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Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

High-Voltage Technique and Insulating Materials

- Lecture notes -

Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering

Walther-Pauer-Str.5

D-03046 Cottbus

GERMANY

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

1. Introduction

4

1.1. Chair and Teaching Programme

4

1.2. Objective and Structure of the Lectures

7

1.3. Fundamental Principles

9

1.3.1. Maxwell’s Equations

9

1.3.2. Static Fields

11

1.3.3. Stationary (Steady-State) Fields

11

1.3.4. Slowly Varying (Quasi-Stationary) Fields

12

1.3.5. Rapidly Varying Fields

14

2. Determination of the Electric Field Distribution

19

2.1.

Analytical Calculations

19

2.1.1. Coaxial Cylinders and Spheres

19

2.1.2. Boundary Problem for Plate Electrodes

20

2.1.3. Influence of Space Charges

21

2.1.4. Schwaiger’s utilization factor

23

2.2. Graphic Determination of Field Distribution

28

2.3. Measurement of the Field Distribution

30

2.4. Method of Conformal Mapping

31

2.5. Method of Substitution Charges

32

2.6. Differential Method

34

2.7. Method of Finite Elements

35

3. Boundary surfaces and imperfections in high-voltage insulators

36

3.1. Boundary conditions

36

3.2. Laminated Dielectric

37

3.3. Tangential Fields at Boundary Surfaces

42

3.4. Imperfections (Defects)

43

4. Discharge Reactions in Gases (Basic Mechanisms)

46

4.1. Statistical Basics

46

4.2. Non-Self-Maintained Gas Discharge

51

4.3. Self-Maintained Gas Discharge

54

4.4. Towsend Discharge

59

4.5. Streamer Mechanism

66

5. Discharge Reactions in Gases (technical details)

69

5.1. Breakdown of Mixed Gases

69

5.2. Influence of the Electrode Roughness

70

5.3. Breakdown in Inhomogeneous Fields

72

5.4. Streamer and Leader discharge

75

5.4.1. Positive Streamer Discharge

75

5.4.2. Negative Streamer Discharge

76

5.4.3. Leader Discharge

76

5.5. Breakdown Behaviour for Transient Voltages

78

5.6. Spark Discharge and Arc Discharge

80

5.6.1. Spark Discharge

80

5.6.2. Arc Discharge

84

5.7.

Surface Discharges

87

5.7.1. Breakover (Flash-Over)

87

5.7.2. Pollution Layer Breakover

88

5.7.3. Surface Discharge (Sliding Discharge)

91

6. Breakdown Reactions in Solid and Fluid Insulating Materials

93

6.1.

Purely Electrical Breakdown

93

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz
 

6.2.

Global Thermal Breakdown

96

6.3.

Masked Gas Breakdown

98

6.4.

Local Thermal Breakdown

99

6.5.

Fibre-Bridge Breakdown

100

6.6.

Erosion Breakdown

104

6.7.

Partial Discharges

106

7.1.

Gases

113

7.1.1. Natural Gases

113

7.1.2. Liquefied Gases

115

7.1.3. SF 6 (Sulfurhexafluorid)

116

7.2.

Insulating Fluids

118

7.2.1. Physical and Chemical Parameters

118

7.2.2. Insulating Oil Made from Mineral Oils

128

7.2.3. Synthetic Insulating Fluids

134

7.2.4. Other Insulating Fluids

135

7.3.

Solid Insulating Materials

136

7.3.1. Physical and Chemical Parameters

136

7.3.2. Inorganic Solid Insulating Materials

141

7.3.3. Organic Solid Insulating Materials

154

7.4.

Mischdielektrika

169

7.4.1. Imprägnierte Foliendielektrika

169

7.4.2. Oil Paper Dielectrics

170

8.

Testing Insulating Materials

171

8.1.

