

-Pi)

has

w bP

(5-54)

12r]

bx
bx
(5-55)

QrjV

bP
h^
is

the interstage pressure P^ at such a low value that the mean free path of the gas molecules is long compared with the dimension h of the pumping channel, viscosity no longer plays a role and the relationship In this (5-56) between the inlet and outlet pressures no longer holds. and stationary the with alternately collide molecules gas the regime moving surface. Consider the flow across an element of length bx of the channel. 12 Each molecule which strikes the moving surface of
area

L, then
^^

by

integrating (5-55) one obtains


^

bx receives drift velocity equal to

v,

the velocity of that surface.

the pressure difference


f
6-nv f

bx

Each molecule which strikes a stationary surface, either opposite to the moving surface or at the two sides of the channel, receives a The resulting average drift velocity is the velocity zero-drift velocity. times the ratio of the area of this surface to the surface moving of the
total surface of the channel element of length bx,

QrjvL
h^

(5-56)

wv
(5-57)
"

independent of the pressure. The molecular-drag pump operating in the regime of viscous flow is thus expected to maintain a pressure difference between inlet and outlet under conditions
since the viscosity
is

2(w
is

h)

The flow due


Qa

to this drift

motion

directly proportional to the peripheral velocity and proporthe length of channel between inlet and outlet and inversely pressure this for order In depth. channel tional to the square of the necessary difference to give rise to a large compression ratio P2IP1, it is

of zero flow which

is

^^-^^^^
= 5X

IV%V

2{w

+
h

torr cm^/s^c
h)

10-Pis

w%v
torr liters/sec

(5-58)

that P2 not be

Consider

much larger than a pump in which the


is is

inner cylinders
rotational speed

0.2

in.

the pressure difference (P^ - Pi)clearance between the outer and 4 in. = 10 cm; the 0.5 cm, r

If a pressure difference

bP

produced by the above pumping action,

rm = poise, the expected pressure difference

and

x 10^ radians/sec 10,000 rpm, so that w 1.83 x 10"* rj 20C air at 10^ for Since cm/sec. 1.04 x

= = 1.04

a flow will occur in the opposite direction because of this pressure The counterflow difference through the conductance of the channel.
is

given by

is

^1

X 1.83 X 10-* X 1.04 X 10* X 50


0.25 2.28

2.28

10^ /xbar

34.4/ T\'^

w%2
2{w

^p
h)

bx
torr liters/ sec
(5-o9)

103

X 750 X

10-

1.71 torr
inlet

assuming a distance of 50

cm between

and

outlet ports

9 71

the

\M/ w

h bx

210

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


(2-80).

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

211

by

reference to (2-79) and no flow into the system Q^

Under equilibrium conditions with

= +

Q^, so that

9-^1 hr7

\MJ w
dP
~P

h dx

10*

w%v w
(5-60)

or

_5x
~~

lO-^i^V

9.71

\t} h

dx

Integrating this expression from = L, the result is

P=

P^ to

P=

P^ and x

to

InP,

\nP^=k
h

vL

From the foregoing calculation the zero-flow compression ratio for a simple molecular-drag pump is predicted to be so very large when operating in the molecular-flow regime that the limitation in a real pump is due to factors not specifically considered. In the simple pump described, leakage from the outlet region back into the inlet through the clearances at the ends of the rotor and the imperfect sealing between the rotor and cylinder, where the radial clearance is assumed to be zero, would prevent the attainment of the theoretically predicted compression ratio. Even
Gaede reports and Dushman^^ confirms compression ratios of the order of 10^ attained by a multistage molecular pump based upon the prinso,

or

P P
5

(5-61)

where

10-

ciple of the simple design described

T~\t)

(5-62)

above.

number

of alternative designs

low that the flow is molecular, the compression ratio maintained by the simple molecular pump described above is independent of the pressure and depends exponentially on the quantity vLjh, which is made up of the parameters of the
if

Thus

the pressure

P^, is sufficiently

for molecular-drag

pumps have been

devised with two considerations in mind. The first is to ensure a low

pump.
For
air at

20C the constant (T/Jf)'^


io-
1

3.181

k
9.71
(3.181)

1,62

X 10-5

(5-63)

conductance leakage path from outthrough the running clearances of the pump. The second is to vary the depth of the pumping channel to provide a decreasing channel depth as the gas is comlet to inlet

so that (5-61) then

becomes

pressed so that the cross section of the channel at the inlet of the pump
will

Fig. 5-23. Cross section of molecular-drag pump design due to S. Siegbahn with pumping channels in the form of Archimedes' spirals cut

Y =exp(l.62 X 10-s^j
Taking as an example the same values for parameters of a pump,
v,

(5-64)

L,

and h

as before for the

vL

T^
P2/P1

1.04

10* (15

X 50
1.04

10"

so that the compression ratio for air should be


==

[Taken with in the two flat sides. be as large as possible to ensure permission from S. Von Friesen, good pumping speed, but still to Rev. Sci. Instr. 11, 362 (1940).] ensure that this depth will be small relative to the molecular mean free path over as much of the comIn Fig. 5-23 is shown a cross pression range of the pump as possible. section of a design due to S. Siegbahn^* in which pumping channels in the form of Archimedes' spirals are cut in the two flat sides of the housing, within which a disk rotates at high rotational velocity. The clearance between the disk surface and the flat section of the end
plate between the adjacent spirals
is

made

as small as practicable for

exp exp

(1.62
(16.8)

X 10-5 X

1.04

lO")

free rotation.

=
which
is

lO'-^"

surprisingly large.

periphery of the disk and the discharge at the hub. In the unit shown, three spiral grooves are cut in parallel, starting 120 apart, providing three times the pumping speed of a single channel.

The

inlet is at the

212

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEEING


Pj according to

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

213

Pi

cP,
c is

where Pq was the lowest pressure attainable and


order of 10^^.

a constant of the

The performance of a pump somewhat analogous to that of Siegbahn The rotor in this case is (see Fig. 5-24) is described by Beams.^^ induction through the vacuum driven magnetically and by suspended material bearings. seal and of shaft the problems wall, eliminating 10* which is about cm/sec, of 1.4 of the order x Peripheral speeds typical for the are room temperature, air molecules at for one-third Vav sealed and is is completely the unit Since model tested." preliminary trap, liquid-nitrogen-cooled with a diffusion pump an oil Ijacked by
the forepressure can be very low. A composite curve of the observed compression ratio P2/P1 for various values of the forepressure Pg and the rotational speed is shown in Fig. 5-25.1^ A theoretical curve for the

ically
J.

Fig. 5-24. Molecular pump of Williams and Beams. Rotor is suspended magnetand driven by induction. [Taken with permission from C. E. Williams and

W. Beams, London, 1962).]

in

1961

Vacuum Symposium

Transactions (Pergamon Press,

compression ratio as a function of rotational speed is shown for comparison. It is evident that P2/P1 departs further from the theoretically predicted value as the forepressure Pg is decreased, indicating the influence of outgassing from surfaces at the lower values of Pj attained during the test. As an example, with a forepressure of 4 x 10"' torr the untrapped ionization-gauge reading at the inlet was 2 X 10"* torr, yielding a compression ratio of only 200 compared with the predicted
value of nearly 3,000 for
01/277

Because the computed compression ratio for a pump of this description is tremendous when the internal leakage is ignored, the pump acts as though it has a forward pumping speed which is independent of the pressure shunted at intervals of pressure between Pj and Pj t>y leakage conductances. Examination of this model leads to the conclusion that the zero-flow compression ratio should have the form

equal to 225 rps.

Results of these tests,

10-^

olxlO'^torr

A
10
-

6x10"^

/
,-'-'

,--'
1.2x10

''

s 4x10-^ X6xl0"^

- = exp ^'iri
in

(5-65)

P310Theoretical

y: ,-'-^9'xio>^
mass 30

y^

'^^'\,''^''

^^^^
410-'"

which w

is

the rotational velocity,

A;

is

a constant for the particular


-

y^<''5<'^^
X^?-:

^^^^

pump

design, and a is the clearance between the rotating disk and the end plates through which the internal leakage flows. In comparing this expression with (5-64) it must be realized that a in this expression represents the internal leakage clearance, whereas the h in (5-64) corresponds to the depth of the pumping channel. The pumping speed of a pump of this description with disk diameter

/^ '^y^
1

jk:>
100

Theoretical moss 8

200
27r

300

400

of 54 cm is reported by Eklund^^ to be as high as 80 liters/sec at 8,300 rpm and to increase proportionally with the rotational speed. The inlet

Fig. 5-25. Composite curve of observed compression ratio for various values of the forepressure and the rotational speed. [Taken with permission from C. E.

Williams and
Press,

J.

W. Beams,
1962).]

in ld6l

Vacuum Symposium,

Transactions (Pergamon

pressure P^

was reported by Eklund

to

depend upon the forepressure

London,

214

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


is

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS


obtained for air

215

including variation of the rotational speed and of the forepressure, indicate that the zero-flow compression ratio is only in very rough

when Pj

is

equal to 0.1 torr, but the value drops off

rapidly with increasing pressure to about 10

when Pj

is

equal to

torr.

agreement with
outgassing.

(5-65),

although the deviations

may

be due entirely to

The compression
outlet pressure.

ratio for

hydrogen

is

significantly smaller for the

same

Some advantages claimed

for the molecular-drag

pump

are freedom

from contamination by condensable vapors, high compression ratios, and short startup time. One additional feature which is useful in some
a higher pumping speed for gases of high molecular weight, which is the inverse of the performance of diffusion pumps. One obvious disadvantage is the low pumping speed, considering the
applications
is
io''i
:
1

= nil :

nil

III

nil

10-2:=:
'-'-'-

.1

J 3

==^ ?=::::
-

hazard associated with rotational speeds of 10^ rpm and more, which are required to ensure good performance. Although molecular-drag pumps have proved to be effective in certain special applications, particularly in Europe, they have not been widely used in the United States, either
size

and complexity of the

device.

There

is

also a very real

10"'

-^H ;=:|-:
10-^::=

-J --^^-:

=4
-.

=:

'---izl:

Kf'-^'
10-' =
=

== :==
-1

for industrial or for scientific applications.

Brief mention introduced in 1958 by

-: :--: -. = :: = = :=:;:= =

::

5-14. Axial-flow

Molecular Turbine Pump.

10-'::;;:=:

.!_.
l-\zz-.
t-.:

must be made of a type of molecular pump

--

'--

10-8=-:: = -=
'
i

-=-.

A. Pfeiffer, GmbH, of Wetzlar, German Federal Republic, which may be described as an axial-flow molecular turbine pump.^' Figure 5-26 shows the general arrangement of the pump, and Fig. 5-27 illustrates the details of the design. Rotating disks all mounted on the central shaft are disposed alternately with stationary plates mounted in the
housing.

hx 1 eoi-2] io-'::;i:Z:;;|=;;:=:

^,o~~V" r' A
10-'
10'^
I0-'

::::::
.1
1

10

P2,torr

Fig.
tails

5-27.

De-

The

disks

cut with slots set

and plates are at an angle so

that gas molecules caught in the slots of the moving disk are proFig. 5-26. General arrangement of the axial-flow molecular turbine pump. [Taken with permission from Willi Becker, Vakuum-Technik 7, 149
(1958).]

of the rotor and stator plates of the molecular turbine pump. [Taken with permission from Becker, Willi

Fig. 5-28. Observed dependence of inlet pressure on outlet pressure


for hydrogen, air,

and

jected preferentially in the direction of the slots in the stationary


plates.

Vakuum-Technik
7, 149 (1958).]

the refrigerant Freon-12 for the molecular turpump. [Taken bine with permission from Willi Becker, VakuumTechnik 7, 149 (1958).]

The running clearances

be-

tween the rotating and stationary


plates generally are of the order of
is

the inlet pressure P^

mm, which

an order of magnitude greater than the permissible

The pumping speed of the molecular turbine pump as a function of is shown in Fig. 5-29 for the same three gases. The pumping speed characteristic of the forepump used in these tests is

clearances in a conventional type of molecular

pump.

The

rotational

having a rotor diameter of about 17 cm is 16,000 rpm, giving a peripheral speed of 1.56 x 10* cm/sec, about one-third
speed for a

pump

room temperature. The observed dependence of the inlet pressure P^ on the outlet pressure P^ is shown graphically in Fig. 5-28 for hydrogen, air, and the
Wav for air molecules at

refrigerant Freon-12.

compression ratio P2/P1 of the order of 10'

not given in the paper so that the relationship between the curves in these two graphs is not clear. The pumping characteristics of an axial-flow, bladed turbine pump have been investigated theoretically and experimentally by Kruger^" and by Kruger and Shapiro. ^^ A portion of the vane structure of a rotor of the type used in the high-vacuum turbine pump is shown in Fig. 5-30, illustrating the probability of transmission of molecules

216

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


700 600 500 400 300 200
100
10-'

MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS

217

Ha

Au.

molecular flux v^ incident on the area A of the rotor blade from upstream, then the net flow in molecules per second is

Q = HAvy =
Freon-12

Avj:^^

J-VaSai

(5-66)

I
10"^
10"'

where v^ is the molecular flux incident from downstream, the temperature is the same on both sides of the rotor,
10"^
1010-

However,

if

IQ-"

10"^
P,, torr

(5-67)
"1

the FiG. 5-29. Pumping speed of the molecular turbine pump as a function of from permission with [Taken Freon-12. and inlet pressure for hydrogen, air, Willi Becker, Vakuum-Technik 7, 149 (1958).]

^1

from Eqs. (1-31) and (1-16), where n^ and n^ are the molecular densities and Pi and Pj the pressures respectively upstream and downstream. Then from (5-66) and (5-67), the compression ratio is given by
(5-68)

through the rotor blade for the case in which the blade speed is large as compared with molecular speed (a) when the molecules are incident from upstream (side 1), and (6) when they are incident from downstream The difference between these probabilities, S12 and S21. (side 2).
(the Ho determines the net pumping speed. If we designate by coefficient) the ratio of the net molecular flow through the rotor to the

^1

^21
is

When

the flow through the


is

pump

zero then Hv^

and the

zero-

flow compression ratio

J) vPi/e=o
It is also evident that the

^
2.21

(5-69)

compression ratio across the rotor blade should decrease linearly as the flow Hv^ is increased. This prediction has been confirmed experimentally by Kruger and Shapiro. ^^ Also from (5-68) it appears that for no pressure rise across the blade, Pj = Pi, the net flow through the rotor blade is

Qi

(S12

^2\)A

(5-70)

In order for the compression ratio to be high it is important that Sia be large compared with Hji. However, for the pumping speed [8 = QjP) to be large it is necessary for S12 to be large in an absolute
sense.

pump

^Molecules incident
from side (T)

Fig. 5-30. Probability of transmission of molecules through the rotor blade of an axial-flow turbine pump for the case in which the blade speed is large as compared with molecular speed, {a) Molecules incident from upstream; (b) molecules incident from downstream. [Taken with permission from C. H. Krugor and A. H. Shapiro, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London,
1961).]

According to Kruger and Shapiro, ^^ in the design of a multistage of the axial-flow turbine type it is possible to design the blades of the first few rotors for large pumping speed and low compression ratio and later stages increasingly for high compression ratio and low pumping speed. The increase in pressure toward later stages permits a lower pumping speed to accommodate the flow. By carrying out a series of Monte Carlo calculations of the motion of individual molecules through rotor blades, Kruger 20 has determined the compression ratio

and pumping speed for rotors with various values of the pitch angle, spacing, and length of the blades. To be effective the velocity of the rotor blades must be two or three times the quantity (27^T)'^, but increasing the blade velocity beyond this value does not result in a

218
significant

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

gain in performance. Although variation of the pitch angle varies the zero-flow compression ratio and pumping speed, a pitch angle of 20 appears to be a good compromise for many applications. Since a compression ratio per stage of about 5 can be achieved,

a pump having 9 stages should maintain a zero-flow compression ratio of the order of 5" <= 2 x 10''. The pumping speed of a well-designed
axial-flow turbine pump is comparable with that of a diffusion pump of the same diameter but has the advantage of being free of hydro-

CHAPTER

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

carbon vapors. The disadvantages of the axial-flow turbine pump are (1) the hazard of very high rotational speeds, (2) the comparatively great weight for the pumping speed, and (3) the very high cost in terms of dollars per liter per second.

6-1.

The Steam

Ejector.

Since the effectiveness of the steam-jet

ejector in evacuating large

REFERENCES
1.

2.
3.

4.

Gaede, Z. Naturforsch. 2A, 233 (1947). B. D. Power and R. A. Kenna, Vacuum V, 35 (1955). F. A. Knox, U.S. Patent No. 2,551,541, May 1, 1951. NSA 5, No. 3578. C. M. Van Atta and R. L. Sylvester, in Proceedings of the Vacuum Metallurgy Symposium of the Electrochemical Society, Boston, Mass. (Electrochemical

W.

5.

6. 7.

8.

9.

10.

11. 12.
13.

14. 15.

16.
17. 18.

Symposiwm Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1957), pp. 62-70. K. Ziock, Vakuum-Technick (Rudolph A. Long Verlag, Berlin, 1957). E. A. Winzenburger, in 1957 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1958), pp. 1-5. Z. C. Dobrowolski, Lab. Rep. No. 2290, Kinney Vacuum Division, The New York Air Brake Company, Dec. 20, 1961. H. G. Noller, in 1956 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1957), pp. 57-61. R. Thees, Vacuum V, 25 (1955). W. Gaede, Ann. Physik 41, 337 (1913). Robert B. Jacobs, J. Appl. Phys. 22, 217 (1951). Saul Dushman, Phys. Rev. 5, 224 (1915). S. Von Friesen, Rev. Sci. Instr. 11, 362 (1940). S. Eklund, Arch. Math. Astron. Phys. (Roy. Swed. Acad.) 27A, No. 21 (1940), and 29 A, No. 4 (1942). J. W. Beams, Science 130, 1406 (1959). C. E. Williams and J. W. Beams, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. II 5, 286 (1960)'. C. E. Williams and J. W. Beams, in 1961 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1962), pp. 295-299.
C.

Society, Inc., 1955), p. 86. M. Van Atta, in 1956 Vacuum,

volumes down to pressures of the order of about 1 torr was first demonstrated by M. Leblanc,i* steam ejectors have been used successfully in a wide variety of rough vacuum applications. A typical steam ejector is illustrated in Fig. 6-1 and consists of (a) a steam chest in which the pressure and temperature are maintained at the proper values, (6) the nozzle through which the steam flows to form a jet, (c) the mixing chamber through which the steam jet passes and entrains gas admitted to the chamber through {d) the inlet port, and (e) the diffuser through which the jet carries the entrained gas to (/) the discharge. Under normal operating conditions the pressure in the mixing chamber is very low as compared with that in the steam chest and at the discharge port so that the steam is expanded in passing through the nozzle by a large factor and then compressed in passing through the diffuser. Since the cross-sectional area of the steam chest is large as compared with that of the nozzle, the directed or drift velocity in the steam chest is small as compared with that through the nozzle. The random energy of thermal motion of the steam is therefore converted in passing through the nozzle into directed kinetic energy with the formation of a supersonic jet, i.e., one in which the directed velocity of flow is large as compared with the average random velocity of the molecules determined by the temperature.

The flow of steam from the steam mixing chamber, and out through the

chest,

through the nozzle and

diffuser is a special case of the

Becker, Vakuum-Technik 7, 149 (1958). H. Kruger, "The Axial-flow Compressor in the Free -molecular Range," Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass., 1960. 21. Charles H. Kruger and Asoher H. Shapiro, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961), p. 6.
19. Willi

20. Charles

flow of a compressible fluid through a tube of varying cross section. Thermodynamic analysis of the flow through a converging-diverging nozzle, assuming isentropic behavior (no heat exchange with the walls,

that

is,

PV^^

Pjpi

const), leads to

the pressure upstream from the nozzle,


*

two specific results. If Pj is P^ the pressure at the throat

References indicated by sviperscript numbers are listed at the end of the

chapter.

219

'^

220

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VAPOE-JBT VACUUM PUMPS

221

of the nozzle (the point of

minimum

cross section),

and P^ the pressure

downstream from the

nozzle,

According to (1-28) the velocity of sound in the gas at the nozzle throat under critical flow conditions is given by
y

1. The flow through the nozzle increases with decreasing pressure P3 beyond the nozzle until a critical value P^ is reached beyond which the flow is independent of P3 and P^ = P^2. The flow velocity at the throat of the nozzle is Mach 1, that is, is equal to the local sound velocity, when P3 < Pj.

Pc

2y
r

Pi
(6-4)
1

Pi

Thus

v^lVgj

and the flow


is

at the throat

is

Mach

1.

Since the flow

isentropic,

'pU/y /PX''

/ I

9 2

\l/(y-l)

V''

'

(6-5)

The
Steam
inlet

calculation

shows that
v/(,-l)

\r \y

1^1/ + 1/
If

^1

again by use of (6-1). The mass flow rate through the nozzle
(^-^)

is

for the pressure at the throat as long

dW = cp.v^A^
dt

-cp,v,D^^

g/sec

(6-6)

as

P3 <

Pj.

the

gas

flowing

Mixing

chamber

through the nozzle is a perfect diatomic gas for which y = 1.40 (see Table 1-4), the result is P, = O.535P1. However, for steam y = 1.32 and thus for steam sufficiently superheated so that condensation does not occur in the throat, P^. = O.545P1. For steam not sufficiently superheated, however, condensation does occur and the effective value of y is such that P^ == 0.575Pi, approximately. Associated with the
pressure P^
is

where D^
c is

is

the diameter of the nozzle at the throat in centimeters and

coefficient, which is a number generally in the range of depending upon the geometry of the nozzle and the flow conditions (particularly the Reynolds number). By substituting (6-3)

the nozzle
1.0,

0.95 to

and

(6-5) into (6-6)

the critical flow rate

is

~dt

Since for steam the average value of y through a converging-diverging nozzle

=
is

1.30, the

mass flow

for

steam

d.W,

critical

flow
v^

"df
when Pi
Pi
is

0.524c

(9P'

g/sec

(6-8)

the flow velocity

is

measured

in /^bars (dynes per square centimeter),

V^ in

at the throat of the nozzle.


Discharge

This

cubic centimeters per gram, and Z>2 in centimeters.

If the pressure

velocity

is

given by

measured

in torr, this expression

becomes
g/sec
(6-8a)

Fig. 6-1. Cross section of typical steam ejector. [Taken with permission from V. V. Fondrk, in 1957 Vacuum Symposium Transactions

2y
y

P,
Pi

-'

(i-i)/y-l

dW^
19.14c
dt

Elf D,

vj

(6-2),

(Pergamon Press, London,

1958).]

where p^ is the density of the gas upstream from the nozzle (e.g., of the steam in the steam chest). By reference to (6-1) the stream velocity at the critical pressure is given by
2y

most engineering applications Pi is in pounds per square inch, V^ in cubic feet per pound, and D^ in inches, the expression
Finally, if as in

becomes

dW,
892.6c
dt

Pj
I

2y
y

/PiV^

Ib/hr

(6-86)

Pi

PiFi
I

(6-3)

From
rate

may be
c

where V^

l/p^

is

the specific volume in cubic centimeters per gram.

that

the steam conditions upstream from the nozzle the mass-flow calculated approximately from (6-8a or 6-86) by assuming 1. Engineering steam tables give values for the specific

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


volume Vi as a function of temperature and pressure, which is all that A more precise is needed to carry out the approximate calculation. determination of steam-flow rate can he made by using the procedure outlined in Standards for Steam Jet Ejectors published by the Heat Exchange Institute, pp. 18-34. In Fig. 6-2 is a graph taken from this publication showing the steam flow
through a
13
12

VAPOB-JET VACUUM PUMPS


large

223

1-sq-in.

nozzle

throat

1 area for a nozzle coefficient c and a range of steam conditions.

11

Saturation

w^

10 9

s ~
8 7

~4 00

T 3tal remperatureh
1

50f rv

600 F-

6
5

s s

3 2
1

/
fr

^ A ^

^ Am

^ ^4 f
ho 0F
lUU U''F

V' ^ ^ '^
/

"~i

f^

Additional curves of this type as well as the procedure for determining the value of the nozzle coefficient are given in the reference. As an example, for the steam
conditions given as

^700

800 F

Pj
Ti

= =
Fi

= 58.8 psia 508K = 454.6F


atm

random molecular energy of the steam in the steam chest is converted by the converging-diverging nozzle into very low random energy plus a high directed energy. Since the drift velocity is then large as compared with the random molecular velocity, the jet stream in the mixing chamber has a high Mach number, typically in the range Because the temperature of the steam jet is low in the mixing 2 to 4. chamber, the vapor pressure is also very low as compared with that at room temperature, so that the water vapor pressure seen at the gas inlet port is correspondingly low. When the steam jet enters the difii'user, a process of isentropic compression occurs. The steam together with the entrained gas being pumped through the inlet port is compressed from the low pressure in the mixing chamber to the exhaust pressure. The maximum exhaust pressure attainable is that for which the flow velocity of the steam The design of the jet is completely converted to random velocity. must be such that this conditions steam diffuser and the imposed jet will be unable to the Otherwise minimum requirement is met. allowing exhaust down, break differential and will sustain the pressure
gas to flow back through the system. The pumping speed of a steam ejector
is

the steam tables give

n
20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Pressure, psig

9.06 ft3/lb

a sensitive function of the

SO that according to (6-86) the flow

mass-flow rate for steam through a convefgingdiverging nozzle of 1 sq in. throat area assuming a nozzle coefficient of to 620 1.00 for the pressure range
Fig. 6-2.
critical

The

rate through a nozzle of

sq

in.

throat area for which


>,

design of the nozzle and diffuser. The design of the nozzle is based upon sound thermodynamic principles and can be specified with considerable precision for a given set of requirements. The design of the diffuser is much more empirical, for which experience in a great

=^.
2,900c

in.

psi

psia) for

gauge pressure (14.7 to 634.7 steam temperatures up to 1000F. [Reprinted from the Standards for Steam Jet Ejectors, 3rd ed. Copyright 1956 by the Heat Exchange Institute, 122 East 42nd Street, New York, X.Y. 10017.]

IS

dW, ~df
c is

vacuum applications provides a sound basis for predicting performance. The pumping capacity of a steam ejector is generally given in terms of the number of pounds of dry air removed
variety of industrial
Ib/hr
in one hour (lb air/hr).
Pair

Since

which than 1.
in

number

slightly less
1

(760 torr and 20C)


air

Beyond the throat the ejector nozzle must diverge sufficiently to

lb

dry
1

(68F

20C)

and

lb

dry

air (68C)/hr

pressure P^

allow for the expansion of the steam in its free expansion from the = P at the throat to the design value for the pressure in the mixing chamber where gas at pressure Pg is to be mixed with the steam jet and pumped out through the diffuser. The external pressure

= = = = =

1.205
7.52

x IQ-^ g/cm^ X 10-2 ib/ft3


cfm

13.31 ft^ at 760 torr

168.5 torr

79.5 torr liters/sec

The capacity of a
the inlet pressure speed in Fig. 6-4.
is

typical single-stage steam ejector as a function of

shown

in Fig. 6-3,

and the corresponding pumping

on the steam jet as it traverses the mixing chamber is P^, the inlet gas pressure, which at the design point for the system is just balanced by the transverse pressure in the steam jet because of the random thermal
molecular motion. Since in practice the design inlet pressure is quite low, the intrinsic pressure in the steam jet is also low, corresponding to a low temperature frequently well below the freezing point. The

For high-vacuum pumping, steam ejectors are used in multiple combinations, such as the three-stage system illustrated in Fig. 6-5. A water-cooled condenser is placed between the second and third In such a system the stages to decrease vapor load on the final stage. first two stages are referred to as booster stages, in which the steam conditions are such that very low temperatures are reached by the

224

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

225

steam-water or steam-ice
120 100

jet as it leaves the nozzle so that the


is

vapor

pressure of water from the jet

80
60

/ f
)
1 1

/ /

/^

s
*>,

correspondingly very low. The ultimate vacuum attainable with steam ejector systems is consequently surprisingly low as compared with the vapor pressure of water at room temperature (17.5 torr at 20C). Multistage steam ejector systems may consist of as many as seven stages with interstage condensers

40
20
/

two or three stages. With such systems base pressures as low as 10^^ torr are attainable with capacity of the order of 6 Ib/hr of dry air or pumping speed of 100,000 cfm at 10~^ torr.
after the first
200 500
1,000

50

100

200

500

1,000

20

50

100

Inlet pressure, torr

Inlet pressure, torr

Fig. 6-3. Capacity of a typical singlestage steam ejector as a function of inlet pressure. [Taken with permission from V. V. Fondrk, in 1957 Vacuum Symposium Transactions

Fig. 6-4.

Pumping speed

of a typical

(Pergamon Press, London,

1958).]

steam ejector as a function of inlet pressure. [Taken with permission from V. V. Fondrk, in i957 Vacuum Sym,posium, Transactions (Pergamon Press, London,
single-stage
1958).]

2-stage steam
ejector evocuatinq

4-stage steam ejector


system tor hondling
gases

common surface
condenser (C)

at

torr

evolved from pour at

4-tons/min
Suction chomber

Third stage

Common

surtace
units (8, ,82)

condenser (C) servmg

4 2-stage
Steom
inlet

4 2-staqe steam ejectors


'B|, Bj) parallel for reducing pressure to
I

torr and

handling goses

of pouring rote 4

tons/min

of

torr

Discharge

v4
Intercondenser

t2-in diophragm volves(V|l

hogging steam
ejectors (A)

62N62
Water dischorqe

range

30
in

to V2 torr

2 min

Fig. 6-5. Layout of three-stage steam ejector system. [Taken with permission from V. V. Fondrk, in 1957 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press,

London,

6-ia diophragm
volve (Vj'

1958).]

Fig.

6-6.

Schematic arrangement of four-stage, series-parallel steam ejector

system.

226

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


flexibility in operation,

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

227

steam ejector systems may consist of several booster ejectors in parallel, backed up by one or two In the system illustrated in Fig. 6-6 there are four twofinal stages. stage boosters in parallel, backed by two final stages with interstage

For economy and

beyond

this critical value, the jet collapses in

one of the stages with the

Table

6-1.

Perfobmance of Four-stage Steam Ejector System Shown


Fig. 6-6

in

Inlet

Capacity,
torr
lb air/hr

Throughput
torr

Pumping speed
cfm
liters/sec

and steam flow back through the system into the vacuum vessel. The steam conditions and load must be regulated in such a manner as to avoid this type of blowback since the consequences in most cases would be serious. The problem of backstreaming of water vapor into the vacuum vessel does not present a serious problem unless the flow of gas from the vacuum vessel to the mixing chamber falls off to a value which is considerably less than the design point for the system. However, at
result that discharge gas

cfm

torr Hters/soc

0.140 0.280 0.500 (design) 0.580 0.775 1.000

1.0

2.5
3.0

169 421 505

4.0 5.0

674 843

80 199 238 318 397

604 842 871 870 843

286 398 411 410 397

zero throughput serious backstreaming will occur. It is sometimes necessary to provide means for introducing air, steam, or other gas at a controlled rate into the system between the steam ejector inlet and the vacuum vessel through a needle valve to prevent the inlet pressure from dropping to the point where backstreaming would

condensers.

system

is

Fig. 6-8.

The performance of this four-stage multiple ejector shown in Table 6-1 and shown graphically in Fig. 6-7 and The inlet pressure for which the system was designed was

0.500 torr as indicated in the table.

900
1

5.0

4,0

3.0

2.0

1,0

/
/

/
/

y y

y
cu

800

r-' /^

423

400
350
300"^

g 700
"-600
S.500
,|'400
J

250:|

become serious. Steam ejectors operate generally in the pressure range of single-stage mechanical vacuum pumps. However, for processes involving the evolution of large amounts of water vapor (as vacuum cooling or dehydrating), steam ejectors usually have a distinct advantage in spite For processes in which of a high rate of consumption of steam. corrosive gases must be pumped, ejector systems lined throughout with graphite or other corrosion-resisting material are used. The nozzle and diffuser parts can be made of any material which can be machined or ground with precision. The term diffusion pump is normally 6-2. Diffusion Pumps. applied to jet pumps which utilize the vapor of liquids of comparatively low vapor pressure at room temperature and which provide base
pressures significantly lower than those easily attainable with oil-sealed mechanical vacuum pumps. The development of the modern diffusion

200 S
150 g'

300
D-

pump
detail.

200
100

100

I
Q_

/
03 04 Q5 06
0.7

has a complicated history which is too involved to trace in Those interested should refer to Dushman's book^ for the

50

LL
0.8

;140
1 1

contributions of Gaede and

Langmuir

to the invention respectively of

o'
1.0

01

0.2

09

1.0

or 02 03
Fig. 6-8.

0.4
Inlet

05

0.6

07

the diffusion

pump and

0.8 0.9

Inlet pressure.torr

pressure.torr

Capacity of four-stage steam ejector system shown in Fig.


Fig.
6-6. 6-7.

