A Study of Bicycle Dynamics via System Identification

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A Study of Bicycle Dynamics via System Identification

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Dept. of Mechanical and Automation Engineering

Dayeh University

Changhua, Taiwan

ckchen@mail.dyu.edu.tw

Abstract This study investigates bicycle dynamic

properties by using system identification approaches. The

nonlinear bicycle model with configuration parameters from

a previously developed benchmark model is studied. The roll

angle of the bicycle is controlled at different speeds to

generate input-output data including steering torque, roll

and steering angles. The collected data are then used to

identify the one-input two-output linear model by a

prediction-error identification method using

parameterization in canonical state-space form. Numerous

properties for various speed ranges are discussed from the

pole and zero locations of the identified linear model. The

system stability, limit-cycle phase portraits of the roll and

steering angles, and the non-minimum phase property of the

nonlinear system are further investigated and compared.

Keywords bicycle dynamics, bicycle control, system

identification

I. INTRODUCTION

The dynamics of bicycles is a classical topic in

mechanics. For the first time, differential equations of

motion of a bicycle were established by Whipple in 1899

[1]. However, since massive computational facilities were

not available at the time, Whipples equations could not be

solved. Jones [2] pointed out that, in order to balance a

ridden bicycle, an sufficient centrifugal force could be

generated to correct its fall by steering the fork into the

direction of the fall. Schwab and Meijaard et al. [3][4]

developed linearized equations of motion for a bicycle as a

benchmark. In their study, the results obtained by pencil-

and-paper, the numerical multibody dynamics program

SPACAR and the symbolic software AutoSim, were

compared for validation. Limitations due to the

simplification of the benchmark model were later

discussed by Sharp [5], including acceleration effects,

finite cross-section tires, tire forces and dynamics, frame

compliance and rider compliance. Among studies related

to two-wheel vehicles, Sharp et al. [6] presented a study

analyzing straight-running motorcycles. Unlike the

Whipples model, the tires were modeled as force and

moment producers rather than as rolling constraints. In

others studies, Sharp applied optimal linear preview

control theory in the steering control of bicycles [5] via the

benchmark model developed in [3] and [4] with extensions

to the limitations pointed out in the same paper. The

benchmark bicycle dynamic model presented by Schwab

and Meijaard et al. [3][4] was reproduced from Whipples

linear model [1] with certain assumptions which, in

principle, cause loss in dynamic properties.

In this study, a different approach using system

identification techniques has been applied to determine the

dynamic behaviors of bicycles from the input-output data

of a nonlinear bicycle model. This study points out and

discusses the pole-location portraits vs. forward speed and

the corresponding dynamic properties. Starting from the

eleven-generalized-coordinates dynamic model described

in a previous study [7] with configuration parameters

adopted from the benchmark bicycle [4], input steering

torque signal and output data including roll and steering

angles were generated from simulations. System

identification has been used for different speeds to obtain

speed-specific linear models. From identification results

and simulations with the nonlinear bicycle model,

important nonlinear dynamic behaviors of bicycles are

discussed and compared with the linearized benchmark

model.

II. SYSTEM-IDENTIFICATION APPROACH

The speed-dependent benchmark model introduced by

Schwab et al. [3] was derived from Whipples linear model

[1] with two parameters in configuration space and two in

velocity space defined by

( )

2

1 0 2

v g v + + + = Mq K q K K q f , (1)

where [ , ]

T

u o = q is the vector composed of roll and

steering angles, respectively, [0, ]

T

t = f is the force

vector consisting of the steering torque t , v is the bicycle

forward speed, g is the gravity, and M, C

1

, K

0

and K

2

are

bicycle-dependant constant coefficient matrices. In this

study, a prediction-error method [8] is used to identify the

bicycle state-space model in canonical from. To start off,

equation (1) can be rewritten as

( )

1 2 1

1 0 2

v g v

(

= + + +

q M K q K K q M f . (2)

By choosing the state vector [ , , , ]

T

u u o o = x

, the state-

space model can be expressed in the canonical form as

,

,

t = +

=

x Ax B

y Cx

(3)

where

1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1

a a a a

a a a a

(

(

(

=

(

(

A ,

1

2

0

0

b

b

(

(

(

=

(

(

B and

1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0

(

=

(

C . It can be noticed from (2) and (3) that

2

, 1, 3, 5, 7,

, 2, 4, 6, 8,

i i

i

i

v i

a

v i

o |

o

+ =

(4)

978-1-4244-5567-6/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE 3CA 2010

where

i

o and

i

| are constants dependent on M ,

0,1,2 i =

K

and

1,2 i

b

=

are constants dependent on M .