Dielectric Measurement

171

8.1.1. Dielectric Loss Factor and Capacitance

171

8.1.2. Insulation Resistance

174

8.2. Disruptive Discharge Test

175

8.3. Creep Tracking Resistance

176

8.3.1. Comparative tracking index (CTI)

176

8.3.2. Tracking under Difficult Conditions

177

8.4. Resistance to Arcing

177

8.5. Chemical Analysis

179

8.5.1. Water Content

179

8.5.2. Gas-in-Oil Analysis

180

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

1. Introduction 1.1. Chair and Teaching Programme

Head of

Prof. Harald Schwarz

69-4502

harald.schwarz@tu-cottbus.de

chair:

Secretary:

Marika Scholz

69-4502

marika.scholz@tu-cottbus.de

Scientific

Dipl.-Ing. Dirk Lehmann

69-4032

lehmand@tu-cottbus.de

assistants:

 

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Maik Honscha

69-4029

honscha@tu-cottbus.de

Dr.-Ing. Klaus Pfeiffer

69-4035

klaus.pfeiffer@tu-cottbus.de

Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Fenske

69-3580

fenske.stefan@tu-cottbus.de

Dr.-Ing. Gunnar Löhning

69-4030

loehning@tu-cottbus.de

Dipl.-Ing. Henryk Stürmer

69-3528

stuermer@tu-cottbus.de

Dipl.-Ing. Lars Roskoden

69-4044

lars.roskoden@tu-cottbus.de

Technicians:

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Alexander Feige

69-4029

feige@tu-cottbus.de

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Lothar Kleinod

69-4025

kleinod@tu-cottbus.de

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Holger Häusler

69-4027

haeusler@tu-cottbus.de

Electrician:

Karl-Heinz Kleinschmidt

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Ground plan

The Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering is situated at the building no. 3, Walther-Pauer-Straße 5 (figure 1).

the building no. 3, Walther-Pauer-Straße 5 ( figure 1 ). Figure 1: Ground plan of t

Figure 1: Ground plan of the BTU Cottbus (detail)

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Teaching Programme of the Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering

o

Basics of Electrical Energy Technique

(L/T 3 rd semester)

o

High-Voltage Engineering and Insulating Materials

(L/T 5 th semester)

o

High-Voltage Devices and Switchgear

(L/T 6 th semester)

o

Planning of Energy Transmission Networks (L/T 5 th /7 th semester)

o

Protection of Energy Transmission Networks

(L/T 6 th /8 th semester)

o

EMC in Plants and Systems

(L/T 7 th semester)

o

High-Voltage Measuring and Testing Devices

(L/T 8 th semester)

o

Selected Topics from Energy Transmission and

High-Voltage Engineering

(T 8 th /9 th semester)

o

Low- and Medium-Voltage Engineering – LA (L 7 th /8 th semester)

o

Power Automation – LA

(L 7 th /8 th semester)

o

EU-East Expansion and Intercultural Competence

(Excursion)

EU-East Expansion and Intercultural Competence (Excursion) Figure 2: Route of the technical excursion High-Voltage

Figure 2: Route of the technical excursion

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

1.2. Objective and Structure of the Lectures

Objective of the Lectures

- Calculation of elektric fields

- Discharge and breakdown reactions in gases, fluids and solid materials

- Insulating materials and their electrical, physical and chemical parameters

Structure of Lectures (L) and Tutorials (T)

L01

Introduction, fundamental principles

L02

Determination of the electric field distribution

L03

Boundary surfaces and imperfections in high-voltage insulators

L04

Discharge reactions in gases (basic mechanisms)

L05

(Statistical basics; non-self-maintained discharge; self-maintained discharge) Discharge reactions in gases (basic mechanisms)

L06

(Townsend discharge, Streamer discharge) Discharge reactions in gases (technical details)

L07

(Mixed gases; electrode roughness; inhomogeneous field; streamer; leader; transient voltages) Discharge reactions in gases (technical details)

L08

(Spark discharge; arc discharge; surface discharge) Breakdown reactions in solid and liquid insulating materials

L09

(Purely electrical breakdown; global thermal breakdown; masked gas breakdown; local thermal breakdown; fibre-bridge breakdown) Breakdown reactions in solid and fluid insulating materials

L10

(Erosion breakdown; Partial discharge) Insulating materials

L11

(Gases; insulating fluids) Insulating materials

L12

(Insulating fluids; solid insulating materials) Insulating materials

L13

(Anorganic solid insulants) Insulating materials

L14

(Organic solid insulants) Testing insulating materials

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

T

01

-

T

02

Repetition of fundamental principles / Field patterns

T

03

Analytical calculations

T

04

Calculation of electric fields

T

05

Boundary surfaces

T

06

Statistics / Drift velocity

T

07

Gas discharges

T

08

Breakdown reactions

T

09

Laboratory experiment 1 (Introduction into high-voltage testing devices; determination of the breakdown field strength E d for various electrode configurations) - Group A