Pumping speed

steam ejector system shown

of four-stage in Fig. 6-6.

beginnings the modern The cross section of a typical diffusion pump is shown in Fig. 6-9. Such a pump normally consists of a cylindrical housing within which is a jet assembly and at the bottom of which is a boiler for the working fluid. The nozzles which form the jets are generally annular and

the vapor-condensation diffusion pump descended.

pump, from which

As the inlet pressure is raised, the throughput of a steam ejector system increases and the discharge pressure at each stage is correspondingly increased. A limit is reached when the discharge pressure in one of the interstage regions equals the maximum which the steam can
attain in the diffuser during compression.
If the flow
is

increased

arranged so that the vapor streams from them are directed downward and outward. The housing, particularly in the region where the vapor jets impinge, is cooled to ensure condensation. The vapor from the boiler passes up through the chimney formed by the jet assembly and out through the annular slits, which act as nozzles for directing the

228

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENgAbEBING


Gas entering the

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS


Pump
inlet

229

pump at the inlet is given momentum vapor streams. the vapor streams downward by and forced out the discharge, where appropriate forepressure is maintained by a backing pump, usually in an
the form of an oil-sealed mechanical vacuum pump. The annular space between the jet assembly and the housing must be completely sealed by vapor at sufficiently high pressure so that the back pressure from the discharge cannot break through the jets and flow backward through the pump inlet. For any design of diffusion pump there is a fairly

(low pressure)

'

Pump

fluid

Gas molecules

Jet assembly

y-.

)-<-Foreline

below which the pump is effective and above which pump fails because of breakdown of the jets. the Typical diffusion-pump jet assemblies consist of three or four annular nozzles, as shown in Fig. 6-9, or three annular nozzles and an ejector type of nozzle located in the discharge port, as shown in Fig. 6-10. The downwardly directed vapor stream from each annular nozzle entrains gas molecules incident from above and gives them momentum downward toward the discharge port. Each annular jet is capable of maintaining performance against a specific forepressure, which is relatively low for the first jet, for which the radial clearance is large,
critical forepressure
ejector jet.

(Pump
Foreiine

outlet)

"'
c

High forepressure

baffle

^;-;

3
3

:i'u.<---::- 3

Fourth compression stoge


Fractionating
boiler

(Ejector type)

Pump
Electric heoter

fluid

Fig. 6-10. Cross section of typical diffusion

pump

with three annular and one

and

relatively high for the final jet, for

which the radial clearance

is

small.

In a

pump

of

optimum

design, the forepressure limits for the

successive jets are in regular progression.

Although a great deal of

work has gone into the study of diffusion-pump design and performance, an exact understanding of the mechanisms of jet formation, gas entrainment, and pumping has not yet been attained.
Consider the enlarged view in Fig. 6-11 of the vapor jet issuing from downward and radially across the annular space between the jet assembly and the housing, and condensing on the wall. The vapor stream cannot be regarded as a well-defined jet with a sharp
the nozzle, directed

Fig. 6-9. Cross section of typical diffusion

pump

with four annular

jets.

boundary, particularly if the surrounding gas pressure is very low. The vapor stream in leaving the nozzle will tend to expand, causing some molecules of the working fluid to acquire net upward velocities opposite to the desired direction of flow, with the result that two undesirable effects are introduced. The backward-directed vapor molecules in colliding with gas molecules impart momentum in the wrong direction so that some of the gas molecules are expelled from the jet region and thus fail to be pumped out of the system. Also some of the backward-directed vapor molecules continue their contrary flight upward and out through the inlet, resulting in backstreaming of working vapor, which constitutes a major source of contamination in vacuum systems. During the past few years significant steps have been taken to decrease the backstreaming and improve the pumping

230

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


pressure
c-d the

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

231

efficiency of diffusion-pump jets

with resulting increase in pumping speed and decrease in the rate of contamination of the system by the working fluid. Serious attempts have been made*"* to understand in detail the physical processes involved in vapor-jet vacuum pumping with the conviction that optimum design can only be realized on this basis. There are two principal performance characteristics of vapor- jet pumps which need to be explained. These are (1) the compression ratio P2/-P1 which the pump can maintain under conditions of zero flow and (2) the pumping speed under conditions of steady gas flow into the inlet.
Vapor
flow

is Pj and the molecular density t^^ cm"". Below the surface permanent gas pressure is Pg and the molecular density ?^2 cm-^. All gas molecules which become entrained in the vapor stream quickly

acquire the drift velocity


cules entrained in the

of the vapor.
is

If the density of gas mole-

number of gas molecules per second and per square centimeter swept downward is n U. However, since P^ is greater than P^ as a result of the pumping action, there is diffusion of gas molecules in the reverse direction given by D{dnjdy), where is the diffusion coefficient of gas molecules in the vapor. Under conditions of zero flow these two quantities must be equal, so that
n^ cm-^, the

vapor

wwwwww
Gas
flow

When,
as

as in this case, the density

rig

of the gas molecules

is

very small

compared with the density n of vapor molecules, then the diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to the vapor density and can be
written as

D=
so that
,,j||||

^
nJJ_

(6-10)

Do drig n^ dy

or

dP
~P

dy

(6-11)

Integration of this expression yields


W2
Exhoust

exp

Fig. 6-11. Enlarged cross section of

from diffusion-pump [Taken with permission from nozzle. B. D. Power and D. J. Crawley,
jet

issuing

Fig. 6-12. Cross section of simplified jet

(f4

(6-12)

where

pump.

L is the distance from the surface a-b to the surface c-d. Since the value of Z> is given approximately by the expression^

Vacuum

IV, 415 (1954).]

6-3. Theoretical

Compression Ratio

for a Vapor-jet

Pump.
in

8\2/
which
^^

77(1,

+ |j4

(6-13)

original work of Gaede,* Jaekel/" and Noller' the following derivation of the compression ratio for a single-stage jet pump is provided. Figure 6-12 is an idealized version of a vapor-jet pump in which everywhere below the surface a-b the cross section of the

Based upon the

and

| are respectively

the diameters of the gas and vapor


is

molecules,

M^ and M^ are the molecular weights respectively of the gas

and vapor, Rj^

pump

assumed to be uniformly filled with vapor moving with a velocity U downward to the surface c-d, where the vapor is condensed and removed. Above the surface a-b the permanent gas
barrel will be

8.315 x 10' ergs/C mole, and T^ (K) of the vapor stream.


air

the temperature

As an example let us consider the case of vapor for which the temperature in the jet

pumped by mercury
typically be about

may

232
100C.

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

233

The constants
T^

for

Eq. (6-13) are then

calculation as presented tacitly assumes in Eq. (6-9) that the velocity


motectiles tiiffusing

= ig = 1^ = M, = M, =
D.

373K
3.72

10-8

4.26

X 10-8

cm cm

U is small compared with the velocity of the gas bacK through the vapor. If this were not the case, the rate of back diffusion would be appreciably diminished by the flow of the vapor stream and the compression ratio would be even greater
of the vapor stream

than that calculated above.

28.96 g

200.6 g

4
8

X 10"

229.56
(8.315

10')(373)

(27t)'^

(7.98)2 L(28.96)(200.6)

= =

3.32

X 10"
is

Since the pressure in the core of a mercury vapor jet 67 /ibar(dynes/cm2) 0.05 torr

of the order
N

P,
in

n^kT,

67 fih&T
(c) (d)

which k

is

the Boltzmann constant (1-14), so that

n"

=
(1.38

67

10-i

=
X
373)

1.3

10^^

molecules/cm*

The vapor stream


ejector jet,
is

issuing

from the nozzle, as

in the case of the

typically about

Mach

1,

so the velocity of the vapor

steam would

be as given

in (1-28)

Fig. 6-13. Configuration of a vapor jet for various values of forepressure. Oper{A) Pumping aperture; (B) nozzle; (C) nozzle aperture; ation of the vapor pump. (D) vapor inlet; (E) gas inlet; (F) vapor jet; (G) pump casing; (H) water or air (a) Forecooling; (L )forepressure outlet; (M) to forepump; (JV) shock wave, pressure about 0.001 torr; (6) forepressure about 0.02 torr; (c) forepressure about 0.04 torr; (d) forepressure about 0.1 torr. [Taken with permission from N. A.
Florescu,

Vacuum

10,

250 (I960).]

in which, for mercury, y

1.66

and

Pv

= wm^ =

nM
6.023

1-3

1023

X 10" X 200.6 6.023 X 1023 X 67 \^ X 10-V

1.67

X 10-' g/cm^

Florescu* approaches the analysis of vapor-jet pumping from a The bedifferent point of view from that given above. havior of a vapor jet for various values of the forepressure is illustrated When the forepressure is very low, in Fig. 6-13 from Florescu's paper.

somewhat

giving

/
--

1.66

\1.67

2.6

10* cm/sec

the jet spreads on leaving the nozzle, as shown in Fig. 6- 13a, and completely fills the body of the pump from the pumping aperture A down to the forepressure outlet L. The full length of the pump is sealed against backward flow of gas which enters at E and is ejected

Substituting the above approximate values of n^, U, and Dg into (6-12) 10 cm, the exponent and taking for the length of the vapor column L

at L.

in (6-12)

becomes

nU
so that

L =

1.3

1015

2.6

10*

3.32
,102

X 10"

10

102

As the forepressure is increased (Fig. 6-136), a point is reached such that the vapor stream no longer persists for the full length of the pump by the barrel but is terminated in a shock front as indicated at dashed line. With further increase in the forepressure the shock front

]^Q(102)(0.434)

^_ lO**-^

In the above crude calculation almost any reasonable set of numbers vapor density, pressure, and temperature in the vapor stream results in a very large theoretically predicted compression ratio. The
for

moves up close to the pumping aperture, as shown in Fig. 6-13c. Beyond the shock front the vapor and gas densities are appreciably greater than in the vapor stream. The molecules in the jet stream above the shock front have net directed velocity downward, whereas those below the shock front are randomly directed.

r
234

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


cules.

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

235

Further increase in the forepressure results in a change in form of further, the jet stream. Since the shock front would tend to retreat walls of the the reach longer no can the result is that the vapor stream The outlet. and inlet between seal complete pump barrel and effect a
jet

transferred during collisions from vapor molecules to the gas mole-

Since the gas pressure below the nozzle


(1-12),

is

everywhere, according to
(6-14)

stream then becomes narrow, as shown in Fig. Q-I3d, and gas from the jet the forevacuum region can then flow freely backward past through the inlet. Florescu then considers the case corresponding to that shown in
Fig. 6-136, in

P,
where
v^ is

}4n^m,v^^

the root-mean-square velocity of the gas molecules, and

since the density of the gas molecules increases with the distance below

sure

is

which the forepreslow enough that an appreci-

the nozzle, the pressure difference between two isobars separated


distance dy
is

by the
(6-15)

able length of the is filled and sealed

pump

barrel

dPg

}/3mgV^^ drig

stream.
sisting

by the vapor The vapor stream, con-

of vapor molecules with

in the volume between the isobars within a unit area (1 cm^) is n^dy. Since n^ decreases with distance below the nozzle as the vapor stream spreads, assume as a convenient

The number of vapor molecules

velocities

directed downward in the pump barrel, subjects the gas molecules present in this region to a series of impacts, driving them downward. This action establishes and maintains a gradient

model that
n

N (-1)

(6-16)

of gas

concentration

increasing
outlet.

nr
6-14.

toward
Pressure, torr

the

forevacuum

Also,

Density distribution of Fig. permanent gas along a diffusion-pump barrel from inlet to exhaust pressure

entering molecules gas through the pumping aperture are continually captured and driven

Bit y = L, the length of the vapor stream. such that n^ = For gas molecules of most probable thermal velocity Vj, passing through the vapor of average thermal velocity Wav, the probability for a given gas molecule to have one collision per second with the vapor molecules is

naua,v

2
(D(x)

r+^;jo^"

dz

toward the forevacuum outlet by


the downwardly directed vapor molecules. Near the pumping aperture where the gas molecules
first

due to the pumping action of the jet. {A) Gas inlet; (B) vapor inlet; (C) forepressure outlet. [Taken with permission from N. A. Florescu, Vacuum
10, 250 (I960).]

(6-17)

from encounter impacts vapor molecules the gas molecules are given a high velocity in the direction of the vapor stream. By this action the density of gas molecules should decrease sharply just

where

1
and
^{x)

(f.

f.)

below the pumping aperture and then increase because of the pressure gradient maintained by the vapor stream toward the forevacuum. In

er^

2x

'

-).r xl Jo

dz

shown the jet pump configuration and the pressure (or density) of the permanent gas being pumped as deduced by Florescu from measurements made by Alexander.^" The gas pressure throughout the pump barrel can be visualized in
Fig. 6-14
is

free
is

1/0, the mean Since the average time between collisions is then t path for the gas molecules between collisions with vapor molecules
v V

terms of a

series of isobaric surfaces,

which

for convenience

may

be

V^r

(6-18)

assumed to be plane surfaces perpendicular to the axis of the barrel. Between two successive isobars separated by a distance dy at a distance
y from the nozzle the pressure increase dP^
results

from

momentum

In an infinitesimal thickness dy the probability of a given gas molecule The number of gas suffering a collision with a vapor molecule is dy]!^.

236

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


assumed
to be

VAPOB-JET VACUUM PUMPS

237

molecules crossing a unit area of thickness dy in one second is WgWav so that the number which suffer collisions with vapor molecules in this infinitesimal volume per second is
n^v^y

Mach
u^

at

373K

for

mercury vapor.
2.86 3.24

Correspondingly,

= -^-UgNaunv

O
(l

and
a;

ttav

= =

(2/y)'-^C/
(2/77'-^)Wj,

= =

X x

10* cm/sec 10* cm/sec

dy from
If
(1-30) and (1-23). we assume the temperature

-|)(D(x)%
vapor
jet is

of the gas being

pumped

is

300K,

then from (1-15)


U,
v^

since

from

(1-23) Wav/

S/tt'-^.

If the velocity of the


is

the momentum momentum per

the rate of change of square centimeter over the layer in question, which is equal to the change in pressure over the distance dy, is
transfer per collision

m^U and

/3A;TV-^
\

=
I

/3
\

1.38
r-^i

x 10"" x x
1

SOOV-^
/

nig

4.81

777^^ 10-23

5.1

10* cm/sec

and
from
(1-22).

Vj,

/2kT\^i
I

12^Ir

4.16 X 10* cm/sec

dP^=^^U^^\l-l)^(.)dy
But
this pressure difference is the

(6-19)

The parameter x appearing

in (6-17)

is

same

as that given in (6-15) so that


77'^

2 4.15
1.45

Mav

tt'-^

3.24
/1-45

}/3

m^v^

dtig

= mJJ^'^"?-^(l-|)0(.)<Z,
ZNaniMun
tt'^

from which

cl)(l.45)

e-^"

(2.90

0.69)
Jo

e-^'dz
related

dP, and
P

The
^j<^{x)dy
(6-20)

integral

f*
\

_
e
'

dz cannot be evaluated analytically but

is

Jo

mt;

to the probability integral

P^ to Integrating (6-20) from P gives for the compression ratio exp

P =

P2 and from y

to y

n(x)

2 r^ e-''dz -r2 77-^ Jo

Pi
in

'3NaMUue. ^{x)L Mv^

numerical values of which can be found in tables. ^^


(6-21)

The

result

is

that

n(1.45)
ri-i

=
=

0.960
'"
'A

which the ratio of the molecular weights MJM^ is substituted for the ratio of the atomic masses m^jm^. If the same conditions are assumed in evaluating this expression as were assumed in evaluating (6-12), we note that

so that
Jo

e-

dz

0(1.45) --'--' 2

^A

(0.960)

0.848

and

(D(1.45)

0.122

(3.59)(0.848)

3.16

Substituting this value of

together with the other parameters given

M^

(for

mercury)
(for air)

Mg
iV^ (for

mercury)
(I,

= = = =
= =

200.6 g/mole
28.96 g/mole
1.3

above into (6-21) gives for the compression ratio

x 10" molecules/cm^

p^=exp

/3

1.3

015

5.01

10-16

277'/^

|,)2

(4.26

3.72)2

10-

200.6 X 2.6 X 10* X

3.2x10* -

28.96 X26.1 X 108

X3.16 X 10

=
5.01
2.6

X X

10-15

cm^

exp (392)

10(392)(0.434)

10170

[/

10* cm/sec

which again is a very high compression ratio, even higher than that obtained for the same example by the method of Jaekel and Noller. ^m.

238

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

239
jet,

simple approach to the problem of the compression ratio for a jet pump is to assume that the velocity of the gas molecules is high compared with that of the vapor jet, which can then be considered essen-

captured and carried to the forevacuum by the

then the number

pumped

is

dn
dt

Gas molecules penetrate the jet from the forevacuum tially at rest. density is Wj and the pressure Pj. If we assume that the side, where which experience a collision with a vapor molecule molecules those gas the jet stream and are carried to the forevacuum in are entrapped those gas molecules which pass completely through then only region, region without collision with vapor forevacuum from the the jet high vacuum side of the vapor jet. If to the penetrate molecules

(6-26)

Since at equilibrium this rate

is

the same as that given in (6-25), then

Hn2Va,ye-^'^

y%niVa.v

so that

Pi

(6-27)

^1

Using the previously selected values for the parameters,


^

i =

10 cm,

(f.

cr

^.r

(6-22)

5.01

10-15 cm2,

and

?i

1.3

x 10" molecules/cm^, the value of

the collision cross section for gas molecules on vapor molecules, then the mean free path for the gas molecules between collisions with vapor
is

1.3

1015

X 5.01 X

10-15

cm
6.52

and

L -=

10

6.52

65.2

molecules

is

X=
vapor
jet

(6-23)

The compression

ratio

on

this simplified
^ _ I __
,

model
,

is

thus

W(T

The number of gas molecules incident per square centimeter on the


on the forevacuum side
is,

Pi :
Pi

g65.2

]^()(6S.2)(0.434)

2
IQii

from

(1-31),
1 1028.3 = =-

where
n,^ is

2
X m%0z,v

(6-24)

the density of gas molecules in the forevacuum region and The number of these which av is their average thermal velocity. will penetrate a distance L through the vapor jet and thus reach the

again a very large number. Thus for the simplified model of a vapor jet which has been adopted at the outset of this discussion any reasonable theoretical treatment
leads to a very high compression ratio P2/P1 against the forevacuum gas when the gas flow into the inlet is zero. However, the expression
for the compression ratio in each case is of the

high-vacuum region beyond

is

form

dn
dt

dn 2
dt

g_i/A

Hn^Vs.^e-^"'

(6-25)

no other gas molecules entering the system on the highvapor jet, then when a steady state is reached just this same number of gas molecules (per second and per square centimeter) is being pumped by the jet from the high- vacuum region. The rate at which molecules strike each square centimeter of the exposed area of the jet from the high-vacuum side is WiWav/4, according to (1-31). However, because of the turbulent properties of the boundary of the jet, with some vapor molecules moving in the opposite direction of that desired, not all these gas molecules will become entrained in the vapor jet. If we assume that about one-half this number are actually
If there are

in

vacuum

side of the

which the quantity /S is different for each method of derivation. The predicted compression ratio is thus in each case critically dependent on the average value of the vapor density n^ in the jet length L over

which

this density persists. In the typical diffusion pump the annular nozzles produce vapor jets in the form of conical sheets. The vertical thickness through the dense part of such a jet may only be of the order of 1 cm instead of 10 cm taken for the simple model with purely axial

Furthermore, the first-stage jet in modern diffusion ticularly those using organic fluids rather than mercury,
flow.

pumps, paris

generally

found to be undersupplied with vapor so that n^

may

be

less

than the-

240

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

241

values assumed above by a factor of 10 or more. Finally, since a depends upon the molecular diameter of the gas being pumped, a pronounced Since helium and hydrogen difference between gases is to be expected. the compression ratio for diameters, particularly small molecular have
these gases

pumping permanent gases. There is a bonus, however, in that for the pumping of condensable vapors the effective pumping speed due to
condensation on the baffle surfaces may be considerably greater than that of the diffusion pump. During the past 25 years or more the fluids most commonly used in diffusion pumps are vacuum-distilled hydrocarbon oils and a variety of synthetic liquids, all of which have much lower vapor pressures than mercury at room temperature.

be expected to be lower than for air. It is found in practice that some commercial diffusion pumps are so marginal in vapor density for the first-stage jet that the compression ratio for air In some is quite adequate, but that for helium and hydrogen is poor. the pumping light gases for that indicates cases the performance determined is pumping speed the that first-stage jet is so ineffective This deficiency comes about in an entirely by the subsequent jets. speed for air while avoiding excessive pumping effort to obtain high from the first-stage jet backfluid diffusion-pump backstreaming of

may

The usual advantage


is

of these fluids

ward out through the pump


6-4.

inlet.

Working Fluids

for Diffusion

Pumps.

In the above

that the base pressure attainable without the use of low-temperature

theoretical discussion of the compression ratio at zero gas flow for vapor- jet pumps, mercury has been assumed to be the working fluid

vapor traps
applications.

is

acceptable for
Generally,

many

,lO-

systems

because it is the only chemical element widely used for this purpose. Since it is an element, mercury is not subject to decomposition. However, because of its relatively high vapor pressure (about a micron at

room temperature) mercury can be used


fluid for

successfully as a working a vapor trap, usually in the form of a baffle system maintained at low temperature, is installed between the In this case the diffusion pump and the vessel being evacuated. effective pumping determined the is by for permanent gases pressure of condenwhereas the pressure the trap, the pump through speed of

using the better grades of diffusionpump oils can be operated down to pressures of the order of 10~^ torr, and sometimes as low as 10~*
torr, using

many applications

only

if

only water-cooled baffles to impede the backstreaming of working fluid vapor into the evacuated vessel.

10

15

20

25

30

35
,C

40 45 50 55

Temperature

sable vapors, including that of mercury, throughout the system determined by the efficiency and temperature of the trap. Thus,

is

if

pumping speed of a pump (normally quoted for air at room temperature) is 8 and the conductance of the vapor trap is C^, then the effective pumping speed 8^ of the combination for air as given by (2-8) is given by
the
J,

Latham, Power, and Dennis^^ have given the results shown graphically in Fig. 6-15, in which the vapor pressures of a number of
diffusion-pump oils are plotted as a function of the pressure. The curve for mercury is shown for comparison. From the discussion in the previous section one might assume that the ultimate pressure attainable in terms of the partial pressure of the

Fig. 6-15. Vapor pressure as a function of temperature of various diffu-

sion-pump oils and mercury. Temperature-pressure curves for ( 1 ) Mercury


:

(2)

Arochlor 1254;

(3)

Narcoil 10;
Oil;

(4)
(5)

Edwards 8A Rotary Pump


G.A.B.
(7)

Pump

Oil 6; (6)

=^ ^ ^e ^v

Apiezon

Silicone 702; (8) BW; (10) Silicone 703; (11)

Apiezon G; Apiezon B; (9)


(12) di-2-

7T
^t
-

(6-28)
,

tri-TO-cresyl

phosphate;

In order to maintain a sufficiently low vapor pressure of mercury beyond the baffle system and at the same time not cause rapid accumulation of all the mercury from the diffusion-pump boiler on the baffle system, the trap design becomes rather elaborate and the resultant conductance lower than one would like. It is generally difficult to design an effective trap within an acceptable volume which has a conductance greater than the pumping speed of the diffusion pump. Thus even with good trap design, typically 8^ ? 8^,12 for

ethyl hexyl sebacate; (13) Octoil S; (14) tri-xylene phosphate; (15) Apiezon C. [Taken with permission from D. Latham, B. D. Power, and N. T. 33 (1957)].

permanent gas being pumped would M. Dennis, Vacuum II, be so low that the observed base pressures would be independent of the working fluid. This
is

is,

in fact,

competent. essentially true, as long as the design of the diffusion pump due to the pressure However, what is normally observed is not the base

permanent gas being pumped, but the

total

background pressure due to

242
all

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Silicone 705

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

243

causes existing on the high- vacuum side of the diffusion pump. As diffusion pumps are normally operated with oil as the working fluid, the
oil

decomposes because of local regions of high temperature in the and the catalytic effect of the metal parts of the boiler chamber. Some products of decomposition are of lower vapor pressure than the original fluid and tend to remain in the boiler without evaporating. Accumulation of tarlike, low-vapor-pressure decomposition products will eventually clog the jet system. Other products of decomposition are of high vapor pressure, so much so that they evaporate from the jet region of the pump and escape condensation on water-cooled baffles. The base pressure measured under these conditions represents the equilibrium density of decomposition products on the high-vacuum side of the pump rather than the partial pressure of the gas being
boiler

(Dow-Corning Chemical Co.) and OS-124 high-temperature and lubricant (Monsanto Chemical Co.). The use of the latter as a diffusion-pump fluid was first suggested by Hickman, i* Silicone 704 and OS-124 have been tested by Batzer'^ in a multistage
functional fluid

Table

Ultimate Pressure Produced by a Diffusion Pump with Various Oils* Expressed in Terms of Equivalent Nitrogen Pressure at 20C; P in 10"* torr
6-2.

Measured values
Oil

Nonfractionating
Octoil-S
6.4

Fractionating
2.9 6.6 9.2

Values quoted in the literature

0.01-1.0
1.0

14.0 17.0

pumped. Most measurements made on the base pressure of oil

0.1-5.0
10.0

consist of ionization-gauge readings near the inlet gas flow has been reduced to zero. Since ionization gauges are normally calibrated for dry air and the readings being recorded in such measurements are due to the ionization of heavy and complex organic molecules from oil decomposition, no knowledge of the true pressures or molecular
densities corresponding to the ionization-gauge readings
is

pumps of the pump when the


diffusion

Aniezon A. Dibutylphthalate Aroohlor 1254


*

45.0
. .
.

19.0

225 310

260
J. Blears, Proc.

100 100

Taken with permission from

Roy. Soc. (London) A188, 62

(1946).

obtained.

However, measurements taken in this manner with different working fluids, or on different diffusion pumps, are still significant since an ionization-gauge reading measures a property of the high-vacuum region which is related to the electrical breakdown and is of primary importance in electronic and electronuclear applications.
Blears^* has investigated the base pressure attainable using various

In these diffusion pump with housing diameter of about five inches. 90 could mainbaffle which be one-bounce a elbow served as tests a
tained at about 20C
cooling coil, or at a nitrogen. The pressure was liquid using much lower temperature connected to ionization gauge of Alpert type measured by a Bayard-

by passing water through a

Table

6-3.

commonly available diffusion-pump fluids. The measurements were made in a metal test dome having a diameter about three times that of
with a set of water-cooled baffles over the pump inlet to prevent direct backstreaming of hot vapor from the jet region into the test volume. A standard ionization gauge with the usual long tubulation was connected to the test volume and a high-speed or nude ionization gauge, consisting of a standard ionization gauge with the glass envelope removed, was mounted inside the chamber. The ultimate pressure recorded by the nude gauge was always higher than that recorded by the standard gauge by about a factor of 10. Blears used both a, fractionating and a nonfractionating version of the diffusion pump and compared the base pressures obtained with various pumping fluids with those previously published. He attributes the much lower base pressures reported by others to the adsorption effects within the standard gauges. His results are given in Table 6-2. To this list of pump fluids must be added Silicone No. 704 and
the diffusion

Ultimate Pressure Produced Using Silicone 704 and OS-124* Expressed in Terms of Equivalent Air Pressure at 20C

pump

Oil

cooled
..

Elbow by

Ultimate pressure,
torr
0.5 X 10-8 1-2 X 10-9 0.5-1 X 10-9

Silicone

704.

OS-124 OS-124

Water Water
Liquid nitrogen

* Taken with permission from T. H. Batzer, in 1961 Vacuum Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1962), pp. 315-319.

Symposium

the end of the elbow furthest from the diffusion-pump inlet. The ultimate pressures shown in Table 6-3 were observed. In order to obtain optimum performance with OS-124 it was necessary to increase the power input into the pump boiler by nearly a factor of 2 over the rated power input and to allow the lower end of the pump barrel to operate at a temperature of 90 to 100C. The fact that the ultimate

244

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS


the elbow was

245

pressure decreased

by only about

x 10-

torr

when

cooled with liquid nitrogen indicates a very low rate of production of condensable vapor from the fluid. Whether the results quoted in

Table 6-3 are directly comparable with those in Table 6-2 is doubtful because of the many differences between the conditions of measurement. Hickman" has also discussed- the use of the polyphenyl ethers as diffusion-pump fluids. The chemical structure of these compounds BL-10 consists of a number of phenyls linked together by oxygen. available commade ethers is a refined mixture of 5-ring polyphenyl pressure at vapor The mercially for use as a diffusion-pump fluid. but later IQ-^ torr, 25C is reported by Hickman as (1.3 0.3) x samples were predicted to have substantially lower vapor pressure. Hickman reports attainment of base pressures of 2 to 3 x 10"^ torr using BL-10 in commercially available diffusion pumps with a roomtemperature baffle. He recommends the combination of two baffles in series, one at slightly above ambient temperature and the other cooled by chilled water for the attainment of partial pressure due to backstreaming vapor of less than lO"" torr. The advantages of the polyphenyl ethers are claimed to be due to the very high bond energies,

runs back into the pump, and the second baffle at a much lower temperature (such as that of liquid nitrogen), depending upon the acceptable mercury vapor pressure in the system. The performance of large mercury diffusion pumps has been investigated by Power, Dennis, and Crawley." The pumps were of mild

Table

6-4.

Fluids Arranged in Ascending Obdeb op Ruggedness*

Number
Fluids
1st

of cycles

run

2nd run
205

160
Octoil S* Di-2-ethyl hexyl sebacate Tri-xylene phosphate ....

Pumps

G.A.B. Pump Oil 6t Tri-m-cresyl phosphate

279-307 230 323-359 368-430 530 574-582 491-504 964-980


1,100

failed because of decomposition of the


oil.

376-395 302 566-583 516-583 670-714

residual

tC"areoil

10+

*.

Pumps

failed

because of

Dow-Corning 703

total loss of oil to the

which are among the strongest in organic chemistry. Latham, Power, and Dennis^'' tested the ruggedness of a number of

backing pump.

commonly used diffusion-pump

oils

by repeatedly pumping down a

Dow-Corning 702

500

1,51611

Test discontinued before


failure.

system of a few liters volume and then letting in air with the diffusion pump still hot but the heater turned off. The sequence was repeated
until the oil

decomposed to the extent that the

diffusion

pump

failed.

Vacuum
t

Taken with permission from D. Latham, B. D. Power, and N. T. M. Dennis II, 33 (1952).

The fluids are given in Table 6-4 in the order of increasing ruggedness. The choice between mercury and oil as the working fluid for a However, the choice diffusion pump is generally not difficult to make. and the many synthetic between the vacuum-distflled hydrocarbons used for practically any Mercury may be fluids is not so easily made.
application for which diffusion

Vacuum-distilled hydrocarbon oil. Di-2-ethyl hexyl sebacate. Methyl polysiloxanes (silicones) If In the case of Dow-Corning 702 the fluid never broke down, but the tests were discontinued when half the original charge had been lost into the
J

forevacuum.

pumps

are required, provided only that

vapor baffles at sufficiently low temperature are used to condense the mercury vapor which would otherwise be present at the room-temperature vapor pressure of about 2 x 10-^ torr throughout the high-

or stainless steel construction of conventional multijet design and of 2M to 24-in. barrel diameter. Since the vapor pressure of mercury is considerably higher than that of most diffusion-pump oils, the density of vapor backstreaming from the
first jet is

vacuum

region of the system.

much

greater than for

oil.

For long periods of pumping, the vapor baffles avoid accumulation of frozen mercury in such quantities that the contents of the boiler eventually are condensed on the baffles and the pump fails for lack of working- fluid. The difficulty can be avoided by dividing the baffle into two sections, the section nearest the diffusion pump operating at a temperature just above the melting point of mercury ( 38.87C) and arranged so that the condensed mercury

must be designed to

In order for gas molecules entering the inlet to reach the first jet, they must diffuse through this cloud of mercury vapor, the molecular density of which is generally much greater than that of the gas being pumped. In the absence of a vapor trap the pumping speed is found to decrease with the distance above the mouth of the pump, as shown in Fig. 6-16. These curves were taken for three different temperatures of the condensing surface (25, 19, and 5C), i.e., the upper portion of the

246

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


barrel.

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

247

pump

By mildly refrigerating the condensing surface the throughout the region above the jet is reduced, pressure mercury vapor The the resistance to gas flow into the pump. reducing also thereby the cooling more or by of 3 factor a speed is increased by pumping of advantage take et al. Power 25 5C. surface from to condensing
the dependence of pumping speed on the distance above the inlet

Table

6-5.

Effect of Contaminated Condensing Wall on Back-migbation Rate and Pumping Speed*


Wall Temperature 14C

Wall condition
Clean
Slight contamination

Back -migration

rate,

Pumping

speed,

cm^/hr (liquid)
1.05
4.3
. . .

liters/sec

Heavy contamination.
Condensing
wall

12.4

800-850 750-800 150-200

temperature

[I]

25C,[2] I9C,[3]

5%
* Taken with permission from B. D. Power, N. T. M. Dennis, and D. J. Crawley, in 1961 Vacuum Sym,posium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London,

Measured pumping speed,liters/sec

4,000

8,000

12,000

16,000

1962), p. 1218.

contaminated, and heavily contaminated walls; all taken at a wall temperature of 14C, using a 9-in. diffusion pump. Back-migration rate was measured as a function of wall temperature with and without a water-cooled copper cover with a long skirt reaching down to intersect a portion of the jet stream, as described by Vekshinsky, Menshikov, and Rabinovich.^* The results of these measurements are shown in
Fig. 6-17.

Power

et

al.

recommend
barrel,
4.5

stainless steel for the

pump

cleaned
or

by vapor phase degreasing by electropolishing. The effect


was
also observed
jf

4.0

of contaminants on the condensing


3.5

walls

by Chupp^' during the development of 24- and


32-in.

