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Indo-French Collaborative Project (2013-1) Optimal Development and Management of Groundwater in WeatheredFractured Aquifer

Scientific Report: Volume 1 INTEGRATED GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS


N.S. Krishnamurthy, Dewashish Kumar, Henri Robain, J.M. Baltassat Baltassat and S. Ahmed

Sponsored by

INDO-FRENCH CENTRE FOR THE PROMOTION OF ADVANCED RESEARCH (IFCPAR)

NATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE Hyderabad, India

CENTRE DINFORMATIQUE GEOLOGIQUE Fontainebleau, France

INVESTIGATING HARD ROCK AQUIFER IN MAHESHWARAM WATERSHED, A.P., INDIA, USING INTEGRATED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES An Indo-French Collaborative Project on Optimal Development and Management of Groundwater in Weathered-Fractured Aquifer Sponsored by INDO-FRENCH CENTRE FOR THE PROMOTION OF ADVANCED RESEARCH (IFCPAR) LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
INDIAN TEAM Dr. Shakeel Ahmed Mr. N.S. Krishnamurthy Dr. V. Ananda Rao Dr. T. Venkateswar Rao Mr. S. Sankaran Mr. S. Narayana Mr. B. Syama Prasad Mr. Md. Zaman Mr. B.A. Prakash Mr. B.C. Negi Mr. Dewashish Kumar Mr. Sanjeev Kumar Mr. S.C. Jain Dr. R.L. Dhar Mr. G.R. Anjanayulu Mr. E.J. Mohan Rao Mr. Ch. Rangarao FRENCH TEAM Dr. Henri Robain Dr. Marc Descloitres Dr. J.M. Baltassat Dr. Anatoly Legtchenko NGRI NGRI NGRI NGRI NGRI NGRI NGRI NGRI NGRI NGRI NGRI NGRI NGRI NGRI NGRI APGWD APGWD

IRD IRD BRGM BRGM

PRINCIPAL COLLABORATORS India Dr. Shakeel Ahmed France Dr. Emmanuel Ledoux 1

Contents
Page No. Figure Captions Table Captions CHAPTER-1 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

GENERAL INTRODUCTION Background Objectives Brief description of the research carried out Organization of the scientific report Acknowledgements

4 4 4 5 8 9

CHAPTER-2 2.0 INTRODUCTION 2.1 Groundwater Geophysics-Status 2.2 Importance of Fractures in Hard rock Areas 2.3 Hard Rock Aquifer Characteristics 2.4 State of the art CHAPTER-3 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3

10 10 11 11 12

STUDY AREA Location Geology and Hydrology Physiography and Drainage

14 14 14 16

CHAPTER-4 4.0 METHODOLOGY 4.1 Electrical Resistivity Technique 4.1.1 Interpretation 4.2 Multi Electrode Resistivity 2-Dimensional Imaging (MER2DI) 4.2.1 MER2DI Equipment 4.3 Time Domain Electromagnetism (TDEM) 4.3.1 TDEM Equipment 4.4 Magnetic Method 4.4.1 Equipment 4.4.2 Field Procedure 4.5 Proton Magnetic Resonance Method (PMR) 4.5.1 Equipment 4.6 Well Logging 4.6.1 Self-Potential Logging 4.6.2 Point Resistance (PR) Logging 4.6.3 Resistivity Logging 4.6.4 The Gamma Ray Log 4.7 Self-Potential (SP) Method 4.8 Mise--la-masse Method

17 17 17 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 23 24 2

CHAPTER-5 5.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS 5.1 Electrical Resistivity Technique 5.2 Multi Electrode Resistivity 2-Dimensional Imaging (MER2DI) 5.2.1 Test of Different Arrays 5.2.2 Mohabatnagar (Site 1) 5.2.3 K.B. Tanda (Site 2) 5.3 Time Domain Electromagnetism (TDEM) 5.3.1 Transmitter loop size 5.3.2 Sampling Interval 5.3.3 External EM Noise 5.3.4 Influence of distortions 5.3.5 Influence of loop size 5.3.6 Choice of a model 5.3.7 Interpretation 5.4 Magnetic Method 5.5 Proton Magnetic Resonance (PMR) 5.5.1 Mohabatnagar (Site 1) 5.5.2 K.B. Tanda (Site 2) 5.6 Well Logging 5.6.1 Well No. IFP-1 (Location 219) 5.6.2 Well No. IFP-9 (Location 252) 5.7 Self-Potential and Mise--la-masse 5.7.1 Borehole No. 265 (IFP-11) 5.8 Reinterpretation of Sounding Data using Geostatistical Analysis CHAPTER-6 6.0 CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES

25 25 27 27 30 31 33 33 34 34 35 35 35 36 38 39 40 41 41 41 42 43 43 44

54 56

FIGURE CAPTIONS
Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 22Fig. 23Location map of Maheshwaram Watershed Location map of VES locations and drilled wells Resistivity sounding Interpretation, Schlumberger Array, Example Resistivity Profiles Measured apparent resistivity inverted image Location map of MER2DI & TDEM Profiles Comparision of different Arrays along Line A MER2DI Section along Line A and Line B (Mohabatnagar) MER2DI Section along Line B (K.B. Tanda) MER2DI Section along Line D (K.B. Tanda) TDEM Resistivity Sections along Line A, B & C (Mohabatnagar) Magnetic Traverse across a dyke Location maop of PMR Soundings PMR Soundidng result at IPMR 10 2D sections from PMR soundings Geophysical Well Logs at IFP-1 Gamma Logs at IFP-1 Geophysical Well Logs at IFP-9 Gamma Log at IFP-9 Mise--la-masse and SP equipotential map at IFP-11 Thickness of Weathered zone Thickness of Fractured zone Depth to Bedrock

TABLE CAPTIONS
Table-1 Table-2 VES interpretation result (Layer Parameter) VES interpretation and geostatistical estimation

1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION


1.1 Background

All life on this planet depends on water, a precious resource. Yet, we are struggling to manage water in ways that are efficient, equitable, and environmentally sound. Many parts of the world are facing increasingly deteriorating conditions as cities expand, populations grow, and sources of clean/fresh water vanish. The situation is even worse in the heavily populated India. The policies of the GOI during 1970s have provided large scale development of groundwater through subsidies in the form of lower levies on power consumption. This has boosted the agricultural production immensely but unfortunately, there were no compelling rules on the extraction of the groundwater that has lead to its exploitation beyond the optimum yielding capacity of the aquifers. Thus the uncontrolled exploitation of groundwater resources specially in the hard rocks has de-saturated the weathered column of about 15-20 meters that formed the dynamic groundwater storage of the aquifer system. Presently, the wells tap the fractured systems at greater depth. It is very well understood that the groundwater in a region is controlled by the climatic and geological conditions. Hard rocks that are devoid of primary porosity, occupy about two third area of the country. Hence over all groundwater scenario calls for understanding the hard rock aquifers for sustainable development and management of this important resource in different geological environs in the absence of major surface water resources.
A large amount of similarities exist between India and France as far as the hard rock formations are concerned and hence we have continued research programs in both the countries to tackle such aquifer systems. Thus a collaborative project was taken up aiming at evolution of a cost-effective methodology relevant to fractured rocks to determine:

how groundwater is recharged in areas where the fractured basement is covered with weathered rocks, as is common both in India and in many parts of the world; how bore-holes can be best located to tap groundwater in the weathered zone and underlying fractured basement; what is the best management strategy to exploit the aquifer yield and thus minimize the losses, and how can this yield be developed by artificially increasing the recharge.

1.2 Objectives
The objectives of the present study have been to thoroughly understand the functioning of the weathered-fractured aquifer system and simulate the flow to develop methodologies for optimal management of water resources. A carefully selected catchments area in the granite terrene has been surveyed, instrumented and monitored with a view to develop a cost-effective methodologies which could be applied in other areas also for: Assessment of the sustainable yield, Optimal location of wells to exploit groundwater and Cost-effective means to increase the water resources and/or minimize the losses. 5

1.3 Brief description of the research carried out


The entire project was has been of applied nature and since the study area lied in India most of the experimental work have been carried out in India with some interpretation and modeling work that was carried out in France. The collaborating organizations have been: India: National Geophysical Research Institute & Andhra Pradesh Ground Water Department France: Centre dInformatique Geologique, Ecole des Mines de Paris Bureau des Recherches Geologique et Miniere Sisyphe, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Institut de Recherche pour les Developments & Geosciences, Univ. of Rennes Various research activities are as follows: Selection of the study area: A study area in the granite terrene (to have weathered and fractured aquifers) has been selected considering a number of logistic and scientific parameters. The study area is a closed watershed of about 60 Km2 so that it could be very well monitored and instrumented. Since we do not intend to study pollution problems, this area has been away from industries. The main activities in the area have been agriculture, of course, with heavy exploitation. A large number of outcrops are available to map the structures and fractures. A number of intrusive like dolerite dyke, pegmatite veins and quartz reefs that are common in such terrene, are present in the area. The area is only 35 Km from the NGRI and very well connected with highway so that any field work could be carried out without loosing much time. The study area was also selected with the Indian and French team together. A complete videography of the area including the main geological features were made and sent to France to show to all the participants from France who could not visit the area due to limited exchange visits. Geological Investigation and well inventories: The entire outcrops were mapped by measuring the dip and strike of the major fractures and joints and a rose diagram is prepared showing the major direction of the fracturation. All the lineaments and intrusive were marked from the areal photographs and ground surveys. Complete inventory of the wells present, were made having about 200 dug wells and more than 800 bore wells. An approximate estimation of water withdrawal was also made. Water level is very crucial parameter and a suitable network has been evolved out of the existing bore wells to start the water level monitoring from November 1999. A number of rock samples were analyzed including their thin sections in BRGM, France to arrive at the thickness and type of the weathering cover. Geophysical investigations soil gas emanometry: The entire area has been surveyed with a variety of geophysical methods depending on the local inhomogeniety and other 6

physical conditions. Several Km lines of electrical imaging were carried out to find out the resistivity contrast along with a large number of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) to provide the depth to the bedrock, thickness of the weathered and fractured zones. The survey has been conducted using the equipment from the French collaborative organizations and a team of geophysicists from France has participated in the fieldwork and in the interpretation. The magnetic survey with the electrical profiling has provided the depth till the dykes are weathered as this information has been useful in simulating flow. The new method of gas emanometry mainly by sampling radon gas was applied, of course, in limited areas to correlate the geophysical interpretation. Later this has proved to provide very promising site for groundwater and the same was confirmed by drilling a series of bore wells. Geophysical logs were performed later after the wells were drilled and also a special method of delineating the extent of fracture viz., Mise-a-la-Masse were also employed. Drilling of the observation wells and hydraulic tests: The hydrogeological investigations supported by the geophysical prospecting have provided sites for drilling about 25 bore wells fairly distributed in the area. Well defined drilling records were maintained to arrive at geological logs, drill time logs and depth of water striking etc. These information have extensively been used in interpreting the hydraulic test data and to conceptualize the geometry of the aquifer. A large number of different kind of hydraulic tests have been performed so that a realistic picture of the parameter variability is obtained. Starting with six short duration pumping tests of six hours each have provided aquifer flow and storage parameters. Later a few close observation wells have been drilled and long duration pumping tests (18 to 30 hours) to arrive at the regional picture of the aquifer parameters. Due to logistic difficulties and the fact that water levels have gone below the weathered zone aquifer, it was decided that slug and infiltration tests to be conducted where water is not pumped from the well. Thus all the 25 newly drilled wells in the project were tested with the slug tests and local permeability were determined that were later regionalized. The infiltration tests with flow meter have provided permeability of individual fracture zones and also confirmed the depth and location of water bearing fractures. Water level monitoring and optimal network design: Water level being time variant parameter was monitored every month. Initially about 32 wells from the existing farmers well selected for monitoring then 25 wells drilled in the project were added to the monitoring network. However, the network has become dense and difficult to monitor in the shortest possible time. The water level data were analyzed geostatistically for its stochastic nature and using the variability in space and time, we arrived at (1) a few common variogram to avoid complicated variographic analyses for every time periods and (2) an optimal network of only 40 wells (25 newly drilled wells and 15 from the existing wells) to monitor water level every month. Later these values were used for calibration of the aquifer model. Water quality assessment including profiling of EC: Although analyzing water quality was out of the scope of the study, however, on six monthly basis water samples 7

were collected and analyzed for major ions and study their behaviour with time. In addition using an EC logger all the 25 project wells have been logged with EC and temperature. Although, temperature has not given any significant variation but EC has at times shown significant change confirming mixing of water from fractures at that depth. Water balance study and water budgeting: With the above work on surveying and instrumentation, the aquifer system was conceptualized for its geometries and flows. However, assessment of potential its dynamics, a precise estimation of its most components are important. Various components of water flow have been calculated and a water balance of the entire watershed was prepared. It was obtained that about 1.18 meter depletion of water has been found on average in the area in one year due to over exploitation. This study conceptualizes the different components of water budget and provides the water budgets for the predictive study. Up-scaling of the parameters: Scale effects are very important while studying the hard rock aquifers due to high variability of the parameters. On the other hand most of the hydraulic tests or other measurements provide either point value or very localized value. The mesh of the aquifer model, no matter how small is made, are much bigger than the scale of measurements. Thus statistical approach was applied to up-scale the parameter particularly Transmissivity and Storage coefficient satisfying a few statistical parameters and giving the same variograms. The entire work on Discrete Fracture Network Modeling and up-scaling was performed using FRACAS code at the CIG, France. Public Awareness programs: It was thought useful as part of the water management program to make the local public aware of the groundwater and its availability. A series of meetings were conducted to apprise the villagers how the hydrological cycle works and precautions they should take to avoid water wastages. They were also told to understand water balance and prepare water budgets. The awareness program has been very successful and about 20 volunteers have been assigned the rainfall measurement task using simple buckets. This has provided a very good rainfall data variability in the area that has later used in the aquifer model. Simulation of flow in the aquifer system: This is the main important part of the project. After the conceptualisation of the aquifer system, its geometry and extent as well as flows, a numerical model has been fabricated. The model simulates two layered system, the first one as porous formation representing the weathered layer the second one as equivalent porous medium representing the fractured layer without any confining layer in between. The entire area was divided into meshes of 100m by 100 m size giving about 5272 meshes in each layer. Integrated finite difference method was used to discretize the groundwater flow equations and simulate the flow. The aquifer parameters and boundary conditions were suitably taken from all the above studies, they were regionalized using theory of regionalized variable and assigned to all the meshes of the model. The model was calibrated for the period of January 2001 till July 31, 2003 against the monthly water level observed in the field. The model responses have been by and large matching with the observed ones. 8