T

10

Laboratory experiment 1 - Group B

T

11

Laboratory experiment 2 (Paschen curve, impulse voltage- time characteristic) – Group A

T

12

Laboratory experiment 2 - Group B

T

13

Laboratory experiment 3 (Partial discharges, Surface discharges) - Group A

T

14

Laboratory experiment 3 - Group B

T

15

Repetitions

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

1.3. Fundamental Principles

1.3.1. Maxwell’s Equations

∂ ∫ E dx =− ∫∫ B dA ∂ t x A Faraday’s law of
E dx =−
∫∫
B dA
t
x
A
Faraday’s law of induction
∫∫ B dA ∂ t x A Faraday’s law of induction ⎛ ∂ D ⎞ ∫
⎛ ∂ D ⎞ ∫ H dx = ∫∫ ⎜ J + ⎟ ⎝ ∂
∂ D ⎞
H dx
=
∫∫
J
+
t
x
A

Ampere’s law

dA

⎜ J + ⎟ ⎝ ∂ t ⎠ x A Ampere’s law dA Integral form of

Integral form of Maxwell’s Equations (field equations : Interconnection between electric and magnetic field quantities by the law of induction (left side) and Ampere’s law (right side).

Law of induction

A changing magnetic flux ( B dA produces a rotational electric field E.

)

Ampere’s law

An electric current

A

J +

D

t

dA

produces a rotational magnetic field H.

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

∫∫

A

B dA = 0

Continuity equation for the magnetic flux density

B dA = 0 Continuity equation for the magnetic flux density ⎛ ∂ D ⎞ ∫∫
⎛ ∂ D ⎞ ∫∫ ⎜ J + ⎟ ⎝ ∂ t ⎠ A
∂ D ⎞
∫∫
J +
t
A

dA = 0

Continuity equation for conduction and displacement current density

equation for conduction and displacement current density Integral form of the continuity equations for the magnetic

Integral form of the continuity equations for the magnetic flux density (left side, three- dimensional view) and the conduction and displacement current density (right side, sectional view)

Continuity of magnetic flux density

The magnetic field is source free, i.e. there are no magnetic monopoles. The magnetic field lines must be closed loops. Given any volume element, the magnetic flux entering the surface must be equal to the magnetic flux emerging from the surface.

Continuity of conduction current density and displacement current density

A temporal changing conduction current in conducting materials con- tinues as displacement current in a non-conducting material.

Material equations

B

=

µµ 0

r

H

D

=

εε 0

r

E

J =κ E

Material equations for magnetic and electric field quantities

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

1.3.2. Static Fields

- absolutely no temporal changes

- no displacement current

- no conduction current

- no energy transport

Examples:

- magnetic fields of permanent magnets,

- electric fields of separated charges, provided that the conductivity of the dielectric material is χ =0 and there is no charge equaliza- tion.

1.3.3. Stationary (Steady-State) Fields

- In contrast to the static fields a constant conduction current density (direct current) is permitted.

- The law of induction has the form

χ

E dx = 0

From there the loop rule (Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law) of the network theory is derived

i

U

i

= 0

- Ampere’s law has the form

χ

H dx

=

∫∫

A

J dA

- The continuity equation for conduction and displacement current has the form

∫∫

A

J dA = 0

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

From there Kirchhoff’s Current Law (Kirchhoff’s point rule) is derived

i

Ι=0

i

- The continuity equation for the magnetic flux density remains un- changed.

1.3.4. Slowly Varying (Quasi-Stationary) Fields

1.3.4.1. Inductive Fields in Conductors

In materials of high conductivity the displacement current D / t can be neglected in comparison with the conduction current (for frequencies up to the GHz range).

Inductive fields

∂ ∫ E dx =− ∫∫ B dA ∂ t x A Law of induction
E dx =−
∫∫
B dA
t
x
A
Law of induction

x

∫∫

A

H dx

J dA

Ampere’s law

B dA =0

J dA 0

A

A

Continuity equation for the magnetic flux density

Continuity equation for the conduction current density

Maxwell’s equations for slowly varying inductive fields (disregarding the displacement current in conductors)

Quasi-stationary inductive fields can be found in transformer windings, conductive connectors and electrodes of high-voltage devices.