Figure 1. System-identification schematic

Canonical parameterization represents a state-space

system in its minimal form, i.e., the system dynamics are

expressed by using a minimal number of free parameters.

In system (3), free parameters

1..8 1,2

T

i i

a b

= =

( =

appear

in only the second and forth rows in the system matrices

A and B . By this parameterization, numerical Gauss-

Newton method can be used to search for the optimal

parameters which minimize the error in least-squares sense

defined by

2

1

( ) ( ) ( )

n

i

E i i

=

=

_

y y , where ( ) i y is the i

th

original output data sample, ( ) i

y is the estimated i

th

output sample from the simulated model using parameters

with the original input data, n is the number of data

samples. The initial parameter values

0

required in the

Gauss-Newton method can be estimated using subspace

methods [8]. This estimation procedure has been

implemented in the PEM function within MATLAB.

The identification process is shown in Figure 1. To

identify the model given by (3), or more specifically, the

matrices A and B , at a given speed, the time history of

the input steering torque t and the corresponding outputs

composed of o and u needs to be generated. However, as

the bicycle can be unstable at certain speeds, a roll-angle

controller is necessary to produce sufficiently long

simulations. The controller can be of any type, such as PID

or fuzzy controllers [7][9], and the control accuracy is not

an important issue since the only requirement is to keep

the bicycle from not falling down during these simulations

to ensure enough input-output data are obtained.

Nevertheless, as the input-output identification data are

from closed-loop simulations, the input signal (steering

torque) may not be persistently exciting enough. To

reinforce the excitation of the identification data, random

signals are generated and added to the input torque.

III. SYSTEM-IDENTIFICATION RESULTS

A. Nonlinear-Bicycle Identification

For the simulations in this study, parameters are

derived from the benchmark bicycle provided in [10]. The

bicycle is controlled to follow a sinusoidal roll-angle with

increasing frequency using a fuzzy-logic controller [9].

The uniformly distributed pseudo-random number signals

with amplitude smaller than 1Nm are generated and added

to the input steering torque to make the input signal

persistently exciting. Figure 2 shows the identification data

from a simulation with the initial forward a speed of

4.2m/s and time step of 0.01s. This data is then plugged

into the PEM function in MATLAB to identify the

continuous canonical state-space model. This resulted

0 1 0 0 0

5.392 0.432 12.570 3.177 19.711

, .

0 0 0 1 0

13.645 20.944 20.913 17.000 233.588

( (

( (

( (

= =

( (

( (

A B

(5)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

-2

0

2

(

N

m

)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

(

d

e

g

)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

-0.2

0

0.2

Time (s)

(

d

e

g

)

Steering torque

Roll angle data

Steer angle data

Id. model roll angle

Id. model steer angle

Roll angle error

Steer angle error

Figure 2. Identification at speed of 4.2m/s

The four poles calculated from A are 15.101 ,

1.668 , and 0.331 3.343 j . The obtained linear model

is then used in an open-loop steering simulation by giving

the original steering torque for verification. The result

presented in Figure 2 shows that the output roll and

steering angles follow the original data with small error.

The largest errors in the total 50s simulation time are

0.231 for roll angle and 0.172 for steering angle. This

comparison verifies the fitting accuracy of the identified

model.

From the identified state-space model, transfer

functions G

u

and G

o

corresponding to the roll and

steering angles, respectively, with respect to steering

torque are obtained as follows,

2

4 3 2

2

4 3 2

19.711 1077.263 2524.109

,

17.431 47.586 205.934 284.279

233.588 311.882 1528.374

.

17.431 47.586 205.934 284.279

s s

G

s s s s

s s

G

s s s s

u

o

O

= =

T + + + +

A

= =

T + + + +

(6)

The corresponding zeros of G

u

are 52.199 and

2.453 , and those of G

o

are 3.311 and 1.976 . G

o

is

identified to be a non-minimum phase system which

contains one right-half-plane zero. This effect in two-

wheeled vehicles is conventionally referred to as

countersteering behavior [11].

B. Pole Locations and Dynamics

The procedure in Subsection 3.1 is repeated over the

speed range from 1 to 15m/s. For the speeds lower than

1m/s, collected data is insufficient for the identification

process since simulations could not be implemented in

sufficient time. The pole locations of the identified model

are shown in Figure 3(a). Compared with the poles from

the linearized benchmark bicycle [3][4], the speeds can

also similarly be divided into four ranges A, B, C and D,

and the pole locations have similar variations. At very low

speeds, all of the four poles are real, including two stable

and two unstable poles. As the speed increases, the two

unstable real poles coalesce before splitting to form a

mode. The real part of these poles decreases then becomes

stable, whereas the imaginary part keeps increasing. At

first, the capsize pole moves from the stable to unstable

regions but stays close to zero as the speed increases. The

castering pole is always stable and its absolute value keeps

increasing at high speeds.