Augmentation of water resources to balance the deficit: The misbalance in the water budget and continuous decline of groundwater levels strongly demands the augmentation of the recharge to the aquifers. Although, the area contains 9 tanks (surface reservoir) but all of them are highly silted making them as evaporation tank. A new and cost-effective (practically no-cost) methodology was developed and applied to recharge the aquifers through defunct dug-wells. A few wells having the maximum or sufficient catchments areas have been selected. The entire run-off water of the rainfall is collected into a pit to settle the silt and transported material and then allowed to flow into a nearby dug-well. The vertical hydraulic conductivity at the bottom of the dugwell was determined before filling the water in it using the double infiltrometer. In addition, a bore well was also drilled near the dug well to monitor the recession of water in the dug-well vis--vis the water level change in the bore-well i.e. the aquifer to establish the effectiveness. A number of exchange visits have helped working together and provided scientific interaction. The outcome of the project has been development of a numerical model of the aquifer and design of a demonstrative water conservation experiment. About eight research papers have been published from the project findings and the results were presented in about 9 presentations in the International conferences and seminars. Based on the research work in the project two keynote lectures were delivered and two doctoral theses have been prepared.

1.4 Organization of the scientific report


Due to large amount of work the report has been prepared in 3 volumes. Volume 1 describes variety of geophysical investigations (both surface and sub-surface) carried out in the study area to determine the geophysical properties of the formations forming the aquifer system and also determining their geometry as well as extent. The investigation have revealed the information of the variability of the weathered formation in its thickness and resistivity, the information of the fracture density and most important part of the extent of the fractures encountered during the drilling of the bore-wells. Volume 2 deals with all the geological and hydrogeological investigations carried out in the area including the gas emanometry. The work includes the complete well inventory and geological investigations on the outcrops as well as in the dug-wells. Based on the hydrogeological, geophysical information and radon gas surveys, a number of bore-wells have been drilled in the study area to obtain the sub-surface geology and use these wells for frequent water level monitoring. After these investigation a large number of different type of hydraulic tests viz., short and long duration pumping tests, slug tests, specific capacity tests and infiltration tests have been carried out to arrive at an accurate distribution of hydraulic (storing and transmitting) properties of the aquifer. This part of the study has provided a conceptual model of the aquifer system, hydraulic properties and the estimates of the boundary conditions. Volume 3 consists of three distinct studies viz., application of geostatistical methods to analyze the water levels variability in time and space and then designing of adequate/optimal network of the wells for monitoring of the water levels. Then information from all the 9

investigations have been put in and a numerical aquifer model has been prepared. The report also describes the calibration of the model and prediction as well as sensitivity of the model parameters. Finally this model has also simulated an artificial recharge experiment that has been designed and carried out in the area for water conservation and water resource augmentation.

1.5 Acknowledgements
The Indo-French Center for Promotion of the Advanced Research (IFCGR) New Delhi has provided financial support to carry out most of the investigation and we would like to acknowledge the same with thanks particularly the support of Mr. Mony, Director, CEFIPRA. We are also grateful to the Scientific Council of the IFCPAR particularly Profs. R. Sadourny and V. Courtillot who have carried out the reviews and also supported any intermediate approval required particularly providing an extension of one year so that we completed a number of crucial experiments. We are grateful to a number of scientists working in the collaborating organizations whose names are not figured in the project participants for their support particularly of consulting nature. All the organizations involved have supported with their basic facilities and the equipment for completing the project with special mention of the Indo-French Centre for Groundwater Research (IFCGR) set-up at NGRI.

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2.0 INTRODUCTION 2.1 Groundwater Geophysics - Status

The main use of geophysics in the geosciences is for hydrocarbon exploration typically at depths greater than 1000m. In contrast, near-surface geophysics for groundwater investigations is usually restricted to depths less than and around 250m below the surface. Groundwater applications of near-surface geophysics include mapping the depth and thickness of aquifers, mapping aquitards or confining layers, locating preferential fluid migration paths such as fractures and fault zones and mapping contamination to the groundwater such as that from saltwater intrusion. The theoretical and practical background to geophysics has been extensively reviewed and can be studied in standard texts on the subject, for example: Kearey & Brooks, 1991, Telford et al. (1976), Parasnis (1979), Dobrin, (1976), Grant and West (1965) etc. Groundwater and near surface investigations in particular have been specifically covered in some detail in recent texts by Reynolds (1997), Miller et al., (1996) etc. Important publications on geophysical studies for groundwater in developing countries that sought to produce simple rules of thumb for the application of the geophysics include The Hydrogeology of Crystalline Basement Aquifers in Africa (Wright and Burgess, 1992) and a general guide to techniques for finding groundwater has been produced by the World bank (Van Dongen and Woodhouse, 1994). The near surface geophysics community is now also served by specialist societies and sections of societies dedicated to near surface geophysics. Within these there are sub-groups with interests in hydrogeology and the study of groundwater. These groups include the Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society in the US with a European Chapter, the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Environmental Division, and AGU. Finally, useful information on ground water can also be found through the publications and online details of work by the United States Geological Survey. Many geophysical techniques have been applied to groundwater investigations with some showing more success than others. In the past, geophysics has either been used as a tool for groundwater resource mapping or as tool for groundwater character discrimination. For groundwater resource mapping it is not the groundwater itself that is the target of the geophysics rather it is the geological situation in which the water exists. Potential field methods, gravity and magnetics, have been used to map regional aquifers and large-scale basin features. Seismic methods have been used to delineate bedrock aquifers and fractured rock systems. Electrical and electromagnetic methods have proved particularly applicable to groundwater studies as many of the geological formation properties that are critical to hydrogeology such as the porosity and permeability of rocks can be correlated with electrical conductivity signatures. General methods of practice have been produced for geophysical techniques in groundwater exploration (Van Dongen and Woodhouse, 1994) but as Mcneill (1986, 1990, 1991) point out, situations with complex geology and hydrogeology do not lend themselves to the generic approach and require specific targeting of methods for particular problems. Most geophysical techniques have been used for groundwater characterization but once again it is with the electrical and electromagnetic methods that the greatest success has been shown in directly mapping and monitoring contaminated and clean groundwater. The use of geophysics for groundwater studies has been stimulated in part by a desire to reduce the risk of drilling dry holes and also a desire to offset the costs associated with poor groundwater production. Today the geophysicist also provides useful parameters for hydrogeological 11

modeling of both new groundwater supplies and for the evaluation of existing groundwater contamination.

2.2

Importance of Fractures in Hard rock Areas


Fractures often serve as major conduits for movement of water and dissolved chemicals through hard rocks in the underground. Understanding fluid flow and mass transport in fractured rocks is essential for assessing the ground-water resources of hard-rock aquifers, investigating the suitability of underground sites for hazardous waste disposal, and predicting the movement of hazardous chemicals if contamination occurs. Existing theory of fluid flow through porous media is of limited usefulness when applied to fractured rocks. The low permeability and highly heterogeneous nature of fractured rocks require extension of current theory and field methods. It is particularly important that theoretical developments be applicable on a scale commensurate with field measurements. The geological structure normally encountered in hard rock areas of places such as Africa and India is granite or granite gneiss overlain by a variable thickness of weathered material. The latter is a regolith produced by the in-situ weathering of the basement rock (Acworth, 1987). The regolith normally grades into solid unfractured basement over several tens of meters, although often the boundary between the two may be fairly sharp. Hydrogeologically the weathered overburden has a high porosity and contains a significant amount of water, but, because of its relatively high clay content, it has a low permeability. The bedrock on the other hand is fresh but frequently fractured, which gives it a high permeability. But as fractures do not constitute a significant volume of the rock, fractured basement has a low porosity. For this reason a good borehole, providing long term high yields, is one which penetrates a large thickness of regolith, which acts as a reservoir, and one which additionally intersects fractures in the underlying bedrock, the fractures providing the rapid transport mechanism from the reservoir and hence the high yield. Boreholes which intersect fractures, but which are not overlain by thick saturated regolith, cannot be expected to provide high yields in the long term. Boreholes which penetrate saturated regolith but which find no fractures in the bedrock are likely to provide sufficient yield for a hand pump only.

2.3 Hard Rock Aquifer Characteristics


The most significant features of the hard rock aquifers are as follows: 1. A topographical basin or a sub-basin generally coincides with ground water basin. Thus, the flow of ground water across a prominent surface water divide is very rarely observed. 2. The aquifer parameters like Storativity (S) and Transmissivity (T) often show erratic variations within small distances. 3. The saturated portion of the mantle of weathered rock or alluvium or laterite, overlying the hard fractured rock, often makes a significant contribution to the yield obtained from a dug well or bore well. 4. Only a modest quantity of ground water, in the range of one cu.m. to a hundred cu.m. or so per day, is available at one spot. Draw down in a pumping dug well or bore well is often almost equal to the total saturated thickness of the aquifer. 12

2.4

State of the art

The resistivity methods are very sensitive to the water electrical conductivity (EC), which influences the aquifer resistivity (Jean-Michel et al., 2002). An excellent example of the use of the technique was shown by Reynolds (1997) in a survey for a rural water supply in northern Nigeria. Van Overmeeren (1989) showed the use of electrical measurements in mapping boundary conditions in an aquifer system in Yemen. Beeson and Jones (1988), Olayinka and Barker (1990), Hazell et al. (1988, 1992), Barker et al. (1992) and Carruthers and Smith (1992) all have demonstrated the use of electrical techniques for setting wells and boreholes in crystalline basement aquifers throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Other similar examples are given by Wurmstich et al. (1994), Yang and Lee (1998) and Petersen et al. (1989) demonstrated a useful development of electrical techniques by considering the conductance of the DC section as a guide to overall aquifer potential for mapping groundwater resources in the Kalahari Basin. This type of approach may find applicability in many mafic-basin groundwater studies. Sauck and Zabik (1992) have demonstrated a development of the sounding technique by conducting Azimuthal surveys. This method was successfully used to assess the directional variation in hydraulic conductivity of glacial sediments in Switzerland. A similar approach has been tested by Marin et al. (1998). During the late 1990's methods were developed for continuously acquiring electrical data by using a pulled electrical array (Sorensen, 1996). These techniques use a static electrical array that is pulled across the ground surface for continuous coverage of the subsurface along 2D profiles. A favorable comparison of the pulled array with that of a static 2D array has been given by Moller et al. (1998). Christensen and Sorensen (1998) have demonstrated the potential of these techniques when combined with those of TDEM soundings for regional schemes of hydro-geophysical investigations. They illustrate this approach using large-scale surveys in Denmark where widespread problems exist in supplying increasing quantities of high quality drinking water to expanding populations. The vertical sounding techniques are typically limited in the near surface to exploration depths less than 50m due to the spacing of the electrodes and the strength of currents required (Young et al., 1998). Eddy-Dilek et al. (1996) demonstrated the use of TDEM for mapping the continuity of confining layers within a critical confining zone at a contaminated site in Washington State. Recent advances in computing power have led to developments in electrical techniques that have opened up the possibility of conducting true 2D geo-electric cross-sections (Barker, 1996a, b) and more experimentally 3D volumes. The 2D geo-electric methods are very effective at measuring sections down to 10m with some recent results shown from deeper penetration. Results for electrical surveys are usually presented as geo-electric, conductivity or resistivity sections, line profiles or maps and volumes. A good example of this for groundwater exploration is shown by Okereke et al. (1998) using 2D resistivity surveys with an ABEM Lund Imaging System together with ground penetrating radar in shallow alluvial aquifers in Zimbabwe. The results were used to build conceptual geological/hydrogeological models of the aquifers as a basis for guiding the drilling programme. Olayinka and Barker (1990) used similar microprocessor controlled resistivity traversing techniques for setting boreholes in Nigeria. Most recent surveys tend not to rely on the electrical method alone for data but rather to integrate it with other geophysical techniques. Examples of the multi-technique approach 13

using electrical and electromagnetic techniques include those by Beeson and Jones (1988), Zonge et al. (1985), Bartel (1986), Buselli et al. (1988, 1992), Hazell et al. (1988), Saksa and Paananen (1992), Sorensen and Sondergaard (1999), Van Overmeeren (1981, 1989 and 1998). Dannowski and Yaramanci (1999) used ground-penetrating radar together with electrical measurements to estimate the water content and porosity of formations. Yadav and Abolfazli (1998) also tried to establish relationships between hydraulic parameters and geo-electric results in semi-arid regions of Jalore, northwestern India, and this approach is likely to see increased interest in the future. Kalinski et al. (1993) used electrical sounding techniques to establish relationships between hydraulic conductance within an aquifer and its protective aquitards (a clay layer). They followed by conducting profiles that were calibrated with the soundings to apply the relationships over a larger area that contained the aquitards.

