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I.

E R a R E (
a E). f : E 7 R (
R, ).
.

1.( )
lim f (x) = b > 0 : () > 0 : x E, 0 < |x a| < |f (x) b| <

E3xa

V (b) U0 (a) : f (U0 (a) E) V (b)


: . ,
b - a.
.

2.( )
lim f (x) = b {xn } : n N xn 6= a xn E lim xn = a {f (xn )} b
n

E3xa

:
x a, f (x) b.
,
, , . ,
.
, ? f : N 7 R. .. Ef = N.
E. ,
= 0.3 ()
E. , , N ( = a,
a N, ).
.
,
= 1 (,
a , lim f (x). , lim sinx
x
x0

E3xa

), x = 0 .
Th
I

1. .
1) , .
V (b) U0 (a) : f (U0 (a) E) V (b) x U0 (a) f (x) V (b)
.
1

{xn } : xn 6= a xn a.
n

N () N n > N 0 < |xn a| < (


) f (xn ) V (b) |f (xn ) b| < , .. {f (xn )} b,
n
.
2) , .
: A lim f (x) = b , b 6= lim f (x).
xa

xa

: V (b) U0 (a) x U0 (a) : |f (x)


b| > . : 0 ,
i xi , |f (xi ) b| > 0 . .. i ,
{n } = { n1 }. ,
{xn },
|f (xn ) b| > 0 . n , .. 0 < |xn a| < n = n1 , xn a (
n

).
xn a f (xn ) 9 b. ,
a b .

.
:
? , :
, ( ,
- -), , ,
. :
.
. lim f (x) ( , ..
xa

).
.
. f (x) E, M > 0 x E : |f (x)| 6
M.
.
. a , ,
a. : A lim f (x) <
xa

U0 (a) : f (x) U0 (a) (


).

II.

, > 0 (a ; a) (a; a + )
E.
.
1. b () f , : >
0 : () > 0 : x E, a < x < a (a < x < a + ) |f (x) b| < .
.
2. b () f , :
{xn } : n N, xn < a (xn > a) xn E lim xn = a {f (xn )} b.
n

: lim f (x) = b = f (a 0) lim f (x) = b =


xa0

xa+0

f (a + 0). , "" ,
x a , , .
. a
, , a. :
.
. lim f (x) = b f (a 0) = f (a 0) = b
xa

(.. x E : a < x < a x E : a < x < a + x E : 0 < |x a| < ).

III.

, .
:
Th

2.
A lim f (x) = b, lim g(x) = c.
xa

xa

1. lim (f (x) g(x)) = b c;


xa

2. lim (f (x) g(x)) = b c;


xa

f (x)
xa g(x)

3. lim

= cb , c 6= 0 x U0 (a) : g(x) 6= 0.

I
(  .)
,
, 2:

( , ),
.
:
.
. A f (x) : X 7 R, g(y) : Y 7 R, x X : f (x) Y
(f (X) Y). X g f : g f ()
g (f (x)).
Th
3.
A f (x) : X 7 R, g(y) : Y 7 R, f (X) Y.
lim f (x) = y0 , lim g(y). lim g (f (x)) = lim g(y).
xx0

yy0

xx0

yy0

lim g(y) = z0 . U (z0 )


yy0

V 0 (y0 ) : y Y V 0 (y0 ) g(y) U (z0 ). V 0 (y0 )W (x0 ) : x W (x0 ) f (x)


Y V 0 (y0 ).
U (z0 )W (x0 ) : x W (x0 ) X f (x) Y V 0 (y0 ) g (f (x)) U (z0 ).

, .
,
, ,
. , , z0 -
x0 .
, . , ,
, , 2
. ,
, . , lim sinx
x
x0

( ) ,
: f (x) = sinx
g(x) = x2 . 3
x
f (x) g(x) f (x).
Th

4.
A lim f (x) = b, lim g(x) = c b < c. :
xa

xa

1. U (a) : x U 0 (a) : f (x) < g(x)


2. A f, g, h : E 7 R A x E f (x) 6 g(x) 6 h(x) lim f (x) = lim h(x) = b
xa

xa

lim g(x) = b ( ).
xa

1. d, b < d < c.
U10 (a), U20 (a) : x U10 (a) |f (x)b| < db x U20 (a) |g(x)c| < cd.
U 0 (a) = U10 (a) U20 (a) : x U(0 a) |f (x) b| < d b b d < f (x) b < d b
f (x) < d = d c + c < g(x), ...
2. > 0 U10 (a) : x U10 (a) |f (x) b| < U20 (a) : x U20 (a) |h(x) b| < .
b < f (x) < b + b < h(x) < b + =
b < f (x) 6 g(x) 6 h(x) < b + |g(x) b| < lim g(x) = b.
xa

,
. , :
[N, ], U 0 (a).
.
.
A lim f (x) = b, lim g(x) = c. , U (a), :
xa

xa

1. f (x) < g(x) b 6 c


2. f (x)6g(x) b 6 c
3. f (x) < c b 6 c
4. f (x)6c b 6 c

IV.
.

Th

. , f (x) , : >
0 : > 0 x0 , x E : 0 < |x0 a| < 0 < |xa| < |f (x0 ) f (x)| < .
:
E, .
5.
lim f (x) f (x) .
xa

A lim f (x) = b > 0 () > 0 x0 , x E U0 (a) =


xa

|f (x0 ) b| < 2 , |f (x) b| < 2 . |f (x0 ) f (x)| 6 |f (x0 ) b| + |b f (x)| < .


.
.. , , .
f (x), {xn },
a ( ),
xn 6= a. , {f (xn )} b.
{xn }. ..
N N : n > N 0 < |xn a| < . p
. n > N 0 < |xn+p a| < .
4

, n > N : 0 < |xn+p a| < 0 < |xn a| < ,


|f (xn+p ) f (xn )| < {f (xn )} . {f (xn )} b. ,
n

{xn }, a, {f (xn )} .
, .
: {x0n }, a, {f (x0n )} b0 .
{yn } = x1 , x01 , x2 , x02 , x3 , x03 . . . , a (, , : N {xn } N 0 {x0n }, n >
max{N, N 0 } : |xn a| < |x0n a| < |yn a| < ).
{f (yn )} . ,
.

: .

V.

, , :
E a, E. ,
, . :
a E, , f (a).
, "" ,
(
x2 , x 6= 0;
f (x) =
-1, x = 0.
, - " , -
". ,
.
.