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

1.3.4.2. Capacitive Fields in Insulating Materials

In high-performance insulating materials with low residual conductivity the conduction current density is very low in comparison with the dis- placement current density. That means that the electric field is mainly a source field and the induced electric field strength can be neglected.

Capacitive fields

D

t

E dx 0

x

Law of induction

x

H dx = ⎜ J +
H dx
=
J
+

∫∫

A

dA

Ampere’s law

B dA =0

A

Continuity equation for the magnetic flux density

J +

D

t

∫∫

A

⎛ ⎜ ⎝ J + ∂ D ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ ∂ t ∫∫ A

dA

= 0

Continuity equation for the conduction current density
Continuity equation for the conduction current density

Continuity equation for the conduction current density

Continuity equation for the conduction current density

Maxwell’s equations for slowly varying capacitive fields (disregarding the magnetic induction)

The transition from inductive to capacitive fields shall be demonstrated for the example of an open conductor loop.

be demonstrated for the example of an open conductor loop. Slowly varying fields inside and outside

Slowly varying fields inside and outside of an open conductor loop (inductive und capacitive fields).

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Quasi-stationary fields can be found at high-voltage devices for

D.C. voltage,

A.C. voltage (50 Hz),

Switching impulse voltage 250 / 2500 µs and

Lightning impulse voltage 1,2 / 50 µs

if the physical size of the devices is in the range of several meters.

1.3.5. Rapidly Varying Fields

The travel time τ of an electromagnetic wave for a distance x is given by

τ=

x

v

with v = propagation speed of the wave.

In energy distribution systems the wave propagation speed is

v

=

c c = µε ε r r r
c
c
=
µε
ε
r
r
r

mit

µ

r

=1

c = velocity of light

ε r = relative permittivity of the insulation

i.e.

v = c =300000 km =300 = 0,3

 

m

m

s

s

ns

µ

for air insulation and

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

v =

km

c

=

200 000

=

200

m

=

0,2

m

1,5

s

µ

s

ns

for cable insulation (ε r = 2,3) respectively.

For lightning impulse voltages, which are rapidly changing in the microsecond range, rapidly varying fields can be found at system sizes of around 100 meters. Should transient voltages with fluctuations in the nanosecond range occur, such fields can be found at system sizes of several meters.

- Maxwell’s equations in the complete form have to be used.

- The coupling between electric and magnetic field becomes time- and space-dependent.

- Travelling waves occur.

time - and space -dependent. - Travelling waves occur. In general the following equations are valid:

In general the following equations are valid:

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

v =

z=

1 c = µε µ ε r r µ ε
1
c
=
µε
µ ε
r
r
µ
ε

Propagation speed

Wave impedance

- In energy systems travelling waves can be found mainly at long lines.

- In the equivalent circuits of the lines the electric and magnetic fields are respresented by inductances and capacitances.

fields are respresented by inductances and capacitances. - The wave impedance z of a line is

- The wave impedance z of a line is given:

z =

' ' R + j ω L ' ' G + j ω C
'
'
R
+
j
ω
L
'
'
G
+
j
ω
C

- Neglecting R’ and G’ results in

z =

' L 1 v= ' ' ' C L C
'
L
1
v=
'
'
'
C
L C

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

- Typical values of the wave impedance are

z

300

overhead line

z

30

cable

- If a wave front (incoming wave) comes to the connection of two lines (cables) with different wave impedances, the ratio of current to voltage is changed at the reflection point.

of current to voltage is changed at the reflection point. Reflection and refraction of an incoming

Reflection and refraction of an incoming travelling wave at a discontinuity of the line wave impedance

- The the current-to-voltage ratios of the refracted and the passing wave are determined by the wave impedances of the two lines.

- If the incoming and the passing wave have different voltage amplitudes, a refracted wave has to be superimposed to the incoming wave so that the amplitudes at the reflection point are equal.

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

-

Naturally these refracted voltage wave is accompanied by a re- fracted current wave.