13.0
6
or 2.5

Fig. 6-16. Variation of air-pumping speed with distance above inlet flange for three different cooling-wall temperatures. Curves plotted to scale for pump of 60 cm diameter. [Taken with permission from B. D. Power, N. T. M. Dennis, and D. J. Crawley, in 1961 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press,

diameter mercury diffusion pumps made of mild steel. Chupp observed that thoroughly cleaned pumps sometimes fail to exhibit

2.0

1.5

London,

1962).]

placing the combination of a refrigerated (.~ 30C) and a liquidnitrogen trap above the umbrella nozzle with as little vertical clearance

by

as possible without seriously obstructing the

pump

inlet.

any appreciable pumping speed, but after a day or two of operation become "conditioned" so that mercury is efficiently condensed and the performance finally comes up to standard. Once conditioned, the

1.0

0.5

-5

10

15

20

25

30

Condensing woll temperoture,C

Performance of mercury diffusion pumps has been found by many investigators to depend critically

pump

upon the

cleanliness of the condensing

wall and of the pump housing generally. Mercury condensation is seriously impeded by wall contamination, resulting in poor or even negligible

pumping speed and a higher than normal mercury vapor pressure above the jet. Table 6-5 gives some data by Power et al. showing the mercury back-migration rate and pumping speed for clean, slightly

operates at a high performance level indefinitely. An alternative precaution found by Chupp to be effective is to copper plate the inner surface of the pump barrel where the mercury vapor should condense. Apparently the slight

Fig. 6-17. Variation of mercury back migration rate with temperature of the pump condensing wall. [Taken with permission from B. D. Power, N. T. M. Dennis, and D. J. Crawley, in 1961 Vacuum Symposium Transactions
1962).]

(Pergamon Press, London,

248

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


affinity

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS


e.g.

249

amalgamating

between mercury and the copper surface ensignificantly lower

hances the condensing efficiency.

for

which

that of liquid nitrogen. In any case there are oil is the preferred diffusion-pump fluid

many

applications

However, the choice of mercury usually means a

pumping speed
disadvantage
for

for a given size of diffusion

pump.

Whether

this

is due to an inherently lower Ho coefficient (see Sec. 6-5) mercury jets, or whether it is merely a reflection of the greater Even effort expended in developing oil diffusion pumps is not clear. with this disadvantage there are applications for which mercury is the

preferred diffusion-pump fluid


1. In the vacuum deposition of certain materials which are inordinately sensitive to the presence of hydrocarbons, such as rhodium and

semiconducting films. 2. In the evacuation of vessels in which high electric-field gradients must be maintained. At the University of California Lawrence Radiation Laboratory large (32-in.-diameter) mercury diffusion pumps are used on many particle accelerators and certain other electronuclear machines in preference to oil diffusion pumps. Surface contamination

In general -purpose vacuum -pumping systems for laboratory and small production applications. 2. For the evacuation of most types of transmitting electron tubes, klystrons, and magnetrons. 3. For the evacuation of particle accelerators in those cases in which the voltage gradient requirement is not too severe. Most cyclotrons, betatrons, and electron and proton synchrotons are oil-pumped, but with the addition of liquid-nitrogen-cooled vapor baffles. 4. In vacuum coating and sputtering systems. 5. In vacuum molecular stills and fractionating columns. 6. In the vacuum purification of metals, as in vacuum melting and casting, electron beam melting, and vacuum zone refining.
1.

6-5.

Pumping Speed

of Diffusion

Pumps.

In the normal

by

oil

films results in deterioration of the attainable voltage gradient,

operating pressure range the action of a diffusion pump can be compared with that of a somewhat imperfect hole into a region of zero pressure. This behavior can be understood in terms of the incidence of gas

probably because of the decomposition products remaining on the surfaces after repeated vacuum sparking. 3. In systems in which a very high forepressure is an advantage, either because of unusually large throughput or because of the choice of the backing pump, e.g., a steam ejector. 4. For pumping highly reactive chemical vapors which might decompose diffusion-pump oils. Mercury, being an element, is the most rugged of the diffusion-pump fluids in the sense that it cannot be

molecules on the surface of the vapor jet and the process by which some fraction of them are trapped by the jet and carried into the forevacuum region. Each gas molecule that approaches the vapor-jet surface experiences collisions with heavy vapor molecules. If the pressure at the inlet of the pump is low as compared with the vapor
pressure of the jet because of its local temperature, the jet will expand on leaving the nozzle. The boundary layer of the jet consists in part of

decomposed by overheating or by chemical action. 5. For evacuation of mercury vapor electron tubes, such as rectifiers, For these applications a vapor trap is not ignitrons, and thyratrons. required since the finished tubes contain pools of mercury to be partly
vaporized during operation.
Oil diffusion

pumps have

the distinct advantage of simplicity for

vapor molecules which diverge outward and upward from the main body of the jet and impede penetration of the jet by gas molecules. However, some fraction H of the gas molecules incident on the jet surface penetrate the boundary layer and are captured by the jet. The value of depends upon the detailed structure of the boundary layer. If A is the pumping aperture (i.e., the surface area through which gas molecules enter the vapor jet from the inlet) then the rate of incidence of gas molecules on this surface is, according to (1-31),

the

applications in which the desired operating pressure caiT.be maintained with a simple water-cooled baffle and no refrigerated trap. Operating pressures down to 10"^ torr can easily be attained in this manner, and with care in selection of the fiuid down to about 10~^
torr.

many

vA

Hn.VavA

(6-29)
jet is

The
thus

rate at

which gas molecules are trapped and pumped by the


q

arrangement sometimes used is similar to that described for mercury, the baffle nearest the pump maintained at a temperature of 30 to 40C by a refrigerator, and the second baffle at a much lower temperature.
cooled baffle

Below 10"^ torr a refrigerated trap must usually be provided.

in addition to the water-

The

= HvA =

HHn^v^vA

(6-30)

baffle

pumped

is defined as the volume of gas at inlet pressure per unit of time. If Q denotes the gas-flow rate as defined in (2-18), then the pumping speed is obtained by dividing the molecular

The pumping speed

250

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEEING

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS


case

251

flow given in (6-30)

by the molecular

density, so that

(6-31)

when the pressure substituted into (6-31) is the partial pressure of the gas admitted at the measured flow rate Q. The performance of a typical four-stage diff'usion pump of modern design when pumping air is shown graphically in Fig. 6-18. The solid curve represents the
true

pumping speed

for air as a function of the pressure

which Pj represents the partial pressure at the inlet of the gas being admitted at the flow rate Q. The existence of other gas components which contribute additional background pressure at the pump inlet, such as backstreaming vapor from the jet and outgassing from the walls of the vacuum chamber, has nothing directly to do with the pumping process and should, therefore, be ignored in the determination of the pumping speed. By substituting the value of Wav from (1-23)
in

each point

on the curve was obtained by substituting the measured flow Q of air and
the corresponding pressure Pj in the

equation

r
(6-34)

1.600
'^
/
/

i. 1,200

^
1

into (6-31) one obtains for the

pumping speed

where Pj is the inlet pressure measured with either a McLeod gauge or an ionization gauge when the flow rate is Q, and Pq is the base
pressure of the

800
/

V\
\
10''
10'^
10'^

400
/

F^,

= =
which
for air at

3.64

TV \0^H[ A
I
\

pump when

the flow
is

10"

10'"

10'

cm^/sec

rate

is

zero.

The base pressure Pg

Inlet pressure, torr

made up

of backstreaming diffusionoil

'Mm) ^
8^

liters/sec

(6-32)

pump

vapor, products of decomposi-

tion of the
(20C) becomes
liters/sec

vapor, and permanent

Fig. 6-18. Pumping speed as a function of inlet pressure for a typical 6 -in. oil diffusion pump.

gas arising from outgassing of surfaces

room temperature

\\.%EA

(6-33)

on the inlet side of the pump. The difference between Pj and Pq is due to the flow of air admitted at the inlet and is therefore equivalent to Pi in (6-31).

when

the

pumping aperture

is

measured

in square centimeters.

Because the surface of the vapor jet is diffuse and its area therefore difficult to define, the cross section of the annulus between the nozzle

The dotted curve pumping speed as

in Fig. 6-18

is

obtained by deflning the apparent

and the pump housing is normally taken as the pumping aperture A. The coefficient R appearing in the above equations is a measure of the Asefficiency of the pump and is referred to as the Ho coefficient. ^^ weight molecular the of independent is suming that the Ho coefficient of the gas being pumped, Eq. (6-32) implies that the pumping speed
of a diffusion pump should be inversely proportional to the squall root of the molecular weight of the gas. This proves to be approximately true for some pump designs, but is by no means consistently

=Q

(6-36)

the case, particularly for multistage pumps with closely spaced jets. For example, results reported by Noller, Reich, and Bachler^i obtained for the pumping speed of a multistage diffusion pump, with a liquidnitrogen-cooled vapor trap, for hydrogen and air yield a ratio of 2.25 instead of 3.8. Stevenson^^ reports a factor of only 1.2 between the

pumping speed

for hydrogen and that for air. Equation (6-32) also implies that the pumping speed of a diffusion pump is independent of the pressure. This is indeed very nearly the

which has generally been used in commercial practice, instead of the pumping speed. The apparent pumping speed given by (6-35) becomes zero at the base pressure Pq. However, the true pumping speed obtained by using Eq. (6-34) is found to be independent of the pressure for as small a value of the leak for which the pressure diff"erence Pj Pj can be reliably measured. The validity of Eq. (6-34) in giving the true pumping speed is emphasized by the measurement of the pumping speed through a liquid-nitrogen-cooled vapor trap installed at the inlet of the pump. Figure 6-19 shows the conflguration of the trap and Fig. 6-20 the resulting performance curve. The base pressure of the pump is now reduced by a large factor by the condensation of the condensable vapors from the pump oil. It is therefore possible to carry the measurement of the pumping speed of the pump plus the vapor trap
true

252
to

VACUITM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VAPOE-JET VACUUM PUMPS


cent.
is

253

lower values of the leak rate. The expected pumping speed for air is that of the untrapped pump combined with the conductance of the trap
1
1 1

much

Whether the observed


is

real or instrumental

measurement The principal


diffusion

slight decrease with decreasing pressure a valid question in view of the difficulty of the at pressures as low as 10~* torr.

8
or

8p

C,

=
8^
C,

(6-36)

between the measured pumping speeds of that implied by (6-32) is that the pumping speed is not necessarily inversely proportional to the square root of the molecular weight of the gas. The pumping speed for hydrogen should
difference

pumps and

be greater than that for


diffusion

Note in accordance with (2-8). pumping speed measured that the


for the

air by a factor pumps the factor is considerably smaller. One may conclude that

of 3.8, but for most multistage

combined

diffusion

pump

the

Ho

coefficient // is a function of

and

cold trap as

shown

in Fig.

6-20 reaches a peak value at about 10~^ torr and then decreases with

the molecular weight of the gas and decreases more specifically that

600
,200

value which is then independent of the pressure to values of the pressure substantially less than the base pressure of the pump without the trap.* This would not be the
decreasing
pressure
to

with molecular weight. There is some evidence that the difficulty arises because of an insufficient quantity of vapor flowing through the flrst-stage nozzle. Since for hydrogen the molecular velocity is greater and the collisional cross section smaller than for
air,

800

^y

\ \
\

400

^
10"'

_j
10"='

10"^

10'"

10"^

10"'

Inlet pressure.torr

Fig. 6-20. Pumping speed as a function of inlet pressure for


diffusion

if the true pumping speed for were zero at the base pressure for the untrapped pump. Consistent with the theoretical results

case
air

the effectiveness of the first-stage

pump

(Fig.

6-18)

with

jet

discussed in Sec. 6-3, indicating

Fig. 6-19. Cross section of vapor trap

that a very high zero-flow compression ratio for the gas being

mounted on
in

6-in. diffusion

pump.

pumped by a

jet

pump

is

to be

expected, the true base pressure

terms of the partial pressure of air due to migration back through is apparently always low as compared with the background pressure due to outgassing and other factors. This being the case, the true pumping speed should be essentially independent of the pressure for many decades in pressure. Noller, Reich, and Bachler^^ have measured the pumping speed for air and hydrogen of a multistage diffusion pump with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled trap over the range from 10~^ to 10~" torr and observed a decrease in pumping speed of only about 20 per
the jet
* The peak in the curve at relatively high pressure arises from the fact that the annular clearances in the vapor trap are of the order of 2 in., which is comparable with the mean free path at a pressure of 10~* torr. As the pressure

increases in this range, the conductance for the trap is no longer that for true molecular flow but increases with the pressure as expected (see Chap. 2) in the
transition range.

be good for air and poor for vapor trap (Fig. 6-19). hydrogen as is implied by the remarks In this case the pumping speed for hydrogen at the end of Sec. 6-3. would be primarily determined by the second-stage jet for which the aperture is smaller. Since commercial diffusion pumps are usually rated on the basis of maximum pumping speed for air with minimum backstreaming of oil vapor, the optimum jet design tends toward minimum effective vapor flow through the first-stage nozzle compatible with high pumping speed for air. This criterion may automatically ensure insufficient vapor flow for pumping gases of low molecular weight, such as hydrogen and helium. Results reported by Normand^^ on the pumping speed of a commercial diffusion pump show a normal, smooth performance curve for air with a pumping speed of about 320 liters/sec over the range from 5 x 10"^ to 2 x lO"' torr, but an erratic behavior when pumping hydrogen. The pressure fluctuations were such that the pumping speed varied rapidly over the range from about 320 to 480 liters/sec. The Ho coefficient is not necessarily the best figure of merit for diffusion pumps, as has been pointed out by Stevenson. ^^ The area A referred to in (6-32) is the cross-sectional area of the annular space between the first-stage nozzle and the pump housing. A design which requires a large diameter nozzle may have a high Ho coefficient in

may

254

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEBING


(Q

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

255

pumping speed

terms of the small pumping aperture which remains but a small for the diameter of the pump. Stevenson suggests that a better criterion is the speed factor defined in terms of the pumping speed for air as S^ M'^
3.64J

= PS

J,)

is

shown graphically

in

10"

used in obtaining the performance curves


Fig.

6-22 for the

pump

T
for air at 20C
(6-37)

shown in Figs. 6-18, 6-20, and 6-21. The zero-flow limiting forepressure independent of the pumping is speed of the forepump and is therefore a useful standard for

10"
=

1,440

torr

iters/sec

comparing
of a

Q = 144

tor

liters/sec

U.6A,
similar to the definition of the

diffusion

pumps.
forepressure

^ 10"

Ho

coefficient

in (6-32)

and

(6-33)

The

limiting

except that A^ is the cross-sectional area of the pump housing rather than the annulus. This definition is consistent with the Knudsen and Clausing conductance factors discussed in Chap. 2. For the particular pump developed by Stevenson the Ho coefficient was found to be 0.51 and the speed factor as defined by (6-37) was 0.45. 6-6. Limiting Forepressure for Diffusion Pumps. In Fig. 6-13 the behavior of a vapor jet as a function of the forepressure is illustrated. When the forepressure is sufficiently high, the shock front, which is the boundary between the jet composed of directed vapor molecules and the randomized region of forevacuum vapor and gas, contracts to the point where the jet fails to bridge the pumping
aperture.
effective

diffusion

pump depends upon


of factors of which

a 10'

number
following

the

Q = 14.4

torr

liters/sec

may

be listed

1. Clearances between the nozzle and housing, particularly of the

Q=
10"

torr

liters

/sec

the smaller clearance generally giving the higher limiting


final stage;

forepressure
2.

Vapor pressure of the work;

10'

ing fluid

the higher vapor pressure

0,100

0.200 0.300

0.400 0.500

When

this condition

is

reached, there

is

direct

cation between the forevacuum

and high- vacuum

sides of the jet

communiand

giving

the

higher

limiting

fore-

Forepressure, torr

pressure

pumping ceases. The forepressure limit of a

diffusion

Q through pressure (e.g., by admitting an increasing flow of gas into the forevacuum region) with a constant or zero flow of gas into the diffusion-pump In the former method the pumping speed of the pump is found inlet. to be independent of the pressure until the forepressure limit is approached. The pumping speed then decreases rapidly with increasing' flow and finally reaches the pumping speed of the forepump. The curve in Fig. 6-18 shows the decrease in pumping speed as the forepressure reaches the limiting value. This effect can be presented more dramatically by plotting for a constant throughput Q, the inlet pressure as a function of the forepressure controlled by admitting air into the forevacuum region, as is done in Fig. 6-21. In this latter method the inlet pressure is found to be independent of the forepressure over a wide range and then to increase rapidly as the forepressure is increased beyond a critical value. The value of the forepressure at which the inlet pressure has increased above its normal value by 10 per cent can be used as an arbitrary definition of the limiting forepressure. The
increasing the flow rate
limiting forepressure as a function of the flow rate or throughput

pump may be explored either by the pump or by increasing the fore-

Power input into the boiler; the greater power input giving the
3.

Fig. 6-21. Inlet pressure as a function of forepressure with a constant value

of throughput for a 6-in. diffusion

higher limiting forepressure

pump.

Optimum design and operating conditions for a multistage diffusion pump are a compromise between these factors and others, such as the
rates of decomposition

and backstreaming of the working

fluid.

In

Fig. 6-23 are curves of inlet pressiu-e as a function of forepressure with lo.6
5
0.5

|o.4

^>

0.3
0.2

constant throughput for various values of the power input. It will be noted that for power input appreciably above that recommended for normal operation the

pumping speed
_
,-2

for

low gas flow

lo.i
2
3 5

7 ]Q-I

5 7
1

Iff

10

Throughput, torr

liters/sec

decreases as the power input and limiting forepressure increase. Increase in the power input,

Fig. 6-22. Limiting forepressure as a function of throughput for 6-in. diffusion pump.

and therefore the temperature and


density of the vapor in the firststage jet, causes greater expansion

256

VACtrUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VAPOB-JET VACUUM PUMPS

257

of the jet in leaving the nozzle and therefore more vapor molecules adversely directed on the surface of the jet exposed to the high vacuum. The result is a greater proportion of gas molecules knocked away from the jet by backward-moving vapor molecules before penetrating to the
core of the jet where they can be propelled toward the fore vacuum.
10"

The

first-stage jet

must withstand

o
0\J

o
r<S

CO

T3-

o o

not only the back pressure due to the gas being pumped, but also the higher vapor pressure from
the subsequent jets. The result is a change in the jet form which contributes to the condition men-

10"

oO
o

oo

larger Pj is, the smaller need 8^, be to meet this requirement. In Fig. 6-23 on the left is the throughput as a function of inlet pressure, showing the maximum reached at that value of the inlet pressure for which the forepressure is equal to its limiting value. From this characteristic of the diffusion-pump performance and a knowledge of the maximum throughput to be expected the required capacity of the forepump can be determined from (6-38). Alternatively, in a batch-processing system in which a short roughing-down time is important, the high limiting forepressure permits transfer from the relatively low pumping speed of the mechanical pump to the high speed of the diffusion pump at an earlier point in time. For systems of high throughput or of frequent pumpdown a high limiting fore-

The

- o,
o
10"*

o o ro
1

* * * oo o

pressure contributes to

economy and

efficiency.

J J J

Q.torr liters/sec

o c

tioned above. Also, in the case of organic fluids, as contrasted with mercury for producing the working vapor, the diecomposition rate increases rapidly with temperature.

^10
o o o 5

Some

of the components of

10"'

o O O O o_ 7 ;

oo _0 77
C\J

^ ?

the decomposition are permanent gases in the sense that they do not

Q,torr liters/sec

condense at any convenient trap temperature, and others are of comparatively high vapor pressure. These contaminants contribute further to the decrease in

10"

0,100

Q200

0.300

0.400 0.500

the

net pumping speed as the


is

In order to increase further the maximum throughput without increasing the size of the mechanical backing pump, an additional vapor-jet pump may be inserted at the exhaust of a diffusion pump. Two types of vapor- jet pumps using working fluids of higher vapor pressure than those normally used in diffusion pumps have been developed for this purpose, the booster diffusion pump and the oilvapor ejector pump. The former is similar in design to a diffusion pump except that the jet clearances are smaller and the number of stages is usually only two. The latter resembles the steam ejectors described at the beginning of this chapter, having a converging-diverging nozzle and a diflfuser. The designs of booster diffusion and oil ejector pumps are optimized for fluids such as butyl phthalate, butyl sebacate, highvapor-pressure hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and ethyl or propyl phthalate. Limiting backing pressures are typically of the
order of 0.5 torr for booster diffusion

Forepressure, torr

boiler temperature

increased.
is

pumps and

several torr for oil-

Fig. 6-23. Inlet pressure as a function of forepressure for various values of

high limiting forepressure

vapor ejector pumps.


diffusion

In addition to their usefulness in backing


ejectors are effective in rough
distillation of organic

important but not because of any


difficulty in attaining sufficiently

pumps, boosters and

vacuum

power input

for

6-in.

diffusion

applications such as

vacuum

materials and

pump.

low pressure with mechanical backing pumps to meet the requirements at low gas flow. A high limiting forepressure permits the continued operation of a vacuum system at the full pumping speed of the diffusion pump for a high gas flow or throughput with a backing pump of modest capacity. Since the throughput is Q = PS^,, then at the limiting forepressure for the diffusion pump the forepump speed must be
(6-38)

vacuum degassing
6-7.

of metals.

Factors Contributing to tlie Ultimate Pressure of a Diffusion Pump. The ultimate pressure of a diffusion pump is the inlet pressure which the pump maintains with zero gas flow. This definition is incomplete because the conditions of measurement are not defined. The use of low-vapor-pressure oil instead of mercury as a working fluid makes it possible under many circumstances to use
water-cooled baffles without a refrigerated trap for obtaining a sufficiently low base pressure for many applications. Because of the convenience of this type of operation it has become customary to define the ultimate pressure of an oil diffusion pump as the ionization-gauge reading obtained in a test dome protected from the direct backstreaming

order to maintain operation in which P,

is

the limiting forepressure.

258

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

259

vapor from the pump by a simple water-cooled baffle. For such measurements the air calibration of the ionization gauge is normally used, even though the residual gas remaining in the test dome is not air but is a mixture of gaseous and vaporous products of decomposition from the diffusion-pump fluid, as was briefly mentioned in Sec. 6-4. Some of the factors which influence the ultimate pressure as defined above are

e.

through the annular space between the nozzle structure and the pump housing from the free surface of oil in the reservoir. The evaporation of oil vapor from the region of the pump housing where the first-stage jet impinges and is intended to
condense.

The leakage of vapor from source (a) was easily eliminated by providing an unperforated cap and attaching it to the center post from below.
Wetting of the
to result
lip

of the umbrella
(6)

1.

Backstreaming of vaporized working fluid from the diffusion

of the first-stage jet

was found

Copper supporting arm

pump.

2.

Decomposition of the working fluid with the evolution of components which in part consist of condensable vapors of high vapor pressure and of permanent gases. Release in the vapor jet of forevacuum gases dissolved in the working fluid after condensation
boiler

from condensation of the working fluid on the bottom surface of the nozzle cap due to the
continual loss of heat

by

radiation.

3.

Heating the umbrella cap was found to eliminate "wet running" and reduce the backstreaming substantially. They found that evaporation and spitting from the region of the oil reservoir {d) could be

and carried into the by the circulating fluid.

by proper design of the The remaining sources of boiler. backstreaming (c) and (e) from the
eliminated
region of the

4.

Outgassing of surfaces on the high-vacuum side of the pump. Some aspects of the backstreaming of diffusion-pump
fluid

of

its

and the region impingement on the condensflrst jet

Fig.

6-25.

Water-cooled guard ring

ing wall were found to be substantial.

from diffusion-pump jet. [Taken with permission from B. D. Power and D. J.


to repress backstreaming

Fig.

Sources of vapor backpump. in a diffusion streaming [Taken with permission from B. D. Power and D. J. Crawley, Vacuum IV, 415 (1954).]
6-24.

from the jet region have already been briefly discussed

in Sec. 6-4.

The

results of a

comprehensive study of the backstreaming problem have been published by Power arid
diffusion

Working on the hypothesis Crawley, Vacuum IV, 415 (1954).] that the boundary layer of the jet adjacent to the nozzle surface consists largely of vapor molecules somewhat randomized in direction because of collisions with the nozzle surface, as illustrated in Fig. 6-11, they devised a water-cooled guard ring,
one form of which
is

shown

in Fig. 6-25, to intercept

Crawley.2*

They report that for a

pump

of typical design

randomly directed vapor When the bottom rim of the cap extends

molecules originating in the


sufficiently

and condense the boundary layer.


below the
lip

of

at the time of their investigation the sources of backstreaming vapor could be identified as indicated in Fig. 6-24 as
a.

6.

c.

d.

The leakage of vapor around the nut with which the "umbrella" for the first jet was secured to the center post. The wetting of the umbrella of the first jet by condensation of vapor on the lip followed by evaporation. The scattering of some oil molecules upward toward the inlet of the pump by collision processes in the first-stage jet. The evaporation of oil vapor and spitting of oil droplets up

the nozzle to intercept a significant portion of the jet, the backstreaming is found to be reduced by a factor of 10 to 30, depending upon the design of the pump tested. Except in pumps of small bore,

not reduced by addition of the cooled guard ring. Vekshinsky, Menshikov, and Rabinovichi* described the use of a water-cooled cap with a long skirt placed over the first-stage nozzle and reaching down far enough to intercept the boundary layer of the The funcjet to reduce the backstreaming, as illustrated in Fig. 6-26. described by ring guard tion of the cap is identical with that of the Power and Crawley.
the

pumping speed

is

260

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VAPOE-JET VACUUM PUMPS

261

The thermodynamic principles involved in the performance of a diffusion-pump boiler and nozzle system in producing vapor jets were examined theoretically and experimentally by Smith. ^^ Observation of the temperature of the oil in the boiler and that at various locations on the vapor stack and nozzle system showed that the stream issuing
from the nozzles in a typical commercial oil diffusion pump is a mixture of vapor and condensed fluid due to contact with relatively cold surfaces The "wet running" referred to by in the stack and nozzle assembly. Power and Crawley above was therefore attributed to condensation on
these cold surfaces.

vapor in the boiler to maintain the pressure required by the nozzles of the diffusion pump. It is noted that the boiler temperature for the particular diffusion pump tested increased more than it should for a
given increase in power input if the Clausius-Clapeyron equation for change of state and the Langmuir equation for the rate of vaporization both apply to the fluid. The conclusion reached as a consequence of these tests was that the pump boiler did not provide adequate surfaces of proper geometry to promote the generation of vapor at a rate high enough to supply the jets at the normal rate of evaporation. Increasing power input instead of increasing the rate of evaporation by a

temperature of the oil by more than the appropriate amount. By providing a tubular radiant heater down through the center of the jet assembly above the level of the oil and a separate heater attached to the top umbrella, the nozzle assembly could be kept at higher temperature than the oil in the boiler and the vapor thus superheated. As a consequence of these changes Smith found that the peak pumping speed of the pump was about one-third greater and the base pressure typically reduced by a factor of 2.5 as compared
signiflcant factor raised the

Enthalpy

6-26. Water-cooled cap diffusion-pump nozzle to repress backstreaming. [Taken with permission from S. A. Vekshinsky, M. I. Menshikov, and I. S. Rabinovich, Vacuum 9, 201 (1959).]

Fig.

Fig. 6-27. Curve of enthalpy as a

over

function of temperature for diffu-

sion-pump fluid. [Taken with permission from H. R. Smith, in 1959

Vacuum Symposium

Transactions
I960).]

with the performance of the pump without the axial superheater and top nozzle heater in operation. Another approach to the problem of jet formation is that described by Florescu,* who has developed a special coaxial nozzle illustrated in Fig. 6-28. The nozzle consists of a central cylindrical section which, because of the lack of any expansion, produces a dense, low-velocity jet core and an outer de Laval type of expanding nozzle which produces a supersonic jet of low density. According to the author, the coaxial nozzle reduces backstreaming substantially but at the same time
provides the high-density core necessary for effective pumping against a high forepressure. The coaxial nozzle had not been incorporated
in

(Pergamon Press, London,

any commercial diffusion-pump design of which the author was

Smith points out that a minimum


well-defined supersonic jet
is

requirement for the formation of a

familiar at the time of writing this section.

vapor to be everywhere abovfe the vapor-mixture line on the enthalpy diagram as represented by point 3 in Fig. 6-27, corresponding to superheated vapor. The amount of superheating desired is such that in expanding through the nozzle the vapor temperature does not drop below that corresponding to point 1 in Fig. 6-27 on the vapor-mixture line. Cooling to a lower temperature corresponding to point 2, which is in the mixture zone, during expansion through the nozzle will result in some condensation with the formation of droplets of oil in the jet stream and a deposit of a film of liquid oil on the nozzle surfaces. Another requirement discussed by Smith is the generation of sufficient
for the oil

In two excellent papers Hablanian and his colleagues^*'^' have reported results on the backstreaming rates and the sources of backstreaming vapor for diffusion pumps of improved design. They measured the backstreaming rate for a 6-in. diffusion pump with the apparatus shown in Fig. 6-29. The backstreaming oil vapor was caught on the walls of a chamber mounted on the pump with a flange cut conically at the top to admit all oil molecules leaving the rim of the top nozzle and flying directly out of the pump inlet. The oil ac-

cumulation drained into the calibrated collector was measured periodduring each run. With the flrst-stage nozzle, as illustrated in Fig. 6-29, the backstreaming rates shown in Fig. 6-30 were obtained.
ically

262

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

263

the chamber was thoroughly cleaned before the run, the curve was obtained; whereas when the inner surfaces of the chamber were dehberately wetted in advance with diffusion pump oil, the curve labeled wet dome resulted. It may be seen that about forty hours of operation were required to reach a steady rate with the
labeled dry dome

When

wet dome, but nearly twice that long was required with the dry dome. The authors emphasize the need for long periods

ments of

of operation to reach equilibrium rates in experithis type.

Bockstreoming
foctor

By inserting lengths of pipe between


ing chamber and the
Ion

the collect-

IT
05

pump, the dependence of the


to

gouge

Collector'

Fio.

6-28.

Coaxial diffu-

sion-pump nozzle. [Taken with permission from N. A. Florescu, Vacuum 10, 250 (I960).]

Fig. 6-29. Apparatus for backstreaming measurements. [Taken with permission from M. H. Hablanian and H. A. Steinherz, in 1961 Vacuum

Symposium Transactions (Pergamon


Press,

London,

1962).]

backstreaming rate on the length of connecting pipe was measured, with results shown in Fig. 6-31. The decrease in pumping speed due to the added lengths of connecting pipe is also shown. The insertion of a length of pipe equal to 1.5 diameters of the pump reduces backstreaming to only about 2.5 per cent of the original value, whereas the pumping speed is reduced to about 63 per cent. Thus for the simple,uncovered firststage nozzle used in these tests the backstreaming rate could be reduced by a large factor by insertion of a length of connecting tubing without
excessive loss in the resulting

03

IT

0.5 to

02

to

015

O02to0.01

Fig. 6-32. Effect of cold-cap configura-

pumping

speed.

on backstream[Taken with permission from M. H. Hablanian and H. A.


tion
ing.

.0.04

V
05
Dry

1
Speed
\ "

;0,02

dome

50

100
D

Bockst reoming

shapes added to Steinherz, in 7967 Vacuum Symposium, the original simple first-stage nozzle is shown in Transactions (PergaFig. 6-32. For the type of water-cooled cap mon Press, London, adopted as standard the reduction in backstream- 1962).] ing rate was a factor of 0.02 to 0.01. Applying this factor to the asymptotic results shown in Fig. 6-30, one obtained 0.024 to 0.012 mg/cm^ hr as the backstreaming rate for the pump with optimized cold cap, which is said not to impair pumping speed. This backstreaming rate is of the same order as, but slightly smaller
effect of various cold-cap

The

2D

Time.hr

Distance from

pump

inlet

than, that reported design.

by Hickman^"

for a

pump

of similar improved

Fig.

6-30.

Backstreaming

rates

Fig.

6-31. Effect

of

length

of

measured by two different techniques showing eventual agreement between the methods after sufRciently long running time. [Taken with permission from M. H. Hablanian and H. A. Steinherz, in 1961

connecting pipe on backstreaming rate. [Taken with permission from M. H. Hablanian and H. A. Steinherz, in 7967 Vacuum Sym,posium Transactions (Pergamon Press,

Hablanian and Steinherz^" have also reported results on the backstreaming rate as a function of inlet pressure which show a rapid increase with pressure as the pressure exceeds lO^^* torr. The results
are shown in Fig. 6-33, in this case using a 32-in. diffusion pump and a different tjrpe of collecting system. The change in backstreaming rate is negligible with increasing pressure until the inlet pressure

London,

Vacuum Symposium

1962).]

Transactions
1963).]

(Pergamon Press, London,

reaches 10-^ torr; then the rate increases by more than a factor of 1,000 as the inlet pressure increases from 10^^ to 10-^ torr. In systems

264

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

265

requiring contaminant-free operation the need for avoiding highpressure operation of the diffusion pumps is emphasized by these results, which are more quantitative but entirely consistent vi^ith

previous results, such as those of Power and Crawley.^* In a study of the remaining sources of backstreaming in a diffusion pump with a water-cooled cap over the first-stage nozzle, Hablanian

vapor flow required by the jets determines the power input necessary The power density must be relatively low in for effective pumping. order to avoid local hot spots resulting in a high decomposition rate and eruptive boiling. Erratic pressure surges, excessive backstreaming, and poor average base pressure are observed in the performance of most of the older types of oil diffusion pump. Stevenson^^ describes a major advance in boiler design, in which the heat-transfer area is not only large as compared with that of previous designs but is in the form Glass tape O.OI4in of hot baffles which extend up above
I

the fluid level, providing flash heating of droplets


fluid
1,000
*

thrown up from the and superheating of the vapor.