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3.0 3.1

STUDY AREA Location

The Maheshwaram watershed having an area of about 60 km2 is situated at about 30 km South of Hyderabad, A.P, India. It lies in between geographical coordinates having 17o 06 20 to 17o 11 00 North latitudes and 780 24 30 to 780 29 00 East longitudes and forms part of survey of India toposheet 56K/8. Location map is given in fig-1.

3.2

Geology and Hydrology

The geology of the Maheshwaram watershed is mainly granite of Archaean age intersected by dolerite dykes and quartz veins. The hard rock in the area can be considered comprising several compartments, each having distinct hydrogeological properties: at the bottom, the fresh bedrock, essentially transmissive with high permeability, only very locally where affected by tectonic fracturing. It usually has only a very limited groundwater storage capacity at the scale of the formation. The weathered formations of this substratum, alterites, which covers the unweathered rock substratum to a variable thickness (from zero to several tens of meters). Because of its clayey-sandy composition, this compartment is characterized by a relatively low permeability, but a significant water retention capacity (in granites, its effective porosity can reach several percent. The alterite portion, when saturated, stores the groundwater. An intermediate "weathered-fissured" zone is commonly intercalated between these two compartments, particularly in granitic formations where it can be several meters to several tens of meters thick. It is characterized by almost horizontal fractures (an average of 10 per meter in the first few meters under the alterites) that decrease in density with depth. A precise geological map of the distribution of these compartments in the study area has been realized on the basis of outcrops and dug-wells observations. Granites of Archaean age, pink and gray color and medium to coarse grained in texture occur in the area. They have undergone variable degrees of weathering with depths extending up to even 20m followed by fracturing at many places. The dyke located in the extreme northern part strikes east-west with about 15m widths. Another dyke exposed about 1 km south of the first one, strikes N600E S600W with a width of about 20m at places. Dykes having very limited length (compared to the above dykes) were observed at a few places while carrying out the geophysical survey. A quartz vein of about 20m widths with a strike of ENE WSW is exposed in the drainage divide in the southern boundary of the watershed. A few quartz intercalations are observed parallel to the dolerite dykes and in the bore well sections between 20m and 45m bgl. Groundwater in the area occurs under water table conditions in the weathered granite and in semi-confined conditions in the fractured granites. The depth to water level varies from 11m to 20m. The yield of the bore wells range from 1000 gph to 5000 gph. The high yielding bore wells are either recharged by the irrigation tanks or tapping the deeper fractures. The yield of the bore wells in the vicinity of the dolerite dykes is high as they are tapping thick fractured zone. The area comprises of thin soil cover of sandy loam and clayey soils and is underlain by granites. These granites are medium to coarse grained and of pink and

15

Fig-1 Location map of Maheshwaram Watershed

16

gray color. Groundwater occurs in weathered and fractured portions with water table varying between 11 and 20m below ground level. The groundwater is mostly tapped by means of borewells and the yield ranges between negligible to 5000 gph (Subrahmanyam, et. al., 2000). The high yield is due to the encountering of water bearing fractures at depths.

3.3

Physiography and Drainage


The area exhibits undulating topography with subdendritic type of drainage, and marked by a number of gullies drainage into local streamlets with eroded banks. The area drains into Mankal tank (fig.1), which ultimately drains into Musi River, a tributary to river Krishna. The average drainage density in the watershed area is about 1.5 per km. (Rangarajan and Rao, 2001). Based on the drainage network we can divide the watershed into sub watershed and further mini and micro watersheds. Drainage is significantly absent on eastern part of the watershed, which may be due to flat plateau nature. Geomorphologically, Maheshwaram watershed can be sub-divided into shallow pediment, pediment inselberg, valley zones and outcrops. The area is situated at an elevation between 600 m and 670 m above mean sea level.

17

4.0

METHODOLOGY

Several geophysical methods are available for groundwater exploration. Most of the available geophysical methods have been applied here to study the aquifer system of a hard rock granitic terrain. A brief description of the methods is given here.

4.1

Electrical Resistivity Technique

Electrical resistivity technique is the most commonly applied method among all the geophysical methods for groundwater exploration, because of the large variation of resistivity for different formations and the changes that occur due to the saturated conditions. In this method, a known amount of current (I) is passed into the ground through a pair of electrodes and the resulting potential (V) is measured with another pair of non-polarisable electrodes. Vertical Electrical Sounding is applied whenever a depth section is to be determined at a particular place and in this method; increase in the depth of investigation can be obtained by gradually increasing the distance between the current electrodes such that current penetrates deeper and deeper into the ground there. Electrical profiling is used to determine the lateral inhomogeneities up to a particular depth and in this method, the complete electrode arrangement is shifted gradually from point to point along a profile thereby a particular section of the subsurface is mapped. The commonly used electrode configurations are Schlumberger and Wenner arrangements. In both the configurations, all the four electrodes are arranged collinearly and symmetrically with respect to center of the arrangement. In Wenner configuration all the four electrodes (normally, the outer being the current electrodes) are kept equi-distant apart. In Schlumberger configuration the potential electrode separation is very small compared to current electrode separation (less than 1/5). The distance between the potential electrodes is increased only when the signal becomes too small to measure. Apparent resistivity a is given by; a = [(L2 l2)/2l] (V/I) Where L is the half current electrode separation and l is the half potential electrode separation.

V I Where is the apparent resistivity, V is the potential difference, I is the current strength and a is the electrode spacing. For Wenner array the apparent resistivity formula is; = 2a

4.1.1 Interpretation
The apparent resistivity is plotted against half current electrode spacing on a double logarithmic paper and the curve so obtained is called sounding curve. To get the layer parameters (resistivity and thickness) of the subsurface, these sounding curves are interpreted with the help of theoretically computed master curves. Several albums of master curves are available which include among others Compagne Generale de Geophysique (1963), Flathe (1963), Orellana and Mooney (1966) and Rijkswaterstaat (1969). These are computed from the expression for surface potential (Stefanesco et al, 1930). 18

1L 1 V = [ + 2 K ( ) J 0 ( r )d ] 2 r 0

Where r = distance of the measuring point from current source, 1 = resistivity of surface layer, K () = Stefanesco kernel function determined by thickness and resistivity of surface layer, J0 (r) = Bessel function of zero order and first kind and = Integration variable, a real number with dimensions of inverse length. Quite often, it is possible that the field curve may not match with the available master curves. In the absence of a proper set of master curves that simulates the geological situation, one has to compute a theoretical sounding curve that best fits the field situation to get the proper layer parameters. The resistivity data in the present case was interpreted using a computer program based on the inversion algorithm of Jupp and Vozoff (1975), which uses digital filter theory (Ghosh, 1971a, b). The iterative method successively improves the initial model given, until the error measure is small and the parameters are stable with respect to a reasonable change in the model parameters. It may be necessary to mention that a parameter model derived either by conventional or computer method may not be unique because of an inherent limitation, namely the phenomenon of equivalence resulting in a range of models fitting the same sounding curve. Another limitation is the simplified assumption of horizontal, homogeneous and isotropic model layers, which is never the case in nature. It is, therefore, very essential to gather the hydrogeological knowledge of the area and correlate the sounding data obtained near existing wells with lithology for a reliable interpretation.

4.2

Multi Electrode Resistivity 2Dimensional Imaging (MER2DI)

The improvement of resistivity methods using multielectrode arrays has led to an important development of electrical imaging for subsurface surveys (Griffiths and Turnbull 1985; Griffiths et. al., 1990; Barker 1992, Griffiths and Barker 1993). Such surveys are usually carried out using a large number of electrodes, 24 or more, connected to a multi-core cable. A laptop microcomputer together with an electronic switching unit is used to automatically select the relevant four electrodes for each measurement. Apparent resistivity measurements are recorded sequentially sweeping any quadruple (Current and Potential Electrodes) within the multi-electrode array. As a result, high-definition pseudosections with dense sampling of apparent resistivity variation at shallow depth (0-100 m) are obtained in a short time. It allows the detailed interpretation of 2D resistivity distribution in the ground (Loke and Barker, 1996). The resistivity methods are very sensitive to the water electrical conductivity (EC), which influences the aquifer resistivity (Jean-Michel et al., 2002). The range of groundwater EC in the investigated area is varying from one village to another, but also within the same village. As a consequence, the range of aquifer resistivity is also very large and overlaps resistivity values of dry rocks. In addition, it is not possible to find a link between the aquifer grain size and its resistivity. Without external information concerning the groundwater EC, the resistivity parameter could not be used with reliability to define aquifers.

4.2.1 MER2DI equipment


19

The MER2DI equipment is used for this survey is a resistivity meter, SYSCAL R2 enhanced by a multiplexer Remote Control (RMC) operating 4 multinodes. The power is supplied to the SYSCAL R2 by usual car batteries (12 V, 40Ah). The battery may be optionally connected in series with a DC converter increasing the power provided to the SYSCAL R2 to 100, 200, 400 or 800V. The chosen input tension fixes the difference of potential between A and B electrodes. Both the current flowing into ground from A and B electrodes and the resulting difference of potential between M and N electrodes are measured. A quality control factor (Q) is also given. It allows fixing the number of stacks used for the measurements. The used current has an alternative square crenel. The used current has an alternative square crenel shape, which avoids induced polarization effects. The time of the pulse (positive crenel, delay, negative crenel, delay) may be chosen within 0.5, 1 or 2 seconds. The longer the pulse, the more reliable is the measurement. Each Multi node allows connecting 16 electrodes respectively numbered from 1 to 16, 17 to 32, 33 to 48 and 49 to 64. One or two remote electrodes can optionally be directly connected to the SYSCAL R2 in order to perform measurements in pole-dipole (1 remote electrode) or pole-pole (2 remote electrodes) configurations. The sequence of acquisition (i.e. the successive quadripoles which are used for measurements) is prepared on a laptop computer with a dedicated software (ELECTRE) and downloaded to the SYSCAL R2. For example, the first measurement for an acquisition with Wenner configuration will be made with A as electrode #1, M as electrode #2, N as electrode #3 and B as electrode #4. The second, with A as electrode #2, M as electrode #3, N as electrode #4 and B as electrode #5 and so on and so forth, until all the possible quadripoles are scanned. With 64 electrodes there are 534 possible quadripoles for the 12 first separations (i.e. for the so called a parameter comprise between 1 and 12 m when a 1 m inter-electrode spacing is used). In other words, the used material performs automatically a multi-profiling survey along the multi-electrode array. After the performance of the whole sequence, the acquired data are downloaded from the SYSCAL R2 memory to the laptop computer and then, may be processed with an inversion routine. We used the 2D inversion program RES2DINV designed for such electrical data (Loke, 1997).

4.3

Time Domain Electromagnetism (TDEM)

The TDEM method is an electromagnetic method and well suited for groundwater exploration in various hydrogeological problems and more generally to low resistive zones (Fitterman and Stewart, 1986). The basic principles can be found in details in the publication of Mcneill (1994) or Spies and Frischknecht (1991). In a few words, the TDEM method uses a transmitter loop (Tx) in which a square current is generated. When the current is switched off, the variation of the primary magnetic field Bp induces a circulation of eddy currents in the ground. The eddy currents diffuse into the ground with a shape, which can be imaged as smoke rings. They generate a secondary decaying magnetic field Bs that is measured at the surface by a receiver coil (Rx). The receiver coil Rx is located at the center of the TX loop in the well-known central loop or co-axial loop configuration. The variation of the Bs amplitude with time is linked to the changes of resistivity with depth. It should be kept in mind that TDEM is a sounding method well suited for 1D-layered earth (2 and 3-D cases are very seldom considered). The main advantages are a good sensitivity the variations of conductivity, a good lateral resolution and a penetration depth generally equal or superior to the side length 20

of the Tx loop. The main disadvantages are a poor definition for resistive bodies, and a rather high sensitivity to electromagnetic noises (induced by fences, power lines etc).

4.3.1 TDEM Equipment


The TDEM equipment used for this survey is a GEONICS PROTEM system with EM 47 transmitter. For a 2 A current flowing into a 25x25 m Tx loop, this transmitter allows to actually cut off the current only after 1.8 s. The measurements start from 6,8 s after the end of the cut-off and consist in 20 measurement windows (or channels) of the decreasing secondary magnetic field. All the technical specifications of such transmitter and receiver are available from GEONICS (Mississauga, Ontario, Canada). Three curves for both gains 1 and 2 have been taken for each sounding. This operating protocol calculates a reliable mean sounding curve.

4.4

Magnetic Method
Magnetic methods are based on the observation of anomalies in the magnetic field of the earth that are caused by magnetic susceptibility of different rocks. As dolerites dykes are very common feature in hard rock and important for groundwater flow. These methods are very useful to delineate even the buried dykes. Magnetic surveys are classified as grid and profile survey depending upon the density and geometrical distribution of the points of observation. Measurements with a magnetometer are taken 2 to 4 times at a station and their average value is considered to that station. The time of measurement is also noted for every observation since the magnetic field does not remain constant with time and hence necessary correction is applied for each station value by having repeat observations at base station.

