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CIGRE SC B2 Overhead lines TUTORIAL PRESENTATION ON SPACERS AND SPACER DAMPERS by Umberto Cosmai Convenor WG B2.

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Based on the Technical Brochure TB277 prepared by Cigre SCB2 WG11WG11-TF5 August 2005
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Spacer and spacer damper primary task is to maintain the g geometry y of conductor bundles, , within the design limits, under the normal service conditions. Spacer and spacer damper shall withstand the mechanical h i ll loads d i imposed dd during i i installation, t ll ti maintenance and service, including short circuits, without failures and without damaging the conductors.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

CONDUCTOR BUNDLES
Twin bundles 150 150-500 kV Spacing: 320320-600 mm (most used 400400-450450-457mm) Triple and quad bundles Voltage: 380380-800 kV Spacing: p g 320320-600 mm (most used 400400-450450-457mm) Six and eight conductor bundles Voltage: 800800-1000 kV Spacing: 320320-400 mm ( (most t used d 320 320-400mm) 400 )
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

E Expanded d db bundles dl

850

1450

1450

Used in Russia and Brazil to increase the power capacity of a transmission systems
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

900

I relation In l i to the h d design, i spacers can b be classified as follows: Rigid spacers SemiS i-rigid Semi i id spacers Articulated spacers p Flexible spacers Spacer dampers
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Rigid spacers Do not allow any significant relative movements and displacements of the subsub-conductor conductor. .

Are used in jumper loops (where sometimes are counterweighted) t i ht d) and d slack l k spans only. l
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

SemiSemi -rigid spacers


Can accommodate small relative movements and static di l displacements t b between t sub subb-conductors d t .

Are used in transmission lines in conjunction with vibration ib ti d dampers.


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Flexible spacers
Allow large relative movements and static di l displacements t b between t sub subb-conductors. d t

Are used in transmission lines in conjunction with vibration dampers.


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

A ti l t d spacers Articulated
Allow large relative movement and static displacements b t between sub subb-conductors d t i one or more di in directions. ti

Are used in conjunction with vibration dampers.


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Spacer dampers
Are spacing devices whose inertial, elastic and damping properties p p are defined and coordinated to mitigate g aeolian vibration.

They can also accommodate relative movements and static displacements between subsub-conductors in any direction. Except for special cases, they do not require the application li ti of f vibration ib ti d dampers.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

SPACER CLAMPS
The spacer and spacer damper clamps are generally made of primary aluminium alloy. They shall: Maintain a suitable grip for the whole life of the line and in the whole range of service temperature. Avoid any conductor damage during installation and service. Be free from Corona and RIV at the maximum line voltage.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Be installed without disassembling of any parts Be designed to minimize the the chance of mis mis-installation. Be capable of being safely removed and rere-installed on the conductors. Allow installation survey from the ground. Ensure that individual components will not become loose in service.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Types yp of spacer p clamp p


Cantilever single-bolted Nut cracker single Nut-cracker single-bolted bolted Cantilever single-bolted, rubber-lined Nut-cracker rubber-lined, with latch fastener Open clamp rubber lined, with helical rods O Open clamp l rubber bb covered, d with ith h helical li l rods d Nut-cracker spring p g loaded
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Cantilever clamp

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Nut cracker clamp

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

R bb li Rubber lined d clamps l

Cantilever bolted type

NutN t-cracker Nut k with ith l latch t h fastener

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

H li ll -attached HelicallyHelically tt h d clamp l rubber lined type

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

H li ll -attached HelicallyHelically tt h d clamp l rubber covered type

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Coil spring loaded clamp

Used mainly in Japan

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Comparison between cantilever and nut cracker clamps

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Bolt fasteners Homogeneous


Bolt and nut, both made of galvanized steel, or aluminium alloy or stainless steel.

Heterogeneous
Bolts of galvanized steel, aluminium alloy and stainless steel steel, engaged into a threaded hole of the clamp body.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

AntiAnti -unscrewing elements Energy storing type

Belleville washer h

Plain washer h

The Belleville washer is a conical spring washer able to compensate all the clamp relaxation due to, creep, embedment, cold flow, , etc. A plain washer is used to support the Belleville washer.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Anti-unscrewing elements Friction types

Plastic patch

Anti-unscrewing elements such as plastic patches or ring inserts are used on bolts and nuts to increase the thread friction friction.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

AntiAnti -unscrewing elements Locking type


Aluminium or stainless steel safety safety plates plates of various shapes can be installed just below the bolt head.

After tightening the bolt, the plate tabs are bent over against the bolt head to lock it. it
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Breakaway bolts and nut


The upper head breaks away at the specified nominal torque. No torque wrench is required.