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 15

-30

-25

-20

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

20

v (m/s)

v

c

v

w

v

l

B

1

B

2

C D

v

d

A

(a)

3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4 4.2

-16

-14

-12

-10

-8

-6

-4

-2

0

2

4

v (m/s)

v

l

v

w

B

1

B

2

C

(b)

Figure 3. Identified eigenvalues from nonlinear model for speeds (a)

from 1 to 15m/s (b) from 3 to 4.2m/s

There are, however, important differences which

should be pointed out. The boundaries of ranges A, B, C

and D are different from the benchmark model with

1.465m/s

d

v = , 3.994m/s

w

v = and 10.525m/s

c

v = ,

which extend self-stabilizing region C. Unlike the

castering eigenvalue of the benchmark model which

always moves far away from zero, the variation of the pole

identified from the nonlinear model is more complicated.

The most remarkable difference is the variation of the

capsize mode within range B

2

from 3.152m/s

l

v = to

w

v ,

in which the capsize pole goes down to 9.123 at a speed

of 3.280m/s then up to 0.797 at a speed of 3.453m/s very

quickly, where the difference in speed is 0.173m/s. Within

this range, the capsize pole passes to a stable region at

3.401m/s and back to an unstable region at 3.568m/s. This

is made clear in Figure 3(b).

C. Limit Cycles

The existence of periodic orbits is shown in Figure 4

obtained at different initial conditions and speeds within

range B

2

. In these simulations, the forward speed is set as

3.5m/s, initial steering angles o as 10, 5 and 0.1, initial

roll angles u as zero, and no steering torque is applied.

The initial steering angle speeds o

cases, and initial roll angle speeds u

of 55.236 ,

27.291 and 0deg/s. It appears that for these three cases,

both steering and roll angles approach very close to

periodic orbits. This can be explained by looking at the

total energy which is constant during the simulations since

there is no external non-conservative force applied.

-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

Roll angle (deg)

R

o

ll

a

n

g

le

s

p

e

e

d

(

d

e

g

/

s

)

o

0

=10, u

0

=0

o

0

=5, u

0

=0

o

0

=0.1, u

0

=0

Figure 4. Limit cycles of steering angle at speed of 3.5m/s for different

initial steering angles

-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30

-80

-60

-40

-20

0

20

40

60

80

Roll angle (deg)

R

o

ll

a

n

g

le

s

p

e

e

d

(

d

e

g

/

s

)

o

0

=0, u

0

=0.1

o

0

=0, u

0

=15

o

0

=0, u

0

=25

Figure 5. Limit cycles of roll angle at speed of 3.5m/s for different initial

roll angle

Figure 5 shows the roll-angle phase portraits for

simulations at the same speed of 3.5m/s for different initial

roll angles of 0.1, 15, and 25 while keeping the initial

steering angle at zero in all cases. It appears that in

different cases, the roll angle approaches different orbits,

which can also be realized by looking at the total energy.

With increasing initial roll angle, the potential energy

decreases remarkably, thereby, also making the total

energy decrease. When the bicycle is at lower energy, its

roll angle swings at a larger amplitude corresponding to

the point at which its potential energy reaches its

minimum.

IV. ROLL-ANGLE-TRACKING CONTROL

As shown in Figure 6, the controller is composed of

two paths: a state-feedback control, and a feedforward path

between the error comparator and the plant. The control

law is

I

k t = + Kx , (7)

where

1 4

e K and

I

k are constant control gains, and

is the output of the integrator whose input is the tracking

error, that is

*

ref ref

u u u = = C x

, (8)

o real root

x real part of complex root

* imaginary part of complex root

o real root

x real part of complex root

* imaginary part of complex root

where

ref

u is the reference roll angle signal, and

*

C is the

first row of C in Eq. (3). The dynamics of the system can

be described by an equation that is a combination of Eqs.

(3) and (8):

ref *

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) 0 ( ) 0 1

t t

t t

t t

t u

( ( ( ( (

= + +

( ( ( ( (

x A 0 x B 0

C

. (9)

Note that matrices A , B and C can be determined

for a certain speed by using system identification.