100
/
:

/
/

Stevenson reports a much lower of decomposition, broader pumping-speed curve, higher peak
rate

pumping

speed,

and higher

limiting

forepressure

10 r
= /
/

/
/

than were obtained with heater systems previously used. A further advance in heater

Nichrome

xO.OOl

in.

"

10"^
Inlet

0.1

10"^

10"^

10"'

10"2

10"'

pressure, torr

-6-in, diffusion

pump (HS-6-1500)

Fig.

6-33.

Backstreaming rate

vs.

a 32-in. diffusion pump (fluid: Narcoil 40). [Taken with permission from M. H. Hablanian and H. A. Steinherz, in 19C)1 Vacuum Symposium TransacHofis
inlet pressure for

Fig. 6-34. Experimental arrangement for detection of backstreaming source. [Reprinted with permission from The

(Pergamon Press, London,

1962).]

Macmillan Company from M. H. Hablanian, in 1962 Vacuum Sym,posium Transactions. Copyright 1962 by American Vacuum Society.]

Fig. 6-35. Diffusion-pump heater of design for diffusion pumps is reported by Milleron and Levenson.^* Milleron and Levenson. [Taken with permission from X. Milleron and L. Their heater consists of a corruL. Levenson, in 1961 Vacuum Symgated strip of Nichrome wound posium Transactions (Pergamon into a spiral with a strip of glass Press, London, 1962).] tape to provide insulation between adjacent turns. The heater, as shown in Fig. 6-35, is operated only partially submerged at the surface of the oil. Even with a high rate of evaporation from the surface, the oil below the heater remains

relatively cool.

uses a pinhole camera technique, as illustrated in Fig. 6-34. His conclusion is that the remaining major source of backstreaming is the region of the jet around the edge of the cold cap.

Stevenson^' has demonstrated a pronounced effect of the shape of the upon the backstreaming rate of a diffusion pump. Backstreaming from the first-stage vapor jet may be thought of either
first-stage nozzle

always occurs at operating temperature, the decomposition rate depending upon a number of factors. In Sec. 6-4 various fluids are rated in terms of their relative ruggedness. In all cases, as one should expect, the decomposition rate increases rapidly with the boiler temperature. The heat transfer area in contact with the oil is an important design parameter which has recently received critical study. Several observers have noted the occurrence of eruptive boiling resulting from

Decomposition of the working

fluid in

an

oil

diffusion

pump

an

insufficient heat-transfer area.

The heat of vaporization

for the

some of the oil molecules toward the pump expansion of a coherent supersonic vapor jet into a region of relatively low surrounding gas pressure, both of which processes are illustrated schematically in Fig. 6-36 from Stevenson's paper. The distribution of backstreaming vapor from the jet was measured by catching the condensed vapor as it drained down the wall of the extended pump casing into a series of gutters arranged at several heights above the pump nozzle, the first gutter being located at the same height as the lip of the pump nozzle, as shown in Fig. 6-37. The apparatus also provided means of draining off the oil vapor
as a

random

scattering of

inlet or as the directed

266

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

267

Directional scottering

from

this

curves shown for the various nozzle configurations tested. The dotted curve shows the correction to the 45 curve due to subtraction of backstreaming from the lower jets. From these results Stevenson

portion of the coherent vopor jet

Random scattering

concludes that the rate of backstreaming of oil diffusion pumps can be by improving the configuration of the nozzle. The paper does not give any data, however, on the effect on pumping
substantially reduced

o
c

o D

speed of various gases such as nitrogen and hydrogen caused by changmanner described. If the improvement in backstreaming results in a decrease in vapor-jet density, it may also result in a poorer ratio of pumping speed for hydrogen relative to that for air, which would be a distinct disadvantage for some applicaing the nozzle configuration in the
tions.

o o

The
is

rate

of decomposition

increased

by the

catalytic effect of

of diffusion-pump fluids is greatly some materials of construction and

self-catalytic in the sense that the

carbon deposits resulting from the

o
Return
line to boiler

1.0

Fig. 6-36. Nature of backstreaming. [Reprinted with permission from The Macmillan Company, from D. L. Stevenson, in 1963 Vacuum Symposium Transactions. Copyright 1963 by American Vacuum Society.]

Fig. 6-37. Schematic diagram of test apparatus for measuring amount and distribution of backstreaming. [Reprinted with permission from The Macmillan Company, from D. L. Stevenson, in 1963 Vacuum Sym,posium, Transactions. Copyright 1963 by

1 ' 1
' 1

' 1
1

>.

r1
1

: -

-30
1

*I5 -15

American Vacuum

Society.]

condensed on the top of the test chamber. The oil flow from each of the collecting surfaces was conveyed by a tube to a separate buret so that the accumulation during a specified period of time could be measured. The backstreaming total rate was measured as a function
of the angle of the lower

1.0

\\
I

NX.
A

member

of the nozzle, as

shown

Correction

in Fig. 6-38.

^
B

_ bosed

on effect of

The angle of the conical surface of the lower member of the nozzle was varied from +15 (protruding) to 45 (receding) relative to the^ vertical. Curve A was obtained with normal heater power input and curve B with heater input reduced about 18 per cent. The dotted curves are corrections to curves A and B due to a measurement of the backstreaming contributed by the lower jets of the pump. It is
apparent from these results that the total backstreaming rate is reduced by a factor of about 5 by changing the angle in question from + 15 to

installation of a baffle

under the first stoge

.1,1,1
0
-15

+ 15

-30

-45

20

40
Angle, deg

60

Angle

of inner wall of

nozzle

Fig.

6-38. Relative
for

backstreaming
configurations.

rates of total various nozzle [Reprinted with per-

Fig. 6-39. Distribution of relative rates of backstreaming as a function of the angle above the plane of the

The distribution of relative rates of backstreaming as determined by readings on the separate collection burets is shown in Fig. 6-39. The rapid decrease in backstreaming rate as a function of the
average angle above the plane of the nozzle
lip is

45.

mission from The Macmillan Company, from D. L. Stevenson, in 1963

Vacuum
Copyright

Symposium

Transactions.

1963

by

American

Vacuum

Society.]

diffusion-pump nozzle. [Reprinted with permission from The INIacmillan Company, from D. L. Stevenson, in 1963 Vacuum Symposium Transby actions. Copyright 1963

evident from the

American Vacuum

Society.]

268

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Insufficient quantitative

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

269
If this flow
is

decomposition act as a catalyst.


fluids

work on the

radially inward

toward the center of the

reservoir.

role of materials in catalyzing the decomposition of diffusion-pump

has been reported to permit a detailed discussion of the subject. However, the decomposition rate in glass pumps is apparently sigHot aluminum in nificantly less than in comparable metal pumps. However, undesirable. as regarded with the working fluid is contact are so fluids used of the properties differences chemical individual in
great that generalizations are not valid. The products of decomposition of diffusion-pump fluids consist of materials of both higher and lower vapor pressure than the original
fluid.

impeded by barriers with small openings, the fluid is heated substantially while it is still near the outer portion of the reservoir so that high-vapor-pressure constituents are boiled off near the outside. As the fluid flows toward the center it is further heated and lowervapor-pressure components are vaporized. The nozzle stack is constructed of concentric tubes arranged such that each nozzle receives

Those of

sufficiently high

vapor pressure act as permanent

gases in the sense that their vapor pressures are so large that they are

not condensed on liquid-nitrogen-cooled baffles. Other products are heavy liquids and solids of very low vapor pressure which accumulate in the boiler and eventually clog the nozzle system with a dark deposit. Because an appreciable decomposition rate is typical of diffusion-pump
operation, the ultimate pressure, even with good liquid-nitrogen-cooled baffles, is limited by the rate of decomposition and production of high-

vapor-pressure products which migrate into the high-vacuum system beyond the baffles and must then be pumped out again. Best results
in terms of very

pump

is

low ultimate pressure are obtained when a diffusion run with low power input and with a fluid of greater than

normal

stability.

point fluids were

and Purging. From the time high-boilingintroduced by Burch^" in 1928 for use instead of mercury in diffusion pumps, the need for continual purification to eliminate high-vapor-pressure components initially present in the oil, or produced during operation by decomposition, was realized. Hickman'i and his collaborators were largely responsible for the systematic study of decomposition and contamination of diffusion-pump fluids and the development of specific mechanisms for purging the pump6-8. Fractionation
first

Fig. 6-40. Two-stage fractionating glass diffusion pump. [Reproduced through the courtesy of ConsoHdated Vacuum Corp., Rochester, N.Y.]

vapor from only a

specific

annular region of the

boiler.

The backing

and separating the remaining Figure 6-40 shows a two-stagb glass diffusion pump with boiler compartments to separate the fluid roughly according to the vapor pressure of the constituents and catchment lobes on the exhaust arm of the pump for elimination of high-vapor-pressure components into the backing pump. Large horizontal pumps of metal construction based upon the glass fractionating designs were developed but have not proved to be as convenient
boiler

of

undesirable

constituents

constituents in the proper order.

from the outer portion of the boiler where the vapor pressure is highest, and the first jet receives vapor from the central section where the vapor pressure of the fluid is the lowest. One advantage claimed for the mechanism of fractionation is that the high-vacuum jet is supplied only by the relatively low-vapor-pressure constituents of the working fluid, contributing to a lower backstreaming rate and vapor pressure at the inlet of the pump. Another advantage
or flnal jet receives vapor

claimed is a higher forepressure tolerance because of the relatively high vapor pressure of the constituents forming the backing or final jet.
in

in practice as

pumps

of vertical design.

have been incorporated into the design of metal vertical pumps. One of many such designs is illustrated in Fig. 6-41. Fluid returning from the jets to the boiler flows
principles of fractionation

The

However, these advantages have not been as clearly demonstrated commercial diffusion pumps of metal construction as in glass pumps

of the type fllustrated in Fig. 6-40, at least in part because of the process of reverse fractionation discussed by Hickman. ^^'^^

270

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

VAPOR-JET VACUUM PUMPS

271

disadvantage in the construction of a metal fractionating pump is the low conductance for vapor flow to the nozzles inherent in the concentric tube design for the nozzle stack. Because of the relatively small gain

by the introduction of fractionathe limitations imposed by the presence of the concentric tubes against significant improvements to the
in ultimate

vacuum

actually achieved

tion in metal diffusion


boiler

pumps and

to gain

and jet system, the design trend has been away from fractionation some of the features described in the previous section. All

recent commercial

pump

designs, such as those illustrated in Figs. 6-9

and

6-10, as of the date of this writing (1964), achieve better perform-

ance without the fractionating feature than earlier designs of either


fractionating or nonfractionating pumps.

Distinct from the question of fractionation of the diffusion-pump

Fig. 6-41. Three-stage fractionating oil diffusion pump of metal construction. Effective fractionation can only be obtained by careful separation of the respective boiler zones. This is obtained by shaping the component resting on the pump base plate as shown (shaded). The lower jet cap is at the same height asthe lower end of the cooling jacket. As a result, the oil flowing down the walls is

components according to vapor pressure is the problem of purging the pump fluid of high- vapor-pressure components by ejection into the forevacuum. Hickman^^ and Latham, Power, and Dennis^^ have demonstrated that complete ejection of the more volatile constituents of the working fluid from the pump is more effective than fractionation. The rate of ejection of volatiles in a design such as that shown in Fig. 6-9 is influenced by the vertical spacing from the bottom nozzle to the liquid level in the reservoir and the temperature of the pump housing on which the oil condenses. The temperature of the pump housing near the top must be cool to ensure efficient condensation of the fluid from the first jet. In some applications the top few turns of tubing are separated from the rest of the cooling coil and either cooled by chilled water just above the freezing point or by a mechanical refrigerator to reduce further the vapor pressure at the inlet of the pump. However, the wall temperature should preferably increase from the region of condensation of the first jet to a considerably higher temperature below the bottom jet so that higher- vapor-pressure components which are condensed near the top are evaporated as the
fluid into

warmed,

facilitating degassing.

[Taken with permission from H. G.

Nollei-,

fluid drains

Vacuum

V, 59 (1955).]

The partial condensation of the vapor on the inner walls of the tubes supplying vapor to the nozzles in fractionating pumps, such as that shown in Fig. 6-41, is held to be responsible for a reversal of the desired direction of fractionation. Furthermore, the separation of the fluid into constituents according to vapor pressure is not as well controlled or efficient in the commercial metal pumps as in the glass fractionating pump, such as that shown in Fig. 6-40, since the concentrically divided boiler of the vertical metal pump is not the equivalent of the separated boiler compartments of the horizontal glass pump. Another serious

down the housing wall toward the backing jet and pumped out with the permanent gas into the forevacuum. The forevacuum section of the diffusion pump must also be allowed to run warm so that the more volatile constituents of the effluent will not be condensed and permitted to flow back into the boiler. The optimum temperature distribution is a compromise which allows a sufficiently high rate of ejection of volatiles from the pump without
permitting an excessive rate of loss of pump fluid into the forevacuum. For a given pump design the stability and vapor pressure of the fluid are factors which determine the optimum temperature distribution along the pump housing and forevacuum connection. An extreme example mentioned in Sec. 6-4 is OS- 124 (Monsanto Chemical Company)

272
for

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


3;

VAPOB-JET VACUUM PUMPS

273

which best performance was obtained by Batzer" when the lower end of the pump housing was allowed to run at 90 to 100C. his6-9. Resume of Diffusion-pump Performance. Although upon was based torically the original development of diffusion pumps
eff'ort mercury as the working fluid, since about 1930 the far greater diffusion has been devoted to understanding and improving "oil" oil pumps. With a few important exceptions listed in Sec. 6-4, nearly used on diffusion pumps instead of mercury diffusion pumps are certain inherent of spite In systems. electronuclear and industrial all

4.
5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

factor advantages of mercury, such as chemical stability, the speed mercury greater than for (6-37) for oil diffusion pumps is significantly
diffusion

pumps.
fluids,

usually referred to as oils, now available for use that about equal to in diffusion pumps range in vapor pressure from vapor mercury down to such low values that the room-temperature

Organic

Saul Dushman, Scientific Foundations of Vacuum Technique (John Wiley & ons, Inc., New York, 1949). W. Gaede, Ann. Physik 46, 357 (1915); Z. Tech. Physik 4, 337 (1923). R. Jaekel, in Proceedings First International Congress on Vacuum Technology, 1958 (Pergamon Press, London, 1960), p. 21. R. Jaekel, Kleinste Drucke (Springer-Verlag, 1950), pp. 140-197. H. G. Noller, Vacuum V, 59 (1955). N. A. Floresou, Vacuum 10, 250 (1960). E. H. Kennard, Kinetic Theory of Oases (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1938), p. 108, p. 194. P. Alexander, J. Sci. Instr. 23, 11 (1946). Smithsonian Physical Tables, 9th rev. ed. 1954, p. 40. D. Latham, B. D. Power, and N. T. M. Dennis, Vacuum II, 33 (1952). 188, 62 (1946). J. Blears, Nature 154, 20 (1944); Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) K. C. D. Hickman, Nature 187, 405 (1960). T. H. Batzer, in 1961 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press,

16.

high-temperature pressure can only be estimated by extrapolation from hydromeasurements. Narrow cuts of petroleum oils, chlorinated been have carbons, and a wide variety of synthetic organic fluids high of In the development of synthetic fluids used.
successfully

17.

18.

London, 1962), p. 315. K. C. D. Hickman, in 1961 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1962), p. 307. B. D. Power, N. T. M. Dennis, and D. J. Crawley, in 1961 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1962), p. 1218. S. A. Vekshinsky, M. I. Menshikov, and I. S. Rabinovich, Vacuum 9, 201
(1959).

an molecular stability and low vapor pressure there would appear to be stable Highly opportunity for continued improvement in the future. to meet an fluids with a wide range of vapor pressures are needed extreme range in performance from high pumping speed at low ultimate pressure to high throughput at high backing pressure. The performance of diffusion pumps can be judged in terms of the
forebase pressure, backstreaming rate, speed factor, and limiting Several industrial vacuum firms have demonstrated difpressure. fusion pump designs for which
1.

19.

Warren W. Chupp, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Berkeley,

Calif.,

private

20.
21.

22.

23.

24.
25.

The base pressure

for baflftes at 20C

is

of the order of lO^' torr

26.

using Silicone 705 or OS- 124 fluid. g/cm^ min. 2. The backstreaming rate is of the order of lO"" the order of 0.5. of is (6-37) 3. The speed factor as defined in Eq.
4.

27.

28. 29.

The

limiting forepressure

is

0.3 torr or higher.

System designs should be based upon the assumption that diffusion pumps meeting approximately the above performance specifications
can be obtained.

30.
31.

32.

REFERENCES
1.

33. J.

communication T. L. Ho, Physics 2, 386 (1932). H. G. Noller, G. Reich, and W. Bachler, in 1959 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1960), p. 72. D. L. Stevenson, in 1959 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1960), p. 134. C. E. Normand, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, private communication. B. D. Power and D. J. Crawley, Vacuum IV, 415 (1954). H. R. Smith, in 1959 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1960), p. 140. M. H. Hablanian and H. A. Steinherz, in 1961 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1962), p. 333. M. H. Hablanian, in 1962 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1962), p. 384. Norman Milleron and L. L. Levenson, in 1961 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1962), p. 342. D. L. Stevenson, in 1963 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1963), p. 134. R. C. Burch, Nature 122, 729 (1928). K. C. D. Hickman, J. Franklin Inst. 221, 215 and 383 (1936). K. C. D. Hickman and J. J. Kinsella, in 1956 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1957), p. 52. K. C. D. Hickman, Rev. Sci. Instr. 22, 141 (1951).

M. LeBlanc, in L. Dunoyer, Vacuum Practice, trans, by Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, 1962), pp. 41-42.
London, 1958),
p. 88.

H. Smith

(D.

Van

2.

V. V. Fondrk, in 19S7 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Porgamon Press,

THE MEASUREMENT OF PUMPING SPEED

275

of surfaces reach a balance in a relatively short time, particularly for permanent gases, so that if Q (the admitted flow) is kept constant,
Qf,

(the outgassing rate) rapidly approaches zero

and the pressure

reaches the value given in (7-3) rather quickly.

CHAPTER

Also, in the case of mechanical

vacuum pumps,

the

pumping speed

varies considerably with the inlet pressure, decreasing rapidly with

THE MEASUREMENT OF PUMPING SPEED

decreasing pressure near the ultimate pressure Pq of the pump. Thus the ultimate pressure is determined not so much by the outgassing
in the

system as

it is

by the decreasing pumping speed approaching


rate Qg
is

zero at the ultimate pressure.


7-1. Alternative Definitions of

Pumping
is

Speed.

The

Whether the outgassing


basic

important

(or

whether there
0,

is

an

equation for the pressure in a

vacuum system

excessive leak in the system) can be ascertained

by

closing off a valve at

the
(7-1)

pump so

that

0.

Then with the flow Q

Eq.

(7-1)

becomes

PS
in

dP
dt

Qo

dP
'dt

Qo

V
p -u9if
;7-4)

which

is

system, S is the system for which

the pressure measured at some particular point in the the pumping speed at that same point, V is the volume of

or

S is

the effective

pumping

speed,

Q is the throughyields a linear curve, the slope of

put
is

(e.g., in torr liters/sec) of gas flowing into the system, and Qg the gas flow due to interior surface outgassing. Thus, in general,

Observation of the pressure several times during the pressure rise which is Qo/ V. By putting the result-

the

pumping speed

is

^^-P^

VdP

Qo

and dPjdt 0, the ing value of Qo into (7-1) with Q speed at the ultimate pressure can then be determined from
On
If the
Sf, is

pumping

P
a

In order to measure the pumping speed, conditions are imposed on the system so that a simplified form of Eq. (7-2) is applicable. For example, if the outgassing rate is negligible {Qq = 0) and the system is operated at constant pressure with a steady flow of gas {Q = const) entering the system, then dPjdt = and from what remains of (7-2)

-;^

^0

(7-5)

system is free of accidental leaks then, for mechanical pumps, generally very small as compared with the value of S at higher

pressures

-I
as given in (2-1).

(7-3)

This expression is sometimes used as the definition of pumping speed and is a valid basis for measuring the pumping speed in the pressure range of most oil-sealed mechanical pumps, provided
the pressure measured actually corresponds to the gas admitted to the system, as discussed in Sec. 5-3. If air is admitted to the system at a measured flow rate Q and the pressure measured with a McLeod gauge, then because of the compression effect of the McLeod gauge, as described in Sec. 3-4, the pressure reading will be just the partial pressure of the permanent gas (in this case air) admitted to the system at the
Also, in the pressure regime of oil-sealed mechanical pumps the sorption processes (adsorption and desorption)

and can be neglected. In the case of diffusion pumps, however, the situation is quite different. As discussed in Sec. 6-5, the pumping speed of a diffusion pump is essentially independent of the pressure over the range in which measurements are normally carried out. The ultimate pressure is then not the result of the pumping speed approaching zero but of a limitation on the attainable pressure due to the outgassing rate Q^. The situation is frequently such that a base pressure is soon reached which then
changes only very slowly with the time because the outgassing rate becomes nearly constant. Returning to (7-1) for the case in which the system is operated at constant pressure, we have

PS = Q +
and

Qo
(7-6)

measured flow rate Q.

274

276

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEEING

THE MEASUREMENT OF PUMPING SPEED

277

SO that instead of (7-3)

we have the equivalent

of (6-34)

(7-7)

which is unambiguous only if the pumping speed is essentially independent of the pressure. In this case it also follows that

In the pressure regime of diffusion-pump operation (7-9) and (7-10) do not generally apply because the outgassing rate is an important However, in this case the outgassing factor near the base pressure. rate rather soon reaches a nearly constant value, changing slowly enough that it may be regarded a constant during the period required In this case Eq. (7-1) can be written for a pumpdown test.
dP_

S
Thus
if the

PS +

Q,

(7-11)

P2-P1
Q
is

(7-8)

dt

equilibrium pressure

P is measured for each of several values


plotted against the resulting P,
S, as illustrated in

of the gas flow Q, in sequence, and then the slope of the curve is the
Fig. 7-1.
Still

pumping speed of a diffusion pump is independent of the since for periods of interest the outgassing rate Q may and pressure constant, the value of Q^ can be substituted from (7-6) regarded as be
Since the
so that

pumping speed

dP
speed can, in principle, be

another way in which the pumping determined is by observing the pressure as a function of the time as the system is pumped down. If the and the outgassing gas flow Q = rate Q^, is negligible, then from (7-1)

F
where
yields
P,, is

^ = -S(P at

Po)

the base pressure.

Rearranging terms and integrating

Jp,

dP
Sdt
(7-9)

so that

In

by integrating and arranging we have


so

that

re-

and

~ V k dt P P-Po 8 P Po = - T7 V Pi~Po V S = 2.30


(*2

^1)

P1--P0
logi

(7-12)

^1

V
2.30
login

^
(7-10)

P,

When

the assumptions leading to Eq. (7-11) are vahd, then Eq. (7-12)

Unfortunately, there are very few


Pressure, P

real situations to

which

this ideal

equation applies. In Fig. 7-1. Graph of throughput the regime of mechanical roughing against resulting pressure for determination of the pumping speed. pumps, the pressure usually changes so rapidly during the pumpdown operation that the outgassing rate is not negligible and is changing with time. Only if the volume of the system is very large as compared with the displacement speed of the pump, so that the pressure changes slowly during pumpdown, will observations based upon Eq. (7-10) check approximately with the known pumping speed of a mechanical vacuum pump. In this case the walls remain nearly in equilibrium with the pressure in the system and outgassing does not play an important role.

pumpdown

provides a basis for pumping-speed measurement which has certain Measurement of the gas flow is not required, and distinct advantages. the gauge constant cancels out, provided that the gauge is linear over the pressure range of the measurement. The volume of a system can generally be determined with fair precision from external dimensions. The procedure is simply to pump down the system to a steady base
pressure, then let in

enough air (preferably through a drying tube) to bring the pressure back up by a factor of 10 or more, and flnally to read the pressure at several specific values of the time as the system pumps down again. This procedure works well on large systems,
particularly
is

not so
7-2.

when the rate of change of pressure during pumpdown rapid as to make pressure readings difficult.
of

Measurement

Gas Flow.

Pumping-speed measurements

for determining

vacuum-pump performance are predominantly carried out under conditions of constant flow. The full range over which gas
must be controlled and measured for the routine measurement of pumping speeds of commercial vacuum pumps extends from about 10"
flow

278

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Gas
feet per

THE MEASUREMENT OF PUMPING SPEED

279

is normally admitted through a an appropriate test dome mounted on the pump and the flow rate controlled to a value at which the desired pressure is maintained. The gas flow must be measured in such a way that the volume per second and the pressure are both known, so that In those cases in which the throughput Q = P{dVjdt) is determined. no significant pressure drop occurs in the flow-measuring device, the

to about 10-5 torr liters/sec.

control valve or standard orifice into

pound. The parameter c is the nozzle coefficient and generally has a value close to unity. Since from Eq. (1-8) the gas density is

W
V

MP
R,T
is

the critical volume flow through the orifice

progress.

is the barometric pressure when the test is in In those cases in which there is a pressure drop, the value of the pressure at which the flow dVjdt is measured must be determined. Some of the devices commonly used for throughput determination in

pressure of interest

dt

p dt

=
by
substituting R^
air,

4904c|

Ml

Z)2

cm^/sec
1-2.

(7-15)

various flow ranges will be briefly described. Calibrated Orifice. For large flow rates a calibrated orifice connected to the test dome through a gate valve is convenient and

=
dY
dt

62,364 from Table

For
20C

for

which

M = 28.98,
15.6

at a

normal room temperature of

atmospheric pressure or any desired gas maintained at a controlled pressure in a tank upstream from the orifice flows into the system at a rate determined by the diameter of the
reliable.

The surrounding

air at

=
=

103cZ)2

cm^/sec
(7-16)

and the temperature, average molecular weight, and pressure of the gas upstream of the orifice. The flow rate is independent of the pressure downstream from the oriflce, provided that the pressure is less
oriflce

15.60c7)2

liters/sec

when

D is

measured

in centimeters, or

than the critical pressure given in Eq. (6-1), as in the case of the flow of steam through an ejector nozzle. For the common diatomic gases y = 1.40, so that the critical pressure from (6-1) is
P,

dV
dt

213.3cZ'2

cfm

(7- 16a)

0.535Pi

(7-13)

where P^

The

critical

given by

the pressure upstream from the orifice. mass flow through an oriflce under these conditions Eq. (6-7), which for a diatomic gas becomes
is

is

D is measured in inches. For example, the approximate critical flow of atmospheric air through an orifice of 1 in. throat diameter under the above conditions is 100.6 liters/sec or 213.3 cfm, obtained by setting c = 1 in the above equation. If atmospheric pressure is 760 torr, then the throughput for air through
when
a
1-in. -diameter orifice is

dM =
HI
when the
pressure
is

0.538c(Pipy^'D^

g/sec

(7-14)

= P =
dt

760 X 100.6

7.65

10* torr liters/sec

measured

in /ibars (dynes per square centimeter)


orifice,
is

760 X 213.3

1.62

x 10^ torr cfm

and D, the diameter at the throat of the

in centimeters

dW
or
dt

-^ =

19.64c(Pip)'^^Z2

g/sec

(7-14a)

In practice the values of the temperature and pressure at the time of the measurement must be substituted in (7-15). The exact value of the nozzle coefficient depends upon the flow For testing the conditions and the detailed shape of the orifice.
"capacity" or pumping speed of steam ejectors, the Heat Exchange Institute! * has developed a standardized long radius orifice, the design

when

the pressure

is

measured

in torr.

Finally,

dW
11
in the usual engineering

915c(Pi/Fi)'^i)^

Ib/hr

(7-146)

of which

is

shown

in Fig. 7-2.

The arrangement prescribed by the


orifices in

institute for the

mounting of the standard

pumping-speed

pounds per square

inch,

form in which D is in inches, the pressure is in and F^ = 1/p is the specific volume in cubic

References indicated by superscript numbers are listed at the end of the

chapter.

280

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE MEASUREMENT OF PUMPING SPEED

281

measurements is shown in Fig. 7-3. The above reference also gives tables and graphs of flow rates in pounds of air per hour for a sequence of standard nozzles ranging in throat diameter from 0.0625 in. to 1.0 in. Table 7-1 contains a sample of the data given in one section of the above reference with the flow rates in pounds per hour as in the original, and also for convenience
with the flow rates converted to torr cubic feet per minute and These to torr liters per second. values differ very little in general from those calculated from (7-15)

-Manometer

ly^^^ Downstream pressure tap


To ejector suction

*-

Control volves

by assuming that

1,

indicat-

ing that for flow in the range of interest for vacuum applications

the nozzle

coefficient

for
is

the

HEI standard orifice

shape

very

Fig. 7-3. Arrangement of standard orifice for critical air-flow tests. [Reprinted from the Standards for Steam Jet Ejectors, 3rd ed. Copyright 1956 by the Heat Exchange Institute, 122 East 42nd Street, Xew Yorlc, N.Y. 10017.]

nearly equal to 1. The tables and curves permit accurate determination of the critical flow rates

Table

7-1.

Critical

Flow Rates fob Heat Exchange Institute Standard


Orifices *t

7-2. Proportions of standard Fig. long-radius flow nozzle recommended by the Heat Exchange Institute for [Reprinted gas-flow determination. from the Standards for Steam Jet Copyright 1956 by Ejectors, 3rd ed. the Heat Exchange Institute, 122 East 42nd Street, New Yorli, N.Y. 10017.]

wide range of atmospheric pressure and temperature for the


for a
full

Dry Air

at 70F

and Barometer Pressure of

30.0 in.

Hg =

762 torr

Density
Orifice

0.07510
flow

Ib/ft^

1.203 g/liter
Throi] ghput
torr

listed in

is

of standardized orifices Table 7-1. Also in Ref. 1 a detailed method given for computing the nozzle
set

Volume
in.

Mass
flow Ib/hr
3.65 8.18
14.6
33.1

HEI
no.
1

diameter,
0.063 0.094 0.125 0.188 0.250 0.313 0.375 0.500 0.750 1.000
1.250 1.500

cfm
0.810
1.82

liters/sec

cfm

torr liters/sec 2.91 X 102 6.53 X 102


1.17 X 103

coefficient for

an

orifice

of any

0.382
0.857
1.53

throat diameter, but of the HEI standard shape. The flow values

2
3

6.17 X 102 1.38 X 103 2.47 X 103 5.60 X 103

3.24 7.35
13.0

4
5
6
7

3.45 6.16 9.68


13.9

2.64 X 103 4.69 X 103


7.37 X 103 1.06 X 10*
1.89 X 10* 4.27 X 10* 7.63 X 10* 1.19 X 105 1.71 X 105

given in Table 7-1 are extended to orifices of larger dimensions than those of the HEI series. In using standard HEI orifices for controlling and determining flow rates it is most important to note whether the pressure in the system just downstream from the orifice satisfies

58.8

9.94 X 103
1.56 X 10* 2.25 X 10* 4.01 X 10*

20.5
29.5

P3
from
(7-13),

<

P^

0.535Pi

9 10

52.6 119

24.8 56.0
100.1

92.4 133 237 535

212
332 476

956
1497
21.50

9.05 X 10* 1.62 X 105


2.53 X 105 3.63 X 105

where
P,
(^

400 torr for P^

760 torr

156 224

If this condition is not fulfilled, then the flow is subcritical and depends on the pressure difference across the orifice instead of simply the upstream pressure. The expression for subcritical flow is

* Reprinted from the Standards for Steam Jet Ejectors, 3rd ed. Copyright 1956 by the Heat Exchange Institute, 122 East 42nd Street, New York, N.Y.

dW =

10017.
t Mass flow data for Pig. 20, p. 23.

19.64c(Pi

P^y-^'p^'^D^

g/sec

(7-17)

HEI

standard

orifices

Xos.

through 10 given in

ibid.

282

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE MEASUREMENT OF PUMPING SPEED

283

when

is

in centimeters, the density in

and the pressure

in torr.

grams per cubic centimeter, This expression becomes


P,

915c

D^
V,

Ib/hr

(7-17a)

when
is

the pressure

is

measured

the specific volume in

pounds per square inch, V^ = l/p cubic feet per pound, and D is measured in
in

with a rotating float inside. The height of the float is determined by the gas-flow rate upward through the tube. Rotameters are calibrated by the manufacturer and can be obtained in a wide range of sizes. The throughput range from about 150 torr liters/sec to about 1 x 10* torr liters/sec can be covered conveniently with overlapping ranges with a set of four units. Care must be exercised to ensure that the rotameter is accurately vertical or the float will rub on the side of the tube, producing erratic readings.

inches.

1.0 [-

0.99 -

0.98
t-

-5^ 0.96
0.95

r
-

-^ U.94

n ~1~1 ^= ^^S5^ = ^^ ^ FT^ " ^ ^&-^ ^ -- -^ /y P rz <^ ^ ^ -^ ,^


1

nn

Nozzle dio

Z.0.5003

.--'

:= __ = =
,

"""

;:: :::: .._


.