It holds

   

Current i

 

Voltage u

 

Refraction factor

b i

=

2 z

1

b u

=

2 z

2

 
 

z

1

+ 2

z

 

z

1

+ z

2

Reflection factor

 

=

z

1

z

2

 

=

z

2

z

1

r i

z

1

+ z

2

r u

z

1

+ 2

z

r i z 1 + z 2 r u z 1 + 2 z Reflection and

Reflection and refraction of an incoming travelling wave at a discontinuity of the wave impedance for three special cases: open-ended line, short-circuited line and match- terminated line

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

2. Determination of the Electric Field Distribution

2.1. Analytical Calculations

2.1.1. Coaxial Cylinders and Spheres

Cylinder  

Cylinder

 

E

()

r

=

U

r ln

r

a

 
 

r

i

Sphere

 
 

U

E

()

r

=

2

⎛ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ 1 r

i

1 ⎞ ⎟ r

a

 

r

Boundary problem for the termination of a coaxial cylinder by a hemi- sphere because of

 

Cylinder

Sphere

E

max

 

U

U

 

r

r 1

i

r

r ⎞ ⎟

i

a

 

r ln

i

a

r

i

Optimal radius ratio

r

r a =2

r

i

 
 

a

=

e = 2,71

 

r

 

i

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

2.1.2. Boundary Problem for Plate Electrodes

Harald Schwarz 2.1.2. Boundary Problem for Plate Electrodes Field pattern at the boundary region of a

Field pattern at the boundary region of a parallel-plate capacitor

pattern at the boundary region of a parallel-plate capacitor Field strength at the boundary region of

Field strength at the boundary region of a plate electrode arrangement

Using the method of conformal mapping a profile can be found, which guarantees that the field strength in the boundary region is not higher than at the homogeneous region.

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz
and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz   ⎛ ⎜ π 2 π s exp ⎝
 

π

2

π s exp

s

y = s +

Rogowski profile for ν =π / 2

x

valid for one sparking distance only

2.1.3. Influence of Space Charges

One-dimensional electric field

Influence of Space Charges One-dimensional electric field Poisson equation ∆ ϕ = ∂ ϕ ρ =−

Poisson equation

ϕ =

ϕ

ρ

=−

x

2

ε

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

For

it follows

ρ f (x)

(homogeneous space charge)

ϕ

=−

1

ρ

2

2

+c 1 x +c
ε

x

2

Boundary conditions

 

ϕ

U

ϕ

= 0

ϕ

U

1 ρ

+

ρ

 

s

s

2 ε

ε

= 0 → =

x

(

1

)

x

= U − +

s

x = s

Field strength

E = −

x

()

2

1

ρ

s

2

x

x

2

ε

s

s

⎞ ⎛ () ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎜ 2 1 ρ s 2 x x − 2

Damage risk for

U

s

E

zul

without ρ

E max > E zul with ρ

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

2.1.4. Schwaiger’s utilization factor

E max = f (U, s, remaining term η )

Parallel-plate electrodes

Coaxial cylinders

Concentric spheres

E max =

E max =

E max =

U

s

* (1)

U

s

a

r r

i

r

a

 

r i ln

r

i

U

r

a

r

i

s

r

1

⎝ ⎜ ⎝ ⎜

i

r

i r a ⎠ ⎟ ⎠ ⎟

General expression

E max =

E

E

=

average

average

s U

*

η

η

η=

E

max

Definition of Schwaiger’s utilization factor (degree of homogeneity)

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

With the variables

bigger radius

R

smaller radius

r

 

R

q =

 

r

s

+

r

p =

 

r

η = f (q, p)

Diagrams

Air unit capacitance

C LE = f (p, q)

Cylinder

C = ε r * l * C LE

Spheres

C = ε r * r * C LE

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz
and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz Utilization factor η for cylinder arrangements

Utilization factor η for cylinder arrangements

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz
ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz High-Voltage Technique and Insulating Materials Page 26

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz
ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz High-Voltage Technique and Insulating Materials Page 27

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

2.2. Graphic Determination of Field Distribution

Objective: fast determination of a qualitative field distribution

Prerequisite: two-dimensional electrode arrangement

Prerequisite: two-dimensional electrode arrangement Graphic determination of field lines and equipotential lines

Graphic determination of field lines and equipotential lines for two-dimensional fields

- Field lines and equipotential lines are perpendicular to each other.