4.4.1 Equipment
Different type of instrument are available for magnetic surveys e.g. Schmidt type or by compensation as in Torsion magnetometer, Induction type of instrument, Fluxgate magnetometer, Proton precession magnetometer (PMR), Optical absorption magnetometer or the high sensitivity atomic resonance magnetometer etc. Magnetic systems consist of a permanent magnet, which can be deflected under the influence of geomagnetic field. The value of the magnetic field is determined by the deflection as in Schmidt type or by compensation as in Torsion magnetometer. Induction types of instruments consist essentially of an induction coil operated by a motor in the earths magnetic field. The electromotive force developed in the coil due to intersection of force of the earths magnetic field is a measure of the field. Instruments with sensitive fluxgate elements consist of a coil with core made of an alloy whose magnetic permeability strongly depends on the minor changes in the external magnetic field. The change in the electromagnetic parameters of the sensitive element determines the intensity of the earths magnetic field. Proton precession magnetometer consists of a container of water with a coil wound around it. When a strong magnetic field is applied in a direction approximately perpendicular to the earths field, the protons will align parallel to the applied field. At this stage if the field is suddenly cut off, then the protons start processing, inducing a small e.m.f. in the coil which is a measure of the earths field. Optical absorption magnetometer or the high sensitivity 21

atomic resonance magnetometer is the latest type. There are three types namely, the metastable helium, rubidium or cesium magnetometer. All these magnetometer make use of optical pumping technique. They are highly sensitive and also enable the measurement of the vertical gradient of the earths magnetic field employing two magnetometers kept separated vertically apart from each other.

4.4.2 Field Procedure


The instrument used in the present investigations is Scintrex Smartmag portable magnetometer. It is a total field-measuring instrument using the Larmour frequency of precession of cesium atoms to measure the total magnetic field. The instrument has a memory system to store the measured data and can be displayed either numerically or graphically for quick inspection of the data quality and spotting of anomalies. Data can also be recalled from memory for visual inspection, dumped to the serial port of a computer or directly to a printer.

4.5

Proton Magnetic Resonance Method (PMR)

The initial idea of transforming the well-known proton magnetometer into a tool for water prospecting from the surface is ascribed to R.H. Varian (Varian, 1962). This idea was further developed and put into practice much later by a team of Russian scientists under the guidance of A.G. Semen. The Institute of Chemical Kinetics and Combustion of Russian Academy of Sciences (ICKC) fabricated the first version of the instrument for measurements of magnetic resonance signal from subsurface water (HYDROSCOPE). The basic principal of operation of the surface proton magnetic resonance method for groundwater investigation (PMR) is similar to that of the proton magnetometer. They both assume records of the magnetic resonance signal from a proton-containing liquid (for example, water or hydrocarbons). However, in the proton magnetometer, a special sample of liquid is placed into the receiving coil and only the signal frequency is a matter of interest. In the PMR, a wire loop 100-m in diameter is used as a transmitting/receiving antenna and the water in the subsurface behaves as the sample. Thus, the main advantage of the surface PMR method, compared with other geophysical methods is that the surface measurement of the PMR signal from water molecules ensures that this method only responds to the subsurface water. Used routinely in Russia and tested in other countries (Shirov et al., 1991; Goldman et al., 1994; Lieblich et al., 1994) the method has demonstrated its potential.

4.5.1 Equipment
The parameters of currently available surface PMR equipment, such as Hydroscope (ICKC, Russia) and NUMIS (IRIS Instruments, France), do not permit measurements of the very short signals (less then 30 ms) corresponding to 'bounded' water in the subsurface. Thus, the vertical distribution of the water content deduced from the PMR data corresponds to the location and amount of 'free' water in the aquifers. Free water distribution in the subsurface is a solution of integral equation. Like many other ill-posed problems, the inversion is sensitive to field measurement errors caused by external electromagnetic interference such as electrical discharges in the atmosphere, magnetic storms, and all kinds of electrical currents through the subsurface. Interference may also be due to cultural noise produced by power lines, electrical generators and engines. In addition, the electrical conductivity of the subsurface (the 22

operational frequency is between 1.5 and 2.8 kHz) not only attenuates the signal, but also has an effect on the kernel of the integral equation. Knowledge of this effect is important for the practical application of the method and for the data interpretation. Although further research is required to establish a precise relationship between the decay times of the PMR signal and the hydro geological parameters of water in a porous medium, the studies show that PMR application allows to assume, with sufficient accuracy, that the decay time for bounded water is less than 20-30 ms and that for free water is between 30 and 1000 ms. Parameters of currently available surface PMR equipment, such as Hydroscope (ICKC, Russia) and NUMIS (IRIS Instruments, France), do not permit measurements of the very short signals (less than 30 ms); hence it can be said that only signals from the free water are measured.

4.6

Well Logging

Geophysical well logging provides information on the geologic framework and the groundwater system at disposal sites. Log data can be used to plan the location of pits, trenches and monitoring wells. They can provide specific information on completion problems in monitor or injection wells. Logging provides more continuous data on the vertical and lateral distribution of effluent from waste than can be obtained from samples at a lower cost. Logs can also be used for monitoring changes in water quality. In order to plan a cost effective remediation program a thorough understanding of the Hydrogeologic system is necessary and much of the needed information can be obtained economically from well logs.

4.6.1 Self-Potential Logging


The SP log is a measurement of the natural potential differences or self-potentials between an electrode in the borehole and a reference electrode at the surface. The development of S.P. in borewells is contributed mainly due to the differences in salinity and other parameters between the fluid filling the borehole i.e. mud or water and the quality of formation water. The diffusion of ions of different salts from one medium to another and flow potentials generate spontaneous polarization. Normally, clay/shaly rocks produce positive anomalies while porous, permeable layers such as sands, fractured sandstone, and compact sandstone give rise to negative anomalies. The interpretation of SP logs mainly consists of identification of different lithological horizons and marking their boundaries. This is usually done in conjunction with the resistivity logs.

4.6.2 Point Resistance (PR) Logging


One of the simplest and very useful logging method measuring resistivity variations is called as the point resistance (PR) logging method. In this technique, the resistance between two electrodes (one of them is kept on the surface and the other is moved in the borewells) is measured and is invariably used in conjunction with SP logging. Measurement of grounding resistance serves more as an indicator of the probable order of resistivity rather than for determining the actual resistivity of formations. The compact zone shows high resistance while the others is indicated by lower values. The PR log has some advantages such as 1) the anomaly highs or lows are proportional to the resistivity of the formation, 2) very thin beds with different resistivities can be identified provided the borehole diameters are not very large compared to sonde diameter and 3) the measurement and interpretation of PR logs is simple. 23

4.6.3 Resistivity Logging


The most commonly used electrode arrangement is normal or potential sonde in which one current electrode and two potential electrodes are located on the sonde. The other current electrode is kept on the surface. The curves obtained by potential or normal resistivity logs are symmetrical in form in which the maximum indicates the layer with the higher resistivity, and the minimum indicates a layer with lower resistivity.

4.6.4 Gamma Ray Log


The gamma ray log is a record of a formations radioactivity. The radiation emanates from naturally occurring uranium, thorium and potassium. Most rocks are radioactive to some degree. Igneous and metamorphic rocks are more so than sedimentary rocks. However, amongst sedimentary rocks, shales have by far the strongest radiation. It is for this reason that the simple gamma ray log has been called the shale log. A high gamma ray value frequently means shale. Quartzite shows no radioactivity. Sandstones usually show low gamma ray values.

4.7

Self- Potential (SP) Method

Certain natural or spontaneous potentials occurring in the underground caused by electro-chemical or mechanical activity are called self-potentials. When these potentials associated with groundwater at geologic contacts, bioelectric activity zones etc. are known as electro-kinetic or streaming potentials. Streaming Potentials generated by subsurface water flow are the source of the great majority of SP anomalies of groundwater interest. In a porous or fractured media, the relative movement between solid matrix and electrolyte (groundwater) causes an electrical potential at the interface, called zeta potential. If the water movement were brought by a hydraulic gradient (P), a difference of electric potential E, called streaming potential, would result between any two points in the direction of motion. The following relation can be observed. E = C x P Where C, the streaming potential coefficient is dependent on a number of parameters like resistivity, dielectric constant and viscosity of fluid in the rock, the zeta potential, the grain size, the water path and others (Ahmed, 1964; Parkhomenko, 1971; Bogoslovsky and Ogilvy, 1973). The presence of a pressure gradient in the sub-surface however is not a sufficient condition to ensure the existence of an electric potential on the surface. As defined by Fitterman (1979), it is necessary to have a pressure gradient parallel to a boundary that separates regions of different streaming potential coefficients. An electric field equivalent to that by a surface distribution of current dipoles along the boundary is developed. The equipment required is extremely simple, consisting merely of a pair of non-polarisable electrodes (to eliminate electrode polarization effect) connected by a wire to a millivoltmeter of high impedance (greater than 108 ohms, so that negligible current will be drawn from the ground during the measurement). The procedure for carrying out the field studies is described by Krishnamurthy et. al., (2001). 24

4.8

Mise--la-masse Method

Schlumberger first attempted the mise--la-masse method in 1920. Only very limited case histories are available for this method. (Parasnis, 1967, 1979; Ketola, 1972). The idea is to use a subsurface conductive mass (in this case water bearing fracture) as energisation point. The conductor is energized by a point source by lowering one current electrode in borehole below the water table. The other current electrode is kept on the surface at far off place (infinity). Potential on the surface is mapped in a grid pattern by keeping one electrode fixed as the reference electrode on the surface and moving the other potential electrode along the various profiles. The mise--la-masse equipotential maps are prepared by normalizing the potential values for 1A current (i.e, units are volts/amp).

25

5.0 5.1

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Electrical Resistivity Technique

The purpose of the resistivity investigations is for identifying sites to be drilled for observation and pumping wells, to decipher the bedrock topography and to identify the fracture zones if possible. In the present investigations, 88 resistivity soundings were carried out in the Maheshwaram watershed with a maximum current electrode separation of 300m, using Schlumberger configuration. The locations of these soundings are shown in fig.2. All the sounding curves are interpreted using computer software explained above and an example of such curve along with computed results is shown in fig.3 whereas the layer parameters i.e., interpreted results of Soundings are given in table-1. It is seen from the table that only at a few places the bedrock is deeper say more than 25m. Otherwise in general it appears that the bedrock is shallower. Resistivity profiling using Wenner and two-electrode configuration was carried out across two dykes in area. The linear plot along one such profile near Uppuguda Tanda is shown in fig.4. The data has been interpreted with the help of RES2D
284 9000 283 8000 258 7000 257 6000 Northing in metres 251 5000 201 252 250 249 282 248 259 271 238 3000 265 264 204 287 2000 266 237 236 235 232 1000 234 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 233 203 242 246 247 243 202 244 VES Location Drilled Well 7000 8000 245 270 269 268 272 273 256 216 211 277 279 219 281 239 280 218 217 240 215 227

241 214 212 213 276 275 226

288 255 254 253

210 209 206 208

207 285 286

223 263 222 225 262 221

205 231 230

4000

261 260

224 220

229 228

274

Easting in metres

Fig-2 Location map of VES and drilled wells inversion software and the 2D image is shown in fig.5. The results show low resistivities at shallow depths and high resistivities at deeper depths over the dyke thus indicating the conductive nature due to weathering/fracturing of the dyke in upper parts and hence suggests that this dyke is not acting as barrier for the groundwater to flow at shallow depths, whereas in deeper levels, the dykes may be acting as barriers. 26

Since the observation wells are to be distributed in the entire watershed, 25 sites are

selected for drilling of observation wells based on the following criteria. Fig-3 Resistivity Sounding Interpretation, Schlumberger Array, Example

Two-Electrode Resistivity Profiles Over a Dyke 300 250 a = 5m 200 150 100 50 0 -50 0 50
EXPOSED

Apparent Resistivity in Ohm-m

a = 10m a = 20m a = 40m a = 60m

100

150

200

250

300

Distance in meters

Profiling over a dyke near Uppugadda Tanda 160 Apparent Resistivity (Ohm-m)
Wenner, a= 5m

120

Wenner, a=10m Wenner,a=15m

80

Wenner,a=20m Wenner,a=30m

40

Schlumberger, AB/2=15 Schlumberger, AB/2=30m

0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Station No. (interval=2.5m)

27

Fig-4 Resistivity Profiles

Fig-5 Measured apparent resistivity inverted images The resistivity of the weathered zone is below 120 Ohm-m and the depth to bedrock is more than 15 m. The resistivity of the fractured zone is 120-200 Ohm-m and the total depth to bedrock is more than 20 m. The resistivity of fractured zone is between 200-300 Ohm-m and the total depth to bedrock is more than 30 m. To have aerial distribution of observation wells in the watershed even if the above conditions do not satisfy.

Based on the results of soundings and hydrgeological studies, borewells were drilled at 25 sites for monitoring of water levels. The location of these drilled wells is shown in fig.1 as Indo-French Well (IFP) wells.

5.2

Multi Electrode Resistivity 2-Dimensional Imaging (MER2DI)

The geoelectrical layering of Maheshwaram catchment can be roughly described as a conductive first layer overlaying undulating resistive bedrock. Some dykes and many faults are present as 2D structures. This complex situation at rather shallow depth is clearly well suited to MER2DI investigations. But one should already keep in mind that with any electrical 28

resistivity method, the conductive first layer is troublesome for a clear detection of deep targets. These studies were carried out in three sites in the watershed and are shown in fig.1.