= ^" ^

Inverted Buret. This term is used here to designate any of several versions of a simple device which in its original form consisted of an
inverted buret thrust into a beaker of diffusionpump liquid, as shown in Fig. 7-6. The outlet at the top of the buret may be connected to a T in a

..^

'/
>

y'

,0^

0^
'

f
.^

c->

^
OJ

0.91

-f-

o^-

S o

0.89
0.88 0.87
nflfi

/
/
J

tube leading to the needle valve, the other leg of the T opening to atmosphere through a stopcock, so that when the stopcock is closed the gas flow sucks oil up into the tube. To a first approximation the rate of rise of the oil level in the tube multiplied by the cross-sectional area of the tube
a direct measure of the flow rate. However, in this simple arrangement the pressure on the gas above the oil level is continually decreased by the difference in head of oil in the buret and in the
is

/
100

"""

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1,000

1,100

1,200 1,300

Flow, pounds per hour per square inch of nozzle throat area

beaker, so that for precise results a correction

Fig. 7-4. Nozzle coefficients for standard orifices. Dry air at 70F. [Reprinted from the Standards for Steam Jet Ejectors, 3rd ed. Copyrigiit 1956 by the Heat Exchange Institute, 122 East 42nd Street, New York, N.Y. 10017.]

must be made.
Since the density of a light oil is only about Ks that of mercury, the reduction in pressure of the gas entering the pump when the oil level in the

The expressions
is

for critical

and

subcritical flow are correct as long

buret

as the diameter of the pipe immediately

downstream from the

orifice

at least four times the throat diameter of the orifice. Values of the nozzle coefficient c have been determined for the standard orifices by a series of tests conducted by the Heat Exch3,nge
7-4.

that in the reservoir is only about 20 torr in a normal atmospheric pressure of 760 torr, or a pressure reduction of about 2.6 per cent. The pressure of the gas entering the
is

30

cm above

Fig. 7-5. eter gas

The rotam-

pump
a
tall

Some results of these tests are shown graphically in Fig. Inspection of this set of curves and comparison with the flow rates shown in Table 7-1 for critical flow will reveal that the range of values of the nozzle coefficient of interest for most vacuum work is 0.0625 in.) to 0.99 for the from 0.94 for the smallest orifice {D
Institute.

can be kept constant by using as a reservoir cylinder which is moved up around the

flowmeter. [Reprinted through of courtesy the Fischer and Porter Co., Warminster, Pa.]

Timing the rise in level between two marks oil level rises. and manipulating the oil reservoir to keep the levels inside and outside the buret the same is somewhat inconvenient, but can be managed. If
buret as the
this is

largest

shown on the graph (D = 1.00 in.). Rotameter. The rotameter (see Fig. 7-5), which is a variable orifice device, is a vertically mounted tube of tapered precision bore

the

oil level rises^

not done, then the pressure of the entrapped gas decreases as such that
poil

(7-18)

png

284

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE MEASUREMENT OF PUMPING SPEED

285
large systematic

where P
h
pjjg
poii

= atmospheric pressure = difference in height of the oil levels = density of mercury = density of the oil in the buret

and use of the simple expression (7-22) will lead to a error in the measurement of the flow rate.
after each

V represents the volume of gas at atmospheric pressure initially trapped above the oil level at the instant the bypass valve is closed, then when the oil level has risen h cm, the volume is
If

In the use of the inverted-buret flowmeter the bypass valve is opened measurement and the oil level in the measuring tube drops back down to that of the reservoir. Before closing the valve and starting another measurement it is essential to wait long enough for
the
initially left

V
in

=Vo-hA

(7-19)

the cross-sectional area of the buret. The total quantity of gas in the apparatus above the oil level is the product of (7-18) and

which

is

(7-19),
To needle valve

which

is

PV

PaVo

PAh

poll

(Voh
Pag

-h^A)
(7-20)

on system

The average flow of gas through the needle


valve for the time interval A<
is

then

e=^(PF
PA
i*:

PV)
Poll

{V,-hA)
(7-21)

PHg
iisi;

down from the wall of the tube. Since the surface film behind on the tube wall can, in effect, reduce the crosssectional area of the tube significantly, large errors in the flow measurements can result from this effect, particularly when the diameter of the measuring tube is small. This type of error can be reduced considerably by using a liquid of low viscosity. Since air cannot have a larger content than that corresponding to 100 per cent relative humidity (Ph o ^ 18 torr at room temperature or ~2.4 per cent of atmospheric With pressure), water is for some purposes a better choice than oil. as throughput a 0.2-cm3 buret tube calibrated in units of lO-^^ cm^ a accuracy. acceptable low as 10"* torr liter/sec can be measured with The importance of variations in room temperature in measuring small flow rates by the inverted-buret method is emphasized by Dayton. A change of temperature of 3C results in a 1 per cent change in volume of a body of gas at constant pressure. During the measurement of a small throughput the rise in the oil level may be completely masked by a change in volume of the gas entrapped between the oil level and the needle valve. An example given by Dayton is quoted below
oil

to drain

Light

WM
inverted-

If h

is

measured
t

in centimeters,

in square

centimeters,
Fig.
7-6.

in seconds,
is

The

resulting flow

and P in torr, the given in torr cubic centi-

For example, a 50-cc buret is a convenient size for testing 4-inch pumps having peak speeds of about 200 liters per second at pressures from 10"^ to 10-2 mm. But in the range from 10"* to the ultimate vacuum of about the leak rate drops below 1 cc in 10 minutes. While the oil 3 X 10"*

mm

buret type of flowmeter,

meters per second. If the volume hA displaced by the ofl is term in (7-21) becomes very small correction the nearly equal to V^, so that

Q
This
is is

(7-22)

the case

when the diameter


is

of the buret

is

large, the oil level

to the 1-cc mark in 10 minutes, if the room might normally rise from temperature increases by 3C and about 50 cc of air are trapped above the The oil, the expansion wiU force the oil back down the tube by 0.5 cc. measured leak rate is thus 0.55 cc in 10 minutes, which is just one-half the true leak rate. A rise of only 0.3C in 10 minutes will cause an error of Of course, the ambient temperature of the buret about 5% in this case. could be held constant by a water jacket, but the author has found it more convenient to hang a thermometer near the buret and note the temperature

raised essentially to the top,

over to the needle valve

and the volume of the connecting tubing However, if hA < Fo, small.

and stopping the stop watch. Usually the room temperature can be adjusted so that the final temperature is within O.TC of the initial temperature.
at the times of starting

Q
In
this case,

PA + AA

^
PHg

F,

(7-23)

.)

which

is

more

usual, the correction

term

may be

quite large

The pipe organ is a compact multiple-tube arrangement, based upon the principle of the inverted buret, designed and built at the Kinney vacuum laboratory for measuring gas flow over a wide range.* The apparatus shown in Fig. 7-7 consists of two

The Pipe Organ.

286

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE MEASUREMENT OP PUMPING SPEED

28/

The volume of the connecting manifold is small so that the liquidlevel compensation makes a perceptible difference only when the smaller
Selector volve
(typical)

Ven1 valve

measuring volumes are being used. By applying a correction of the type given in (7-23) to these smaller measuring volumes, the compensation system can be eliminated entirely, thus simplifying somewhat
the operating procedure. In Fig. 7-8 is shown a sketch Constant-pressure Gas Flowmeters. of a constant-pressure flowmeter described by Stevenson'* in which a

To pump under
test

Sight glass

Calibrated

measuring
cylinder (typical)
Oil or

other low-

vapor -pressure
fluid

group of five calibrated tubes of widely differing volumes are used for measuring the flow rate. The novel feature of this instrument is the upper reservoir and overflow arrangement by which the tube in use is filled by oil flowing in near the top instead of by suction from below. The level in the upper reservoir is maintained by pumping oil from the lower to the upper reservoir, from which it returns to the lower reservoir by way of an overflow. The spout for supplying oil requires the oil level to rise only a limited amount to spill over into the measuring
tubes.

Drain plug

Section A-A

The
in the

static

head corresponds to no more than

0.2 torr for the smallest

to 2.0 torr for the largest buret.


Fig. 7-7.

Maximum

correction throughout

The pipe organ flowmeter of J. F. Cleveland.

groups of concentric, vertical metal tubes with several valves at the top so that the volume of each central tube and each of the several annular spaces between the tubes can be separately, or in combination, connected to the manifold at the top. A large rectangular reservoir at the base provides an ample volume of the fluid. Two glass sight tubes are mounted on the front of the instrument. One runs from the reservoir in the base to the manifold at the top and is connected in parallel with whatever combination of tubes is being used The liquid from the reservoir rises in this for measuring the flow rate. volume and provides a means of measuring tube as well as in the transparent tube protrudes into other The observing the liquid level.
is open at the top. By the atmosphere, normally open to which is means of a two-way valve, the volume above the liquid surface in the reservoir can be connected to a compressed-air supply and the pressure raised as necessary to maintain the liquid level in the open sight tube the same as that in the measuring volume. When all measuring volumes are connected into the manifold, the total volume displaced is about 2.3 liters, which enables the operator By using only to measure throughput up to about 200 torr liters/sec. the liquid-level indicating tube as a measuring volume, flow rates as low as 0.1 torr liter /sec can be measured.

measured flow due to pressure difference does not exceed 0.5 per cent on any of the burets. The practical range of throughput measurement is from about 50 to about 3 x 10-^ torr liter /sec. As in the simple inverted buret, an oil film remaining on the inner surface of a measuring tube due to a previous operation can cause significant
error, especially in the use of the smaller-diameter tubes.

Sufficient

the liquid in the reservoir at the bottom and

Overflow

column

Fig. 7-8. Constant -pressure gas flowmeter.

Stevenson, in 1961
1962).]

Vacuum Symposium

[Taken with permission from D. L. Transactions (Pergamon Press, London,

288

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE MEASUREMENT OF PUMPING SPEED

289

time for the oil to drain back into the reservoir must be allowed between measurements. Also reasonably constant room temperature is essential to avoid error due to expansion. Another form of a constant-pressure flowmeter, which is particularly effective for the measurement of small flow rates, is shown in Fig. 7-9. This instrument* consists of a glass capillary tube of 0.1 to 0.3 cm bore in an approximately horizontal position with a drop of mercury If a small inserted at one end. previously been estabflow has gas Needle volve Colibroted copillory lished through the tube, the merBaffle, Air ond cury drop moves along the tube mercury inlef at the flow rate of the gas with Test dome

connecting to the vacuum system. When the system is pumped down against the air leakage through the capillary from atmosphere, the leak
rate can be adjusted

by breaking

off sections of the capillary until the

is achieved. The system must have a valve at the inlet to the vacuum pump, and the volume isolated from the pump by the valve must be known. Then by closing the valve and noting the rate of pres-

desired equilibrium pressure or flow rate

sure

rise,

the leakage rate of the

capillary can be determined.


set of capillaries

Controlled leok

very
McLeod
gouge
Mercury trop

little

frictional
is

drag.

The

Mercury pellet

Monometer

Vacuum pump

Fig. 7-9. Gas flowmeter consisting of a calibrated glass capillary with a traveling mercury pellet.

mission from C.

Vacuum
(Pergamon

[Taken with perE. Rufer, in 1956 Symposium, Transactions


Press,

expanded into a funnel at one end into which a drop of mercury can be inserted with an eye dropper whenever a measurement is to be made. The other end of the capillary is expanded into a normal-diameter
capillary

can be adjusted and calibrated on a laboratory vacuum system and then used for pumping-speed measurements. By this technique capillaries of leak rates as low as 10~^ torr liter/sec can be prepared. The
principal

1^
Metering
tube

Liquid
|_Jlon

gauge

Hz

Pz

i-2-in.pump

4-

in.

pump
To forepump
To forepump

drawback

in the use of
is

calibrated capillaries

their ten-

1.27cm

D,=

)0.5cm

dency to become partially clogged

L= 30.5 cm

D2=5.3 cm

by dust

particles.

By

enclosing

tubing for connecting to the needle


valve and also for connecting a

London,

1957).]

small reservoir on a T, in which to accumulate the mercury droplets which come through the tube. Although the pressure difference required to move the mercury drop in the capillary is small, the true pressure of the gas entering the system can easily be measured by means of a manometer connected to the connecting T near the mercury trap, as shown in Fig. 7-9. The crosssectional area of the capillary can be checked for uniformity by noting any variation in length of a mercury drop in passing along the tube and can be measured by weighing several mercury fillings of a marked length. Flow rates as low as about 3 x 10~* torr liter/sec can be measured with acceptable accuracy. Calibrated Capillary Leaks. The trick of preparing very fine capillaries is known to many familiar with glassblowing techniques. A short length of glass tubing is softened in a flame and allowed to thicken and contract. When the central part of the tube is nearly a solid rod, the bore having contracted to a fine line, the tube is removed from the flame and quickly stretched out at arm's length. The whisker of glass connecting the two ends of the tubing will then be a capillary of small diameter and microscopic bore. The fine capillary can be broken off at one end but left attached at the other end of the normal-diameter tubing from which it was drawn to be used for

each capillary in a rugged glass Fig. 7-10. Arrangement for determining gas flow by measuring the sleeve plugged by a filter of glass pressure drop across a known conwool, the tendency to clog up is ductance. [Taken with permission reduced and the capillary is pro- from A. A. Landfors and M. H. HabEven lanian, in 1958 Vacuum Symposium, tected against breakage. with the best protection, however, Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1959).] the leakage rate of a capillary can change because of clogging so that a periodic check of the leakage rate is essential to ensure
reliability.

Pressure Drop through a

Known

Conductance.

The measurement

of very small flow rates can frequently be

most

effectively accomplished

difference across a known conductance form of a tube or aperture.''* The gas entering the test dome of a vacuum pump flows through a tube or aperture of known dimensions from an auxiliary chamber, as in Fig. 7-10. A needle valve for admitting the test gas and a separate diffusion pump are connected to the auxiliary chamber so that the pressure Pi can be adjusted to any desired value. If the pressure is sufficiently low that the molecular mean free path is not too small compared with the diameter, the gas flow through the interconnecting tube into the test chamber is then, ac-

by measurement of the pressure


in the

cording to (2-4),

Q = C{P, -

P,)

290

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE MEASUREMENT OF PUMPING SPEED


pressure difference (P^

291

in which, according to (2-96),

C ^ 3.810y
when
the diameter
If,

Z)3

L +

%D

hters/sec

centimeters.

and the length L of the tube are measured in instead of a tube, the conductance is in the form of an

Pg) is less than the error in either pressure reading alone. At very low values of the pressure, such as lO"" torr as observed in Ref. 6, however, significant gauge errors, even for the pressure differences, are to be expected. Errors of this type due primarily to sorption and decomposition effects in the gauges can be
significantly reduced by using the noble gases such as helium, neon, and argon, for which these effects are far less bothersome than for the

aperture, according to (2-93),

chemically active gases.

C
in

3.641

^J A
Ml

Hters/sec

the area of the aperture in square centimeters. or aperture is accurately known from dimensions which can be measured with great precision. The principal error in determining the throughput by this means is in the determination of Pj, the pressure in the auxiliary chamber, since generally Pg Pi for cases of interest. The uncertainty can be

which

is

Over most of 7-3. Mechanical Pump Speed Measurements. the operating pressure range of mechanical vacuum pumps the molecular mean free path is short as compared with the diameter of the

The conductance of the metering tube

Leak valve

To

fl owmeter

-~. To flowmeter
2

min
I
I

"Tt
Mini D

<

10 D max

reduced substantially if the parameters are so chosen that P^ is in any case greater than 10"* torr so that an accurate determination using a McLeod gauge is possible. However, in order to maintain the advantage of using the simple conductance formulas given above, the parameters must be chosen to ensure that the maximum value of P^ does not exceed the lower limit Pj of the transition pressure range, as discussed in Sec. 2-7, for which values for air at room temperature This requirement is approximately equivalent are given in Table 2-1. to the requirement that the molecular mean free path not be less than
the diameter of the metering tube. Thus, for example, the metering tube diameter should not exceed 0.5 cm if the pressure Pj is to be as high as lO-^ torr. If the length of the tube is 30 cm and its diameter is 0.5 cm, then from (2-97) the conduct-

Vacuum gauge

min
I

-Vacuum
min

gouge

L_i_:
Pump
(a)

Pump
(b)

Fig. 7-11. Arrangements for measuring the pumping speed of oil-sealed mechanical vacuum pumps, (a) For inlet larger than 2 in. inside diameter; (6) for inlet smaller than 2 in. inside diameter.

The 4.94 X 10-2 liter/sec for air at room temperature. C highest pressure for which this conductance value is valid is lO^^ torr, 4.94 x 10~* torr so that the maximum flow rate measurable is Qmax
ance

Gas flow is therefore viscous and the conductance into the compared with the molecular-flow value. The conductance of any reasonably proportioned test dome connected to the pump inlet for the purpose of making pumping-speed measurements will therefore be very large over most of the pressure range of interest and will not seriously affect the results. However, some precautions
inlet.

pump pump

large as

are necessary to ensure consistent results.

liter/sec,

provided

Pj

< Pj.

The

lowest

flow

accuracy using a McLeod gauge (Pj = 10"* torr) is torr liter/sec using this same metering tube. By using ionization gauges instead of a McLeod gauge much lower flow rates have been measured by this method, as described in Refs. 5 and 6. Although reliance upon ionization gauges for absolute measurements is open to criticism due to the difficulties described in Chap. 3,
the measurement of the throughput, described above as applied to pumping-speed determination, is a relative measurement, Pj relative to Pj in a sequence of observations. Since in such a system the base pressure for zero flow is nearly the same for both gauges, the error in the

measurable with then about 5x10-"

Typical arrangements for measuring the pumping speed of a mechanivacuum pump with constant gas flow are illustrated in Fig. 7-11. The system consists of a test dome of the same diameter as the pump inlet and of height equal to at least 1.5Z). The connection for attaching a McLeod gauge should be perpendicular to the wall of the test
cal

dome

at a distance of
inlet.

1 in.

or 0.25i), whichever

is

larger,

above the

pump
test

The gas flow should preferably be admitted

at a distance

at least equal to 1.257) above the

dome

furthest from the

pump inlet near the closed end of the pump inlet through a small tube bent so

that the air flow is directed toward the closed end of the dome. This precaution is necessary only when the pressure is less than 1 torr to

292

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE measurement OF PUMPING SPEED

293

avoid the possible formation of a supersonic gas jet directed into the pump inlet, the occurrence of which may result in fictitiously high values of the pumping speed. For pressures above 1 torr this precaution is

However, the gas inlet should not be oriented directly not necessary inlet. the gauge toward Oil-sealed mechanical pumps all tend to splash or spit some oil out the inlet into the test dome. In some cases this condition can be so troublesome that the gauge connection becomes clogged and the gauge
Table
7-2.

Table 7-3. Instruments should be chosen to provide some overlap in ranges to minimize errors in transition from one instrument to the next as the throughput is changed. In testing mechanical pumps by the constant-flow method it is found that consistent results are most readily obtained by first pumping down the test system to an acceptable base pressure and then increasing the throughput from zero upward, taking pumping-speed readings at
7-3. Flow-measuring Means Recommended for Use in Determination OF Pumping Speeds of Oil-sealed Mechanical Vacuum Pumps*

Table

Pkbssube Gauges Recommended fob Use in Determination of Pumping Speeds op Oil-sealed Mechanical Vacuum Pumps
Pressure range, torr
1

Flow range Q
Flow-measuring device scfm
0-0.2 0.1-100
torr

Type

oj gauge

cfm
Inverted buret

X 10-*-0.5
10-2-5.0

Fine McLeod gauge Coarse McLeod gauge

0-150
76-7.6 X 10*
15,200 and

0.1-100 1.0-760

manometer Mercury manometer


Precision mercury

20 and up

up

(1% accuracy) overlapping ranges ASME standard, long-radius


Rotameters
orifices

of

contaminated with sealing

oil.

some baffling in the test dome between the pump inlet and the

frequently necessary to introduce or some manifolding of larger diameter


It
is

* Orifices

should preferably be used in the

critical flow
(i.e.,

test

dome

to prevent

oil

accumulation

torr).

If they are used in the subcritical flow range

P >

range (i.e., P < 400 400 torr) the flow

from interfering with pressure measurements. Pressure measurements should preferably be made with closed mercury U-tube manometers and McLeod gauges connected directly The ranges to the test dome without a low-temperature vapor trap. of the pressure gauges should overlap and have full scale readings no greater than the upper range of the pressure limits given in Table 7-2. As has been discussed in Sec. 5-3, the objective of the pressure measurement is to determine the partial pressure of the gas admitted as the measured throughput Q, unaffected by the vapor pressure of the sealing Total pressure gauges, such as a precision U-tube oil in the pump. manometer, should not be used for pressures below about 1 torr, since the pressure of a poor quality or contaminated oil can easily be as great as 0.05 torr without affecting the pumping speed of a mechanical pump significantly. The McLeod gauge (see Chap. 3) has the distinct advantage of responding perceptibly only to the permanent gas under these conditions and should therefore be used for all values of the pressure less than 1 torr. For all but the largest flow rates, air should be admitted to the system through a properly chosen needle valve after passing through the flowmeter. When calibrated orifices are used, a gate valve should be installed between the test dome and the orifice mounting to facilitate changing orifices without shutting down the pump being tested. Approximate ranges for various flow-measuring devices are given in

rate should be

computed

as outlined in Ref.

1.

successively higher values of the pressure.

pressure

is

checked to see whether


Also,

it is

tested for excessive leaks.

by

By this procedure the base reasonable and the system is the time the preliminary pump-

completed the outgassing rate will have dropped to a low enough value not to affect the results measurably. A typical set of data of this type is shown in Table 7-4 and shown graphically in Fig. 7-12. A smooth curve is drawn through the data points as representative of pump performance. The combined uncertainty in the measurement of the gas throughput and the attending pressure result in errors of the order of 5 per cent in pumping-speed deis

down

termination, when all reasonable precautions are taken. 7-4. Measurement of the Pumping Speed of Diffusion

Pumps.

As can be seen from the pumping-speed curves shown

in Sec. 6-5, the

pressure range of interest for diffusion-pump operation is generally less than 10-* torr, the pressure range in which the molecular mean free

path is of the order of, or greater than, the diameter of the pump barrel. In this pressure range the geometry and dimensions leading into the pump inlet affect the resulting pumping speed critically. For example, adding a tubular extension of the same diameter as the pump barrel and of length equal to three times its diameter to the inlet of a diffusion pump will reduce the net pumping speed to about half that measured

294

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE MEASTJBEMBNT OF PUMPING SPEED

295

Table 7-4. Typical Set of Data for Determining Pumping Speed as a Function of Inlet Pressure for a Single-stage Mechanical Vacuum

Pump
Inlet

Throu ghput
torr

P umping
cfm

speed

pressure,
torr

directly at the pump inlet. The configuration of the test dome connected to the pump inlet, the location and orientation of the gas inlet into the test dome all influence the measured value of the pumping speed more or less critically. In a significant paper Dayton^ has discussed directional effects in

cfm

torr liters/sec

liters/sec

m^/hr

pumping-speed measurements.

An
is

method
0.007 0.010
0.021

criticized

by Dayton

illustrated in

extreme example of incorrect Fig. 7-13. In this

0.149
0.821
2.01

0.0703 0.389
0.95
1.97

15.0

7.08
18.5

25.5 66.6

39.2

0.030 0.050 0.070 0.10 0.20


0.50
1.0

67.0 83.5

31.2 39.4

4.18
6.50

3.07

93.0
96.6

43.9

9.66
21.9 55.3

4.56
10.3

45.6
51.8 52.2

109.5

26.2

117.3

3.0

5.0
7.0

375 690 924


1,280

55.35 177 325

10

436 604
1,244 1,866 2,967

20 30 50 80 100 200 300

2,640 3,960 6,295 10,400 12,800 26,200 39,000

111 117.3 125 138 132 128 132 132 126

55.35 59.0 65.0 62.2 60.4 62.2 62.2 59.5


61.3 60.4
61.8 61.3

4,910 6,040 12,500 18,390

130 128 131 130

114 142 158 164 186 189 199 212 234 224 217 224 224 214 221 217 222 221

80 70

Fig. 7-14. Entrance hole for which


curve).

and

exit flow patterns for gas flowing through a circular


(solid curves)

compared with a cosine pattern (dotted [Taken with permission from B. B. Dayton, in 195G Vacuum, Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1957).]

L = 5D

arrangement there
inlet flange of the

Air inlet

dome, but simply a flat plate bolted to the with connections for vacuum gauges and the gas inlet. Gas molecules flowing from the inlet tube form a molecular beam in which the molecular velocities are far from randomly oriented. The angular distribution of molecular velocities resulting from gas flow through a tube of length equal to five times its diameter, as calculated by Dayton,^ is illustrated in Fig. 7-14, which must be
is

no

test

pump

10"'

10"'

10

10'

10^

Diffusion punnp

compared with the normal cosine distribution (dotted curve) charrandom molecular motion. The angular distribution is even more forwardly directed if the length of the inlet tube is many
acteristic of

Inlet pressure, torr

Fig. 7-12. Plot of typical data (Table 7-4) of pumping-speed

Fig.

7-13. Incorrect

measurements

on

an

oil-sealed

mechanical vacuum pump.

measuring [Taken with permission from B. B. Dayton, Ind. and Eng. Chem. 40, 795 (1948).]

method of speed. pumping

The gas molecules preferentially directed into the effectively removed from the system than are randomly directed molecules. The result is that the pseudo pumping speed measured by this incorrect method is invariably much greater (such as a factor of 2) than that obtained by recommended methods
times
its

diameter.

pump

jet are

more

296

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


shown
at

THE MEASUREMENT OF PUMPING SPEED

297

which do not involve beaming of the gas flow into the pump inlet. As Dayton^ has also pointed out, pumping-speed measurements can
easily be in error pessimistically if

or that at

B in the figure would be more appropriate.


its

The

't^'T^'t:^
150 liters/sec

280

liters/sec

1
180
liters/sec

"^
or

230

liters/sec

the gas inlet is so oriented that a gas jet is directed into the gauge opening. The position and orientation of the gauge opening also has a striking
effect

upon the measured pumping

Fig. 7-15. Effect of position and orientation of the gauge opening on the measured pumping speed of a

speed as illustrated in Fig. 7-15 from Dayton's paper.^ This striking effect arises because the flux of molecules the number per second per (i.e., [Taken with perdiffusion pump. square centimeter) through a small mission from B. B. Dayton, Ind. and Eng. Chem. 40, 795 (1948).] opening placed above the inlet to the pump is not independent of the The distribution of the molecules is not orientation of the opening. isotropic because they are coming generally from above, where they are
admitted, and disappearing below, where by the diffusion-pump jet. Particularly in the pressure range below 10-* torr, where the molecular

240

lifers/sec

opening oriented directly away from the pump inlet, will receive the same flux of molecules as does the pump itself and will therefore produce a pressure reading equivalent to that received by the pump. However, the question is not so much the pressure incident on the pump inlet, but the pressure associated with the random motion of the molecules just above the pump inlet, uninfluenced by the added increment of flux due to the downward flow. Dayton reasoned that the gauge connection at B, with the plane of its open end parallel with the direction of flow, would receive no additional
flux (positive or negative)

gauge connection at A, with

due to the gas

flow,

random thermal motion of the

molecules,

but only that due to the and would therefore receive

just the correct flux to produce a reading properly characterizing the pressure above the pump inlet. In addition, a nude gauge C of the type

many

of

them

are

removed

recommended by Blears (see Sec. 6-4) was also included in the test dome as an alternative means of pressure measurement. The signiflcant differences between nude and tubulated ionization gauges are discussed in some detail in Chap. 3. Because of the critical dependence of the measured pumping speed of a diffusion pump on the arrangement of the test dome and its accessories, adoption of a standardized test dome and procedure is
needed so that the performance of different models of diffusion pumps can be specified unambiguously. A preliminary step toward meeting this need was taken by the Committee on Standards and Nomenclature of the American Vacuum Society." The committee recommended that the test dome to be used for this purpose have
1.

mean

path is very long, this pronounced. Since the pressure measured by the gauge is proportional to the flux of molecules entering the gauge opening, the gauge reading reflects the nonisotropic distribution, giving a higher reading if the end of the gauge tube is turned upward toward the top of the test dome and a lower reading if it is turned
free
is

effect

2.

Inner diameter D equal to that of the pump barrel. Height (face of diffusion-pump flange to the closed end of the
least 1.5Z).

dome) of at
3.

Exit of gas-inlet tube located on the axis of the test dome 1.0Z>

downward toward the pumping


inlet.

As

a result of his investigation


test

of pumping-speed measurements

Dayton^ recommended the dome arrangement shown in

Fig.

dome arrangement for speeds. diffusion-pump measuring [Taken with permission from B. B. Dayton, Ind. and Eng. Chem. 40, 795
Fig. 7-16. Test
(1948).]

above the face of the pump flange and oriented directly toward the top of the dome. 4. Gauge-connection tube oriented so that the plane of the open end is parallel with the axis of the test dome and located so that the open end is just above the top surface of the pump and protruding inward from the wall of the test dome about 0.25 in. to avoid fouling by diffusion-pump fluid condensed on the wall. Such a test dome is illustrated in Fig. 7-17.

7-16 for testing diffusion pumps. The gas flow was admitted at the

top of the test dome through a series of circular baffles so placed as to break up the molecular beam from the inlet tube and distribute the flow randomly. The question arose whether the gauge connection

The committee also recommended that the gauge not be connected through a low-temperature vapor trap and that the gauge be calibrated before and after each series of measurements by inserting a

298

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE MEASUREMENT OF PUMPING SPEED

299

standard conductance between the pump and the test observing the resulting change in pressure.

dome and

The principal difference between the recommendations of the committee" and those made earlier by Dayton^ is in the choice of the
diameter of the test dome.

Although the recommendations contained in the committee's report have not been officially adopted by the American Vacuum Society, the testing of diffusion pumps in commercial practice generally follows
the
to the four items listed Choice of gauge, use of refrigerated traps, method of flow measurement, and the like are still questions left to individual choice. However, the procedure as practiced at the Kinney Vacuum Laboratory may be considered as an example and is illustrated in some detail in

recommended procedure with respect

By

Sloped top

choosing the diameter equal to that of the pump barrel the problem of the entrance conductance (equivalent to the end effect in the case of
the conductance of a tube, as discussed in Sec. 2-11) is avoided since the test dome becomes a uniform extension of the pump If the test dome is conbarrel.
siderably larger in diameter than

above.

Gas-inlet

line

Fig. 7-17.

Leak vole
Input meter

Optional cooling coils

Test dome

Vacuum gauge

the
Fig.
Diffusion

pump
7-16,

barrel, as illustrated in

then the flow pattern


entering

pump

for

gas

the

diffusion

pump would

be somewhat similar to the entrance flow pattern illustrated in Fig. 7-14, showing that some of the molecules are reflected

There are two gauge-connection tubes dome, both installed as prescribed in item 4 above. For pressure greater than 10"* torr a McLeod gauge is used, connected to the test dome through a liquid-nitrogen-cooled vapor trap. The use of the vapor trap with the McLeod gauge is essential to prevent mercury vapor from the gauge from contaminating the test dome and to prevent backstreaming oil vapor from the diffusion pump from contaminating the gauge. The McLeod gauge in any case responds only to permanent gas, which is appropriate for the measurement of the true pumping
in the test

Pressure Measurement.

speed as defined in (6-34).

Fig. 7-17. Test dome and accessories for measuring the pumping speed of a diffusion pump consistent with the recommendations of the Committee on Standards and Nomenclature of American Vacuum Society.

back from the entrance, resulting in an impedance to the flow. Because no entrance conductance
is

involved in the use of a test of a diameter equal to that of the pump barrel, the pumping speed measured by the procedure recommended in the committee's report will be somewhat greater than that which would be obtained by using a test dome of larger diameter. In estimating the net speed of a diffusion pump when installed on a system this effect must be taken into account by combining the

dome

specified
if

pumping speed with the appropriate entrance conductance


is

on a valve body, manifold, or vapor effort to be more precise on this point is hardly justified, however, since the geometry of a diffusion pump together with its associated components is such that only rather rough calculations of the net pumping speed can be made using the simple formulas given in Chap. 2. In most cases the net pumping speed can be calculated accurately only by the Monte Carlo method described in Sec. 2-12. This method has been applied by Pinson and Peck" to a number of practical combinations of vacuum components.
the
to be installed

pump

trap of expanded diameter.

An

than 10"* torr two ionization gauges are used, one connected directly and the other connected through a liquid-nitrogencooled vapor trap. The pressure read by the trapped ionization gauge is the partial pressure of permanent gas only and is again appropriate for substitution into (6-34) for the true pumping speed. The untrapped ionization gauge provides a reading dependent upon the "total pressure," including condensable vapor, which can be used for determination of the apparent pumping speed according to (6-35). Gas Flow. The gas flow into the test dome passes through a flowmeter and needle valve. Since the throughput must be constant for appreciable periods of time in order to establish equilibrium pressure in the test dome for each reading, the needle valve must be of suitable design to ensure steady and controllable flow at the low flow rates used for diffusion-pump tests (typically from about 10"^ to about 10* cm^/min at atmospheric pressure). All routine pumping-speed tests are made with air, although measurements for other gases, such as hydrogen, helium, and argon, are also made for the purpose of underless

For pressure

standing pump performance. Various types of flowmeters suitable for measuring the throughput are described in Sec. 7-2. In the diffusion-pump range some form of the inverted buret, such as the pipe organ shown in Fig. 7-7 or the constant-pressure version shown in Fig. 7-8, is most convenient in use and is relatively free of systematic error when used with proper precautions.