- Electrode surfaces are equipotential lines with 0 % (ground side) or 100 % (high-voltage side) respectively.

- The distance a between two equipotential lines corresponds always to the same potential difference U.

- The distance b between two field lines (displacement flux density lines) corresponds always to the same charge Q at the electrodes.

∆ =

C

Q

is constant for the whole field map.

U

b/a = const.

For b/a = 1 the field determination can be drawn using circles.

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Step 1

First the known potential distribution at the homo- geneous part of the field is drawn (1). The further drawing of equipotential lines is oriented to the form of the electrodes (2). Note: It is sensible to start with only a few equipo- tential lines (e.g. with the lines for 0 %, 25 %, 50%, 75% and 100%). Afterwards the drawn field distri- bution can be further refined by interpolation.

Step 2

Field lines are added perpendicular to the equipo- tential lines, observing the ratio b/a = 1. It is sensi- ble to work along one electrode (e. g. the high-volt- age electrode). By drawing circles between field lines and equipotential lines it can be found, that the ratio b/a does not equal 1 in most cases (3).

Step 3

The correction of the first picture is made by in- creasing the distance between the 25%-line and the lower electrode toward the outside of the elec- trode arrangement (4). The 75%-line is drawn closer to the edge of the upper electrode, while the distance to the upper side of the electrode is in- creased considerably (5). It should be noted that the field strength at the edge of the electrode decreases from the upper towards the lower electrode, i.e. the distance between the field lines shall increase. Checking the ratios of sides and angles shows the necessity of further refinements.

Step 4

By iterative refinements of the field distribution according to the drawing rules the final picture is drawn. In the current example it is sensible to draw the circles at the homogeneous part of the field first. Afterwards the drawing can be continued at the inhomogeneous region (6).

the drawing can be continued at the inhomogeneous region (6). High-Voltage Technique and Insulating Materials Page

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

2.3. Measurement of the Field Distribution

Basis:

Analogy of slowly varying dielectric displacement fields (A.C. voltage) and stationary electric flow field (D.C. voltage)

r

r

r

r

D

=ε ⇒ =κ

E

J

E

Q=

∫∫

r

r

DdA⇒Ι=

∫∫

r r

J dA

Potential distributions of dielectric displacement fields (caused by separated charges) are equivalent to potential distributions of stationary electric flow fields.

Measurement at semiconductive paper (resistance paper)

- Drawing of conductive electrode outlines;

- Applying a D.C. voltage to the electrodes;

- Measuring of equipotential lines with measuring bridge and null indicator;

- Modelling of different values ε r by using multiple layers of the resistance paper;

- Usable for two-dimensional fields

Measurement in semiconductive liquids (electrolytic tank)

- Immersion of the electrode arrangement in a semiconductive liquid;

- Usable for three-dimensional fields;

- Measurements require a lot of time and money.

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

2.4. Method of Conformal Mapping

- Analytical calculation of several important field configurations

- Especially important before the advance of numerical field calculation

Idea

- Transformation of a complex electrode arrangement at the x,y-plane into a simpler arrangement at an u,v-plane,

- Calculation of the simpler electrode arrangement at the u,v-plane,

- Inverse transformation of the results into the x,y-plane

Example:

Cylinder in a corner

- with

2

w= z

(

= x + jy

)

2

mapping as parallel-plate electrodes

= z ( = x + jy ) 2 mapping as parallel-plate electrodes Conformal mapping of

Conformal mapping of field lines and equipotential lines for a rectangular electrode:

After inverse transformation

E =U *

2 2 2 x + y 2
2
2
2
x
+
y
2

a

2

w= z

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

2.5. Method of Substitution Charges

Idea:

Modelling of potential field by superposition of single point, line and surface charges

Example:

Field of two point charges

surface charges Example: Field of two point charges - Modelling the equipotential surfaces by conductive spheres

- Modelling the equipotential surfaces by conductive spheres would not change the field distribution.

- For given electrode outlines the position of the substitution charges can be manipulated iteratively until the boundary conditions are met.

