Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 15

Equipment Specifications, Calibration, and Care

Basic instrumentation for a GPS network survey includes multiple sets of receivers, antennas, fixed-height tripods, and meteorological instruments. Identical equipment should be used whenever possible to minimize the effect of equipment biases. The compatibility of mixing different instrument models or brands should be demonstrated by performing a validation survey. Survey equipment, like all scientific instrumentation, should be handled with care, maintained according to manufacturer specifications, and calibrated on a regular basis. Equipment calibrations should be performed at the start and end of a project, before and after any maintenance, and at sufficient intervals to maintain data integrity. Any data not bracketed by successful calibrations are suspect. To prevent the invalidation of good data, frequent calibrations are recommended. The entire system of GPS equipment, personnel, and processing procedures should be proven with a validation survey as a final check to ensure all components interact properly. The following equipment is described below: 1. Receiver Specifications 2. Antenna Specifications 3. Tripod Specifications 4. Tribrach Specifications 5. Meteorological Equipment Specifications 6. Personnel Specifications

[receiver [top] [home] operation] The receivers used for network surveys should record the full wavelength carrier phase and signal strength of both the L1 and L2 frequencies, and track at least eight satellites simultaneously on parallel channels. Dual frequency instruments are recommended for all baselines longer than 10 km. ient memory and battery power for the entire field campaign. test reports are available from the Federal Geodetic Control Subcommittee (FGCS). A-1. Receiver Specifications: Receiver Calibration and Care: Ensure that your receiver contains the latest manufacturer's firmware upgrades. A zerobaseline test can measure receiver internal noise if the performance is suspect. Consult your user's manual for additional specifications. A-2. Antenna Specifications: [antenna height measurement] [top] [home]

The antennas should have stable phase centers and choke rings or large (> 16 cm) ground planes to minimize multipath interference, and a common orientation indicator (e.g., an arrow) to point north during observations.

A-5. Meteorological Equipment Specifications: Antenna Calibration and Care:

[weather observations]

[top]

[home]

All antenna models used shall have undergone Antenna Calibration by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS). Consult your user's manual for other specifications.

A-3. Tripod Specifications: [tripod setup] [top] [home] The tripods used must facilitate precise offset measurements between the mark datum point and the Antenna Reference Point (ARP). Fixed height tripods are preferable, due to the decreased potential for antenna centering and height measurement errors. Tripod Calibration and Care: stability with each use. Ensure that hinges, clamps, and feet are secure and in good repair. -height tripods shall be tested for stability, plumb alignment, and height verification at the start and end of each project.

Link - SECO GPS Tripod Length Test

A-4. Tribrach Specifications: Tribrachs used shall be of suitable quality and condition for high-accuracy surveys. Consult with your Project Coordinator for details. Tribrach Calibration and Care: The optical plummet alignment shall be tested at the start and end of each project. Link - Using SECO Tribrach Adjusters

Meteorological equipment includes a psychrometer (wet-bulb and dry-bulb thermometers) to measure temperatures and a barometer or altimeter to measure

atmospheric pressure. Relative humidity can either be measured with a hygrometer or computed (the preferred method) from psychrometer and barometer readings. Meteorological Equipment Calibration and Care: Meteorological equipment should be calibrated at the beginning and end of a project. Use the Meteorological Equipment Comparison Form to compare your instruments with standard instruments, available at National Weather Service offices. A-6. Personnel Specifications: ] All field personnel should be trained in the avoidance of systematic errors and blunders during field operations. Field personnel often work alone and must be prepared to make wise, on-the-spot decisions regarding mark identification and stability, equipment use and troubleshooting, and antenna setup. Office personnel should be familiar with geodetic concepts and least-squares adjustments.

PLANNING
A-1. Reconnaissance Surveys: Proper field reconnaissance is a prerequisite for any control survey. Reconnaissance should include a review of existing control networks, mark recovery and maintenance, station selection, setting of new monuments as necessary, and compilation of updated station descriptions into standard FGCS bluebook format. See the NGS ANA website for helpful information about reconnaissance, station selection, marksetting, etc.