5.2.1

Test of different arrays

Different arrays (Wenner, pole-pole, forward pole-dipole and reverse pole-dipole) have been tested along line-A (fig.6) in site 1. It has been observed that in an area with so many inhabitants, walking across the landscape all around the day, the use of

29

Fig-6 Location map of MER2DI and TDEM images


configurations with remote electrodes is not easy. During the tests, the cable connecting the remote electrodes were cut several times despite of watchmen looking for them at major road crossings. As the remote cables are rather long (1 km), the detection of the cut and its mending is time consuming. Hence, the Wenner array has been chosen even if its depth of investigation is smaller than the three other arrays using remote electrodes. In order to reduce the lack of penetration, a large inter-electrode spacing of 4m has been chosen. With such a separation, the mean depth of investigation is about 20 m, but the resolution of near surface anomalies (i.e. at depth ranging between 1 and 2m) is not very precise. With this compromise, a total of 5.1 line km was surveyed during the mission. This approximately corresponds to 31,000 apparent resistivity measurements. The four different configurations tested along one profile are:

A Wenner configuration where the four electrodes, A, M, N and B, are on line and regularly spaced. A forward pole-dipole configuration, where electrode B is removed as far as possible (1 km) while the three remaining electrodes A, M and N are on line and regularly spaced. A reverse pole-dipole configuration, symmetrical to the previous one: electrode A is moved to infinity and M, N and B are on line. A pole-pole configuration, where both B and N are kept at infinity and only A and M are moved on the profile.

The advantages and pitfalls of this last configuration have been discussed in detail by Robain et al. (1999). For each of those configurations a sequence of data acquisition using 64 electrodes was programmed. It comprised 534 apparent resistivity measurements distributed into 12 pseudo depths for the Wenner configuration, 528 measurements distributed into 18 pseudo depths for both pole-dipole configurations and 1155 apparent resistivity measurements distributed into 22 pseudo depths for the pole-pole configuration. It shows that the last configuration is the densest one and also the one with the deepest penetration. But the troubles evocated above for remote electrodes led us to anyway choose the Wenner configuration. Moreover, as seen from the resistivity image comparing the configurations (fig.7), the following are observed. The pole-dipole configurations bring rather distorted images at depth. The resistivity of the bedrock is overestimated at the end opposite to the current electrode. Only the pole-pole configuration has sufficient depth of investigation to effectively image the bedrock with resistivity higher than 1500 Ohm.m. But with respect to Wenner configuration the image at the surface is much poorer. For instance the lateral extension at shallow depth of the two conductive anomalies are clearly detected with the Wenner array, but are not seen with the pole-pole array. From another point of view, the high depth of investigation of the pole-pole array is counter balanced by a large model uncertainty.

30

Fig-7 Comparison of different Arrays along Line A Actually, the uncertainty is linked to the breadth of the equivalences, which may be calculated for a model cell without changing significantly the adjustment of the whole model. Note that as the number of cells is very high, the calculated uncertainties are generally rather high also. Nevertheless, this gives a relative idea of model consistency. Even if the bedrock is not really imaged with the Wenner array, the comparison between Wenner and pole-pole results shows that its shape at depth is coincident with the undulation of the weathered-fractured materials top (isoresistivity line 180 Ohm.m). Hence, the Wenner array seems to be sufficient to fulfill the aim of this survey. MER2D data has been interpreted with the help of RES2D inversion software and final true resistivity cross section and model uncertainity are obtained for all the profiles. Such images along a few lines are described below.

5.2.2 Mohabatnagar (Site 1)


As shown in Fig.8, there are two clear conductive faults respectively located at distance 55 m and 190 m along line A. The second fault located at 190m from the profile and at a depth of 20m seems to be more prominent compare to the first one, located at 55m. The second one presents a lateral extension at shallow depth. The prominent anomaly also corresponds to large weathered thickness of resistivity 100 ohm-m. There is a clear bedrock raise with a resistivity of around 600 ohm-m, to the surface at distance 45 m. The second conductive anomaly corresponds to a lineament detected on aerial photography. All the other anomalies observed at depth are not corresponding to geomorphological features. The presence of conductive body at the surface raises the uncertainty of the model at depth. The same anomaly was also prominent in other configuration like Wenner, and pole-pole array and the basement upliftment is more prominent in the pole-pole array with extension of conductive zone about 40m, which could indicate the fracture in granite. 31

Fig-8 MER2DI Section along Line A and Line B (Mohabatnagar) The bedrock presents a regular deepening from the eastern to the western part along line B (fig.8). No faults are detected as interpreted from the inverse model. The result shows low resistivity of 60-100 ohm-m, which indicates the weathered fractured granite. At the surface a conductive area is located between distances 160 and 270 m. This conductive area is not corresponding to the black shrinking clayey soils of the paddy fields but to the reddish clayey soils covering the end of a gentle hill slope.

5.2.3 K.B. Tanda (Site 2)


The profile image along line B shows the undulating shape of the bedrock with resistivity varying from 500-800 ohm-m (fig.9). The inverse resistivity model shows at a distance of 100-400m, high conductive material of resistivity varying from 2-5 ohmm, which indicate the presence of clay saturated with water at a depth of 10m. Below this conductive zone basement seems to be uplifted. Another low resistivity zone of 35 ohm-m is prominent at 540-600m. Some outcrops and boulders were noticed at the western end indicating high resistivity. Two faults are present between distances 60 and +10 m and between distances 80 and 150 m. A resistive body may also be noticed at depth between distances 490 and 550 m.

32

Fig-9

MER2DI Section along Line B (KB Tanda) The result (fig.10) along line D shows the undulating topography with abrupt upliftment of basement with high resistivity. It is interesting to compare the results of this line to the ones of line B that is only at a distance of 100 m in the eastern part while the two lines are crossing at distance 905 m and 736 m respectively for line B and D. The wide fault comprises between distances 580 and 680 m on line D, has no correspondence on line B. Hence this may be a fault parallel to line B. The other wide fault observed at distance 210 m on line D may be connected to the one observed at distance 400 m or at distance 120 m on line B. At the western part the geometry of the bedrock raise to the surface, associated with very big boulders appears also to be rather complicated. Finally the comparison of the two profiles clearly shows that the geometry of the bedrock is very complicated in this area. This indicates that 3D investigations should be carried out to know bedrock geometry with precision. This can be done performing close 2D profiles in at least 2 different directions.

33

Fig-10 MER2DI Section along Line D (KB Tanda)

5.3 Time Domain Electromagnetism (TDEM)


The TDEM studies were also carried out at two sites (fig.1) where resistivity imaging was done for comparative study. Site 1 is located in the Northeastern part of the catchment close to Mohabatnagar village. It has a surface of 35 ha. It was chosen in order to image a lineament crossing a valley where boreholes have high flow rates. Site 2 is located in the Western part of the catchment close to Kauln Bye Tanda. It has a surface of 120 ha and was chosen in order to image the boundaries at depth of large granite outcropping zone and the geological situation corresponding to boreholes with very different flow rates. This site is also characterised by a dense network of poorly isolated power lines supplying each pump with current. This characteristic is generally troublesome for controlledsource electromagnetic methods: the transmitter induces electromagnetic fields inside the power line and the power line itself produces electromagnetic noise (generally 50 Hz and its harmonics). Those troubles are also caused by the fences or by the radio transmitter antennas, which are also present in the area.

5.3.1 Transmitter loop size


34

For TDEM in this zone, it was necessary to choose a small Tx loop in order to keep it far away from power lines and fences. A 2 A current flowing into a 25x25 m Tx loop produces a sufficiently high primary field to obtain a significant response from the ground. Small loop size is also necessary to reduce the influence of lateral resistivity variations.

5.3.2 Sampling interval


A 25x25 m Tx loop is rather small. Consequently, it is decided to perform a sounding every 25 metres along profiles. 15 to 20 soundings could be carried out within a single day in open field places. For this field survey, a total of 127 TDEM soundings were performed. This sampling interval appears to be convenient to detect the variations of the bedrock depth. However, sharp variations (i.e. less than 25 meters wide) could be ignored with such a sampling interval. Furthermore, such variation cannot be well identified with the 1D assumption used for the interpretation of the soundings.

5.3.3 External electromagnetic noise


All the TDEM soundings performed on Maheshwaram catchment during the survey are affected by electromagnetic distortions. Some field experiments have been undertaken to precise and quantify these distortions. It is clear that these distortions are not generated by some equipment dysfunction. The transmitter has been carefully checked, as well as the receiver coil. One should keep in mind that EM methods are often affected by EM external noise. When TDEM is used with short time channels (i.e. shallow soundings), the measurements are particularly sensitive to EM noises. The consequences are important in this case: only the nonaffected channels may be used for the interpretation. The affected channels have always been deleted prior to interpretation. As a consequence to the lack of measurement points at the end of the curves, the resistivity of the substratum is not well constrained. Hence, distortions linked to EM noise are a severe limitation to the use of TDEM in such an environment. However, a correct analysis of the phenomenon can overcome the problem in most cases. The TDEM interpretation made with the correct channels is reliable for the shallowest layers. Unlike MER2DI, the geoelectrical context of Maheshwaram catchment is not favourable to the use of TDEM. It is difficult or even impossible to define accurately the high resistivity of the bedrock. Furthermore, 2D or 3D cases are not well taken into account. Consequently, and as research objectives, the TDEM survey has been undertaken to answer to the following questions: Is it possible to detect with TDEM the resistivity and thickness of the weathered materials overlaying the bedrock? When MER2DI is not available, is it possible to use TDEM as an alternative to 1D-DC electrical soundings? What is the reliability of TDEM interpretation?

35

5.3.4 Influence of distortions


Distortions appear on entire zone, on power lines, etc. It appears from the 13th channel onwards (sometimes from the 12th or the 14th) and produces strong distortion on resistivity values. Such distortions are present all over the zone (sites 1 and 2). Its relative amplitude varies from time to time according to ground resistivity. Hence, as it seems to be a generalised phenomenon, its origin neither can be attributed to Tx loop induction phenomenon in the power lines or the fences, nor to the current flowing into the power lines. The origin of this distortion could be attributed to the radio-telecom antenna located at Maheshwaram. But this point needs to be confirmed in other places. This occurred with the Tx loop located close to a power line. It does not depend on the presence of 50 Hz current flowing into the power line but on the induction phenomenon related to the current flowing into the TX loop. If 50 Hz current had been flowing into the loop, the distortion would have been even higher.

5.3.5 Influence of loop size


For the sounding noted TDEM01, two transmitter loop size of 50x50 m and 25x25 m were tested on site 1 at the vicinity of a bore hole. The inversions were performed using TEMIX Software (INTERPEX Ltd), which imposes the assumption that the ground is horizontally layered (1D). Equivalencies were also calculated for a 1% RMS variation from the best-fitted model. This gives an uncertainty interval for calculated depths and resistivities. The results presented in fig-6 allow to point out that the best fitted models obtained either with 50x50 m2 or 25x25 m Tx loops are close. Hence, the configuration with 25x25 m Tx loop is large enough to give the information, even if the signal to noise ratio is smaller.

5.3.6 Choice of a model


The resistivity model calculated for one sounding exhibits three layers from top to bottom: A resistive layer (100 ohm.m) with a thickness of 13 m A conductive layer (50 ohm.m) with a thickness of 13 m, A highly resistive substratum (1000-2000 ohm.m). The calculated thickness is rather close to the observations made in the nearby borehole. The limit between the two first layers corresponds quite well to ground water table level, slightly fluctuating around 10 m depth. The model also satisfactorily indicates that the depth of the bedrock comprises between 22 to 28 m while the observation of the borehole gives a depth of 23.8 m. Even if the uncertainty is important (6 and 5 m respectively for the first and the second layer), it is possible to propose the following rough resistivity scale: About 100ohm-m: unsaturated layer (Sandy-loamy soils/weathered material) About 50 ohm.m: saturated deep layer (Weathered materials/fractured zone) More than 1000 ohm.m: bedrock.

One should keep in mind, that this scale is only relative to this borehole where data were available. There is an impetus requirement for the confirmation and the refinement of such a 36

scale using precise bore hole description in other places. The 3 layers model is not the only possible one. Particularly, TEMIX software allows calculating another resistivity model based on OCCAM inversion. This type of inversion gives a model of horizontally layered ground with smoothed resistivity variation with depth. It is sometimes called multi-layered model. The comparison with the 3 layer model (Marc and Robain, 2000) suggest that the TDEM sounding curves can be interpreted either with simple solutions showing sharp resistivity changes with depth (as 3 layers model) or with a smooth variation of resistivity with depth. This means that one cannot make a choice between these two models without external information.

5.3.7 Interpretation
The parameters of the 1D smooth inversion are the same for all the soundings: 8 layers have been taken into account, and the interpretation has been limited between 3 and 80 meters. This value of 80 meters can be considered as a maximum depth of penetration of the method with the chosen configuration. The result of the inversion is interpolated with the nearest sounding using SURFER Software. The resulting image is a resistivity cross section along the profile. It should be kept in mind that these sections only contain 1D interpretations. Hence, it should be considered with more precautions than the electrical resistivity sections. In order to make some criticism on the results presented below, one should keep in mind that: The smooth resistivity variations could sometimes leads to unrealistic values of resistivity (particularly for bedrock resistivity) The 1D assumption could sometimes be erroneous because of sharp variations of bedrock topography or dykes structures. This isoresistivity line may correspond to the transition between weathered or strongly fractured materials and slightly fractured material. This separation is not well constrained. It should be confirmed by logging data. Furthermore, as said before, the resistivity variations at depth are not reliable because of the weak number of channels available for the interpretation. The sections along three different profiles in site 1 are discussed below. Along line A shown in fig.11, the first 6 soundings (105 to 109 and 82) are distorted by nearby power lines. Therefore, the interpretations are limited to the very first channels only allowing an investigation depth of 15 m in this zone. The profile shows an important deepening of the bedrock at sounding 82 with resistivity of around 22-35 ohm-m, and a bedrock raise nearly up to surface at sounding 84.