Are made in aluminium alloy or stainless steel

Best solution

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

In alternative to breakaway bolts, zinc alloy break away caps can be used on standard bolts

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Bolt head directed upward


This solution makes the installation easier but the correct tightening of breakbreak -away bolts can not be controlled from the g ground

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Bolt head directed downward This solution makes the installation more difficult but is required when breakaway bolts are used
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Helical rod attachment


The helical rods, usually four per clamp, are made in aluminium alloy The rods distribute the clamp pressure on a relatively long alloy. length of conductor

The rods shall have enough elasticity to apply a suitable grip and dt to compensate t any reduction d ti of f conductor d t diameter. di t
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

S Spacer clamps l not t properly l d designed i d and/or d/ i incorrectly tl installed, can get loose under the effect of conductor vibrations

Conductor abrasion due to a slightly loosen clamp


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

When the looseness increases the conductor strands are broken by the hammering of the clamp under the effect of conductor vibrations

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

A heavy clamp may force a vibration node and produce fatigue failure of the conductor strands at its location

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

SPACER DAMPERS

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Twin Spacer Dampers

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Ti l S Triple Spacer D Dampers

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Q d Spacer Quad S D Dampers

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Diamond Spacer Dampers

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

S Spacer dampers d f for six i conductor d b bundles dl

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Spacer damper for eight conductor bundles

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Spacer damper main parts


internal stop external stop main frame or central frame articulation

clamp
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

SPACER DAMPER FRAME


The central frame can be made of aluminium alloy, galvanized steel or cast iron. It shall: Contain housings for the articulations. Provide stops for the arm rotation. Develop suitable inertial forces. With t d short Withstands h t circuit i it f forces. Avoids audible noise induced by y the wind.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

SPACER DAMPER ARTICULATION


The spacer damper articulations contain damping elements generally made of elastomer.

Most used elastomers are: Chloroprene (Neoprene) rubber, EPDM rubber, NBR rubber, silicon rubber and special compounds. d
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Elastomers shall:
Have high hysteresis losses. Withstand the attack of ozone and UV radiation. M i t i th Maintain the properties ti i in th the whole h l range of f service i temperature. Maintain the properties for the expected life of the line.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

In relation to the number of articulations per arm, spacer dampers can be classified as follows:

Single articulation

Double articulation

The majority of modern spacer dampers are single articulation ti l ti t type.


Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Damping mechanism
The damping mechanism is based on the dissipation of the subsub b-conductor d t vibration ib ti energy. The spacer damper extracts energy from the sub sub-conductors by means of the elastomer flexibleflexible- damping elements used in the articulations. To do that the the spacer damper arms shall rotate allowing the elastomer to absorb energy by deformation. Wh th When the b bundle dl vibrates ib t with ith no relative l ti movements t b between t subsub -conductors, the main frame of the spacer damper shall develop inertial forces able to determine arm rotations and consequently dissipation of energy.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Inertial reaction During subsub-conductor aeolian vibrations, the inertial reaction of the central frame allow ll arm rotation t ti th thus di dissipation i ti of f energy
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Spacer or spacer damper system


Is the complex of spacer units and the relevant scheme of f distribution di t ib ti along l th the li line. The inin-span distribution is the main factor for the control of subsub -span oscillation. Damping capacity although not detrimental is not required. The distribution schemes consider unequal subsub-spans (staggered ( gg scheme) ) to avoid transfer of oscillations between subsub-spans and to limit the number of sub sub-spans oscillating simultaneously at a given wind speed.

Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Quad bundles are more prone to oscillate than triple. Twin and diamond bundles are the least critical.

The maximum subsub-span p length g adopted p in critical areas is around 65m. I non severe conditions In di i sub subb-span of f 80m 80 h have b been used d without problems. Expanded bundles are not subjected to subsub-span oscillations and require less spacers than normal bundles bundles.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

The end sub sub-spans are kept shorter to prevent their oscillation (that would damage the hardware) and to increase the torsional stability of the bundle. Sh t end Short d subsub b-spans also l contributes t ib t marginally i ll t to th the prevention of galloping. In cold Countries end subsub-spans length of 25 25-35 m are considered suitable. In hot Countries end subsub-spans length of 35 35-45 m have been used.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Spacer and spacer damper performance


The spacer dampers control aeolian vibration by means of their inherent damping capacity. Aeolian vibration can also be controlled by nonnon-rigid spacers (semi(semi -rigid, flexible or articulated)and vibration dampers. The spacers or spacer dampers control subsub-span oscillation by means of a suitable inin-span distribution. Galloping can not be fully controlled by normal spacer and spacer p dampers. p
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Spacer dampers equipped with torsional dampers (one or two per span) p p ) are used for controlling g severe subspan p oscillations.

A pendulum arm connected to the spacer damper frame through a damping articulation can control subsub-span oscillation mitigating the torsional vibration modes of the bundle
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

Spacer dampers equipped with detuning pendula are used for controlling gg galloping. p g

Detuning pendula applied on spacer damper frames also improve the performance of these devices in controlling aeolian vibrations and sub sub-span oscillations oscillations.
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06

I International i l standard d d and d publications bli i relevant l to spacers and spacer dampers
IEC 61854 St Standard d d 1998 1998-09 Overhead lines - Requirements and tests for spacers CIGRE Technical brochure TB277 - August 2005 Prepared by SCB2 WG11WG11-TF5 State of the art survey on spacer and spacer dampers Part 1 General description Part 2 Technical aspects P t3C Part Current t practice ti EPRI - Transmission Lines Reference Book Wind Induced Conductor Motion - 2009
Study Committee B2 - Technical Advisory Group B2-AG-06