A-2. High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) Surveys:

[top]

[home]

High Accuracy Reference Networks (HARNs) are statewide GPS survey networks which form the highest order of monumented control for the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS). Comprised of an NGS-maintained Federal Base Network (FBN) at 100 km station spacing and a volunteer-densified Cooperative Base Network (CBN) at 25-50 km spacing, HARN stations serve as control for regional and local surveys. Contemporary HARN surveys are conducted in accordance with the following specifications:

Station Requirements: HARN Stations: The survey shall include FBN stations established at 100 km nominal spacing and additional CBN stations if desired. Refer to "FBN Station Selection Guidelines" for HARN monumentation and siting criteria. Hub Stations: The survey shall include at least 1 hub station located within 300 km of each HARN station. Hub stations should include all Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) in the project area, and any HARN or bench mark stations located in secure areas. Bench Marks: The survey shall include at least 1 each, first- or second-order, stability class -A or class-B bench mark located within 200 km of each HARN station. Observation Requirements: HARN Stations: All HARN stations shall be observed in at least 3 sessions on 3 different days. Each observation shall be continuous for at least 5 hours, and simultaneous with all other stations in the observing session. At least 1 of the 3 sessions shall be observed under a unique satellite configuration, offset 4 or more sidereal hours from other observations. Session times shall be selected to minimize Positional Dilution of Precision (PDOP) throughout the observation. Each HARN station shall be co-observed with a hub station and adjacent stations. At least half of the station pair (baseline) observations shall be repeated. Data shall be recorded at 15 second epochs and 10 degree elevation masks. Hub Stations: Each hub station shall be observed with the nearest National CORS station for 1 session of at least 72 continuous hours with 30 second epochs. These guidelines for HARN surveys are summarized in Table 4.1 below:
Table 4.1 Network Design Guidelines for HARN Surveys Minimum Number of Stations All National CORS in or near the project area Between HARN stations < 100 km (nominal spacing) Between HARN and hub stations < 300 km Between HARN and bench mark < 200 km For HARN stations: To a hub station in each session To adjacent stations Repeat at least 50% of all baselines For hub stations: To the nearest National CORS

Maximum Station Spacing

Required Baselines

Observations per Baseline

For HARN stations: 3 each, 5 hour observations on 3 different days For hub stations: 1 each, 72 hour observation, 30 second epochs Repeated observations are conducted on different days At least 1 observation shall be offset by 4 hours Required for all FBN stations hub stations and bench marks At all stations at the beginning, middle, and end of each observation 15 second epochs, 10 degree elevation masks 30 second epochs, 15 degree elevation masks, precise ephemerides

Sidereal Time Offset Between Repeated Observations Fixed-height Tripods Required? Acquire Meteorological Data? Data Acquisition Parameters Data Processing Parameters

A-3. User Densification Network (UDN) Surveys: User Densification Network (UDN) surveys allow regional densification of the HARN networks. UDN surveys are conducted in accordance with the following specifications: Station Requirements: UDN Stations: The survey shall include UDN stations established at 25 km spacing or less.

[top]

[home]

HARN Stations: The survey shall include at least 2 HARN stations. Observation Requirements: UDN Stations: Each UDN station shall be observed in at least two 30 minute sessions. Each UDN station shall be co-observed with adjacent stations. Data shall be recorded at 15 second epochs and 10 degree elevation masks. These guidelines for UDN surveys are summarized in Table 4.2 below:
Table 4.2 Network Design Guidelines for UDN Surveys Minimum Number of Stations Maximum Station Spacing Required Baselines Observations per Baseline At least 2 HARN stations < 25 km between UDN stations To adjacent stations 2 each, 30 minute observations

Sidereal Time Offset Between Repeated Observations Fixed-height Tripods Required? Acquire Meteorological Data? Data Acquisition Parameters Data Processing Parameters

No time offset required No fixed-height tripods required At representative stations in the middle of each observation 30 second epochs, 15 degree elevation masks 30 second epochs, 15 degree elevation masks, precise or rapid ephemerides

A-4. GPS Orthometric Height Surveys: NOTE: For published GPS Orthometric Height survey requirements, see NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS-NGS-58; "Guidelines for Establishing GPSderived Ellipsoid Heights".