37

Fig-11 TDEM Resistivity Section along Line A, B and C (Mohabatnagar) The small conductive inhomogeneities at depth for soundings 105 and 83 could be linked to the 1D assumption. The basement got highly uplifted from sounding 83 to 87 with a high resistivity of 4000 ohm-m. Along line B, the results show a non-conductive body varying from sounding 74 to 77, with resistivity 4000 ohm-m, which appears to be a huge granitic boulder fig.11. Another highly resistive body also appears below the sounding 80, with undulating topography. The profile identifies a progressive bedrock raise culminating at soundings 76 and 75. For the top weathered materials, it also indicates a conductive body at surface between soundings 77 and 75 and another deeper conductive body between soundings 74 and 111. Along line C, as shown in fig.11, continuous conductive zone appears right from sounding 57 to 66 at a depth of 15-20m, this could probably be an aquifer zone. The bedrock shape does not present important faults with exception to slight fault between soundings 58 and 59 and a resistive body at sounding 68 underlain by a conductive fault. This could correspond to a buried boulder. Below the deposition of the boulder a prominent weathering appears with a resistivity of 100 ohm-m. But, like in line A, this inhomogeneity could be an artefact corresponding to the 1D inversion of a sounding curve containing 2D information. For the top materials, the section also indicates that the southern part is more conductive than the northern part. The limit between these two zones seems to be sharp and located at sounding 67. 38

In comaparision with MER2DI, it should be reminded that, at the contrary of TDEM interpretations, the MER2DI interpretations actually use a 2D inversion process. Consequently they are much more suitable to reliably detect sharp lateral variations. Anyway, the comparisons of the results obtained by the two methods are generally satisfactorily compared. This is true for the resistivity of the first layer, and this is also true for the variations of bedrock shape with weak slopes. The sharp variations always induce erroneous interpretations because 1D assumption is obviously not well suited for TDEM curves containing 2D or 3D features.

5.4

Magnetic Method

Magnetic surveys were carried out in the Maheshwaram watershed along 14 profiles with a total of 9.8 line km and having a station interval of 10 m in most of the cases, 5 and 8 m interval at a few places. The studies are concentrated mainly across dolerite dykes to see the anomaly patterns, their width and also at places to investigate the presence of dykes in the subsurface. The magnetic profiles are carried out across the dykes with a view to know the anomaly pattern and to identify anomalous zones for carrying out the PMR (Proton Magnetic Resonance) studies. Hence, most of profiles are not laid in a straight line and also not perpendicular to the strike of the dykes. As an experimental test, one profile i.e., line-16 (fig.12) is interpreted by MAGMOD, a software available at NGRI. The interpreted model showed the occurrence of dyke 45 m below ground level. Since, the boulders are visible on the surface; it may be inferred that the compact dyke may occur at that depth.

42400

42200

42000

41800 0 100 200 300 Distance in metres 400 500

Fig-12 Magnetic Traverse across a dyke Five profiles were carried out in a grid pattern near K.B. Tanda, NW of Maheshwaram (Krishnamurthy et al. 2000). The data was contoured, which show a magnetic high in the central part, which could be due to shallow bedrock as a localized feature.

39

5.5

Proton Magnetic Resonance Method

The location map of the survey site in given in fig.13. The transmitting antenna consists of a 100 m diameter loop laid on the ground, allowing a depth of investigation of the order of 100 m. The Larmor frequency varies between 0.8 and 3.0 kHz
-300 500 -200 -100 0 100 200 500

-700 600

-600
Benchmar k

-500
S2B(32)

-400

-300

-200

-100

100

200

300 600

500
400
PMR sounding Electrical profile

IPMR1 4 36
37
RADON Borehol 139 Rd139 S2A(1) S2B(1)e

500
35

400

33

400
S2C(1)

RADON 153

32

last of pole line electrical

IPMR9
N 1 5 0 40 41 elect rical li ne
S2B(32)

38

Northing (m) (local coordinates)

300

Line A

300

200

Line B
IPMR10 IPMR7

200

100

100

BoreholeBorehole

IPMR13 0 0

300 ) m ( ) s e t 200 a n i d r o o 100 c l a c o l ( 0 g n i h t r o N -100

IPMR1 1
44 45
Rd19

28 25

S2B(46)

IPMR4

A e in L

TDEM2 4

PMR sounding Electrical profile TDEM sounding


IPMR3

400

300

L in e C
road (approximative) tel ep hon eli ne

Grave

Palmtre palm tree e

200
IPMR6

TDEM 02
S2A(96)

L in e B
IPMR1 5
10
S2C(96)

27

26
S2B(101 )

55

pole of telephon e line

100
IPMR8

bore hole

big tree

e l lin trica elec

1 electrical lin 3 e
)

5 S2B(123
56

pole o f line electrical 88

RMP 6

11
bore (5000 hole (approx. gph) )
S2C(128 )

Benchmar k

0
Borehol e

N 13 3

17
bore hole 96 bore hole 97
104 (approx. )

-100

18

Line C Nm
-100 0 -200 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200

Borehole

-200
Benchmark

Nm
fence (approx s .) 23

-200
S2B(233 )

-100 300 400 m -200 100 200

to Ma he sw ara m
S2B(256 )

-300 0 100 200 300 400 m

103

-300

-700

-600

-500

-400

-300

-200

-100

100

200

300

Easting (local coordinates)


Easting (m) (local coordinates)

Site-1: Mohabatnagar

Site-2: K.B. Tanda

Fig-13 Location map of PMR Soundings depending on the amplitude of the local Earth's magnetic field. The energizing current in the loop will reach intensities of 200-300A during pulses of a few tens milliseconds. The relaxation field of the protons is measured in the same loop, after the energizing current is turned off. The voltage measured in the loop is of the order of a few tens to a few thousands nanovolts. Stacking is used to enhance the signal. Taking the readings corresponding to a complete PMR sounding with a full set of pulse moments, usually takes less than one hour per station. Measurements were carried out at each site along the profile crossing possible water bearing structures, such as faults or dykes suspected to affect the bedrock. Only PMR-15 at KB Tanda site does not lie along the profile, and is located near a borehole. The noisereducing figure-of-eight shaped antenna, which gives a maximum depth of investigation of about 40m, was used for all the soundings (Legchenko and Baltassat, 1999). The details of the results of sounding No.IPMR10 presented in fig.14 are as follows: To the left, the raw data time series for each value of the pulse parameter (the pulse parameter increases from bottom to top of the page); 40

In the center, measured and reconstructed amplitude, decay time, frequency, and phase of the PMR signals ambient noise verses the pulse parameter. To the right, the result of amplitude and decay time data inversion, i.e. water content and decay time distribution verses depth.

5.5.1 Mohabatnagar Area (Site-1)


The cross section as shown in fig.15, summarizes the water content and decay time deduced from inversion of the PMR data. The maximum thickness of the water saturated weathered zone was found to be about 25m on PMR-10. The upper part of the main part of IPMR13 may be due to alluvial deposits. The underlying probable weathered zone increases from almost non-existent on IPMR 13 to reach the thickness of 20m for a maximum depth of 30m on IPMR10 (fig.14). This deepening of the weathered zone may be related to the fracture zone in the vicinity of IPMR10. A relatively long signal decay time reveals a small amount of clay in the weathered zone.

Fig-14 PMR Sounding result at IPMR 10 Higher water content and a longer decay time suggest that more water is sorted in this area then in KB Tanda area.

41

IPMR 13a and IPMR 13b measured at the same place but at right angles, show very different water contents and depths, which could be explained by the presence of 2D or 3D structures that are not revealed in the same manner by both soundings. Due to a low signal to noise ratio, it may also be possible that the IPMR13b result are erroneous.
S Elevation (local reference) (m) IPMR13 IPMR7 IPMR10 N
8 7

NW

IPMR14

IPMR9

IPMR11

IPMR4

IPMR3

IPMR6

IPMR8 SE
7 6

Elevation (local reference) (m)

10 0 -10 -20 -30 200 300 400 500 600 700 0 -10

6 5

Water content (%)

590 580 570 560 100 200

3 2

-20 -30

Distance (m)
Elevation (local reference) (m)

Distance (m)
225

Elevation (local reference) (m)

10 0 -10 -20 -30 200 300 400 500 600 700 0

200

125

175 150

100

Decay time (ms)

590 580 570 560

-10 -20 -30

125 100

75

50

75 50

25

25

100

200

Distance (m)

Distance (m)

Fig-15 2D Sections from PMR Soundings

5.5.2 KB Tanda (Site-2)


The cross-section presented in fig.15 summarizes the water content and decay time deduced from inversion of PMR soundings. The higher water content and longer decay time suggest that the largest amount of water is stored in the northwestern part of the profile (IPMR9, IPMR11). The maximum thickness of the water-saturated weathered zone was found to be about of 15m. A relatively short decay time and low water content (IPMR3) is most probably caused by a greater amount of clay or silt in the weathered zone. The low water content and almost waterless areas, as observed on IPMR14 and IPMR8 can be attributed to unweathered zones (fresh rocks).

5.6

Well Logging

Geophysical Well Logging investigations were also carried out at 9 out of 25 IFP wells, in the hard rock granitic terrain Maheshwaram to delineate the fracture(s) zones (Krishnamurthy et al., 2001). The various well log results from two such wells are discussed below.

5.6.1 Well No. IFP-1 (Location 219)


The geological sequence encountered while drilling is the top weathered and semiweathered layer followed by fractured granite underlain by compact granite at a depth of about 36m. The resistivity sounding result show a resistivity of 292 ohm-m for the semi-weathered zone followed by fracture granite from 16-30m with a resistivity of 496 ohm-m, underlain by 42

Decay time (ms)

Water content (%)

bed-rock. Self-Potential, Point Resistance, Temperature log, Short Normal, Long Normal and Gamma logs were done in this well. The various logs are shown in figs.16 & 17. S.P. and

Temperature logs do not indicate any anomalous zone. The SN and LN logs indicate low resistivity around 31m and the PR log indicate

Fig-16 Geophysical Well Logs at IFP-1

Fig-17 Gamma Log at IFP-1

a low resistance around 32m.The apparent resistivity as observed against weathered zone are 110 ohm-m and 600 ohm-m by SN and LN respectively whereas against fractured zone are 220 ohm-m and 1200 ohm-m. The gamma log indicates high activity below 22.5m onwards, which is in the range of 500 cps compare to that above 22.5m which is in the range of 300cps or less. This high activity can be activated to a fractured zone. Combining all these result showed that there is a clear fracture zone around 25m as shown in fig.16. All the electric logs indicate that the bedrock occurs at a depth of 38m.

5.6.2 Well No. IFP-9 (Location 252)


The litholog indicate a top weathered layer up to 19.7m followed by fractured granite from 19.7m to 33m underlain by massive granite having boulder granite in between from i.e. from 21.3 to 29.9m. SP and Temperature logs have not shown anomalous zones. PR log show a resistance from 28.4 to 34.4m, which may represent a fracture zone. The Gamma log show high anomaly from 27.9m to 33.2m while there is general decreases in gamma profile from 43

18m onwards. This also may be indicative of a fracture zone. SN and LN also show a low resistivity from 26.8m 32m which is comparable with other logs indicating water bearing fracture zone (figs.18, 19).

Fig-18

Geophysical Fig-19 Gamma Log at IFP-9

Well

Logs

at

IFP-9

5.7

Self Potential and Mise--la-masse

From the lithologs of the borewells, it was found that fractures were intercepted in a number of borewells. Five such sites, where fractures were intercepted, were selected for Mise la masse and Spontaneous Polarization (SP) studies. Measurements were carried out at these five sites, in a grid pattern around the drilled borewells for delineating the lateral extent of the fractures by analyzing the equi-potentials. A number of traverses were laid at each borehole location with 4-5m interval and measurements were also made with the same interval. The results of S.P. and Mise-a-la-masse studies at borewell no. 265 are discussed below.

5.7.1 Borehole No. 265 (IFP-11)

44

Fig.20 show Mise--la-masse and SP equipotential map near borehole no. 265. This bore-well drilled up to 42 m struck water at a depth of 23 m in pink granite and has static water level at 21.18 m. The drill log of existing bore-well indicates minor fractures between 15.84 to 32.90 m and fractured pink granite from 32.90 to 37.50 m. Well developed fractures with high density from 32.90 to 37.50 m substantially increased the yield of the well to 100 lpm. The current electrode in the bore well was lowered down to depth of 37m. Mise la masse map shows a well-developed trend of high equipotential zone in N-S direction along the central profile across the borehole. This indicates the extension of the fractures in N-S direction. SP map also shows similar trend in N-S direction. Two bore-wells (BW-1 & BW-2), one each on southern and northern side of the existing bore-well recommended on the basis of the Mise--la- masse measurements intercepted fractures at nearly the same depth as in borehole no.265. A bore-well (BW-3) recommended on hydrogeological consideration in NW of existing bore-well did not intercept any fracture. This confirms the extension of fracture in N-S direction only.