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz
ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz High-Voltage Technique and Insulating Materials Page 33

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

2.6. Differential Method

Solution of Laplace equation with differential formulation and Taylor series expansion → Square formula: 1
Solution of Laplace equation with
differential formulation and Taylor
series expansion
Square formula:
1
4
ϕ
=
ϕ
o
i
4
i
= 1
Diagonal formula

ϕ

o

=

1

4

8

i = 5

ϕ

i

- Covering of the field space with a square grid;

- Modelling of the electrodes using a square grid;

- Set-up of a system of linear equations;

- Insertion of boundary conditions (electrode potentials).

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

2.7. Method of Finite Elements

- Triangle or tetrahedron as basic elements;

- Iterative optimisation of field distribution for minimum field energy.

optimisation of field distribution for minimum field energy. Field distribution of a disconnector of a metal-enclosed

Field distribution of a disconnector of a metal-enclosed switchgear assembly with SF6- insulation: a Mesh grid of the field space; b Equipotential lines in the field space

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

3. Boundary surfaces and imperfections in high-voltage insulators

3.1. Boundary conditions

with

E t1 = E t2

J Wn1 = J Wn2

J

W

=

σ

r

E

+

r

D

r

E

r

E

=

σ

+

ε

t

t

electric field strength

current density

a) periodical alternating (A.C.) field and σ ≈ 0

D

n

1

= D

n

2

b) constant (D.C.) field

E

n 1

σ

2

=

E

n 2

σ

1

E

ε

n 1

2

=

E

n 2

ε

1

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Vectors of electric field strength at the boundary surface between two insulating materials

ε>ε 1 2 E n1 ( 2 σ>σ ) 1 2 1 E t1 E
ε>ε
1
2
E n1
(
2
σ>σ
)
1
2
1
E
t1
E
1
E
n2
E t2
E
2
3.2. Laminated Dielectric
a) A.C. voltage
ε 1 ε
2
σ σ
1
2
Dielectric a) A.C. voltage ε 1 ε 2 σ σ 1 2 s 1 s 2
Dielectric a) A.C. voltage ε 1 ε 2 σ σ 1 2 s 1 s 2
Dielectric a) A.C. voltage ε 1 ε 2 σ σ 1 2 s 1 s 2
s 1 s 2
s
1 s
2

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

from

U = Eds

follows

U = E 1 s 1 + E 2 s 2

With boundary surface conditions follows

U

 

ε

2

/

ε

1

s

 

s 1

ε

2

1 + 1

 

U

 

s

ε

1

1

 

s

 

s

1

ε

2

1

+

1

 

s

ε

1

ε

ε

2

1

= 4

and

s

1 =

1

9

s

E =

1

E =

2

Example for

4 and s 1 = 1 9 s E = 1 E = 2 Example for
4 and s 1 = 1 9 s E = 1 E = 2 Example for

Range field strength depending on position of boundary layer

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Conclusions (general validity)

- For inhomogeneous dielectric the E-field depends on the electrode arrangement and the properties of the insulating materials.

- High field strengths can be found at areas of small physical dimensions with small ε r .

- The electric field between parallel-plate electrodes becomes inhomogeneous for ε 1 ≠ε 2 .

- In inhomogeneous fields the displacement current density D is no direct measure of E.

b) D.C. voltage

Displacement current density is discontinuous

D

1

ε

1

E

1

εσ

1

2

=

=

D

2

ε

2

E

2

ε σ

2

1

1

from Maxwell’s equation

r r DdA=Q

follows the boundary surface charge

Q g = A (D 2 – D 1 ) 0

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Example

Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz Example Short-circuiting the electrodes for a short period of time
Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz Example Short-circuiting the electrodes for a short period of time

Short-circuiting the electrodes for a short period of time gives residual field strengths E 1R , E 2R

or

0

=

E

1

R

*s

1

+

E

2

E 1 R =−

s

2

E

2 R

s

1

R

*s

2

0 = E 1 R * s 1 + E 2 E 1 R =− s

Residual field strength for short circuit (s 1 = s 2 )

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

From there it follows

D

1 =

ε

1

E

1 R

=−

ε

1

s

2

D

2

ε

2

E

2 R

ε

2

s

1

1

i.e. there exists an interfacial charge. After clearing the short circuit this charge will generate influence charges at the electrodes.

Attention

- Devices with laminated dielectrics have to be permanently short- circuited after a D.C. voltage was applied.