[top]

[home]

Recent studies have shown that with sufficient orthometric height control, high accuracy vertical control projects can be efficiently performed using GPS. Orthometric height surveys are conducted in accordance with the following specifications: Station Requirements: Local Stations: The height stations established in this survey are referred to as local stations. See Table 4.3 for maximum station spacings. Control Stations: The survey shall include 3 or more primary control stations distributed throughout the project area. All control stations shall be National CORS or vertical first-order, stability class-A or class-B HARN stations. Hub Stations: The survey shall include 3 or more subordinate control stations, called hub stations, distributed throughout the project and located within 75 km from the control stations. See Table 4.3 for maximum station spacings. Although hub stations can be newly established in this project, the use of existing HARN stations and stable bench marks is preferred. Bench marks: The survey shall include at least 4 each, vertical first-order, stability class-A or class-B bench marks spaced less than 20 km apart and distributed both horizontally and vertically throughout the project area. Use additional bench marks whenever practical.

Observation Requirements: Local Stations: All local stations shall be connected to the 2 nearest adjacent stations of any type by observing for 30 minutes on each of 2 or more days, at different times of day, and shall be connected to 2 hub or control stations by independent paths. For these observations, please note the following exceptions: For baselines longer than 10 km, increase the 30 minute observations to 1 hour. For baselines longer than 15 km, increase the 30 minute observations to 2 hours. For the 2 cm horizontal, 5 cm orthometric height local accuracy level, there is no minimum time requirement. The baselines shall be observed long enough to ensure that all integers are fixed and the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for the baseline solution does not exceed 1.5 cm. Hub Stations: Each hub station shall be directly connected to the nearest control station and 2 other hub stations, and shall be connected to a second control station by an independent path. Each of these baselines shall be observed for 5 hours on each of 3 or more days. Hub stations shall be connected to the 2 nearest hub stations, and the 2 nearest adjacent stations of any type, by observing for at least 30 minutes on each of 2 or more days, at different times of day. Independence of Observations: In an attempt to provide independent atmospheric, satellite, and tidal conditions, subsequent observations of all repeated baselines shall occur on different days, with as long a time interval between observations as is practical. Because the GPS satellite geometry repeats every 12 hours*, an additional time shift of 3 to 9 hours is required to observe unique satellite constellations. Refer to the following table for examples:
First Session Began at 1 Began at 2 Began at 3 Began at 4 Began at 5 Began at 6 Repeated Session (a.m. or p.m.) Observe between 4 and 10 Observe between 5 and 11 Observe between 6 and 12 Observe between 7 and 1 Observe between 8 and 2 Observe between 9 and 3 First Session Began at 7 Began at 8 Began at 9 Began at 10 Began at 11 Began at 12 Repeated Session (a.m. or p.m.) Observe between 10 and 4 Observe between 11 and 5 Observe between 12 and 6 Observe between 1 and 7 Observe between 2 and 8 Observe between 3 and 9

* Note that the actual orbit period is approximately 11 hours and 58 minutes, precessing 4 minutes per day. For repeated baselines observed more than 1 week

apart, this daily 4 minute change should be taken into account when scheduling the repeated sessions to meet the satellite geometry requirement. These guidelines for GPS orthometric height surveys are summarized in Table 4.3 below:
Table 4.3 Network Design Guidelines for GPS Orthometric Height Surveys Station Type: Control Stations 1 cm Horizontal 2 cm Orthometri c 2 cm Horizontal 5 cm Orthometri c Hub Stations 1 cm Horizontal 2 cm Orthometri c 2 cm Horizontal 5 cm Orthometri c Local Stations 1 cm Horizontal 2 cm Orthometri c 2 cm Horizontal 5 cm Orthometri c

Local Accuracy:

Min. # stations Max. Station Spacing

3 or more control stations

3 or more hub stations

No minimum number 10 km spacing average 7 km 20 km spacing average 10 km

Between control and hub 40 km stations spacing 75 km spacing

50 km spacing

Required Baseline Ties

5 hour observations: To nearest control, 2 other Control stations must be hub stations, and CORS independent path to or existing A-or B- order second control NSRS stations with 3-D 30 minute obs: To 2 ITRF coordinates nearest hub stations and 2 nearest adjacent stations.