300

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEEING

THE MEASUREMENT OF PUMPING SPEED


fixed value of the leak rate Q, the pressure in the

301

The pumping-speed curve shown in Fig. 6-18 was obtained substantially as described above. As will be apparent from the deviations of the experimental points from the smooth curve, the probable error in individual determinations of pumping speed is about 5 per cent because of uncertainty in the measurement of the pressure and throughput. Provided that systematic errors due to vacuum-gauge calibration and flowmeter reading are avoided,
results of this quality are satis-

chamber is read on the with each of the apertures C set in position over the central hole. The conductance C through any of the apertures from Eq. (2-93) is known accurately from its diameter. From Eqs. (2-5) and (2-7) the total pumping speed of the diffusion pump and the aperture is given by
ionization gauge

P
Q

factory for most applications. With increasing interest

S
The pressure
in the test

S^

C
that
it is

(7-24)

in

dome (provided only


is

in the region of

pumping speeds at very low pressure, the methods described above


are frequently found to be inadequate since they depend upon the

linear response of the gauge)

P =
where

ki+

(7-25)

^+ is the positive ion current

reading of the ionization gauge.

of a vacuum gauge. The problems of calibration of ionization gauges and the errors inherent in the use of a McLeod gauge have been sufficiently emintegrity

Thus
1j-

k \o

(7-26)

phasized in Chap. 3 to raise doubts concerning the validity of


Fig. 7-18. (o) General arrangement of Oatley's apparatus for measuring pumping speeds; (6) arrangement of apertures in plate D. [Taken with permission from C. W. Oatley, Brit. J. Appl. Phys. 5, 358 (1954).]

so that the gauge reading is a linear function of the quantity 1/C and the intercept of the curve at 1/C = is reciprocal of the pumping speed Sj, of the pump alone. The pumping speed of the pump is thus

pumping-speed measurement based upon a presumably prea


cision reading of a

determined without measuring the gas throughput

or the calibration

vacuum
in

gauge.

With

this

problem

mind,

constant k of the ionization gauge. The procedure of Oatley described above contains the elements of what is needed to meet the final recommendation of the Committee on

Oatleyi^ has developed a

method

of measuring pumping speeds independent of the accuracy of vacuum-gauge calibration. The method consists essentially of comparing the pumping speed of a diffusion pump with the conductances of a series of apertures placed in series with the pump. The experimental arrangement as shown in Fig. 7-18 consists of a short tube A of diameter large as compared with that of the pump barrel to which is connected the test

which

is

B. The opening between B and A is obstructed by a thin plate D, in which there is a series of apertures C of various diameters, aijy one of which can be brought in line with the opening into A by rotating the plate. The plate D is mounted snugly on the base plate F so that leakage of gas from the test dome around the selected aperture into the region A is negligible. Gas enters the system through the maincapillaries L and between which there is a small chamber tained at a chosen value of the pressure by means of a mechanical can vacuum pump and throttling valve. The leak rate through

dome

by

this

means be

set

and maintained at any desired value.

With a

Standards of the American Vacuum Society, i" that of calibrating the gauge by inserting a standard conductance between the pump and the test dome. By measuring the gas flow Q in the above procedure and inserting its value in (7-26), the gauge constant k is also determined from the slope of the line. The accuracy of the method described above depends upon the constancy of the flow rate Q throughout a series of readings for all values of the conductance C. The selection of aperture diameters must also be chosen so that the conductances are in reasonable proportion to the pumping speed to be measured. A pumpdown method of measuring the pumping speed at very low pressure in a situation in which Eq. (7-10) is applicable is described by Milleron.i^ Equation (7-10) is valid when the base pressure Pq The method of the system is small as compared with Pj and Pg. described by Milleron consists of baking the system and pumping down to a low base pressure P,,, increasing the pressure by admitting helium or neon gas, and then observing the pressure as a function of the time from Pj to Pj, where P^ > lOOP^ and P^ > lOPo- Since neither helium nor neon is adsorbed appreciably, the pumping speed with

302

VACUUM SCIENCE AKD ENGINEERING


Since only the ratio of the pressures PijP^ pumping speed, the gauge calibration

these gases can be determined without appreciable error due to sorption

or outgassing effects.

enters the calculation of the

cancels out. If the measured pumping speeds for helium and neon are accurately proportional to the square roots of the molecular weights, then this law can be assumed to hold in general and the pumping speed for air and other gases computed accordingly. However, if

CHAPTER 8

the

pumping speeds measured

for these

two gases do not follow

this

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

it is not clear how to extrapolate these results to other In that event a similar measurement using dry nitrogen would probably yield reasonably accurate results in spite of the somewhat greater problem due to sorption processes.

relationship,
gases.

REFERENCES
1.

consists of a vessel to be evacuated together with gauges, vapor jet and mechanical pumps, vapor traps, valves, connecting manifolds, and pipes. The vacuum vessel may be

A vacuum system
vacuum

the

2.

Standards for Steam Jet Ejectors, 3rd ed. (Heat Exchange Institute, New York, 1956). J. H. Leek, Pressure Measurement in Vacuum, Systems, 2nd ed. (Published for the Institute of Physics and the Physical Society by Chapman and Hall,

3.

4.

5.

London, 1964), pp. 173ff. B. B. Dayton, Ind. and Eng. Chem. 40, 795 (1948). J. F. Cleveland, Kinney Vacuum Division, The Xew York Air Brake Company, private communication, Sept. 19, 1949. D. L. Stevenson, in 1961 Vacuum, Symposium Transactions (Pergamon
Ltd.,

a processing tank, a space simulator, the chamber of a particle accelerator, or any enclosure within which the gas pressure must be reduced to a value substantially less than atmospheric. Designing the system consists of deciding upon the features of the vessel, selecting specific commercial vacuum components, and arranging these components together with interconnecting piping and accessories to achieve the
specified

vacuum

conditions in the vessel.

6.

London, 1962), p. 555. C. E. Rufer, in 7956' Vacuum


Press,

Symposium Transactions (Pergamon

Press,

London, 1957),
7.

p. 74.

Vessel. Vacuum vessels are built to meet such a wide variety of requirements that a detailed description applicable to all circumstances is not feasible. However, a design philosophy can be suggested, and certain generally desirable features and fabri8-1.

The Vacuum

A. A. Landfors and M. H. Hablanian, in 1958


actions

Vacuum Symposium Trans-

8.

9.

10.

(Pergamon Press, London, 1959), p. 22. H. G. Noller, G. Reich, and W. Bachler, in 1959 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1960), p. 72. B. B. Dayton, in 195G Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1957), p. 5. "Report of Committee on Standards and Nomenclature" (Chairman, B. B. Dayton), in 1955 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Committee on Vacuum
Techniques, Boston, 1956), p. 91. J. D. Pinson and A. W. Peck, in 1962 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (The Macmillan Company, New York, 1962), p. 406. C. W. Oatley, Brit. J. of Appl. Phys. 5, 358 (1954). Norman Milleron, in 1958 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon
Press,

cating methods will be described. Since a vacuum vessel is subjected to external atmospheric pressure, the usual precautions for the design of tanks subject to external pressure should be taken to ensure that the vessel can safely withstand an external pressure of somewhat more than 1 ton/ft^. Aside from the possible danger of buckling or collapsing, the walls of a vacuum vessel
will deflect

11

12 13

London, 1959),

p. 140.

during evacuation and return to normal when air is redeflections must be evaluated and any excessive deflections corrected by increasing the wall thickness or by providing structure to aid in sustaining the load imposed by the atmosphere. The materials of construction of vacuum vessels are predominantly mild steel, stainless steel, and aluminum, although brass and copper
admitted.

Such

are also fairly

porosity

common. Castings are generally troublesome owing to and are to be avoided whenever possible. Sections of glass the form of plates or of tubes are frequently used for viewing ports

or for electrical insulation. High-quality ceramics are frequently used as insulators for high-voltage leads. The vacuum vessels of large proton synchrotrons are probably the most complex in design and

303

304

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

305

exotic in the choice of materials because of the unusual combination Certain of the epoxy of electrical and mechanical properties required.

The cleaning of a very

were first used extensively in this application and have since been used to advantage in other vacuum applications involving unusual electrical, magnetic, and mechanical requirements.
resins

Table

8-1.

Some Properties op Commonly Used Solvents*


Vapor
Boiling point, C

large vacuum vessel can be a rather difficult undertaking since health hazards and the danger of an explosion are serious factors. The use of detergents with water is not recommended since detergents leave a thin, highly tenacious film. In the case of an accelerator cavity 9 ft in diameter and 90 ft in length the most satisfactory answer to the problem of cleaning has been to scour the surface with fine emery and then wash with distilled water using carefully

selected cloths.
Flash
point.

Toxicity,

The quality of welding required

for the fabrication of

vacuum

vessels

Solvent

Formula

pressure
at 20C, torr

M.A.C.
in

is

ppm

Chlorinated hydrocarbons: Trichloroethylene

(_/

{j-HOlq

Carbon tetrachloride
Chloroform Aromatic hydrocarbons: Benzene Toluene Xylene Petroleum hydrocarbons: Stoddard solvent
Ethers:

CCI4

CHCI3
t_/rt_tle

60 88 180 80 23
5

87 77 61

None None None


-11
5

200 25
100

C,Hg

80 110 140
155
35

30 40

25 200 200

such that only gas-shielded arc welding is recommended. Atomic hydrogen welding produces excellent results and was for several years the best commercially available process. The molten metal at the weld is protected by a blanket of atomic hydrogen, reducing any oxides present and preventing further oxidizing of the metal. More recently, arc welding with helium or argon has become generally available, helium being more common and inexpensive in the United States and argon in Europe. Using these methods a skillful welder can produce leak-proof welds with far greater dependability than by oxyacetylene or by ordinary electric arc welding in air. These latter methods
require the use of flux, which frequently results in occlusions which can cause leaks to develop after a weld has been tested and found to be
free of leaks.

25

500

Ethyl ether Ketones Acetone Methyl ethyl ketone


Alcohols

C,H,0 ^4^^10^

440
180
71

-30 -20

400
1,000

C,H0 C.HgO

56 80
65 78 82

in a

^2
15

250 200
1,000

Methyl (wood) alcohol Ethyl (grain) alcohol


Isopropyl alcohol Fluorinated hydrocarbons: Trichloromonofluoromethane

CH4O
C2H5O CoHoO 3 8

98 46 38

18 15

In order to present a smooth interior surface free of crevices the welds vacuum vessel should either be prepared for welding from inside or, if to be done from outside the vessel, should be prepared for full penetration. In either case no crack or crevice remains on the interior surface. The exposed weld metal can then be machined or ground to a

400

smooth

finish if desired.

A vacuum vessel must generally have a number of access and viewing


ports, flanged connections for the

attachment of pumps, motion

seals,

Freon-MF(CCl3F)
Trichl orotrifluoroethane

700
284
57

24 48 93

None

1,000 1,000

and other features required

for the process to be carried out.

Each

Freon-TF(CCl2FCClF2) ....
Tetrachlorodifluoroethane

None
None
by E.
I.

Froon-BF(CCl2FCCl2F)
*

1,000

From

Bulletin FS-6, Solvent Properties Chart, issued


Inc.,

du Pont de

Nemours & Company,

by permission.

vessel should be as smooth and free of After fabrication the interior surfaces should be cleaned by vapor-phase degreasing or by the use of a highly volatile solvent to remove oil and other contaminants which would otherwise
interior of a

The

vacuum

crevices as possible.

such feature requires cutting through the wall of the vacuum vessel and welding in a tube or a flange and should be planned with care to facilitate the welding operation and thereby minimize the probability of a leak. Figure 8-1 illustrates acceptable designs for (A) a tube in the side of a cylindrical tank, {B) a flange at the end of a tube, (C) a side seam in a cylindrical tank and (D) the joining of an end bell onto the cylindrical section of a tank. If internal welded joints need reenforcement by additional welding on the outside, as illustrated in (B) above, the outside weld should not be continuous, but should consist of a

maintain a high organic vapor pressure long after the vessel is evacuated. A list of useful solvents and their properties is given in Table 8-1.

segments with gaps between. If the outside as well as the weld were continuous, then a volume of gas would be trapped between the two welds. A small hole in the inner weld would slowly
series of

inside

306

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


the

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

307
is

leak gas into the chamber but could not be located by a helium leak detector or any other method. Such leaks are referred to as virtual leaks and can arise whenever pockets of trapped gas are formed during
fabrication.

pumping speed

for air achievable with

good design

0.2C

2.3^

liters/sec

(8-1)

The very anomalous symptoms of a vacuum system with


through a 6-in. pumping In the weighing of priorities for wall space in a vacuum vessel, the importance of providing an adequately proportional pumping port should not be neglected if the system is to perform in accordance with requirements. The final step in the fabrication of a vacuum vessel should be a thorough job of leak hunting using a mass-spectrometer type of leak All the openings in the vessel should be blanked off with detector. gasketed cover plates, and the vessel evacuated by means of a mechan-

a virtual leak are so difficult to diagnose that the designer should conscientiously avoid any possibility of pockets of trapped gas.

Thus the pumping speed


port
is

for air realizable

about 400

liters/sec.

'Bell

Tank

rK'
S
/,

Tank

Tube

Tube

1
^^Tcnk
(D) Bell-to-tonk Weld

(Where inside
welding possible

Where only
outside welding

possible
A)

ical

Tube-to-tank Weld

All

roughing pump with the leak-detector unit in the pumping line. welded joints should be inspected for leaks using a fine jet of probe

Outside

W^WVxVM
Vocuum
Where
inside
(

^th>Tank
side

Flange
'

gas in brief, carefully directed bursts in order to facilitate localizing any leak which may be present. With the superior leak-detection (see Chap. 4) and welding methods now available it is no longer necessary to accept as unavoidable a leakage rate which is great enough to constitute a serious limitation on the performance of a vacuum system. In the assembling, operating, and 8-2. Demountable Seals.
servicing of

Where only outside

welding possible)
(C)

welding possible
B)

Seam Weld

Flange-to-tube Weld

Fig. 8-1. Details of welds for the side of a cylindrical tank;


cylindrical tank;
()

vacuum
(_B)

vessels

flange

and compononts. {A) Tube into on the end of a tube; (C) side seam in a

absolutely essential.

vacuum systems demountable seals are convenient if not The major components of a vacuum system are

end

bell

on a cylindrical tank.

Of major importance in the design of a vacuum vessel is the area pumping port. In the pressure range below 10"* torr the flow is molecular so that the conductance at room temperature through an aperture in a thin wall is that given by Eq. (2-93),
allocated to the

generally assembled using demountable seals to facilitate subsequent disassembly for servicing or modification. Access port covers, viewing windows, gauges, and other accessories are typically connected to the

Many types of seals have been vessel with demountable seals. used for this purpose, but with the development during World War II of rings for seals in aircraft hydraulic systems, the adoption of various rings has become an almost universal flange configurations sealed by
vacuum
practice.

c
which
for air at

room temperature

is

G =
where

11.6^

liters/s

a molded, ring-shaped gasket with circular cross section made in a wide range of dimensions and of any of several elastomers, depending upon its intended use. For vacuum service the material

An

ring

is

is

the area of the hole in square centimeters.

Levenson,

and Davis^* have shown that the transmission probability achievable in the design of the combined vapor baffle and valve for a diff"usion pump is about 0.35; that is, the conductance of the baffle and valve can be as great as 0.35 that of the aperture alone. ComMilleron,

bining this result with an assumed


*

Ho

coefficient (see Sec. 6-5) of 0.5,

References indicated by superscript numbers are listed at the end of the

chapter.

should have a Shore hardness of about 60. Buna N is commonly used because it does not deteriorate when exposed to oil and has excellent mechanical properties for room-temperature seals. Figure 8-2 illusFor sealing flanges an O ring trates a number of typical 0-ring seals. flanges, the is inserted in a groove cut in one member of the mating shapes of Several other member having a smooth, flat surface. proved to be have 8-2a, grooves, some of which are illustrated in Fig. depth should its groove, useful. However, whatever the shape of the not exceed two-thirds the cord diameter of the O ring, and the area

308
of

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEEING

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

309

its cross section should exceed that of the ring. When the mating flanges are then forced together metal-to-metal, as shown in Fig. 8-26, the ring is sufficiently distorted to provide a good seal but does not fill completely the volume available in the groove. This

latter provision ensures that the elastomer of the stressed.

ring

is

not over-

If the

volume of the groove does not exceed that of the

aAJ:ij
A=
B
=

~ ~

13/16
1

O-ring diameter

1/2 xO-ring diameter

A=~ 49/64x0-ring diameter ~ 7/8 X O-ring diameter


=

dimensions are such as to ensure that the O rings are not overstressed. Another advantage of the metal-to-metal contact is that the conductance from the O ring to the vacuum space is then very small so that outgassing of the elastomer is somewhat inhibited. rings are commercially available over a wide range of sizes, from about an eighth of an inch in major diameter to about eighteen inches. Morerings can be made from extruded buna over, much larger cord cut to the desired length and vulcanized, preferably with a 45 splice. The use of a double O-ring seal with a guard-ring groove between the rings is illustrated in Fig. 8-2c. The guard ring is normally vented Leakage at the flange can be to atmosphere through a small fitting. checked by evacuating the guard ring, which reduces the pressure on ring substantially and therefore also the leakage rate if a the inner Alternatively, a probe gas may be introduced into the leak is present. guard ring to provide a very sensitive test for leaks through the inner O-ring seal. The guard ring can also be filled with a low-vaporpressure liquid, such as diff'usion-pump oil, as a means of decreasing

Gland nut

Bell jar

the leak rate.


(6C) water

Body
^Glond

^'' <'!<-/M/A

O-ring
(c)

Fig. 8-2. O-ring demountable seals, (a) Types of O-ring grooves; (6) flange with single O ring; (c) flange with double O ring and guard ring; {d) O-ring couplings; (e) double O-ring seal for a metal bell jar.

Farkass and Barry ^ report that by circulating cold through the guard ring of such a seal "significant reductions can be made in the total gas load of the system by lowering the temperature of the sealant material." For seals which are to be opened and closed frequently, as in the case of the seal at the base of a metal bell jar (see Fig. 8-2e), the use of a double O ring with the guard ring routinely pumped out by an auxiliary vacuum pump reduces substantially the leakage problem. rings can be used in convenient couplings for connecting lengths of pipe together or for connecting a glass tubing to a metal tubing. A typical coupling of this type is shown in Fig. S-2d and is merely
illustrative of

many

such couplings

now

available.

Vacuum

couplings

of this type are also convenient for attaching gauges


ring, the ring will lose its elasticity and leak-proof seal. In any case, an overstressed

may

fail

to maintain a

sories

and may have


ring to as

to be scraped out of its


it

ring cannot be reused groove. For some vacuunl

has been found necessary to compress the its original thickness to ensure a leakproof seal at low temperature. The rule of providing sufficient volume for the ring to expand laterally still applies even when the groove is as shallow as that required for this type of application. The groove design for an O-ring seal assumes that the bolting or clamping means is adequate to bring the faces of the mating flanges into contact (metal-tolittle

cryogenic applications

as one-third

to vacuum systems and for systems for bench use. Guthrie and Wakerling^ have described the use of square-cross-section rings synthetic rubber (buna N) gaskets for the purposes for which and convenience are now commonly used. Because of the greater is now material availability of rings the square-cross-section gasket seldom used. However, the double grooveless gasket described by Guthrie and WakerUng (see Fig. 8-3a) also developed during the Man-

and other accesimprovising temporary vacuum

metal).

In most cases the need for rigidity of the system ensures that the bolts or clamps provide much greater total compressional force than is needed to achieve metal-to-metal contact, and the groove

hatten Project period is now available commercially to fit several sizes of standard flanges. The grooveless gasket assembly consists of two rings of rubber vulcanized to both sides of a metal ring on which are mounted an array of metal spacers to limit the spacing between the flanges as they are bolted together to prevent overstressing the rubber

310

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


attainable in a

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

311

gaskets. The space between the two rubber rings may be used as a guard ring by drilling a hole through one flange and installing a fitting. Since no grooves are required, all flanges are ground flat. This type of gasket is particularly convenient and eff^ective for assembling forevacuum pipe lines. The Gask-0-Seal (Parker Seal Company) illustrated in Fig. 8-36 is a commercially available example of a grooveless

Farkass and Barry^ have carried out tests on the base pressure

vacuum chamber

using

rings

made

of various elas-

The O ring under test tomers. was placed in the inner groove of a double seal, between the grooves
of which was a guard -ring channel, as shown in Fig. 8-4. In these tests

A^
Gaskets

the

guard-ring channel was


ring

used
Atmospheric
pressure
Ultrahigh

to control the temperature of the

and

flanges.

The
are

results

vacuum

obtained with flange temperatures


of 6C and
Spocers

-25C

shown

in

Spacers spot-welded
to

each face
(a)
Section

Table 8-2. In another set of tests the base pressure of the empty chamber was observed at room rings of temperature with inner Then either butyl or neoprene. ring of the a 143^-in. -diameter material to be tested was placed loosely in the chamber and the base
pressure again observed. The increase in base pressure multiplied

Fig.

8-4.

Double O-ring

seal

with

A-A

channel. cooling (1) Inner O ring; (2) cooling channel; [Taken with per(3) outer O ring. mission from I. Farkass and K. J.

guard

ring

Barry, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Press, (Pergamon Transactions

by the known pumping speed

of

London,

1961).]

the system was taken as a measure of the room-temperature outgassing rate. In Table 8-3 the results of these tests are shown together with the measured outgassing rates in micron liters per second per square centimeter of 0-ring surface area.

(6)

Fig. 8-3. (a) Grooveless gasket for use on standard pipe flanges. [Taken with permission from A. Guthrie and R. K. Wakorling (ods.), Vacuum Equipment

Table 8-2. Base Pressures with O Rings Made of Various Elastomers WITH Flange Temperature Maintained at 6C and at 25C*
Flange temperature 6C Flange temperature

and Techniques (McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1949).] (6) Parker Gask-0-Soal. [Taken with permission from the Parker Seal Company, Hayward,Calif.]

25C
Ranges of
values,
torr

Elastomoter

Lowest
pressure attained,
torr

Lowest

Number
of runs

Ranges of
values,
torr

pressure attained,
torr

Number
of runs

gasket suitable for sealing between two flat flanges. A metal ring has grooves cut in both sides and filled with molded elastomer gaskets

which have protruding ridges. The shape of the gasket material is such that when the mating flanges are pulled metal-to-metal against both sides of the metal ring, there remains some free volume when the two ridges on each gasket are fully compressed. Thus the elastomer
is

Butyl Natural rubber Neoprene

1.0

4.5
2.1

X 10-" X 10-"

5
2 6

Buna

N
.

Silicone (red).

Silicone (green)

Viton A Teflon
, *

10-" 10-" 2.2 X 10-' 3.2 X 10-' 1.3 X 10-" 4.2 X 10-"
3.8

X X

0.8-1.2 4.0-5.0 2.0-2.4

X X

X
X X X X X

4
2
2

3 4

3.6-4.0 2.1-2.3 2.4-4.0 1.2-1.4 4.0-4.4

10-" 10-" 10-" 10-" 10-' 10-' 10-" 10-"

1.75
1.2 2.1

X 10-" X 10-"

2
2 2

X 10-"
X 10-" X 10-" X 10-"
1960 in jjt>i/ ni

4.8

1.5-2.0 1.0-1.4 2.0-2.2 4.6-5.0

X 10-" X 10-" X 10-1" X 10-"

5.6
1.0

2
2

5.5-5.7 0.9-1.1

X 10-"
X
10-"

never overstressed. The figure shows the gaskets before and after compression by the flanges.

Taken
,

.,, with permission from


.

T T7 I . ,! h,. J. T I. Farkass

and V

Rnrrv uarry,

TransVacuum Symposium a i-

actions

(Pergamon

Press,

London,

1961), p. 35.

312

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


rings

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

313

As an example of one of the tests performed, the authors state that when the flange and 0-ring seal were at room temperature, the base pressure attained was 2 x 10~^ torr. However, when the temperature of the flange and O ring was raised to 40C, the pressure increased to 1.5 X 10~*torr; and when the temperature was 25C, the pressure decreased to 1.5 x 10^^" torr. These tests indicate that butyl is a preferred 0-ring material for room temperature or below, having both
Table
8-3.

was about 10"'

rings, a base pressure of 3

eter trace of residual

When the buna N was replaced by Viton x 10-^ was attained. The mass spectromgases in the chamber with buna N and with
torr.

Material Outgassing Rates of Rubber O Rings


All Tests Conducted at

Room

Temperature*
Pressure with

Material of

Pressure with

Outgassing rate
of test O ring with entire surface exposed,
^fl/sec

vacuum
system

empty chamber
after 24 hr

Material of
tost

test

ring

ring in chamber after


torr

ring

pumping,
torr
1.0
.
. .

24 hr pumping,

cm^
10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5 10-5

Butyl Neoprene Nooprone Butyl Butyl Butyl Neoprene


*

10-"

Neoprene
silicone (red) Silicone (green)

4.6 5.8

10-8

2.0 2,0
1.0
1.0 1.0

X 10- X lO-"

5.8
2.2
1.0

X 10-" X 10-"

2.0

X X X X

io-
io-i>

Teflon

10-" 10-

Butyl Viton A Natural rubber


J.

10-8 10-8 1.8 X 10-8 2.0 X 10-8

X X

6.40 0.44 0.44 2.32


1.08

X X X X X

2.04 2.16

X
X

actions

Taken with permission from I. Farkass and E. (Pergamon Press, London, 1961), p. 35.

Barry, in 1960

Vacuum Symposium Trans-

a low outgassing rate and low base pressure so that

its

gas permeability

Neoprene and Viton A also rate very close to butyl according to these tests. It is to be noted that although the silicones tested have the lowest outgassing rates, the base pressure at 6C is very

must

also be low.

high, indicating a high gas permeability.

Addis, Pensak, and Scott* have compared Viton A and B with buna rings using a mass spectrometer and a vacuum chamber which could

be baked out at temperatures up to about 300C. ary tests it was established


1

After some prelimin-

rings shows that, aside from the total gas present being much Viton less with the Viton than with the buna N O rings, hydrocarbons are essentially absent with Viton, whereas the entire series of hydrocarbons rings. The authors recommend the use of are present with buna N Viton A or B O rings with baking the system at a temperature of about 250C for several hours whenever low base pressure and absence of hydrocarbons are important. For many years various forms of metal gaskets have been developed Because metal gaskets play to avoid the use of elastomers as gaskets. an important role in ultrahigh-vacuum technology, this topic is reserved Two distinct advantages may be gained by the use of metal for Chap. 9. gaskets: (1) the hydrocarbons and other gases associated with elastomers are eliminated from the system, and (2) metal gaskets permit baking the system to much higher temperatures than can be tolerated by elastomers, permitting a more thorough outgassing of the metal parts of the system. Manipulation of objects inside a vacuum 8-3. Motion Seals. chamber while the system is at high vacuum is a common requirement. In some cases the motion can be accomplished by mounting a soft steel member on a shaft inside the vacuum chamber and a rotatable permanent magnet just outside the chamber wall. The shaft then responds to the motion of the magnet as long as the torque required is not too great. Continuous rotation can be achieved by mounting the rotor of a small induction motor on a shaft inside the vacuum chamber and the stator outside with a thin metal casing between to provide the vacuum barrier. The rotating magnetic field from the stator penetrates through the thin wall of the casing and drives the rotor in the usual way.

The molecular-drag pump of Beams and Williams described


is

in Sec. 5-13

That the gases given off by Viton as it is baked out to temperatures up to about 300C is predominantly water vapor, CO, and CO2', and no detectable hydrocarbons, whereas buna N rubber gives off water vapor and a whole series of hydrocarbons from C2H3 to C^Hjg and presumably beyond 2. That Viton does not decompose until the temperature exceeds 300C, whereas buna N cannot safely be baked at temperatures in
rings in vacuum at 200C for several days and then storing them in a desiccator greatly reduces the evolution of water, CO, and COj when they are finally put into use

driven in this manner.

Both rotational and


seal is built into

translational shaft motion


is

is

made

possible

the Wilson'^ seal, the construction of which

shown

in Fig. 8-5a.

by The

excess of about 150C 3. That prebaking the Viton

The lowest pressure attainable

in the

vacuum chamber

using buna

a cylindrical fitting with a smoothly machined opening, the base of which has a conical contour around the shaft hole. Two elastomer washers, two metal spacers, and a packing nut make up the seal. The outside diameter of the elastomer washers is cut to fit the inside diameter of the casing closely, and the central hole diameter is about two-thirds that of the shaft. The first metal spacer has a central conical portion which matches the conical shape at the base of the casing. The second spacer is a plain circular collar which transmits pressure from the compression nut to the outer rim of the two

314
gaskets, causing

VACUUM SCIENCE AKD ENGINEERING

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

315

them

to seal against the outer wall of the casing.

conical sections support the gaskets at the proper angle

The and prevent

become

them from being pushed inward by the external pressure. In order to seal properly, the elastomer gaskets must be cut smoothly and lubricated with a low- vapor-pressure grease or with diffusion-pump oil.
The elastomer material should have a Shore hardness of 50 to 60. The region between the two washers may be pumped out to reduce
Pumpouf connection

In Fig. 8-6 is shown the rotating vacuum seal by Roberts,' which utilizes two Garlock Klozures (the Garlock Packing Company, Palmyra, New York) of silicone elastomer lubricated with Dow-Corning 704 Silicone diffusion-pump liquid.
available.

described

rings are used to seal against leakage between the Garlock Silicone Klozure units and the wall of the seal housing. The shaft is supported on two ball bearings, one of which

on the vacuum side of the seals, presenting the problem of lubricais

To mechonicol t

pump

Pumpout port

high vacuum. Although this problem can be solved by the use of low- vapor-pressure grease or a dry lubricant such as molybdenum disulfide, a better solution for some applications would be to locate both bearings outside the double seal. As used by Roberts, the space between the two seals is evacuated to
tion at

Silicone rubber

Gorlock Klozures

Fig. 8-5.
(4)

(a) The Wilson seal. (1) Body; compression ring; (5) compression nut;

(2) seal

washer;
gasket;

(3)

pumpout

ring;

a pressure of about 10"* torr by a mechanical pump. With a shaft diameter of 0.406 in. he reports a base pressure of 1 X 10"' torr with the shaft stationary and 7 x 10"' torr with the shaft rotating at 1,000
Scale

(6) shaft.
(3)

(6)

Chevron
ring;

seal.
(5)

(1)

Body;

(2) (6)

seat ring;

pumpout
(8) shaft.

pressure ring;

compression spring;

(7)

pressure and compression nut;


(4)

Fig. 8-6. Rotary


struction.

vacuum

seal con-

[Talien with permission Apr. 15, 1964, by T. H. Batzer.]

from Lawrence Radiation Report UCRL-7830,

rpm.

The system was pumped by

from R. W.

[Taken with permission Roberts, Rev. Sci. Instr.

a 300-liter/sec diffusion
leakage through the inner seal, may be filled with a low-vapor-pressure oil, or may be used for testing the leakage through the inner seal. When properly assembled, the leakage rate for a Wilson seal for a

pump

with

32, 750 (1961).]

a liquid-nitrogen-cooled trap.

Very simple shaft

seals

according to Dawton,* not more than 10~' torr liter/sec, most of which is condensable at liquid nitrogen temperature. The leakage rate during rotation of the shaft is about three times the stationary leak and that due to translational motion inward is considerably greater. For repeated in-and-out motion the shaft must be kept
M-in. shaft
is,

8-7. In Fig. 8-7a is been machined in the wall of the clearance hole for the shaft. A third groove placed between the 0-ring grooves is connected by a small In assembling this type of seal drilled hole to a pump-out fitting. the rings are well lubricated with vacuum grease and placed in the grooves. The shaft with its leading end tapered is then thrust down

rings as shown in Fig. can be made using shown a seal in which two 0-ring grooves have

The surface of the shaft must be very smooth and, free of scratches in order for the washers to seal properly. Since atmospheric pressure tends to push the shaft into the vacuum chamber,
lubricated.

provision should be made to limit the motion of the shaft, particularly for shaft diameters in excess of 2 in. Very similar to the Wilson seal
is

the chevron seal illustrated in Fig. 8-56.

The chevron

seal permits

through the seal. In Fig. 8-76 the shaft hole is drilled oversize down to the depth of the seal, the total diameter being about equal to the shaft diameter ring, so that the 0-ring plus 1.5 times the cord diameter of the of its initial three-quarters circular section will be compressed to about and a rings, the between diameter. A metal collar serves as a spacer

greater range of adjustment of the compressional loading with the result that materials such as Teflon may be used for the washers. number of commercial seals similar to the Wilson seal have

The region rings. nut permits adjustment of the pressure on the oil or may low-vapor-pressure between the rings may be filled with be used as a vacuum guard ring.

316

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


sealing the ends.

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

317

type of shaft seal frequently used in mechanical booster-pump is shown in Fig. 8-8. The heart of the seal consists of a highly polished graphite surface which is held in contact with a similarly
construction

Compression
nut

Metal bellows seals of this type have the great advantage over Wilson and similar seals in that they can be completely Their disadvantage is the relatively more difficult free of leakage. The stroke permitted by a job of effecting a repair in case of failure. designer must be strictly guided by the that bellows seal is limited so bellows manufacturer. Even the by provided the recommendations
Welded or brazed closures

Welded

or brazed closures

Air

Vacuum

^
Fig. 8-10. Metal bellows seal for transmitting rotary motion. (1) Guide bushing; (2) collar; (3) drive shaft; (4) bellows; (5) drive rotor; (6) driven rotor; (7) bushing; (8) driven shaft; [Taken with permission (9) housing.

Vacuum chamber
wall

Vacuum chamber
wall

Fig. 8-7. O-ring shaft seals.

Fig. 8-9. Metal bellows seal for linear motion. (1) Guide bushing; (2) stop

highly polished steel surface

Elastomer O rings between one seal member and and gaskets are used to prevent leakage well shaft as as between the the

by means

of a spring.

[Taken (3) bellows; (4) shaft. with permission from Lawrence Radiation Lab. Rep. UCRL-7830, Apr. 15,
collar;

1964,

by T. H. Batzer.]

other seal
ing

member and

the wall

from Lawrence Radiation Lab. Rep.

of the housing.