- Short-circuiting for a short period of time will neutralize the electrode charges but not the interfacial charge.

- After a short-time short-circuiting the interfacial charge will generate influence charges at the electrodes, which will result in dangerous high voltages at the device.

- There will be no interfacial charge for the special case

ε

1

σ

1

=

ε

2

σ

2

only.

- For high-voltage devices usually different rated voltages are defined for A.C. and D.C.

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

3.3. Tangential Fields at Boundary Surfaces

Harald Schwarz 3.3. Tangential Fields at Boundary Surfaces Conclusions - Inclination reduces the tangential field

Conclusions

- Inclination reduces the tangential field strength = surface field strength.

- Field problem in gas insulation

B:

Tapered insulator at inner conductor (high-voltage) Increase of high initial field strength.

C:

Tapered insulator at outer conductor (ground potential) Increase of low initial field strength.

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

3.4. Imperfections (Defects)

Inclusion of a defect with ε rs results in a mixed dielectric.

Assumption:

Small defects cause no alteration of basic electrode field E o .

Inner effects

- Disk-type defect (Field lines perpendicular to defect area)

Disk-type defect (Field lines perpendicular to defect area) E si = ε r ε rs E

E si =

ε

r

ε

rs

E

0

Example:

Gas enclosure in cast resin

ε

r

=4; =1

ε

rs

E si = 4 E o

At the same time reduced dielectric strength at the gas space.

- Spherical defect

dielectric strength at the gas space. - Spherical defect E si = 3 ε r ε

E si =

3

ε

r

ε

rs

+ 2

ε

r

E 0

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Example:

Gas enclosure in cast resin

ε

r

=4; =1

ε

rs

E si = 1.33 E o

At the same time reduced dielectric strength at the gas space.

- Cylindrical defect (Axis Field)

at the gas space. - Cylindrical defect (Axis ⊥ Field) E si = Example: Gas enclosure

E si =

Example:

Gas enclosure in cast resin

2 ε

r

ε

rs

+

ε

r

E 0

ε

r

=4; =1

ε

rs

E si = 1.6 E o

At the same time reduced dielectric strength at the gas space.

In general: E s > E o for ε rs < ε r !

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Outer effects

Field strength in the vicinity of the defect

E

sa

=

ε

rs

3

ε

r

ε ε

r

rs

+

2

ε

r

E

o for sphere

Example: Metal inclusion or electrode roughness

ε →∞

rs

E

sa

=3E

o

for metallic sphere

also valid in front of a metallic hemisphere at an electrode.

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

4. Discharge Reactions in Gases (Basic Mechanisms)

4.1. Statistical Basics

Statistical methods are used because of large variation of e.g.

Inception / Extinction

Breakdown voltage

Breakdown time

/ Extinction • Breakdown voltage • Breakdown time Examples for the statistical character of discharge

Examples for the statistical character of discharge reactions

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

For the mathematical treatment a theoretical distribution function has to be chosen.

Gaussian (normal) distribution

function has to be chosen. Gaussian (normal) distribution Gaussian (normal) distribution with density function D(x)

Gaussian (normal) distribution with density function D(x) and distribution function F(x)

Density function 2 1 ⎛ ( x − µ ) D () x = exp
Density function
2
1
⎛ (
x −
µ
)
D
() x
=
exp
⎜ ⎞
σ π
2
2
2
σ

Distribution function

F

()

x

=

x

−∞

D

()dx

x

Weibull distribution

F () x = x ∫ −∞ D () dx x Weibull distribution Weibull distribution with

Weibull distribution with density function D(x) and distribution function F(x)

Density function

D

()

x

=

d F

()

x

dx

Distribution function

F

()

x = −

1

exp

x x

0

x

63

x

0

δ

Chair of Energy Distribution and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

Chair of Energy Distribut ion and High-Voltage Engineering Prof. Dr.-Ing. Harald Schwarz

‘Probability paper’ is used for testing the validity of the chosen distribu- tion function.

testing the validity of the chosen distribu- tion function. Display of a theoretical distribution function (top)

Display of a theoretical distribution function (top) as a line in a „probability net“ (below)with distribution tests of two measurement series

(below)with distribution tests of two measurement series Probability net for the Weibull distribution with

Probability net for the Weibull distribution with logarithmic scaling of the axis