Independent paths to 2 hub or control stations; To 2 nearest adjacent stations.

5 hour observations on 3 Observation 30 minute 5 hour observations on 3 days s per Base obs days 30 minute observations line on 2 days on 2 days Sidereal Time Between Obs. Repeat observations on different days 3 to 9 hours Repeat observations on different days 3 to 9 hours

No minimum time obs. on 2 days

Repeat observations on different days 3 to 9 hours

Fixed Height Yes Tripod Rqd. Acquire Met. Data Data Acq. At the beginning middle and end of session 15 seconds 10 degrees

Yes

No

Yes

No

At the beginning and end of session 15 seconds 10 degrees

No 15 sec 10 5 sec 10

Parameters

VDOP < 6 for 90% of session

VDOP < 6 for 90% of session

degrees VDOP<6 for 90% 30 sec 5 degrees precise ephemeride s

degrees VDOP<6 for 100% 5 sec 15 degrees precise ephemeride s

Data Proc. Parameters

30 seconds 15 degrees precise ephemerides

30 seconds 15 degrees precise ephemerides

1. For baselines longer than 10 km, increase the 30 minute observations to 1 hour. For baselines longer than 15 km, increase the 30 minute observations to 2 hours. While there is no minimum observation time for the 2 cm horizontal, 5 cm orthometric height local accuracy observations at local stations, each baseline shall be observed long enough in each session to ensure that all integers are fixed and the RMSE for the baseline solution does not exceed 1.5 cm.

[top] [home] A-5. Airport Surveys: See the NGS Aeronautical Survey website for information on ANA and other airport surveys. [top] [home] A-6. Validation Surveys: Validation survey requirements include the following: Under development. For more information, see Canadian GPS Validation Networks.

B. Observing Procedures:
.

[top]

[home]

The following activities are described below: 1. Receiver Operation 2. Tripod Setup 3. Antenna Height Measurement 4. Tribrach Operation 5. Weather Observations 6. Personnel Operation B-1. Receiver Operation:
[receiver specifications] [top] [home]

Receivers should be configured to acquire data in compressed mode, with elevation-masking-angle and epoch-interval (recording rate) settings as specified in theproject instructions.

B-2. Tripod Setup:

[tripod specifications]

[top]

[home]

Fixed height tripods are preferred over slip-leg tripods, as they reduce the potential for antenna height measurement errors. If a slip-leg tripod is used, a low tripod setup is preferred to minimize eccentricities, though the antenna should be set high enough to avoid obstructions. Eccentric setups (antenna out of plumb from the station datum point) are to be avoided. Note any eccentricities on the observation log. Tripod legs should be well set and weighted with sandbags, chain, or spikes to minimize movement. Plumbing bubbles must be shaded for at least 3 minutes before use to minimize convective currents in the bubble fluid. On tripods with rotating center poles, the bubble must be rotated and checked level throughout a 180-degree arc. Antennas should be oriented towards true north, as closely as can be accomplished with a hand compass. Note the magnetic declination in your local area to convert from magnetic north to true north. If possible, take a photograph of the tripod setup with a close-up of the antenna as viewed from the side. This photograph may be useful in identifying any variations in antenna configuration (type of radome or ground plane used.) Link - Setup Instructions for SECO Precise GPS Antenna Tripods

B-3. Antenna Height Measurement:

[antenna specifications]

[top]

[home]

The proper recordation of antenna height is critical. The Antenna Height used at NGS is the vertical distance between the station datum point and the Antenna Reference Point (ARP). Observe rs must carefully measure and check this height, and record and describe all measurements and antenna constants. Record all values to 0.0001 meters or 0.001 foot. All measurement computations must be checked and initialed by another person.