Ordinary lubricat-

UCRL-7830, Apr.
Batzer.]

15,

1964,

by T. H.

oil or a low-vapor-pressure oil such as diffusion-pump fluid may be used for lubricating the rotary seal, depending upon requirements. The principal advantage of this type of seal is the high rotational speed 1,200-3,600 rpm and more

By far then, metal bellows crack, usually near one of the end welds. the greatest use of bellows seals is in the construction of vacuum valves,
some examples of which are given
in the next section. Metal bellows can also be used for transmitting rotary motion into a vacuum vessel. An example of one of the many designs for this purpose is shown schematically in Fig. 8-10. Although several designs of rotary bellows seals have been developed, they are not used extensively, probably because of frequent failure and the complexity In all such devices some torque is imposed on the of construction.

of which
is

it is

capable.

When the

seal

properly assembled, the leak-

Mechanical rotary shaft Sealing washer; (2) floating seat; (3) bellows; (4) retainer shell; (5) driving band; (6) disk; (7) spring; (8) spring holder; (9) seat sealing
Fig.
8-8.
(1)

seal.

age rate for permanent gas can Hbe very small, the principal difficulty being the tendency to weep lubricant along the shaft into the vacuum
region.

bellows during rotation of the shaft. Whenever bearings in which the shaft should turn freely tend to seize or gall, the bellows receives a twist which can cause it to buckle and crack. unique design of dual-motion feedthrough has been described by

For many years metal bellows have been used as schematically illustrated in Fig. 8-9 to transmit translational motion of a shaft into a vacuum chamber. Bellows of bronze and stainless steel are most
ring.

generally useful for this purpose, the bronze bellows normally being soldered and the stainless steel bellows generally being arc-welded for

Gerber .8 The construction of this device is shown in Fig. 8- 1 1 a detail of the weld joint at one end of the type 316 stainless steel bellows All joints are Heliaro welded and are designed is shown in Fig. 8-12. so that relatively thin mating edges can be fused without the use of any For a travel of 2 in. the bellows used has an extended filling material.
;

length of

3M

in.

and an outside diameter of iKe

in.

The rotary

318

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


The major
(see Fig. 8-13):

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS


locations

319
are

motion is accomplished by means of an inner and an outer magnet assembly of which the inner is supported on the linear motion rod by

and functions of valves

in

vacuum systems

means of a
Handwheel

unit

is

ball bearing. If the required to tolerate high-

Leod -screw

key

Wheel -retoining
ring

Wheel bearing
plate

temperature bakeout, the inner magnet is replaced by a Kovar block machined in a quadrupole
configuration and the outer magnet assembly is removable during baking. For situations not permitting the use of a lubricant, the

Near the inlet of the mechanical roughing pump to permit checking 1 the performance of the mechanical pump isolated from the system and to permit bringing the mechanical pump up to operating speed before opening the valve for roughing down the system.
2. A small side valve and gauge connection in the short length of pipe between the main valve and the pump inlet facilitates the checking of mechanical pump perform-

Bellows-seoling

Lead screw Mounting bracket


Linear motion activating rod

flonge
Heliarc weld

\^'
Vacuum chamber

Bellows

moving
Heliarc weld

stainless steel parts

may

Moin assembly body


Boll-bearing
retaining tlonge

be treated by a nitriding process which produces a relatively abrasion-free surface.

ance.
3.

^
Liguid-nitrogen baffle

At the
to

outlet of the diffusion

4
5
Diffusion

Ball-bearing

pump
Valves.

be used in conjunction

^^<1-

mounting screw

8-4.

Vacuum

The

Outer

Ball beoring
Inner

magnets^'
Magnetic
locoting pin

magnets

convenience in operation of a vacuum system depends greatly upon the choice and location of
valves for isolating various portions of the system. Very early in the development of all-metal

with item 4 to isolate the diffusion pump from the system when the pressure exceeds the stalling limit, as during the pumpdown
period.

^
vacuum pump

pump

y Vacuum
reservoir

y^

Mechanical

'nner

magnet

A
this

Heliarc weld

capsule

tween

forevacuum reservoir bevalve and the diffusionwill

Vacuum spoce

pump pump
4.

outlet

provide

the

Fig. 8-13. Locations of valves in a typical vacuum system.

Gasket groove

vacuum systems
that

Fig.

view of dual motion feedthrough. [Taken with permission from J. F. Gerber, Rev.
8-11. Sectional
Sci. Instr. 34,

it was discovered which are entirely satisfactory for use on steam and

capability of a period of diffusion-

valves

1111 (1963).]

compressed-air
satisfactory for

systems

are

un-

operation before the pressure will exceed the stalling point. inlet to the diffusion pump, a large conductance valve to permit isolation of the diffusion pump from the system for testing

At the

vacuum apphca-

tions because of excessive leakage through the packing around the valve stem and at the joint between the bonnet, which carries the stem

packing, and the valve body. Many different methods for modifying standard steam globe valves to reduce or eliminate leakage may be found in the literature. Steam valves in
Fusion weld

which the bonnet is remachined to Welding relief accommodate a Wilson or chevron seal and an adequate gasket, such as an Fig. 8-12. Typical Heliarc weld ring at the joint between the bonnet joint. [Taken with permission and valve body, are satisfactory for from J. F. Gerber, Rev. Sci. many rough vacuum applications. Instr. 34, 1111 (1963).] However, there are so many different varieties of diaphragm and metallic bellows-sealed valves designed specifically for vacuum application now available commercially that improvising adaptations of steam valves is no longer necessary or expedient.

purposes and protection. the 5. A small side valve and gauge connection between item 4 and the on tests inlet to the diffusion pump to facilitate performance closed. diffusion pump when isolated from the system with valve 4 a bypass 6. At the vacuum vessel to provide a connection for atmospheric roughing line to permit pumping down the system from permits pressure with valves 3 and 4 closed. The roughing bypass pump diffusion batch operation of the system without subjecting the operating kept be that the diffusion pump may
to high-pressure gas, so

high. continuously isolated from the system when the pressure is too and systems large most This arrangement proves to be a convenience in batch repetitive a on is particularly advantageous in systems operating chamber. process involving frequent reloading of the vacuum connection for use gauge 7. On the vacuum vessel, a small valve and Actually, on whole. a as in testing the performance of the system will be vessel vacuum the most systems several such connections to

needed.

320

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

321

The valves listed above are generally of three fairly distinct types. Valves 1,3, and 6 may be referred to as fore vacuum or roughing valves
for

which the conductance need not be very

large.

For

this type of

D Closed

Flanged bodies have standard

150-lb ASA flonges

K-pipe
tap inlet

C Open

(a)

(&)

D^CIosed
(6)

Fig. 8-14. Diaphragm-sealed valves, operation.

(a)

Manual operation;

pneumatic
K-pipe tap
K-pipe tap
inlet

K-pipe tap
outlet

outlet

steam globe valves with modifications described above are suitable as are certain diaphragm-sealed valves. In Fig. 8-14 is illustrated the Kinney diaphragm-sealed valve which is available in sizes from 1 to 6 in. and for either manual or pneumatic operation. A cross-sectional view of the manually operated diaphragm valve is shown in Fig. 8-15. Bronze bellows-sealed valves derived from modified steam valves are
service,

2- and 3-

in.

valves

1-

and

l/2-in

valves

90 stem

45 stem

Fig. 8-16. Bronze bellows-sealed valves.

shown

in Fig.

8-16, the cross-sectional

view showing the metal bellows seal between the bonnet and the valve disk and the vacuum-tight gasket joint between the bonnet and the valve body. Outline drawings show the threaded and
flange connections as well as the 90 and 45 stem configurations. An impro^^ed
Fig.
8-15.

Cross

section

of

version of bronze bellows-sealed globe

diaphragm-sealed valve.

valve for high-vacuum applications


Fig. 8- 17a

is

shown in and pneumatically operated forms and

and

h in

manually

in cross section in Fig. 8-18.

In this design the bellows assembly, cover plate, stem, and valve disk can all be conveniently removed in one assembly from the valve body. This feature facilitates soldering or brazing the valve body into the
piping system.

(a)

(6)

Fig.

8-17.

High-vacuum bronze bellows-sealed globe


(b)

valves,

(a)

Manually

Because of the amalgamation with mercury, bronze

operated valvo;

pneumatically operated valve.

322

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS


valves should not be used in systems in which mercury problem.

323

may

be a

PIN

STEM
"O" RING (BUNA-N)

COVER

(BRONZE)'

SCREW
THRUST WASHER^ 5.

tf.

DISC ADAPTER (BRASS)

A fabricated steel bellows-sealed valve is shown with its cover and bellows assembly removed in Fig. 8-19 and in cross-sectional view in Fig. 8-20. Since silicone rubber gaskets and valve disk are used the valve can be operated over the temperature range from about 90 to -fl75C. The stainless steel bellows, made of a series of thin
washers

BODY

(BRONZE)-

DISC SEAL TOP

welded

alternately

on

BELLOWS (BRASS)

"O" RING (BUNA-N)

the inner and outer edges, provides greater flexibility and longer
life

than

bellows.

the usual corrugated This type of valve is


1-,

available in
4-in. sizes.

ij^-,

2-,

3-,

and

DISC SEAL

BOTTOM
NUT (BRASS)-

"O" RING (BUNA-N)

Bellows-sealed globe valves are convenient and relatively inexpensive for a limited range of sizes.
DISC (BUNA-N)

-WASHER

(BRASS)

However, even

for the 4-in. valve


is

Fig. 8-18. Cross section of high-vacuum bronze bellows-sealed globe valve.

the globe design

unduly heavy

and cumbersome.

The passage

through a globe valve moreover is rather tortuous with the result that the conductance at high

vacuum is small. Use of the globe valve should therefore be limited to the pressure range above about 10-^ torr in which
the conductance
is

Fig. 8-20. Cross section of fabricated stool valve.


its

high compared with

value at high vacuum, or

low conductance is not of serious concern. For many years gate valves of the type generally used in water systems have been used with modifications similar to those applied to steam valves to reduce leakage sufficiently for vacuum application
its

to auxiliary applications in

which

relatively

as

is illustrated in Fig. 8-21.9 ^^g advantages of the gate valve are the straight-through gas flow and the relatively short flange-to-flange dimension. The gate valve also provides a convenient basis for a

vacuum

lock through which items may be inserted into and withdrawn from a vacuum chamber without letting a significant amount of air into the chamber. The main difficulty encountered in attempting a
Fig. 8-19. Fabricated steel valve with cover and bellows assembly removed.

completely satisfactory vacuum conversion of the conventional gate valve is the long travel of the stem from the closed to the fully open position. Although compound bellows designs may be found in the

324

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


stem of a conventional gate valve
is

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS


position such that

325

literature, a bellows seal for the

much more complicated than that for a globe valve. The modern vacuum gate valve seems to have descended from

design by Wahl, Forbes, Nyer, and Little" shown in Fig. 8-22. The sliding-plate type of gate valve has appeared in a variety of commercial designs adapted for hand wheel, toggle, or pneumatic operation as illustrated in Fig. Valves of this description are available 8-23.

over a wide range of sizes (2 to 32 in.). The flange-to-fiange dimension is much smaller than the for any other type of valve yet devised, and

conductance is correspondingly high. In most rings commercial valves of this type buna N temperthe case which in sealing, for used are ature range is limited. However, with Viton O rings the sliding-plate type of valve can be

it lies in the median plane of the valve body. When turned 90 from the closed position the valve has relatively good conductance, although not quite as good as a gate or sliding-plate valve of the same aperture. One end of the shaft on which the disk is mounted passes through an 0-ring seal on one side of the valve body and is fitted with a handle for setting the valve position. The butterfly valve has two distinct advantages over the gate and sliding-plate types of valves. One is that there is much less surface exposed to the vacuum space so that there is less difficulty with contaminants. The other advantage is that the butterfly valve is more compact in every dimension for a given aperture.

the disk

is

=o

As
less

is

clear

from Fig.

8-24
is

the

flange-to-flange dimension

even

baked to temperatures of about 300C.


interior surfaces of a valve of this type

The

can be thoroughly cleaned so that outgassing problems are a minimum and are determined primarily rings used in the assembly. by the type of Because of the wide range of sizes and high
is

than that of the sliding-plate type of valve, which is also rather

good in

this respect.

class of valves

generally re-

ferred to as disk valves are particularly suitable for use in the low-pressure range in which high conductance is of primary concern.

Fig. 8-21. A commercial gate valve modified for vacuum application. The gate seats (A) are machined to a blunt edge, and rubber annulae {B) are inserted

conductance of the sliding-plate gate valve, it suitable not only for use in forevacuum lines but also on the high-vacuum side of diffusion pumps. This type of valve has in fact become
in recent years the

illustrated in Fig. 8-25.

The features of a disk valve are The valve


disk covers a large opening equal in

Fig. 8-22. Gate valve with sliding plate [Taken with permission from
J.
S.

Xyor,

Wahl, S. G. Forbes, W. E. and R. N. Little, Rev. Sci.

the gates. The into jimction between the body and the bonnet is

most generally useful because of its compact design, straight-through opening, high conductance, and relatively low
cost.

Instr. 23, 379 (1952).]

made vacuum

tight

by

setting a gasket (C) into

a groove cut in the The stem is body. sealed with a Wilson seal {D). [Taken with permission fromF.^v D. Kurie, Rev. Sci. Instr. 19, 485 (1948).]
.

Another type of valve which has distinct advantages for some installations is the butterfly valve, one type of which is illustrated in The butterfly valve is somewhat Fig. 8-24. similar to a damper of the type used in stove It consists of a relatively thin, ringhke pipes.
valve

bod}^ the inner surface of which is machined to conform to a spherical shape and a flat disk mounted on a shaft across its 0-ring groove disk diameter. The is thick enough to accommodate an which runs completely around the edge of the disk. An ring mounted in the groove makes an excellent seal when the disk is turned to a

diameter to the diffusion pump to which it is to be connected. The vertical travel of the disk in opening is chosen to be sufficient that the open conductance of the valve imposes a minimum restriction on the resultant pumping speed. Disk valves are most conveniently built as right-angle valves such as the commercial models shown in Fig. 8-25 in the manually and pneumatically operated forms. Valves of this type are commercially available in sizes ranging from 2 to 32 in. in aperture diameter, corresponding to the range of diffusion-pump diameters. Modern versions of the disk valve utilize O rings for sealing between the disk and the seal face, as
illustrated in the figure.

Both for testing vacuum-pump performance and for carrying out on vacuum systems a means of admitting air or other gases at a controllable, steady rate is needed. For many situations an ordinary gas needle valve is satisfactory. However, for control of a small gas
tests

326

VACUUM SCIENCE AKD ENGINEERING

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

327

-3

'^i>r<^
Fig. 8-23. Commercial sliding plate gate valves, (6) toggle operation; (c) hand wheel operation.
(a)

Pneumatic operation;
"

ur>|oo

2.250",

m
s
cS

>>>>

>>>/!?>

/7-r

pump

side

^W^
yj^j^^/zf ////// ///r9n^

Fig. 8-24. Cross section of butterfly type of

vacuum

valve.

328

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


diffusion

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

329

flow with reasonably steady throughput at a given setting, a needle valve of special design is required. An early but quite successful type of needle valve is that described by Bush" and illustrated in Fig. 8-26. The principal feature of the design is the slowly tapering needle fitting

snugly into a carefully reamed conical seat. For some applications a bellows seal may be substituted for the packing shown in the figure. Such valves are now commercially available. As Bush" mentions,
-Coated
lightly with glyptol

in their use at the inlets of primarily to condense vaporized pump fluid and products of decomposition of the pump fluid. The backstreaming of diff'usion pumps is discussed in some detail in Chap. 6, and the use of water-cooled baffles and refrigerated traps is also briefly described.

Vapor traps are most widely known

pumps

The

direct blast of

vapor backinlet

streaming from
diff'usion

the
is

to

pump

so

great that

'^^^^^fp^^^^"J0<;'M fe.-^^~^'^^^^^^^^p^'H {y|^j64^^^y::^^s:^^^^|^l

String packing soaked


Lubriseal grease

in

Material Brass, except

where noted otherwise

without some precautions to condense and return the vaporized fluid to the diffusion-pump boiler the entire charge of working fluid would be lost and the pump would fail after a few days of continuous operation. Placing a water-cooled cap over the first-stage nozzle and cooling the upper portion of the pump barrel or using a set of water-cooled baffles, such as that

shown
of the
Fig.
8-26.

in Fig.

8-27, at the inlet

pump

Fig.

8-27.

Water-

or

Freon-cooled

suffice to eliminate

Vacuum

needle valve.

and R. K. Wakerling (eds.), Book Company, New York, 1949).]

[Taken with permission from A. Guthrie Vacuum Equipment and Techniques (McGraw-Hill

baiHe unit.

the more virulent components of backstreaming vapor. These measures also greatly reduce the rate of loss of pump fluid so that the operating lifetime of a boiler filling

very

adjustment of the gas flow can be obtained by the use of two valves in series with a small volume in between. The first valve is adjusted to take most of the pressure drop and the second valve used Johnson and Good^^ also describe for fine adjustment of the flow rate. gas-flow rates (2 to 3 cm^/hr) using this a double needle valve for small
fine

not determined by loss of fluid by backstreaming but by eventual deterioration due to decomposition (except in the special case of mercury as the working fluid). To make these measures even more
is

same

principle.

8-5.

Vapor
:

Baffles

and Traps.

The term vapor

trap

is

applied

may be replaced by the use of refrigeration and other cooled surfaces are cooled to the lowest temperature at which the condensed fluid will still flow back into the diffusion pump. Both for mercury and for many of the organic pump
effective, the

water cooling
baffles

by which the

to a device

which

may

have either of two functions in a

vacuum

system (a) to prevent the back migration of the vaporized pump fluid from a vacuum pump into the vacuum chamber and (6) to condense from the volume of the vacuum chamber any condensable vapor which may be present. In many cases a refrigerated vapor trap placed

a temperature of about 35C is optimum for this purpose, although this temperature is too low for those pump fluids which have
fluids

higher pour points.

water-cooled baffle system

For many applications of off diffusion pumps the is sufficient to maintain the base pressure

and surface

between a diffusion pump and the vacuum chamber performs both these functions. However, depending upon circumstances, one function may be much more important than the other, in which case the choice of type and location of the refrigerated trap should be made with its principal function in mind. Cryogenic pumps which are
discussed in Chap. 9 are, in fact, vapor traps of category (b) operated at such a low temperature that many gases which are normally regarded as permanent gases condense on the cryogenically cooled surface.

cleanliness required. lonization-gauge readings of the order of 10-" torr are typically maintained in systems so equipped. Refrigerating the baffle at -35C will generally result in a reduction of the base pressure to about 10"' torr.

The backstreaming that still persists after elimination of the direct blast of high-temperature vapor from the hot jet region is the volume
surfaces.

migration of vapor at the approximate temperature of the condensing In the case of organic pump fluids which wet metal surfaces, the surface film of the fluid spreads out from the area of direct

330

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEEEING

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

331

condensation and by surface migration may also spread into the region beyond the baffle structure. The volume and surface migration results in the contamination of the high-vacuum chamber with approxi-

If the conductance for water vapor of the manifold up to the location of the trap is large as compared with the condensing speed given in
(8-3), then the pumping speed of the trap for water vapor can easily exceed that of the diffusion pump by a large factor. A thimble trap 2 in. in diameter and with a cold length of 4 in. will have a condensing speed of nearly 5,000 liters/sec for water vapor. Since the trap will

mately the room-temperature vapor pressure of the pumping fluid and its decomposition products. In a system
Thin-wo
sfainless-steel
tubing

Chomber wa
Liquid nitrogen
or dry
ice in

evacuated by an oil diffusion pump protected only by water or Freon-cooled baffles a base pressure reading on an ionization gauge less than IQ- torr (air calibration) can seldom be realized for an extended period of To realize base pressures significantly time.
Wellpolished

Table

8-4.

Vapor Pressure op Various Substances as a Function or Temperature *


Vapor
pressure, torr

Temperature
C

less

than

this value requires the use of re-

K
373.1 423.1 273.1 233.1

Water
760 93
4.6
0.1

NH3

CO2
2.7
1.3

Hg
X X 2 X 1 X 3 X
10-1 10-2

surface

frigerated traps at lower temperature

and
100 50

low -freezing-

of special design.

point liquid

The most common

vapor trap for many thimble trap, as shown in Fig. 8-28, cooled either by dry ice (solid CO2) at -78.5C in Fig. 8-28. Thimble trap. a low-freezing-point liquid such as trichlorethylene to provide good thermal contact or by liquid nitrogen at about 195C. A trap of this type has frequently been installed in the manifold between the disk valve at the inlet of the diffusion pump and the vacuum chamber. If the manifold has large enough dimensions, the conductance for flow of gas into the diffusion pump is not seriously impaired and the thimble trap is in a strategic position to condense backstreaming vapor from the diffusion pump and also to pump by condensation any water or other condensable vapors which may be present in the chamber. If the temperature of a thimble trap is very low as compared with that at which the vapor in the system would be at saturation, then the sticking probability for condensation conis very high and the trap acts like a nearly perfect pump for the only not thus densable vapors. The trap in the position indicated reduces significantly the pressure due to backstreaming from the diffusion pump, but also in most cases provides a much higher pumping speed for water vapor and other condensables from the vacuum chamber than the diffusion pump alone would provide. If the area of the cold section of the thimble trap is B cm2, then by reference to Eq. (2-93) the condensing speed of the trap for vapor is
Sr

type of refrigerated years has been the

3,220

-40
~78.5t

-120 -150
-195.81

194.6 153.1
123.1

77.3

5 X 10-4 10-7 10-14 10-24

540 42
0.2

760
10
6

10-4 10-6 10-9

10-13

6 X 10-4 10-11

X 10-2
10-8

* Source: Handbook of Phijsics and Chemistry (Chemical Rubber Publishing Company, Cleveland, Ohio). t I

Sublimation temperature of dry ice at pressure of 760 torr. Boiling point of liquid nitrogen at pressure of 760 torr.

J 3.64^
MI
Sr

(liters/sec)

(8-2)

For the case of water vapor at room temperature (293K) the

result

is

14:.1B

liters/sec

(8-3)

accumulate a surface layer of condensate, the temperature must be low enough so that the equilibrium vapor pressure is low as compared with the base pressure required in the vacuum chamber. In Table 8-4 are given the values of the vapor pressure of water, NII3, COj, and mercury at a few significant values of the temperature. Note that for a base pressure of 10-^ torr the temperature of dry ice is not low enough for water vapor, so that the next convenient temperature is that of liquid nitrogen, for which the extrapolated value of the vapor pressure is negligible for most practical purposes. Whether anything approximating the equilibrium vapor pressure corresponding to the temperature of the trap is realized in practice depends upon the amount of material co^^densed on the trap. In the case of water vapor, the accumulation of ice, which has a very low thermal conductivity, may cause the surface exposed to the vacuum space to attain a temperature well above that of the metal or glass surface of the trap with the result that the limiting vapor pressure may be considerably above that expected. This particular difficulty applies to a thimble trap, the cold surfaces of which are usually exposed to surrounding walls of the system

332
at

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


so critically to

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

333

room temperature, but not

some other types of vapor

traps the cold surfaces of which are not so exposed.

encounter with a cold surface before it can enter the high-vacuum Surface migration is greatly inhibited and essentially stopped space.

Because thimble traps do provide very high pumping speed for condensing vapor under favorable circumstances, they are frequently installed directly in the vacuum chamber independently of the dilFusionpump manifold to ensure essentially infinite conductance for vapor A vacuum chamber thus equipped in reaching the condensing surface. is normally pumped down to the pressure at which the diffusion pumps can be put into operation (e.g., by closing the bypass roughing valve and opening the fore vacuum and disk valves) and the thimble trap then immediately filled with liquid nitrogen to ensure very rapid reduction of the pressure. In the case of large accelerators, which are usually evacuated for long periods after each pumpdown cycle, the thimble traps may later be allowed slowly to run out of liquid nitrogen and warm up to room temperature. The slowly evaporating vapors from the thimble trap in this case are pumped out of the system by the diffusion pumps over a period of m.any hours. The thimble trap
thus provides for a rapid reduction of total pressure to an acceptable operating level and may save several hours of machine time. In systems involving frequent recycling from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum, a thimble trap may decrease by a large factor the time In this type of application the thimble trap should be for each cycle. removed and cleaned each time the system is brought to atmospheric
pressure to ensure reasonable efficiency. The thimble trap placed in the diffusion-pump manifold
effective in systems using
is

by

so designing the trap that oil films migrating along surfaces will encounter a cold barrier before entering the high-vacuum space. Figure 8-30 illustrates a refrigerated trap of the chevron type with an oil creep barrier together with a water-cooled baffle to prevent an excessive backstreaming load on the liquid-nitrogen-cooled baffle

Clean vacuum

Cleon vacuum

Oil

-creep

Volume
migration

Surface
migration

barrier

Heat
roll

shield continuous

of polished stainless

three layers thick

_A_
Air

vent"
Diffusion

Conductance

-100
I

Strips first cooled

pump

iters /sec

by

HjO

then by
Liquid nitrogen
in

radiotion loss to
liquid nitrogen

Fig. 8-29. Schematic illustration of the migration of

pump
quite

fluid.

permission

[Taken with from Korman

mercury as a working fluid. Mercury does not wet surfaces and migrate along surfaces to any significant degree, nor does mercury decompose into products of widely differing vapor Any mercury molecules which happen to escape the pressures. condensing surface and enter the vacuum chamber will eventually return to the trap and be condensed. If the diffusion pump is prevented from blasting a hot stream of vapor back into the chamber by an effective combination of Freon-cooled baffles or jet cap and cooled pump barrel, the partial pressure of mercury in the system with a properly proportioned thimble trap at liquid-nitrogen temperature will normally be negligible as compared with that of the other elements
present.

Milleron, in 1958

Vacuum

Symposium
1959).]

Transactions

8-30. Schematic drawing of chevron type of vapor trap with surface creep barrier. [Taken with permission from Norman Milleron, in 1958 Vacuum Sym,posium, Transactions (Pergamon Press, London,

Fig.

(Pergamon Press, London,

19,59).]

system.

Another form of trap with these same features

is

trated in Fig. 8-31

and attributed by Ullman "

to R. F. Post.

that illusLiquid-

nitrogen-cooled vapor traps with surface creep barriers such as those illustrated in Fig. 8-30 and Fig. 8-31 have proved to be effective in reducing by a very large factor the backstreaming of condensable

When
much

organic

pump

fluids are used,

however, the thimble trap


Milleron^^

is

pump back into the high-vacuum space. Traps of this tj^e, combined with other techniques to be described in Chap. 9, have in many systems contributed to the attainment of operating pressures below 10"^ torr in the region referred to as ultrahigh
materials from the diffusion

less

effective.

As discussed by
fluid

and

illustrated in

vacuum.
of vapor traps such as those shown in Figs. 8-30 and that the conductance is so low that the resulting pumping speed for permanent gases is impaired. This is a serious handicap since the operating pressure of systems using liquid-nitrogen-cooled traps is very
8-31
is

from the diffusion pump may invade the high- vacuum space either by volume migration or by surface migration. Volume migration can be prevented by arranging refrigerated surfaces in the vapor trap so that an oil molecule must have at least one
Fig. 8-29, the

working

A disadvantage

334

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS


transmission probability for molecules leaving the chamber
is

335
discussed

low SO that the highest possible pumping speed is needed to accommodate any appreciable throughput. The problem is to achieve the blocking effect of a well-designed vapor trap without introducing such a low conductance for the pumping of permanent gases. A commercial

by Levenson, Milleron, and Davis.i'^ Among vapor-trap configurations recommended by these authors is the "bulged-elbow" model, several versions of which are shown schematically in Fig. 8-32, together with
measured values of the transmission probability p, defined as
conductance of the trap configuration conductance of an aperture of diameter

Liquid-nitrogen
trap

r^^ v^ii Q
Bulged elbo*

W/D
2

Expenmentol
0.44
0.39 0.32

opening into the trap from the vacuum chamber and also of the opening out of the trap into the diffusion pump. p is thus a measure of transmission efficiency of the trap compared with that of a simple aperture utilizing the same wall area of the vacuum chamber. Figure 8-33 is a cutaway drawing of a commercial adaptation of the bulged-elbow trap with a chevron baffle combined

where

D is the diameter of the

00

1.33

t***)

1,00

Chevron-valve-baffle seal

Cooling-medium

inlet

Vocuum-chomber
mating flonge
Volve-plate gasket

Bulged elbow with

Water-cooled
baffle

Bulged elbow on d

G G

and outlet connections"

2,00

33

9
jet

1.33

0.30
Lifting lugs

cop

200
1

Stoiniess-steel coolant tubing

Valve plate

33

32 27

Copper chevron

ffusic n pufnp

200
1.66
1

0.38
0.35
0.31

C
Valve-plate actuator

33

KVB-32

Bulged elbow with chev on

A/B-5

Fig. 8-31. Water-cooled baffle and liquid-nitrogen-cooled trap with surcreep barrier. [Taken with permission from J. R. Ullman, in
face

1957
actions
1958).]

Vacuum Symposium

Trans-

(Pergamon Press, London,

Fig. 8-32. Several bulged-elbow vaportrap designs together with the experimentally determined value of the transmission probability p. [Taken with permission from L. L. Levenson, N. Milleron, and D. H. Davis, in 1960 V acuum, Symposium, Transactions

Cooling -woter

connections

(Pergamon Press, London,

1961).]

vapor trap meeting these objectives is that shown in Fig. 6-19. The pumping speed of the 6-in. diffusion pump alone, as indicated by the performance curve in Fig. 6-18, is about 1,400 liters /sec. The combined pumping speed with the vapor trap is about 600 liters/sec, as shown in Fig. 6-20, so that the diffusion pump and vapor trap combination delivers about 43 per cent of the pumping speed of the pump alone. The optimization of the vapor trap and diffusion pump for maximum

Oil drain

valve

Heaters

Fig. 8-33. Bulged-elbow trap with chevron baffle combined with disk valv

mounted on

32-in. diffusion

pump.

336

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

337

pump. The "pumping with a disk valve as used on a 32-in. diffusion pump as a function of the speed" at the inlet of the 32-in. diffusion speed of the pump and trap inlet pressure and also the pumping the performcombination are shown graphically in Fig. 8-34. From flange is S = 30,400 ance curves the pumping speed at the pump
~~'

The pumping-speed curve for the baffled 32-in. diffusion pump shown in Fig. 8-34 and that for the baffled 6-in. diffusion pump shown in Fig. 6-20 both show a peak in pumping speed in the pressure range
from about 10^* torr to about 10"^ torr. In this pressure range the molecular mean free path is equal to or less than the openings through the baffle so that in this pressure range the conductance of the baffle system is greater than its value at lower pressure. The performance curve finally falls off with increasing pressure even though the conductance of the baffle system continues to increase because the pumping
speed of the
In this pressure region the charis becoming viscous in character so that molecules no longer are assured of colliding with surfaces but may experience significant collisions with other molecules. Thus molecules which should condense on baffle surfaces can pass entirely through the trap without encountering the cold surfaces. In systems which use trapped oil diffusion pumps, but which must be kept free of organic contaminants, this awkward pressure region must be avoided as much as possible by arranging to pass through the pressure range
is

35,000

70P00

^
E 60P00

V
I

30P00

pump

falling rapidly.

o
"S

50POO

Un

)alt ed /
1
1

/
/
/
1

25,000

acter of flow through the baffle system

'

20,000

iping

Vol ve-t off ed

^ y]

Q-

5 30300
2Q0O0
/

\ \
V-

15,000

10,000

lOPOO
,-4
1(

^
ic

'i.non

0-'
1

0-^

)-5
1(

10-'

-^

from 10~3 to 10~^ torr as quickly as

possible.
is filled

Pr ;ssu re, to rr

When
diffusion

a liquid-nitrogen-cooled trap

periodically, the liquid

of Kinney Model KDP-32 Fig. 8-34. Typical puraping-speed curve baffle. chevron bulged-elbow pump with and without
liters/sec

level falls significantly

between

fillings,

resulting in a portion of the


result
is

trap surface

warming up

slightly.

The

a sequence of abrupt

and the resultant pumping speed at the


S,

inlet to

the bulged

elbow

is

15,000 liters/sec.

From Eq.

(6-28)

on an ionization drops and available, such commercially number of systems gauge. There are a in the trap Kquid level maintain the 8-35, to Fig. as that illustrated in
slow increases in the pressure recorded
G B

W
Solenoid cord

and the measured values of S^ and


Ct

S,,

the conductance of the trap


30,350 liters/sec
is

is

SL-l-308

(15,100)(30,400)

30,400

15,100

Rubber stopper

The

cross-sectional area of a 32-in.-diameter aperture


is

about 5,190

cm^, so that the conductance of the aperture

G^

11.6^4

60,200 liters/sec

0.50, Thus for this case the transmission probability is p = C,lC'!v Levenson, by reported values the than higher which is somewhat of the pump Miheron, and Davis for a similar trap. Overall efficiericy as stated be trap combination may

S,

15,100
0.25

60,200
is

which

is

about as high as the overall pumping efficiency ever

in

practice.

Fig. 8-35. Liquid-nitrogen automatic-level control, (6) controller circuit.

{a)

General arrangement;

338

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS


indicated vapor pressures.

339

nearly constant, so that only an occasional change of the large liquidnitrogen dewar is necessary to keep the trap continuously filled.

