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igence?

Power

and

Jrersonalif

by George Crile
Author

of

"

The

and

"

Bipolar Theory of Living Processes" The Phenomena of Life"

EDITED

BY

GRACE

CRILE

New
McG

York
RAW-H
ILL

llesej
BOOK

HoUlSe
COMPANY,

London
INC.

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

AND

PERSONALITY

Copyright,

1941,

by

the

McGRAW-HiLL

BOOK

COMPANY,
not

INC.

All rights reserved.

This form

book,
without

or

parts

thereof, may

be

reproduced

in any

permission of the publishers.

PUBLISHED A
division of the

BY

WHITTLESEY Book

HOUSE

McGraw-Hill

Company,

Inc.

Printed

in the

United

States

of

America

by

The

Maple

Press

Co., York,

Pa.

Introduction
PAGE

THE

PROBLEM

THE

QUEST

PART
CHAPTER
1.

I.

Energy
15 28

ANIMAL
ANIMAL

ENERGY

2.

BEHAVIOR

PART

II.

Comparative
with
DANIEL

Anatomy
P.

and
PH.D.

Physiology

QUIRING,

3.

THE

AFRICAN
MOTO

FRONT

39

4.

MAJI

CAMP
BUFFALO

42

5. 6.

RHINOCEROS

AND

47

EAGLE

AND

VULTURE COLD-BLOODED
REPTILE

52

7. 8.

WARM-BLOODED
INTELLIGENCE

VERSUS

56
64 69
73

OF

BIRD

AND

9.

THE

GIRAFFE

10.

THE

HIPPOPOTAMUS

11.

THE

MERCY

SHOT
FAMILY

78
82 ITS ENEMIES

12.

THE
THE

CAT
HERD

13.

AND

89
99

14.

THE

TECHNIQUE

OF

HUNTING

15. 16.

ELEPHANT

AND

MOUSE

102

FISH

in

17.

THE

HORSE

FAMILY

126 DOMESTICATION

18.

INFLUENCE

OF

CAPTIVITY

AND

150

CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE

19.
20.

THE THE

PRIMATES

162

SUBARCTIC
OF

EXPEDITION COLD
ENERGY

165
170

21.

INFLUENCE
MAN THE
IN
THE

22.

SCALE
RELEASE: MORAL THE CODE "LIFE LINE"

185
207 216

23.
24.

LAW

OF

ENERGY
AND

THINKING

BRAIN

PART

III.

Civilized

Man

25.
26.

TRAINING THE THE

AND

EDUCATION
OF

223
UPON

INFLUENCE
HAZARDS
OF

CLIMATE

MAN

234 251

27.

LIFE

PART

IV.

Summary

and

Discussion
269

28.

TEN

BIOLOGIC

PRINCIPLES

Appendix
A RECORD
OF THE OF

BODY 3,734

WEIGHT
ANIMALS

AND

CERTAIN

ORGAN

AND

GLAND
281

WEIGHTS

GEORGE
DANIEL
ADDENDUM

CRILE

and PH.D.

P.

QUIRING,

331

INDEX

333

VI

Intelligence,

and Power

Personality

THE

PROBLEM
of the

ONEcivilized
attack animals. These

mysteries of the is subject to man


and
never are

human certain
appear

race

is the fact that that

diseases in wild

rarely

primitive man

and

domestic

disorders, Raynaud's exophthalmic goiter,neurocirculatory asthenia,disease, diabetes, peptic ulcer, essential hypertension, and
various
nervous

and

mental

coronary

disease.

Each

of these It would
to

diseases
appear

is related

to

the

expenditure of energy. offers a biological cue


characteristics of
man

that

this fact alone of the


energy

the

mechanism

and

animals. certain
organs

It is well known the

that

only

and

tissues

trol con-

expenditure of energy in all animals, including man. the brain, the heart and the blood, the thyroid These are glands, the celiac ganglia, and the gland, the adrenal sympathetic system. I postulated that
compare

if of and

we

were

to

analyze,
and then

measure,

and in the

the

organs

this

energy-controlling system
compare

birds fish,reptiles, influence


upon

mammals

of the

heat

of the

tropicsand
"

the cold of the arctic and cold and

the

size of these

organs
most

heat

struggle varying
different be able that for

and

survival
"

being
should

the

potent
to

of all environmental for the the should from


energy

fluences in-

we

be and

able

account

intelligence, power, speciesof animals


to

personality
races

among

and

the

of

man.

We

find and

for

man

an

energy

formula

distinct

wild

domestic
man.

animals This

and, further,an
our

formula

for civilized

became

quest.

THE
While
two
our

QUEST
Mrs. Crile well and I
were

hunting
hunters

in Africa

in 1927, excited

phenomena
attention. The first
was

known

to

of

big

game

that

an

antelope,

lion, or

any 3

high-

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

powered animal,
that
may
or

when
of
at

shot the

through
blood

the

heart

in such

way

the

circulation
to
run

is
for
a

immediately
distance This of
a

arrested,
hundred

continue
more

top
he

speed

yards

before
my

falls dead. observations


a

fact

challenged
found

credulity,for, from
that the death heart results in
man.