Fixedheight tripods simplify the measurement of antenna height (H). The calibrated tripod
height (A) should be checked with a quick measurement. Ensure that the antenna mates securely with the tripod head, and that any gap (B)between the tripod head and ARP is measured and included. The antenna height can then be computed from the following equation:

Antenna Height H= (A + B)

NOTE: Leica brand antennas use a measuring hook to determine the vertical distance between the mark and antenna. Record the measured distance from the mark to the hook as "a", and the offset from the hook to the ARP as "b".

Slip-leg tripods antenna height (H) is usually measured by slant-height(S), the


distance of the hypotenuse from the station datum point to the bottom edge of the antenna ground plane (BGP). Measure the slant height to at least 3 points around the antenna; these measurements should all agree to within 1 millimeter or the antenna should be replumbed. Independent measurements of the antenna height above the mark in both metric and Imperial units must be made before and after each session. From the antenna specification sheet in your user's manual, determine the radius (R) of the ground plane and the offset constant (C)between the BGP and the ARP. The antenna height can then be computed from the following Pythagorean equation:

Antenna Height H= ( sqrt(S - R ) - C)


2 2

Compare Metric and Imperial measurements using the following equations: Meters = Feet (0.3048) Example: 1.286 Meters = 4.219 Feet Feet = Meters (0.3048) Example: 5.345 Feet = 1.629 Meters Note that the 3-dimensional datum point of a standard survey disk is located at or above the dimple in the disk's center, on a level with the highest point of the disk, where the foot of a level rod would rest. If the point of the fixed-height pole or slant-height measuring rod intrudes significantly below this level to reach the bottom of the dimple (1 millimeter or more), make a careful measurement of the vertical separation and note this on the observation log.

B-4. Tribrach Operation: See your user's manual for operational details.

[tribrach specifications]

[top]

[home]

Link - SECO Tips-Setting Up the GPS Optical Plummet

B-5. Weather Observations:

[meteorology equipment specifications]

[top]

[home]

Measure and record weather data (temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and weather codes) at the beginning, middle, and end of each observing session, and at sufficient intervals during weather events (storm fronts, wind, snow, or rain, etc.) to describe all conditions observed. For accurate readings, acclimate the weather equipment for approximately 10 minutes prior to use. Note that even though these meteorological data may not all be used during vector processing, they may be helpful during the analysis of results and in future reprocessing with more robust software.

The measurements must be made in the vicinity of the GPS antenna, taking care not to obstruct the GPS signals. Indicate on the observation log the time and location of the meteorological observations. At stations in the vicinity of airports (within 5 km and at approximately same elevation), weather data from the airport (available on the Interactive Weather Information Network) may be substituted for actual measurements, if no portable meteorological instruments are available. Temperature: Read and record the dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures to the nearest degree
Celsius. Conversion: C = 5/9 (F-32) Example: 76oF = 24.4 C Pressure: Read and record the absolute or station pressure (NOT corrected for sea level) to the nearest millibar. Conversion: mbar = ( in Hg/0.75 ) * 25.4 Example: 29.98 in Hg = 1015.32 mbar

Relative Humidity: Compute the relative humidity from temperature and pressure readings using NGS program RELHUM or the NWS Weather Calculator. Electronic hygrometers are acceptable as long as the equipment is calibrated and all calibration documentation and offsets are furnished to the Project Coordinator. Weather Codes: A 5-digit code is used to summarize the general weather conditions, as described below: WEATHER CODE PROBLEM VISIBILITY
(0 or 1) (0, 1, or 2) (0, 1, (0, 1, (0, 1, or 2)

0
0.... = No problem encountered

1
1.... = Problem encountered

2
2.... = Not used .2... = Poor (under 7 miles) ..2.. = Cold (under 32oF) ...2. = Overcast (over 70%) ....2 = Strong (over 15 mph)