[ , , , ]

T

u u o o = x

Figure 6. Pole-placement controller structure

At steady state, Eq. (9) yields

ref *

( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) 0 ( ) 0 1

t u

( ( ( ( (

= + +

( ( ( ( (

x A 0 x B 0

C

. (10)

To design an asymptotically stable controller,

ref

u is

supposed to be step input, i.e.,

ref

( ) t const u = . Subtracting

Eq. (10) from Eq. (9) yields

| |

*

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) 0 ( ) ( ) 0

t t

t

t t

t t

( ( ( (

= +

( ( ( (

x x A 0 x x B

C

. (11)

Define

( ) ( )

e

t t t t = (12)

and a new fifth-order error vector ( ) t e by

( ) ( )

( )

( ) ( )

t

t

t

(

=

(

x x

e , (13)

then Eq. (11) becomes

e

t = + e Ae B

, (14)

where

*

0

(

=

(

A 0

A

C

and

0

(

=

(

B

B

. (15)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

-15

-10

-5

0

5

10

15

R

o

ll

a

n

g

le

(

d

e

g

)

Reference

Response

Error

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

-5

0

5

S

t

e

e

r

in

g

a

n

g

le

(

d

e

g

)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

0

5

10

S

t

e

e

r

in

g

t

o

r

q

u

e

(

N

m

)

Time (s)

Figure 7. Control results at 15km/h

In a similar fashion, from Eq. (7)

| | | | ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

I

t t k t t t = + K x x , (16)

or,

e

t = Ke

, (17)

where | |

I

k = K K

determined by solving a pole-placement problem from the

fifth-order state equation (14).

As a property of pole-placement technique, the bicycle

can asymptotically approach a constant reference input.

However, for a time-varying reference input, as shown in

Figure 7, the bicycle is controlled at 15km/h, there is

always a delay time when comparing the response and the

reference input. The delay time is affected by the choice of

the closed-loop poles. More stable poles can shorten the

delay time, but also require larger control steering torque.

In consequence, the poles should be chosen so that the

generated steering torque is feasible and the tracking error

is acceptable.

V. CONCLUSIONS

In this study, system identification has been applied to

identify the dynamics properties of a nonlinear bicycle

model. Compared with linearization results of previous

works [3][4], compatible modes were identified for

different speed ranges. Furthermore, differences in

variation of pole locations were also found and discussed,

of which the most remarkable is the existence of the limit-

cycle phase portraits of roll and steering angles in the

nonlinear model within the speed range from 3.152 to

3.994m/s.

The approach in this paper has potential in several

applications. First, system identification can be applied

directly to experimental data from a physical bicycle to

obtain its linear model. Furthermore, the identified linear

model can be used in controller design of real bicycles

with higher accuracy in areas such as pole placement,

adaptive control, optimal control and so on.

REFERENCES

[1] F.J.W. Whipple, The stability of the motion of a bicycle,

Q. J. Pure Appl. Math., vol. 30, pp. 312348 (1899).

[2] D.E.H. Jones, The stability of the bicycle, Physics Today,

vol. 23, pp. 3440, American Institute of Physics (1970).

[3] A.L. Schwab, J.P. Meijaard, J.M. Papadopoulos,

Benchmark results on the linearized equations of motion of

an uncontrolled bicycle, KSME Int. J. of Mechanical

Science and Technology, vol. 19, pp. 292304 (2005).

[4] J.P. Meijaard, J.M. Papadopoulos, A. Ruina, A.L. Schwab,

Linearized dynamics equations for the balance and steer of

a bicycle: a benchmark and review, Proceedings of the

Royal Society, Series A, vol. 463, pp. 19551982 (2007).

[5] R.S. Sharp, On the stability and control of the bicycle,

Applied Mechanics Reviews (2008).

[6] R.S. Sharp, The stability and control of motorcycles, J. of

Mech. Eng. Sci., vol. 13, pp.316329 (1971).

[7] C.K. Chen, T.S. Dao, Fuzzy control for equilibrium and

roll-angle tracking of an unmanned bicycle, Multibody

System Dynamics, vol. 15, pp. 325350 (2006).

[8] L. Ljung, System Identification: Theory for the User,

Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey (1999).

[9] C.K. Chen, T.K. Dao, Speed-adaptive roll-angle-tracking

control of an unmanned bicycle using fuzzy logic, Vehicle

System Dynamics, (2010) (in print).

[10] J.M. Papadopoulos, Bicycle steering dynamics and self-

stability: a summary report on work in progress, Technical

report, Cornell Bicycle Research Project, Cornell University,

Ithaca, New York (1987).

[11] J. Fajans, Steering in bicycles and motorcycles, American

Journal of Physics, vol. 68, pp. 654659 (2000).

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