DISTANCE IN METRES Measurement Traverses with observation stations Contour Interval = 2 mv Station Interval = 4 m

Fig-20 Mise--la-masse and SP equipotential map at IFP-11

5.8

Reinterpretation of Sounding data using Geostatistical Analysis

BW

BW

45

A geostatistical analysis using ordinary kriging has been employed to verify that the VES results would fall in the range provided by the unbiased kriging estimate of drilling data as well as their estimation error.
With the help of lithologs, thicknesses of various layers viz. weathered, fractured and depth to bedrock were identified. The set of data resulted from the lithologs were analysed geostatistically and after the variographic analysis, estimation of the above parameters were made at all the 86 locations using the standard deviation of the estimation error. The Ordinary Kriging Equations used are as follows:

( x o ) =


i i =1

(1)


j =1 j

ij

+ = io , i = 1,n

(2)

i =1

=1

(3)

k2 =


i =1 i

io

(4)

where ( xo ) is the estimated value of the variable at the point xo, and xo is the spatial coordinate having one of the 86 points , , k and are the kriging weight, variogram, kriging variance and
2

Lagrange multiplier respectively. This has provided a range of the estimated values of the above three parameters. Since using the variability of the parameters obtained from the lithological logs that are comparatively more accurate, the ranges of the estimated parameters are defined. Thus the VES values for the same parameter should fall within the range with the 95% confidence interval. The interpreted VES results that could not be found within the stipulated range by the geostatistical estimation, were categorized separately and a suitable reinterpretation was made for them. After a few iterations, a large number of VES were found falling in the reliability range (Table 2) and could be useful in further drilling. The present study at one hand provided a guideline for further improvement of the VES reinterpretation and possibility of reducing the ambiguities and on the other hand categorized the result in different categories of varying reliability and much more useful for site selection for further drilling. These final sounding results are incorporated in Table 1. Thus various parameters such as thickness of weathered zone, thickness of fractured zone and depth to bedrock are obtained more accurately and these are contoured and shown in figs. 21-23 respectively. These indicate that the weathered zone thickness is more in the northeastern and southwestern part. In the north western part, a sharp variation in the weathered zone thickness may be due the presence of a quartz vein running in N-S direction. The fractured zone thickness appears to be more in southern and southeastern part compared to other parts of the basin. The thickness of all the layers including the

46

fractured zone is considered in arriving at the depth to bedrock. The depth to bedrock varies from 442m. The contour in the southeastern part shows a linear trend along N-S direction. This corresponds to a quartz vein exposed in the area. It also shows that the depth to bedrock is different on either side of the vein and is found to be more in the southern and northeastern parts.

Fig-21 Thickness of weathered zone

47

Fig-22 Thickness of fractured zone

48

9000

8000

7000

6000 Northing In metres

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

0 0

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

Easting in metres

Fig-23 Depth to Bedrock

49

Table -1: VES Interpretation result ( - Resistivity in Ohm-m, h -Thickness in m and D Depth to bedrock in m)
VES No. 201 Village

Parameter h D

Interpreted Results 93.4 0.6 0.0 73.0 1.0 0.0 81.4 0.6 0.0 85.5 0.4 0.0 815 0.5 0.0 133 1.0 0.0 258 0.5 0.0 323 0.4 0.0 276 0.6 0.0 522 0.4 0.0 107 0.6 0.0 117 2.4 0.0 51.1 1.4 0.0 186 0.5 0.0 122 0.5 0.0 133 2.0 0.0 57 0.8 0.0 4.2 6.1 0.0 28 3.9 0.0 180 30.1 6.1 0.6 44.0 2.8 1.0 12.7 5.0 0.6 26.4 8.7 0.4 48.5 2.7 0.5 44.9 2.1 1.0 64.4 4.0 0.5 70.2 17 0.4 57.9 10.8 0.6 26.9 3.6 0.4 59.8 1.3 0.6 63.9 7.9 2.4 30.5 1.6 1.4 42.8 10.1 0.5 52.6 12.0 0.5 58 16.3 2.0 10.3 1.0 0.8 107 3.8 6.1 51.9 2.9 3.9 60.4 146 5.0 6.7 64.0 13.4 3.8 28.7 5.8 5.6 119 3.7 9.1 320 6.0 3.2 94.8 10.1 3.1 83.3 11.9 4.5 High 17.4 531 12 11.4 161 9.7 4.0 80.5 15.6 1.9 174 5.0 10.3 97.1 14.2 3.0 100 9.9 10.6 352 12.5 125 2.0 18.3 97.6 22.4 1.8 High 9.9 292 9.7 6.8 168 506 11.7 144 8.5 17.2 125 5.3 11.4 High 12.8 69.4 6.0 9.2 456 18.4 13.2 High 16.4

K.B. Tanda

high 25.7 High 16.7

202

Maheswaram

h D

203

Maheswaram

H D

204

Maheshwaram

H D

High 15.2 208 2.4 31.6

205

Tumlur

H D

High 34

206

Tumlur

H D

207

Tumlur

H D

208

Maheshwaram

H D

High 23.4 High 13.7 163 6.0 17.5 High 15.3 563 17.3 High 20.5

209

Siglipuram

H D

210 211

Sigilipuram, Sigilipuram

H D

High 23.5

h D 212 Mohabatnagar

h D 213 Mohabatnagar

h D 214 Mohabatnagar

h D 215 Mohabatnagar

h D 216 Sigilipuram

940 20.3 High 24.2

h D 217 Sigilipuram

h D 218 Sigilipuram

h D 219 Sigilipuram

h D

496 13.1 16.5 High

High 29.6

50

h D 221 Lemur

1.0 0.0 191 0.9 0.0 30.4 1.1 0.0 122 1.5 0.0 41.9 0.8 0.0 123 4.1 0.0 325 1.0 0.0 179 1.4 0.0 20.2 0.7 0.0 133 0.6 0.0 431 0.4 0.0 51.3 6.3 0.9 150 9.4 1.1 37 4.6 1.5 44.6 5.4 0.8 35.4 4.4 4.1 109 14.6 1.0 54.9 19.6 1.4 32.2 3.4 0.7 51.6 2.0 0.6 58.3 10.1 0.4 122 0.4 0.0 45.8 0.4 0.0 55.1 1.0 0.0 150 1.0 0.0 938 0.7 0.0 171 1.4 0.0 372 0.5 0.0 63.7 0.6 0.0 286 0.9 0.0 382 0.5 0.0

5.6 1.0 129 5.3 7.2 717 10.5 77.8 16.8 6.1 144 2.2 6.2 High 8.5 High 15.6 197 10.1 21.1 261 11.9 4.1 464 12.3 2.6 262 9.9 10.5 77.1 5.4 0.4 12.5 2.0 0.4 32.9 10.1 1.0 94.4 5.6 1.0 74.1 1.1 0.7 28.5 6.6 1.4 30.9 4.6 0.5 29.6 3.0 0.6 42.4 5.8 0.9 93.2 2.9 0.5 951

2.4 6.6

9.0

H D 222 Tumlur

12.5

H D 223 Tumlur

H D 224 Tumlur

250.4 5.8 22.9 High 8.4

604 28.7

H D 225 Tumlur

h D 226 Lemur

h D 227 Lemur

h D 228 Tumlur

598 8.0 31.2 High 16.0 High

High 39.2

h D 229 Tumlur

h D 230 Tumlur

14.9 High 20.4 196 4.0 5.8 64.2 11.8 2.4 90.6 5.2 11.2 178 7.5 6.6 140 12.5 1.8 86.1 7.2 8.0 223 15.9 5.1 44.7 11.3 3.6 107 3.7 6.7 292 10.0 3.4 900 9.8 137 6.6 14.2 high 16.4 High 14.1 345 4.0 14.3 High 15.2 High 21.0 99.6 4.0 14.9 High 10.4 High 13.4

h D 231 Tumlur

h D 232 Maheswaram

h D 233 Maheswaram

557 8.8 20.8

High 29.6

h D 234 Maheswaram

h D 235 Maheswaram

High 18.3

h D 236 Maheswaram

h D 237 Maheswaram

h D 238 Maheswaram

High 18.9

h D 239 Tumlur

h D 240 Mohabatnagar

h D

241

Mohabatnagar

54.4

23.4

52.7

25.8

710

51

h D 242 Maheswaram

h D 243 Maheswaram

h D 244 Maheshwaram

h D 245 Tumlur

h D 246 Maheswaram

h D 247 Maheswaram

h D 248 Maheswaram

h D 249 Maheswaram

h D 250 Maheswaram

h D 251 Maheswaram

0.5 0.0 121 0.6 0.0 346 0.6 0.0 193 1.0 0.0 78.7 0.4 0.0 1000 0.4 0.0 550 0.8 0.0 146 0.7 0.0 19.0 2.6 0.0 3.7 2.5 0.0 74.1 0.7 0.0 179 0.7 0.0 46.8 0.7 0.0 15.4 0.5 0.0 156 1.3 0.0 28.2 8.5 0.0 111 0.5 0.0 85 0.8 0.0 15.1 0.7 0.0 22.1 1.3 0.0 26.6 4.9 0.8 52.4 4.7 0.6

0.9 0.5 38.5 7.3 0.6 51.5 10.2 0.6 35.7 7.5 1.0 29.1 12 0.4 31.8 6.1 0.4 69.5 7.6 0.8 32.2 7.8 0.7 15.7 4.4 2.6 12.3 3.4 2.5 40.2 9.3 0.7 31.1 5.4 0.7 26 3.2 0.7 7.1 3.7 0.5 67.5 6.9 1.3 293 4.0 8.5 50.2 3.0 0.5 13.6 1.0 0.8 49.6 14.7 0.7 4.5 5.0 1.3 62.6 8.9 5.7 203 11.7 5.3

12.4 1.4 163 8.3 7.9 186 10.0 10.8 107 9 8.5 81.4 7.6 12.4 84.4 7.6 6.5 489 7.5 8.4 105 5.4 8.5 60.5 6.0 7.0 97 5.5 5.9 124 6.8 10 45.8 14 6.1 79.2 15.4 3.9 42.4 22 4.2 154 5.3 8.2 93.5 5.8 12.5 88 16.5 3.5 113 12.7 1.8 82.9 14.3 15.4 70 3.0 6.3 81.7 8.3 14.6 High 17.0

4.5 13.8 High 16.2 High 20.8 69.1 16.9 17.5 454 8.9 20.0 111 9.9 14.1 72.6 7.9 15.9 445 13.9 602 13.0 High 11.4 High 16.8 91.8 14 20.1 22.5 12.7 19.4 74.9 10.9 26.2 712 13.5 161 8.8 18.3 High 20.0 203 4.4 14.5 653 29.7 150 5.0 9.3 High 22.9

18.3

High 34.4 High 28.9 High 24.0 High 23.8

h D 252 Uppugada Tanda

High 34.1 High 32.1 High 37.1

h D 253 Maheswaram

h D 254 Maheswaram

h D 255 Maheswaram

h D 256 Sigilipuram

High 27.1

h D 257 Gangaram

h D 258 Gangaram

High 18.9

h D 259 Maheswaram

h D 260 Maheswaram

High 14.3

h D 261 Maheshwaram

H D 262 Tumlur

H D

81.1 0.8 0.0 121 0.6 0.0

52

263

Tumlur

H D 264 Maheswaram

H D 265 Maheshwaram

H D 266 Maheswaram

H D 267 Maheshwaram

26 2.1 0.0 197 0.7 0.0 45 0.5 0.0 52.2 2.6 0.0

229 2.4 2.1 28.6 3.6 0.7 31.4 3.7 0.5 133 7.5 2.6

83 7.3 4.5 489 9.3 4.3 44.4 11.8 4.2 High 10.1

High 11.8 68.3 14.4 13.6 180.7 17 16

High 28.0 220.2 2.0 33

High 35.0

Distorted

H D 268 Tumlur

H D 269 Tumlur

H D 270 Tumlur

H D 271 Tumlur

97.1 0.7 0.0 791 0.7 0.0 46 0.5 0.0

37.5 1.7 0.7 43.6 5.7 0.7 24.9 0.9 0.5 452 0.3 0.0 32 3.2 0.0 93.5 0.9 0.0 236 0.4 0.0 45.2 1.2 0.0 68.9 0.9 0.0 129 0.3 0.0

71.5 9.2 2.4 204 22.5 6.4 33.9 6.5 1.4 39.7 7.4 0.3 13.6 3.0 3.2 44.5 3.5 0.9 35.6 3.3 0.4 28.1 2.3 1.2 32.1 3.2 0.9 11 2.5 0.3

High 11.6 High 28.9 114 8.4 7.9 109 28 7.7 109 2.4 6.2 127 3.2 4.4 57.6 10.5 3.7 105 30.9 3.5 70.4 7.5 4.1 59.6 4.5 2.8

205 5.8 16.3 455 3.5 35.7 High 8.6 High 7.6 247 26.9 14.3 High 34.4 884 11.6 High 7.3

High 22.1 High 39.2

h D 272 Tumlur

h D 273 Tumlur

h D 274 Tumlur

High 41.2

h D 275 Bhagwatipuram (Aware) Bhagwatipuram (Aware) Maheswaram

h D

276

h D

277

h D 278 Mankal

h D 279 Maheshwaram (Khosla Garden) Sigilipuram

Distorted 85.2 1.2 0.0 67.8 1.1 0.0

h D

280

h D 281 Maheswaram

201 9.7 1.2 16.6 3.2 1.1 3.5 1.2 1.1 19.5 6.3 0.7 150 8.0 0.9 179 0.7

690 10.9 50.1 14.3 4.3 239 2.0 2.3 56.9 14.5 7.0 200 4.1 8.9 32.9 2.3

High 18.6 High 4.3 148 16.3 21.5 884 13.0 127 10.0

h D 282 Maheswaram

h D 283 Mankal (Maheswaram) Maheswaram

h D

284

52.2 1.1 0.0 74.9 0.7 0.0 314 0.9 0.0 42.8 0.4

High 37.8

High

53

D 285 Near Aware

h D 286 Tumlur

h D 287 Maheswaram

h D 288 Sigilipuram

h D 275A Bhagavathipuram (Aware)

h D

0.0 84 0.9 0.0 133 1.0 0.0 136 0.7 0.0 79.4 1.1 0.0 50.7 1.5 0.0

0.4 32 1.9 0.9 48.4 3.0 1.0 67 11.0 0.7 159 1.2 1.1 27.3 2.0 1.5

1.1 80.7 20.0 2.8 119 9.9 4.0 119 30.6 11.7 75.8 18.8 2.3 95.8 29.8 3.5

3.4 66.4 10.4 22.8 169 9.8 13.9 High 42.3 93.8 5.3 21.1 High 33.3

13.4 High 33.2 High 23.7

High 26.4

Table-2 VES interpretation and Geostatistical estimation (WT: weathered zone thickness, FT: fractured zone thickness, DBR: depth to bedrock)

VES

No.