.0... = Good (over 15 .1... = Fair (7 to 15 miles) miles) ..0.. = Normal (32oF to 80oF) ...0. = Clear (under 20%) ..1.. = Hot (over 80oF) ...1. = Cloudy (20% to 70%)

TEMPERATURE or 2) CLOUD COVER or 2) WIND Examples:


Code 0.... (=No 00000 = problems), Code 1.... 12121 = (=Problems),

....0 = Calm (under 5 ....1 = Moderate (5 mph) to 15 mph)

.0... (=good visibility), .2... (=poor visibility),

..0.. (=normal temperature), ..1.. (=hot temperature),

...0. (=clear sky),

....0 (=calm wind) ....1 ...2. (=moderate (=overcast), wind) [personnel specifications] [top]

= Code 00000 = Code 12121

B-6. Personnel Operation:

[home]

Survey operations shall be conducted with due regard to the safety of personnel and equipment. Contact with the airport traffic control tower is mandatory during surveys at any controlled airports.

C. Observer Checklist:
. ____

[equipment checklist]

[top]

[home]

Determine the scheduled start day and time for the session. Note the UTC-to-local time difference (e.g., UTC to Pacific Daylight is - 7 hours). Assemble all items from the Equipment Checklist. Ensure all equipment is in good ____ repair and within calibration limits. ____ Arrive at the station about 1 hour prior to the scheduled start time. Park your vehicle in a safe manner. Avoid hindering the equipment setup or creating ____ multipath signals near the GPS antenna. Obtain a station rubbing or sketch on a Pencil Rubbing Form. Compare the station ____ stamping with the Station Description. ____ Set the tripod and GPS antenna plumb over the station. ____ Place sandbags, chain, or spikes at all tripod feet. ____ Align the antenna orientation indicator (arrow) to True North. ____ Attach the GPS receiver to the antenna and batteries, confirming all connections. ____ Ensure that the antenna setup is stable and that the antenna is plumb over the station. Measure the antenna height in meters and feet, and record your measurements in the ____ "Before" column of the NGS Observation Log ____ Reconfirm that the antenna is plumb. ____ Check GPS receiver available memory, power supply, and data logging parameters ____ Begin the session no more than 10 minutes prior to the scheduled start time. ____ Confirm that the GPS receiver is actually recording data. ____ If possible, input the following into the GPS digital data file: Change filename to standard NGS filename Enter antenna type and antenna height Do NOT record weather data, event markers, or survey notes in the digital data ____ Monitor the receiver (logging), antenna setup (plumb), and battery health (good). ____ Consult the Troubleshooting Guide if you encounter problems. ____ Acclimate the meteorology equipment; measure and record weather observations. ____ Fill-in the NGS Observation Log with all pertinent data. Check the provided Visibility Obstruction Diagram and the Station Datasheet ____ or Station Description; note any changes. Photograph the station mark, antenna setup, to-reach view, and visibility obstructions ____ with a digital camera. Acclimate the meteorology equipment; measure and record weather observations at the ____ session midpoint.

____ Monitor the receiver (logging), antenna setup (plumb), and battery health (good). ____ Terminate the session at the scheduled stop time; turn off the receiver. ____ Acclimate the meteorology equipment; measure and record weather observations. Reconfirm that the antenna is still plumb over the station and remeasure the antenna ____ height in meters and feet. Record the antenna height in the "After" column on the observation log; check the form ____ for completeness. ____ Tear down the equipment; depart the station site and return to the office. Download the data directly from the receiver into your computer hard-drive twice (to ____ ensure clean copies) then copy to diskette. Ensure sufficient memory is available in the GPS receiver for the next session; delete ____ older sessions if necessary. ____ Recharge batteries for the next session. Check and verify all entries on the NGS Observation Log, Pencil Rubbing ____ Form, Visibility Obstruction Diagram, and Station Description. ____ Ship data to the Project Coordinator.