Another solution to the problem of automatic liquid-nitrogen supply and also an alternative effective form of vapor baffle with a surface migration barrier are described by Taylor^^ and illustrated in Fig. 8-36. In the reference is shown a
schematic diagram for the automatic control of the liquid-nitrogen flow through the cooling coil. The
liquid-nitrogen-cooled
baffle
is

This is, for example, true in the case of a the traps over the diffusion pumps are primarily intended to maintain a sufficiently low vapor pressure of mercury in the chamber. Liquid-nitrogen-cooled thimble traps may

mercury-pumped system

if

pressure materials.
Water

be used for rapid pumping of water vapor and other high-vapor Mechanical refrigerators of cascade or compound

fWrr

shielded from the direct blast of vapor from the pump by the 45
shield built into the water-cooled

Boffle

The baffle is a simple array with a minimum of two bounces for molecules to penetrate the trap. The pressures attainelbow.
able with this trap proved to be

about
Fig. 8-36. Liquid-nitrogen circulating

3x10-'

torr without bake1.5

out

and about

vapor

lO-^"

tonReceiver

baffle.

(1)

Baffle

structure

(tough pitch copper); liquid(2) nitrogen coil, inlet, and outlet (copper) oil-migration barrier (stainless (3) steel); (4) heat shields; (5) watercooled elbow; (6) line-of-sight heat shield with drain hole; (7) dam to stop oil condensed on the elbow from draining into the baffle housing; (8) baffle housing with low heat con-

after baking the


for 12 hours.

system at 250C
it

The design of the


can be installed
Fig. 8-37. Schematic drawing of a double-cascade refrigeration system for cooling chevron type of baffle system on a mercury diffusion pump. [Taken

trap

is

such that

either in the horizontal position as

shown

in the figure or in the ver-

tical position.

The high-conduc-

with permission from H. R. Smith and P. B. Kennedy, in 1959 posium, Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, I960).]

Vacuum Sym-

ductance inlet and outlet tubes. [Taken with permission from A. R. Taylor, in 1961 Vacuum, Symposium
Transactions

tance water-cooled elbow with the 45 shield eliminates the need for other water-cooled baffling over the oil diffusion pump, increasing

designs are capable of maintaining temperatures in the range


to

100

(Pergamon

Press,

London,
baffle is

1962).]

somewhat the transmission probability for the combination. The


calculated conductance for a 4-in.
is

800

liters/sec

and

for a 6-in. baffle

4,000 liters/sec.

The

measured pumping speed of the 4-in. pumping system was 367 liters/sec for air at 7 x 10"' torr and 1,024 liters/sec for hydrogen at 8.5 x 10"'
torr.

Vapor traps in large systems are sometimes preferably cooled by low-temperature mechanical refrigerators rather than by dry ice or liquid nitrogen. From the data in Table 8-4 it is evident that for many purposes a temperature intermediate between that of dry ice and liquid nitrogen would be entirely satisfactory from the point of view of the

with an adequate heat capacity for most vapor-trap applications. A number of such systems are discussed by Smith and Kennedy, 1' among them the double-cascade system illustrated in Fig. 8-37. The installation and operating costs of several types of lowtemperature refrigerators are compared with those of liquid nitrogen in Table 8-5 from the paper of Smith and Kennedy. The binary system mentioned in the table was developed for the heavy-ion linear accelerator at Berkeley and is still in service after many years of operation. Whereas the savings in liquid-nitrogen costs have been very large, the refrigerator units have been a major source of down time on the accelerator because of excessive servicing requirements. Experience to date is that the specialized servicing required and the frequency of failure largely negate the savings on liquid nitrogen by loss of operating time.

150C

340

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


fluid of a diffxision

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

341

can be lost from the boiler by migration into the forevacuum portion of the system as well as by backstreaming into the high-vacuum region. Also the working fluid of a diffusion pump can be contaminated by oil vapor from the backing pump. These two problems can be partially solved by the use of forevacuum condensers or traps the design of which is rather different

The working

pump

from the inlet to the mechanical pump and preferably upstream from a bend in the pipe to avoid accumulation of oil due to the direct spitting of oil droplets into the pumping line which most mechanical pumps Eliminating completely the back migration exhibit to some degree. sealing oil into the high-vacuum portion of the mechanical pump of system and the consequent hydrocarbon contamination from this source by the precautions described above is probably not feasible. However,

Table

8-5.

Cost Comparison between Refrigebated and Liquid-nitrogbncooLED Traps*

Quick-disconnect couplings

Cost

Compound
cascade

Cascade

Binary

Liquid
nitrogen

Flow

Operating:

Maintenance
Refrigerant

$330
315
270<*

$330
315-^

$330
315<^

$ 1,200"

....

6,100*

Thin-wGll
tubing

Liquid-nitrogen
Dry-ice "slush"

Copper tubing

Water Power
Initial installation.

stainless-steel

270*
6,050'^

270*
7,300'^

6,800

500^
7,800 7,350

Dewar'
flosk

Total,

first

year

Yearly^
*

7,715 1,595

6,965 1,520

8,215 1,645

Vacuum Symposium

"
"

Taken with permission from H. R. Smith and P. B. Kennedy, in 1959 Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1960), p. 271. Servicing trap or baffle. % 0.0085 kW/hr. " Does not include baffle. $ 0.107/liter 25% loss.
<*

Fig. 8-38. Two types of forevacuum traps which trichlorethylene or by liquid nitrogen.

may

be cooled by dry

ice in

$ 0.0003/gal.

Operating cost

+ 10%

depreciation.

for the great majority of applications the

from that of the high-vacuum vapor trap.

The pressure in the forerange of viscous flow, well above the region of molecular flow, so that molecular encounters with the walls of the forevacuum system are normally rather rare events. In order to ensure reasonable efficiency of condensing vapor is it is necessary to provide a fairly long and tortuous flow path through a maze of condensing surfaces so arranged that the condensate will flow in the desired direction. Many commercial diffusion pumps include a vapor condenser at the outlet with provisions for cooling either by water or by a refrigerator unit. The need for an effective exhaust baffle system is particularly vital when mercury is used as the working fluid. The refrigerator coil used for cooling the inlet baffle and the top of the diffusion-pump barrel can conveniently be extended to cool the exhaust baffle as well. To prevent excessive backstreaming of mechanical pump oil into the diffusion pump, a rather large trap similar to a thimble trap built into an expanded section of the forevacuum line or a bend cooled by a slush of dry ice in trichlorethylene as shown in the sketches in Fig. 8-38 is fairly effective. Such a trap should be placed far enough

vacuum

line is usually in the

measures described above A more superfluous. even some cases and in adequate are entirely is the use oil vapor of migration back preventing of effective method as an abalumina or zeolite artificial utilizing trap of an absorption
as described in the following section. the features of liquid-nitrogen-cooled highincorporating A system vacuum trap, water-cooled inlet, and exhaust baffle for the diffusion pump and a thimble trap near the inlet to the mechanical pump is The valve and manifold arrangement together illustrated in Fig. 8-39.

sorbing

medium

with the forevacuum ballast tank permits rapid cycling of the system without shutting down the diffusion pump. 8-6. Absorption Traps. In the vacuum lore of hand-assembled practice of using a bulb partly filled with glass vacuum systems the water vapor from atmospheric absorbing phosphorous pentoxide for air periodically admitted to the system and an absorption tube loosely filled with charcoal placed in the forevacuum line to prevent backstreaming of mechanical pump oil into the high-vacuum system was well known." Chemical and physical absorption have been used in

many forms

in

vacuum

practice.

In recent years further significant

342

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

343

advances have been made in absorption traps, both for forevacuum and high-vacuum apphcations. A few examples will suffice to give an impression of what can now be done with absorbing traps and what components can be obtained commercially. The development of modern absorption traps appears to have
started with the report

the period of time a room-temperature copper-foil trap remains effective In a small, glass vacuum system using a two- or after bakeout.
three-stage glass diffusion pump with Octoil-S as the working fluid a copper-foil trap 6 in. in length and 2 in. in diameter was installed

by Alpert"

of the results observed

when he

Main vocuum
isolation valve

lonizotion-

Haas
chamber

Thermocouplegauge tube

gauge tube

Baffle Flexible

connector

between the diffusion pump and the test chamber. The base pressure attainable after bakeout was typically in the range lO-i" torr. The graph in Fig. 8-41 shows the history of the pressure recorded by the ionization gauge on the test chamber over a period of several days. For a period of nearly twenty days the pressure rose slowly but remained below 10-9 ^orr. However, at about twenty days after initiation of the test the pressure then rose rapidly to about 10^' torr. Mass
spectrometer analysis of the gases after saturation was reached indicated that carbon monoxide was by far the major gas present. Carmichael and Lange then made

up a number of combinations of
small
traps
(2-in. -diameter)

copper-foil

and measured the "stay-down


for

time"

each
Fig.

shown

in

8-42.

combination, as Additional
Fig. 8-40. Copper-foil trap. [Taken with permission from D. Alport, Rev.

experiments were carried out varying the conductance between the


oil

foil Roughing and


ocking pump

Fig. 8-39. Diffusion-pump system incorporating traps and baffles to prevent oil migration both in th high-vacuum and forevacuum portions of the system.

pump and the copper- Sci. Instr. 24, 1004 (1953).] trap with the result that the smaller the conductance the longer the stay-down time of the trap became. This very simple type of trap is useful on small systems in which performance of a week or less is all that is required. However, efforts to make a high-conductance trap of the copper-foil type for use
diffusion

added a roll of corrugated copper foil to a glass liquid-nitrogen-cooled vapor trap to reduce fluctuations in the gas pressure due to change in the liquid-nitrogen level on the outside wall of the trap, as shown in Fig. 8-40. The procedure had been to bake out the trap with its spiral of copper foil and then cool it down to liquid-nitrogen temperature to make observations at very low pressure. During the course of the experiments, however, it was found that after high-temperature bakeout the copper-foil trap became fully effective at room temperature and did not have to be cooled down to low temperature. Carmichael and Lange^" have conducted a series of tests to determine

on large systems have thus far not been successful because of the very short stay-down time or period of effectiveness which results. A much more promising type of absorption trap is that described by A Biondi^i utilizing artificial zeolite* or activated aluminaf pellets. m shown small glass trap of this type and the arrangement for testing is 8-14 Fig. 8-43. Either with 3^-in.-diameter pellets of zeolite or with of 8 hr mesh chips of alumina in the trap the system after bakeout
Linde porous alkaU metal aluminosilicate, type 13X, manufactured by Union Carbide Corp. in the form of 8-14 mesh t A highly porous material provided for these tests chips by Aluminum Company of America.
*

division of

344

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


Experiment

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS


Stay down time

345

Type of trap

10-^
T
1

Vacuum system
1

~2
-*^\"\^

days

Diffusion

Copper
trap ,

X~
g^^^^
2

IO-8[_

pump

k2"^
'

6 days

The principal disadvantage encountered in the use of zeolite and alumina in vapor traps is the enormous amount of gas and vapor given off by the material in the bakeout period. Milleron and Levenson22 measured an output of 28 g of water from 250 g of zeolite pellets baked at 450C for 48 hr. This measurement was made in the course of developing a high-conductance room-temperature trap as illustrated
in Fig. 8-46.

fc

^= ^
1"

^ i"k2"*^

6 days

k-

4
10 15

~15days
U-2"-*l

20

Time, days

Fig. 8-41. Typical pressure dependence with time over a period of several days for a small system in which a room-temperature copperfoil trap 6 in. in length is used between the oil diffusion pump and the test chamber. [Taken with permission

8-42. Stay-down times for Fig. various copper-foil trap arrangements. [Taken with permission from J. H.

The trap was made by lining a right-angle elbow with about two layers of zeolite pellets, the pellets being about in. in diameter and length. A No. 10 mesh stainless steel screen was used to retain the zeolite pellets as shown in the figure. After bakeout the pressure history observed was similar to that reported by Biondi,^! but in this case the test was continued for a much longer period. The pressure after bakeout was 3 x lO"!" torr initially but rose to 1 x 10"^ torr where it remained for a period of about one year. Biondi^i

Carmichael and

W.

J.

Lange, in 1958
Transactions
1959).]
To ultrahigh

Vacuum
(Pergamon

Symposium
Press,

London,

H. Carmichael and W. J. Lange, in 1958 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1959).]
from
J.

vocuum system

at 450C remained in the lO-^" torr range for about three months.

The

diffusion-pump fluid used for these tests was Octoil-S. Biondi^i also describes the performance of the large room-temperature zeolite trap illustrated in Fig. 8-44. The trap provides a series of
trays in which artificial zeolite pellets are placed. The trays are so arranged that molecules in passing through the trap must encounter

Before each test the trap and test chamber were baked out and the system typically reached an ionization-gauge reading of slightly over lO"!" torr after cooling to room temperature. Using Octoil-S in the diffusion pump resulted in a stay-down time (below 10^^ torr) of only about twenty days. However, when Convoil-20 was substituted for the Octoil-S the base pressure remained at 10~"i" 1 X for more than one-hundred days without any evidence of rising. The results of these tests are given in Fig. 8-45 showing three different tests with Octoil-S and one test run with Convoil-20. The striking difference in performance of the room-temperature zeolite trap depending upon the choice of fluid used in the diffusion pump is apparently not understood. Room-temperature traps with zeolite or alumina apparently provide no protection whatever against mercury
zeolite several times.

Flow poth

Flow path
]
1 r I

Bokeout oven
(b)

Scale-

in.

Fig.

8-43. (a)

.Scale

drawing of

glass trap utilizing artificial zeolite or activated alumina; (h) diagram

Fig. 8-44. Scale drawing of an 8-in.diameter nonrefrigerated trap for use

of arrangement used for testing the effectiveness of the trap.

The oil diffusion pump. central trays are supported by tabs


with a metal
attached to the ajiter walls. [Taken with permission from M. A. Biondi, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, ^London,
1961).]

backstreaming.

[Taken with permission from M. A. Biondi, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961).]

346

VACUUM SCIENCE AND BNGINEEEING


reports that repeated exposure of

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

347

the zeolite to gases such as nitrogen,

carbon monoxide, hydrogen,

hehum, and argon at pressures as


high as 10^^ torr does not impair the effectiveness of the zeolite in trapping hydrocarbons. After such exposures for extended periods of time the system remained free of hydrocarbons. Levenson and Milleron^^ also studied the adsorption
of various gases

occurred within about a half hour after the diffusion pump was put back In a subsequent experiment Levenson and Milleron^* into operation. determined that the evaporation of less than 1 cm^ of Convoil-20 into a room-temperature trap containing about 436 g of zeolite resulted in
the eifective saturation of the zeolite. steel housing of the zeolite trap was cooled with liquid nitrogen with the
result that the pressure typically

Also in these tests the stainless

"O

10

15

20 25 30 35 40
Timej days

45 50

dropped from 2 x 10~* torr at room temperature to 6 X lO^^" torr reached in about one hour after
application of liquid-nitrogen cooling.

Fig.

8-45. History

of
test

ionization

gauge

reading protected from

in
oil

chamber

by

zeolite at

room

diffusion

pump

by

room-temperature trap over a period of many days with Ootoil-S and Convoil 20 as working fluids. [Taken with permission from M. A. Biondi, in 1960 Vacuum
zeolite

Symposium
Press,

Transactions (Pergamon
1961).]

London,

temperature and found no evidence of absorption of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide, and methane, but did observe some absorption for carbon dioxide and n-butane. In the tests performed by Milleron and Levenson, power failures occurred and in one into nearly the original pressure

The

role of the zeolite versus

that of the more effectively cooled stainless steel walls in lowering the
pressure on application of liquid-

nitrogen cooling

is

not entirely clear


is

from these experiments, but the


authors conclude that the effect

mainly due to the


zeolite

walls.
Fig.
8-47.

stance the forevacuum valve was closed and the power to the diffusion-

The use of liquid-nitrogen-cooled


adsorbing units instead of
distinctly different types of

Liquid-nitrogen-cooled

pump

heater turned

off.

Recovery

pumps has recently become common


in
Ion

ultrahigh-vacuum adsorption pump. (2) copper wool; (3) (1) Zeolite; copper retaining screen; (4) stainless
steel heat shield;
(5)

two

liquid-nitrogen

gauge

bakable pressure reservoir; (6) In Fig. 8-47 is illustrated release; (7) copper pinch gasket. adsorbing an ultrahigh-vacuum [Taken with permission from T. H. pump developed by Batzer and Batzer and R. H. McFarland, Rev. McFarland^* to provide a hydroSci. Instr. 36, 328 (1965).] carbon free vacuum for electron beam excitation and ionization experiments. The base pressure indicated on a Bayard- Alpert gauge is typically of the order of 10~* torr. The second application of liquid-nitrogen-cooled zeolite is in the adsorption pumping of a clean vacuum system from atmospheric
service.

down to a pressure of about 10"^ torr, at which point getter-ion pumps can take over. The obvious advantage of this combination of roughing by adsorption pumping and finishing by getter-ion pumping
pressure

'Water-cooled baffle

-MCF 300 Fig.


8-46.

diffusion

pump

the complete elimination of hydrocarbon comtaminants. In this pumping unit is first outgassed by baking at a temperature of about 200C with a valve open to the atmosphere so that water vapor and other adsorbed gases can escape. The vent valve
is

application the zeolite

High conductance, nonrefrigerated

isolation

trap using artificial

zeolite.

[Taken with permission from N. Milleron and L. L. Levenson, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions (Pergamon Press, London, 1961).]

then closed and the unit allowed to cool down with both valves, the vent valve and the valve to the system, closed. The unit is then immersed in liquid nitrogen and the valve to the system opened. By
is

348

VACUUM SCIENCE AND BNGINEBBING

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

349

having a number of units of this type connected to a manifold, large vacuum chambers can be quickly pumped down from atmospheric pressure to the point where a getter-ion pump can be put into operation. This topic will be discussed further in Chap. 9. 8-7. The Pumpdown Time. The simplest situation one can imagine for computing the pumpdown time of a vacuum system is one in which there is no leakage from the outside, no outgassing from the Inwalls, and the pumping speed is independent of the pressure. tegration of Eq. (7-9) then yields the pressure as a function of the time
P^

pump and
S
^

the volumetric efficiency, then the


(8-7)

pumping speed

is

= ^

eS^ and
2 3,

becomes

Z(l^gilZl/^ + i^gi^Zi^
Sd\
Cj
2

+ l^iliZi/f +
^3,4

etc

^2,3

(8-8)

Experience at the Kinney Vacuum Laboratory has shown that the volumetric efficiencies of pumps of different displacement speeds but of the same general design are very nearly the same at various values Thus for such a series of pumps one may write of the pressure.

Pie-<-^"'>*

(8-4)

where P^ P,

= initial pressure = pressure after pumping S = pumping speed V = volume of the system
for such
t

F=
for the time
t

2.30 P"g\

^-^^-

'g- ^-^^^2,3

'''- ^-^"^^
^3,4

etc.)
'

(8-9)

^1,2

which
is

is

very nearly the same for

all

pumps

of the series regardless of

Thus the pumpdown time

a simple case

size.

The pumpdown time then becomes


(8-5)
t

2.30-log,^

Pi

_F

Sr
In the operating pressure range of mechanical roughing pumps the assumptions made above are frequently all nearly valid except that the pumping speed decreases with the pressure, as shown in the performance curves of Figs. 5-5 and 5-6. However, even in this case one can apply Eq. (8-5) to successive intervals of the pressure and obtain a set of time
intervals as follows
<i.2

^1\'P,

(8-10)

where P, is the last pressure value in the series in Eq. (8-9) and is the Generally pressure for which the pumpdown time is to be determined. 760 torr, but the F curve may be used in calculations of interest P^ in calculating the pumpdown time from any other initial value of the

pressure as desired.

The quantity

is

referred to as the
is is

pumpdown

factor for the

= 2.30^^1ogio^
'S'1,2

particular type of

pump and
In Fig. 8-48

formance curves.
logio

calculated from the measured pershown the pumpdown factor P as a

F
2.30
2,3

P.
P.,

2.30

-logio-^ etc.

(8-6)

function of the pressure for single-stage and compound Kinney mechObviously F is just the anical pumps as a function of the pressure. time required for a pump to reach the pressure P( from atmospheric pressure when evacuating a chamber of volume equal to the displace-

in

which S^^^

S^^s,

S^^, etc., are the average values of the

speed in the pressure intervals Pj to Pj, P2 to P3, P3 to P4, the total pumpdown time is
tl.2

pumping Then etc.

ment speed; i.e., when F = Sj). The pumpdown factor of a combination


roughing

consisting of a mechanical

+
/lo^

<3,4

etc.

backing a mechanical booster pump can be computed from the performance curves such as those shown in Fig. 5-14 and that from in Fig. 5-5, choosing an appropriate pressure for the changeover a Such pump. bypassing to pumping through the mechanical booster

pump

2.30F

PilP:
^

logioP,/P3
etc.

(8-7)

pumpdown

factor

Si.

So

S3

The quantity within the brackets of the above equation can be obtained
directly

from the performance curve of the

Sec. 5-3,

we

pump in question. If, as in designate Sjj the theoretical displacement speed of the

pump (KMBfor the combination of a 1,200-cfm mechanical booster 1200) and a 130-cfm backing pump (KDH-130). From the curves of the type shown in Figs. 8-48 and 8-49 the pumpdown time from atmospheric to any desired pressure can be calculated by multiplying the value of F on the graph by the ratio F/;S^ for the

as a function of the pressure

is

shown

in Fig. 8-49

THE DESIGK OF VACUUM SYSTEMS


iU

351

\
^^i

T
\

1-

14
22

20
18

\ \
\ -^
\,

t1

system, provided only that there is no significant leakage or outgassing. With the leak-hunting and welding techniques available today actual leaks of any significance need not be tolerated so that it is reasonable Out0. to insist upon a sound system in which the throughput Q avoiding and matter. By porosity gassing, however, is another thorough the by cleaning, and crevices inside the vacuum system

II
\

III
pumps

16

14
12

\
1 1

.Kinney single -stage

^
/I
1

^,

\<

/
/

Table

8-6.

\tmosphere - -t1

10 8 6

"

1^

Observed Pumpdown Compared with That Computed by Pumpdown Factor F Volume of System: V = 11,800 ft^ Displacement Speed of Roughing Pump: So = 500 cfm
t

Kinney compound pumps


1

^^

Computed Pumpdown Time:


F,
t

'

F =
t

23.6

i*'

min

V V.

^^ '^

computed,

observed,

^
-^
2
> 1

P, torr
1

min

1-

mm
35.4 52.0
68.7

System factor
1.0

0()00

001

0. 01

00

100

1,0

Pr 'ssure ,tor r

Fig. 8-48. stage and

Pumpdown

factor

as a function of the pressure for

Kinney

.single-

760 200 100 50 20


10 5
3 2
1

1.5

2.2 2.9 3.9 4.6 5.2


5.9

compound mechanical vacuum pumps.

30 28
26

6.2
7.1
8.1

0.5 0.3

8.8

24

0.14

10.0

92 106 125 139 146 168 182 208 236

34 52 70 94 112 130 144 156 178 203 270 865

0.96
1.00
1.02 1.02 1.06

1.04
1.04

1.06
1.06
1.11

1.30

3.66

22
20

\
V
\
s

t O
i o

18

14

\\

\
1

KMBl?On

\
s

1-

i" 12

10

s l/ <J ^,

\<
1/

KDH 130 /

^^F
t

ansition pressure

T
n

KMB1200
i

"v

pressure at which outgassing becomes important can be made quite low. In Table 8-6 is shown the pressure at various times during the evacuation from atmospheric pressure of a vacuum tank of volume equal 11,800 ft^ by a Kinney single-stage pump of displacement speed The 8-50. Fig. in plotted to 500 cfm. The pumpdown curve is not are times pumpdown errors between the computed and observed
large until the system pressure

\,

^ ^v
0.1

^
^
1.0

becomes

less

than about

torr.

For

^..^^

^\

-4.

"'^

increasmg dispressure values below 1 torr experience indicates an times. pumpdown observed and crepancy between the calculated the with associated mostly effects to outgassing
This discrepancy
is

N
100

^_
1,000

0.0001

0.001

0.01

10 15

Pressure, torr

Fig. 8-49.

and a

Pumpdown factor for the combination of a mechanical booster single-stage mechanical backing pump (KMB-1200 and KDH-130).
350

chamber. When presence of water vapor on the walls of the vacuum to atmospheric down" "let is vacuum a svstem which has been under evacuation subsequent on then nitrogen, pressure by admitting dry factor pumpdown the from computed that the pumpdown curve follows

due

down

to

much

lower values of the pressure.

352

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

353

The discrepancy between the actual pumpdown curve and that computed by use of the pumpdown factor (provided that the pump is in good condition) is due to the extent to which the surfaces of the
This discrepancy is therefore gases. not an indication of the failure of the pump to do its job, but is an indication of the extent to which the internal surfaces of the system
1,000
s.

vacuum system evolve adsorbed

0.005 to 0.010 torr on a tight, dry system, but it seems doubtful whether a continuation of the pumpdown test illustrated would ever reach a pressure less than 0.1 torr. In the above discussion the conductance of the connecting piping has not been taken into account. However, the criterion used for
selecting the pipe size for connecting a roughing

impedance offered by the piping

is

pump is such that the not likely to be a measurable factor

\
100

\ \

in determining the pumpdown time. As discussed in Sec. 2-4, the pipe size is selected to ensure an acceptably small pressure drop when the system has reached its normal operating range (i.e., the lowest pressure of practical interest). The criterion frequently applied is that the pressure drop in the line (up to the inlet of the mechanical pumps)
V

\
a
10

\ \
1

\
\
r ompu ^pH
-

should not exceed 10 per cent of the pressure. However, during atmospheric pressure this pressure drop is negligible as compared with the pressure itself. The conductance of the connecting piping is proportional to the pressure in this pressure range so that over most of the pumpdown cycle the conductance is very large indeed as compared with the pumping speed of the pump and is there-

pumpdown from

fore not normally a significant factor in determining the

pumpdown

J<
Min.

/ Obse rved

\.

N
\
10

Otor
at 8 35

~^
n

:>
1

30

60

90

120

150

210

240 270 300 330

time within the range of mechanical pump operation. Many pumpdown experiments have been carried out under both favorable and unfavorable conditions. When there are sizable leaks present in the system or when puddles of water have accumulated at some low point in the plumbing, then the pumpdown process becomes stalled and the system factor approaches infinity. However, when
there are no leaks present, when the interior of the system has been cleaned section by section before assembly, and when no unforeseen

Fig. 8-50.

Pumpdown

down

factor F.

curve compared with that computed by use of the pumpData of Table 8-6.

adsorbed water, and possibly other between the observed and calculated pumpdown times may conveniently be called the system factor, values of which for the pumpdown data in Table 8-6 are given in the last column. Because of minor errors in pressure readings, changes in temperature during the period of the pumpdown, minor discrepahcy in the actual as compared with the assumed rotational speed of the pump, etc., a system factor in the range 0.95 to 1.05 may be considered not to be significantly different from 1.00. It will be noted, however, that the computed system factor in this case rapidly exceeds 1.05 when the pressure drops below 1 torr. The very large increase in the system factor for pumpdown to 0.14 torr is not typical and was most probably caused by the presence of a leak of the order of 40 torr cfm. The pump is capable of reaching an ultimate pressure of the order of
oil

are contaminated

by

films,

condensable materials.

The

ratio

event has created puddles of water somewhere in the system, then experience shows that rather definite values of the system factor apply to the pumpdown time, depending upon the pressure limit involved, such that
^(actual)

(system factor)^ (system factor)

(calc)

V -

i^^^^^

(8-11)

The recommended system factor makes allowances for the normal outgassing of surfaces exposed to atmospheric air and provides a basis for judging whether the system is pumping down normally or whether some problem exists which must be corrected. On the basis of experience, therefore, recommended system factors are given in Table 8-7 not only for single-stage mechanical pumps, but also for compound

pumps and mechanical


by
special
care,

booster pumps.

It should be

such as letting

down

emphasized that the system to atmospheric

354
pressure

VACXJUM SCIENCE AKD ENGINEBBING


shorter pumpdown times than

THE DESIGN OF VACUUM SYSTEMS

355

by admitting only dry nitrogen, be reahzed. those computed using the recommended system factors can apsystematic and Naundorf25 has attempted a rather complete the into extending time proach to the determination of the pumpdown solution a to leads approach lange of diffusion-pump operation. His typify based upon the graphical representation of two quantities which
Table
8-7.

pump, Naundorf was able to demonstrate good agreement between the predicted and actual pumpdown schedule. The outgassing rate was determined experimentally by closing the valve into
diffusion

Qi
Oi

a calculation of the gas load as a function of the time for most practical situations would be a formidable task. However, in the case of the relatively simple case of a stainless steel chamber 4 ft in diameter and 6 ft in length, evacuated by a
32-in

and ceramics.

The

difficulty is that

Recommended System Factors


System factor
V

\
I

Pressure range,
torr

Single-stage

Compound
mechanical
1.0
1.1

Mechanical booster

10^
(J

mechanical

pump

pump

pump*

1.15
10
.

V
3

10

">

10

760-20 20-1
1-0.5
0.5-0.1

1.0
1.1

1.25
1.5

1.25 1.25 1.25

1.15 1.35 1.35


2.0
10" 10'

f Net pumping

\
\
Q2
T,

^^Gos

load

/
/
/
/
Pz

capacity

5-0^
o

0.1-0.02

^10'
P,,

0.02-0.001
*

Based upon bypass operation until the booster pump is put into operation. the Larger system factors apply if rough pumping flow must pass through gettmg and valves operating for needed time Any idling mechanical booster. the mechanical booster pump up to speed must also be added.
the throughput as a function of the pressure as represented in Fig. 8-51 and (2) the gas load as a function of the time as represented in Fig. 8-52. At every instant of time, in order for the pressure to be the observed value P, the throughput of the system Q must equal the gas load L existing at the time of the observation. the system:
(1)

T2
1

^^^
'
1

,0

10"^

10"^

10"

10"

10"'

10"'

10"

10'

10^

Pressure P.torr

Time

t,hr

Fig. 8-51.
pressure.

Throughput of a diffusionas a function of the

pump system
from
C.

[Taken with permission H. Naundorf, in 19(i0

Fig. 8-52. Gas load as a function of the time. [Taken with permission from C. H. Naundorf, in 1960

Vacuum

Si/m,posium,

Transactions
1961).]

Vacuum

Symposium

Transactions
1961).]

(Pergamon Press, London,

(Pergamon Press, London,

will Unless there is a dominating leak in the system, the gas load There 8-52. Fig. in decrease with the time more or less as illustrated the throughput as a is no difficulty about determining the form of function of the pressure. This curve can be quite accurately predicted from the pumping speeds of the pumps used and the conductances of traps and other components introduced. At each value of the pressure the throughput Q = PS, where S is the resultant pumping speed of the

combined system. The gas load L as a function of the time is somewhat more difficult to construct. In order to predict the form of the gas-load curve as a function of the time one must know a great deal in detail about the processes of the adsorption, chemisorption, diffusion of gases through materials, and are topics These solubilities of gases in materials of construction. are data of tables discussed at length by Dayton^" in a paper in which
given for
all

pump once each hour and measuring the rate of pressure which multiplied by the volume of the tank gave the gas load due to outgassing. The data thus obtained were plotted as shown in Fig. 8-53, and prove to be in excellent agreement with the data on outgassing of stainless steel contained in Dayton's paper. The result of combining the gas-load curve with the throughput-capacity curve of the pumping system is shown in Fig. 8-54. A horizontal line drawn through any value of the throughput and gas load intersects the throughput-vs. -pressure curve and the load- vs. -time curve. Dropping vertical lines down from each intersection yields the pumpdown time
the diffusion
rise,

for a particular value of the pressure.


is alleged to provide an excellent prediction of the time provided the pressure in question is not seriously limited by some other process than outgassing, such as leakage and permeation. In the event that these other processes are important.

This procedure

pumpdown

these processes for

many

metals, plastics, elastomers,

THE design of VACUUM SYSTEMS


356

357
Inte-

VACUUM SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


gration of (8-12)
f-

state as well as dimensions


is

shown

Throughput vs. pressure


for

and pumping speed of the system, to lead to the expression

mcf-15,000 system
used
.''Key:

\.
Gas load
(by rate-of-rise

method)
Predicted
.
vs.

Pressure read at

V S P
for the

+C
Pj^.

(8-13)

valve inlet

gas lood

time

^y*

Measured values
and McLeod gauge
data

Note: Untrapped ion

f
I ^
Log time.hr

10
10'' 10"'

10"'

10
10"'

10'

10^ Time,hr
10"' Pressure,
torr

10"^

10"^

Fig. 8-53. Experimental gas load as a function of the time for a stainless steel tank of total surface

Fig. 8-54. Gas load as a function of the time combined with throughput as a

function
line

area of 165 sq ft. [Taken with permission from C. H. Naundorf, in 1960 Vacuum Symposium Transactions
1961).]

A vertical of the pressure. at any value of the pressure to the throughput curve, then a horizontal line drawn to the intersection with
drawn
the gas-load-vs.-time curve, and finally a
vertical line drawn down from this intersection gives the pumpdown time for

Here P^ is a paramwhere a is the same as that in Eq. (8-12) and V is the volume of the system. The wide range over which the above pumpdown time relationship holds in practice is demonstrated in Fig. 8-57. When organic materials such as elastomers and plastics dominate the outgassing properties of a system, however, the pumpdown relationship is more complicated. In this case (P Pe)~^ is more nearly a linear function of the pumpdown time, and the equation cannot be integrated to anything approximating Eq. (8-13). From this discussion of pumpdown time in the range of diffusioneter of the system being defined as

pumpdown time, provided P^ > P >


P^

aj V,

pump

(Pergamon Press, London,

the chosen value of the pressure. [Taken with permission from C. H. Nau