WT from VES
Interpretation

Range of WT from kriging


estimate

Range of FT from FTfrom kriging DBR from estimate VES VES Interpretatinterpretation ion

Range of DBR from Kriging estimate

Initial Category

in (m)
2 2

in (m)

Category after reinterpretation

In (m)
2

219 216 209 208 282 253 257 256 252 261 265 232 271 246 247 244 245 270 229 206 241 215 227 223 274

6.8 21.5 7.5 14.9 21.5 4.9 2.4 2.2 6.8 5.2 11.7 1.8 5 5.9 7.6 5.8 11.2 8.8 2.8 3.7 13 8 1.4 9.1 4.4

14.08 14.24 9.217 14.7 29.86 19.78 14.41 14.9 16.19 18.33 13.11 17.39 27.83 14.02 9.408 8.297 15.51 15.37 1.001 10.06 10.48 7.968 14.21 18.07 11.77

21.55 21.69 16.29 21.44 37.1 26.64 21.71 22.14 23.6 25.76 20.55 24.81 34.52 20.14 16.02 15.37 22.55 22.37 8.225 17.43 17.6 14.51 21.13 25.41 19.19

13.1 8.7 14.6 0 16.3 8.4 0 0 0 0 30.6 0 0 14.8 36.9 19.8 0 9.1 13.5 11.9 12.9 25.2 0 36.8 15.5

6.806 18.48 0 10.37 2.966 14.77 0 11.5 0.948 12.7 1.874 13.55 0 9.908 0.124 11.74 0.181 11.93 0 10.77 8.809 20.64 5.259 17.09 1.004 12.78 2.97 14.16 2.275 13.52 11.79 23.56 1.497 13.07 1.645 13.4 1.398 13.15 4.392 16.22 1.271 13.02 0.138 11.68 7.895 19.44 1.5 13.32 10.41 22.16

29.5 30.2 22.1 15.2 37.8 26.9 26.4 25.3 27.3 20.1 42.3 16.9 26.7 20.7 44.5 25.6 18.5 17.9 16.3 15.6 26 33.2 24.5 45.9 19.9

26.996 17.678 19.932 19.265 31.168 25.196 17.339 20.326 26.502 20.933 30.223 29.836 33.809 22.02 21.423 29.783 26.248 20.978 20.484 27.02 17.151 13.106 27.956 22.831 31.168

37.45 28.05 30.22 29.47 41.61 35.56 27.67 30.73 36.88 31.35 40.69 40.3 44.01 31.71 31.35 39.95 36.48 31.4 30.95 37.47 27.55 23.11 37.98 33.29 41.52

2 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 2 4 3 3 3 1 3 4 4 3

1 1 1 2 3 2 1 1 2 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2

54

201 202 203 204 205 207 210 211 212 213 214 217 218 220 221 222 224 225 226 228 230 231 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 242 243 248 249 250 251 254 255 258 259 260 262 263 264 266 268 269 272 273 275 276 277 279

4.3 17.2 3.9 6 2.9 2.7 4 2.1 2.3 3 8 1.8 5.9 6.6 0.9 1.4 6.2 3.6 1 1.4 9.2 0.4 11.2 7.6 2 8 5.1 3.6 0.8 0.3 0.5 2.6 0.7 7 2.4 0.7 4.2 1.4 1.8 15.4 6.4 2.5 1.9 4.1 2.6 2.4 6.4 3.3 0.8 3.5 4.1 1.5 1.1

13.68 3.107 4.104 4.801 1.395 11.3 7.213 11.82 10.44 10.13 6.731 7.628 7.908 4.077 8.308 12.89 5.507 9.152 7.435 1.214 2.136 1.588 11.1 7.878 11.54 9.016 5.886 12.09 7.998 4.692 10.87 8.516 26.35 25.39 17.19 10.36 12.98 9.798 8.794 27.99 16.62 11.76 13.68 9.696 9.721 8.219 14.57 3.006 3.138 8.437 8.985 8.189 9.305

26.22 21.16 25.3 23.41 18.98 27.41 19.17 22.96 25.39 23.56 18.72 28.62 28.26 28.35 30.93 29.39 30.5 31.02 30.54 14.52 21.2 21.12 31.23 32.99 27.37 27.92 26.42 34.28 23.65 21.9 22.97 22.93 37.07 37.53 35.22 30.21 28.91 27.58 28.97 38.08 35.43 30.38 29.11 31.67 25.2 23.52 29.63 23.69 22.2 27.85 26.51 28.87 27.92

5.7 8.5 0 0 23.6 14.1 9.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.4 0 11.2 2.2 0 14.6 0 6.5 0 5.2 5.1 14 7.2 15.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 15.3 14.3 2.8 9 13.4 58.9 7.5 9.2 22.5 0 0 30.9 7.5 0 5.5

0 15.12 0 19.19 0.967 20.41 0 19.26 0 17.34 0 18.86 0 16.15 0 13.27 0 18.76 0 18.98 0 17.61 0 17.06 0 17.01 0 17.78 0 19.44 0 18.37 0.177 19.16 0 18.97 0 18.97 0 18.5 0 18.61 0 18.13 0 18.97 0 18.95 0 19.07 0 18.96 0 18.95 0 19.09 0 17.74 0 17.27 0.782 17.87 1.403 20.8 0 15.58 0 15.75 0 16.88 0 17.29 0 15.15 0 16.61 0 16.41 0 14.8 0 17.31 0 19.25 0 18.39 0 19.09 1.185 19.76 0 18.91 0.369 19.81 0.472 19.78 0.166 19.46 0 18.97 0 19.41 0 17.01 0 17.55

10 25.7 12.4 11.4 26.5 16.8 13.7 20.2 12.1 17.3 18.6 22.9 8.4 9 8.9 12.6 8.4 10 15.6 6.7 15.7 7.6 16.4 12.7 16 15.2 21 17.1 8.3 6.6 9.8 12.3 10.1 13 6.9 11.4 28 10 17.1 29.7 9.2 11.5 15.3 63 10.1 11.6 28.9 6.7 5.8 34.4 11.6 6.5 6.6

22.364 20.998 22.071 20.838 16.21 18.46 17.561 15.615 17.655 16.972 13.616 16.306 16.552 17.973 17.838 18.768 18.575 18.383 18.381 18.672 18.282 17.545 21.573 21.193 22.759 21.483 20.628 20.079 17.386 14.157 20.113 22.311 26.528 24.699 18.313 19.054 18.234 17.725 17.852 29.151 19.367 18.497 19.012 20.619 24.327 18.786 20.173 19.493 19.058 18.357 17.876 16.683 17.519

38.83 41.84 42.88 41.49 36.81 39 34.07 31.06 37.93 36.75 32.38 36.89 37.08 38.6 38.43 38.4 39.37 39.28 39.3 37.5 38.95 38.03 42.33 42.15 42.59 42.29 41.44 40.78 37.04 34.88 36.78 42.34 42.67 42.17 39.04 39.59 38.37 38.35 38.38 43.03 40.13 38.92 38.02 41.44 43.3 38.47 40.46 40.44 39.77 39.25 38.54 37.18 37.71

3 1 4 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 4 2 4 3 2 4 3 3 2 4 2 3 3 3 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 3 4 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3

3 1 2 2 2 3 3 1 3 2 1 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 2 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 1 3 1 2 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 3 3

55

280 281 283 284 285 286 287 288

4.3 1.1 8.9 3.4 22.8 13.9 11.7 21.1

7.919 8.828 4.699 5.001 10.98 9.626 9.791 9.474

28.84 28.25 30.44 30.58 27.41 26.26 27.38 26.11

14.3 2 4.1 10 10.4 9.8 30.6 5.3

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

17.07 17.16 17.69 17.69 19.38 18.98 19.07 15.79

18.6 4.3 13 13.4 33.2 23.7 42.3 26.4

15.402 17.062 15.163 15.846 18.495 18.365 21.769 17.5

36.26 37.43 36.08 36.64 39.14 38.95 42.4 37.83

2 3 2 3 1 1 2 1

2 3 2 3 1 1 2 1

56

6.0

CONCLUSIONS

Various geophysical methods such as resistivity, EM, mise--la-masse, SP etc. have been applied in Maheshwaram for drilling of observation wells and then use these wells for sub-surface geophysics. On the basis of investigations, the following conclusions are arrived at; On the basis of resistivity investigation and other geological and hydrogeological features, 25 sites were drilled for monitoring of water levels and further study of the aquifer. Though thin fractures are encountered within the recommended depth, they could not be identified in the resistivity soundings. The Multi Electrode Resistivity 2D Imaging (MER2DI) proved that a 2D electrical imaging with 64 electrodes and an electrode spacing of 4 meters allowed covering a profile of 400 to 600 meters long within a day. The same distance is roughly covered with TDEM. But, it appears that that 2D electrical imaging is a better way to map the resistivity structure of the ground in such hydrogeological conditions. However, regarding 1D DC electrical sounding, it is important to notice that the current lines flowing into the ground are not the same than with that of TDEM. For the TDEM method, currents are flowing horizontally. This could be a real advantage to delineate the weathered materials more accurately than using 1D DC sounding. But one should keep in mind that in such a context, whether with TDEM or DC soundings, the 1D assumption required for interpretation is generally not suitable. Hence, at least 2D, and best 3D, surveys should be undertaken to delineate the bedrock geometry with sufficient consistency. The end result of either SP or Mise la Masse survey is a set of profiles and/or possibly a contour map of equipotential lines. Negative maximum occurs directly over the target. The S.P. method is simple, fast and cheap in collecting field data and useful in groundwater exploration in mapping shallow structures like faults, shear zones, fracture zones, vertical contacts and so on. Out of four locations with fractures, the Mise-a-la-masse anomalies are clear at all the locations and some indication is seen at the fifth location where water occurs also in weathered rock. Two bore-wells (BW-1 & BW-2), one each on southern and northern side of the existing bore-well recommended on the basis of the mise la masse measurements intercepted fractures at nearly the same depth as in borehole no.265. Hence, it could be concluded that mise la masse electrical mapping technique supplemented with SP investigations could be helpful in delineating the extension of fractures in hard rocks. However, the reason for the mise--la-masse techniques failure to pick up the fractures everywhere may be due to the size/depth of the fractures and/or the overlying weathered rock which may be conducting in spite of not being saturated and thus screening the signal from underlying fractures. The magnetic profiles are carried out across the dykes with a view to know the anomaly pattern and to identify anomalous zones for carrying out the PMR studies. Hence, most of profiles are not laid in a straight line and also not perpendicular to the strike of the 57

dykes. As an experimental test, one profile i.e., line-16 is interpreted by MAGMOD, a software available at NGRI. The interpreted model showed the occurrence of dyke 45 m below ground level. Since, the boulders are visible on the surface; it may be inferred that the compact dyke may occur at that depth.
During the test of Proton Magnetic Resonance (PMR) method in the fractured basement conditions of the Maheshwaram basin, 12 PMR soundings were successfully carried out with the NUMIS instrument during a 10-day period, hence an average production rate of about one sounding per day. However, better collaboration with the local authorities governing power supply could double this production rate by more efficient planning of the measurements according to the power schedule so as to obtain optimum signal to noise conditions. The natural noise level was relatively low and allowed measurements of very low signals of only a few nanovolts. However, even under such low noise conditions the signal to noise ratio has to be improved by stacking and consequently the production rate remained limited. The PMR soundings show a main water-bearing layer extending from the surface or a few meters depth down to 15-30mts. Based on open well and borehole data it appears that this water layer mainly correspond to the water saturated weathered-zone or a perched aquifer. The result deduced from inversion of the PMR data, namely the water content and decay time distribution as a function of depth may reveal the presence of major water storage areas and consequently allow the re-evaluation of the water resources in the area. The two profiles measured across structures suspected to affect the bedrock show important variations in the thickness and degree of weathering of the weathered-zone, which may be attributed to varying clay content, fracture zones or dykes of fresh rock. The results revealed that the subsurface contains 2D or even 3D structures, for which 2D data inversion is required to obtain a sufficiently good resolution. This demands a relatively large number of PMR soundings per surface unit, but will provide a better resolution of the water-saturated zones. In Well Logging, out of all the parameters, Self-Potential and Temperature probes have not given any anomalies. Point Resistance (PR), Long Normal (LN), Short Normal and Gamma log have indicated clearly the weathered/fractured zones and the contact of the bedrock. The fracture zones have been clearly delineated at some places. The various depths at which the fracture zones are picked up in the bore wells are found to be water bearing in almost all cases except IFP-5. Different Geophysical Well Logging investigations are capable to delineate the fracture zones in granitic terrain, if applied together.

The thicknesses of various layers such as weathered zone, fractured zone and depth to bedrock have been estimated throughout the watershed that were used in the fabrication of aquifer model. This is concluded that combination of a few suitable geophysical methods could provide the result confidently. The various interpretations have to be revised at times with new informations or investigations.

58

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