in war,

I had shot

instantlyfrom

comparable

through
of the

The

second
seen

phenomenon

was

the the

explosive

outburst and

long leaps of incredibly high and long bound speed


In contrast, the brain
or we

in the

impala

in escape

of the if an

lion in attack. is shot


near

observed in the
move

that

animal

through spinal heart,


its

high
never

brachial

plexus

the

column, it will
it may
run a

hundred
so

again; if shot through the and even yards or more complete


the
energy
or

attack;
the

if shot

that

of the
"

bullet
"

suspends
animal,
away
or

momentarily
animal
its
a

the action
may

of the brain

creases

the

complete
When

fall,then charge.
was

jump
made
a

up,

and

bound

comparison
brain of
a

of

the
an

effect

of

shot the

through
effect of
a

the
a

zebra,
the

lion,or
of
a

elephant
In

with

shot
a

through
great death
was

brain
was

or turtle,a crocodile,

python,
there

difference

noted.

the

blooded warm-

group group
was

instantaneous.
or

In the cold-blooded

more

less muscular hours.

activityfor varying

periods of time, Why


in
one

up

to

several

animal

behaves

like itself

high

gear,

exhausting
another therefore

high-powered motor, set by a high expenditure of


a

energy,

and
gear,

behaves

like

low-powered

motor,

set

in low
at
a

and

moderate This

capable of carrying on indefinitely has long been an expenditure of energy,


our

enigma.
Crude

became

dissections had

with

field in 1927, the

disclosed

problem. a hunting knife, a strikingdifference


in the various

made

in

the

in the size of

energy-controlling organs
It
was

animals. evolution

therefore
energy
or

of the

species of believed that a study of the oxidation-controllingsystem


"

AND

PERSONALITY

namely, the brain, the heart and blood volume, the thyroid glia gland, the adrenal-sympatheticsystem, and the celiac ganin their wild state in the various species of animals in the intelligence, for the variation power, might account
"

and

personalityof
energy
a

animals

and in
man.

perhaps elucidate
To that end and the
we

the

nature

of certain
on

diseases in

embarked

research the
course

comparative
of which
we

anatomy collected from


many

physiology
trolling energy-con-

during
world. The

organs

of

3,734

animals

parts

of the

first field collection

was

made

in 1931

by

the

Crile-

Bole-Fuller and determined small The


emergency

Crile colRobert lected expedition to Arizona,1 when preserved the thyroid and adrenal glands and the size of the brains of animals ranging from
to

rodents

the

mountain of the the

lion.

preponderance
energy,
constant
over

glands, which thyroid gland, which


adrenal
was

govern governs

the that

level of
were

energy,

shown

in all the

animals

collected. fact expeditionalso yieldedthe significant and in


a

This

that

in

pursuing animal, such as a coyote, such a as deer, the weight of the weight
adrenal of the adrenal

fleeinganimal, thyroid gland and the

more glands are nearly equal, the glands being but slightlyheavier than the thyroid

gland.
The adrenal Ohio and research
was

extended wild

to

include and

the birds

thyroid
in and

and

glands
from taken the

from

animals

northern
of

various from

animals showed

species of domestic gardens, but zoological


of and
zoo

animals

the latter studies


a

presence

goiter in varying degrees in


animals. life of the beautiful there and
sea

large

proportion
We
next

of the studied

domestic the wild where

Cumberland
and where

Island,

off

Georgia,

is

no

goiter
are

Florida alligators,
1

deer,
Ohio

turtles
of the

abundant.
and
No.

CRILE, ROBERT,
in Wild

"The

Comparative

Anatomy

Thyroid

Adrenal

Glands

Animals,"

Journal of Science, Vol. XXXVII,

I, 1937.

Through
afforded
organs

the
to

courtesy collect

of

Mr.
on
was

Morrison Cumberland extended that


were were

Carnegie,
Island
to

the
was

opportunity
us.

animals

This

research
bulls

include collected
to

the
in

of

eighteen

and

steers

Jacksonville, Florida.
from

These

animals

found
in the

be

free
state

goiter and
were

more

nearly

like animals in Ohio

wild have

than

the

domestic

animals

that

we

also

studied. Dr. Herbert in C.

Clark, director
sent
a

of the

Gorgas

Memorial of material

Laboratories and
on

Panama,
to

large

amount

data 525

from

Panama

Cleveland, including
small
was

memoranda and
many

monkeys,
animals. of the Daniel

sloths,tapirs, armadillos,
well
as on

ant-eaters

collared domestic

peccaries, as
This

rodents
in the

and

material

studied

Research

Laboratories with of

Cleveland P.

Clinic

Foundation director

in collaboration

Quiring, Ph.D.,
researches

of the

sion Divi-

Anatomy.
course

In the
to

of these

there

were

brought
and

alive

the

laboratory alligators, crocodiles,lions,tigers,bears,


some

chimpanzees, imported
It
was

from

zoological gardens
that of the

others

directly.
because
we

believed diseases" of the

source man

of the

many

so-called

"energy
that

civilized

lay

in

the

pathologic physiology particular


or

sector

energy-controlling system, in brain" designated the "abdominal sympathetic system expedition to Africa
"

"power

station"
"

of the
an

that

is,the

celiac

ganglia
members Mr.
"

that

was

organized
Daniel
P. of

in 1935. The

of
Arthur

this B.

expedition
Fuller, Dr. Crile, and
I.

were

Dr. Harrison

Quiring, England

W.

Carr,

guest,

Mrs.

Hewlett, our hunter, and Captain J. Raymond established Mr. in the Rift Bryan Cooper, a laboratory was Valley, in Tanganyika, at a latitude 2" south of the equator.

Through

Here than

perhaps
in any

greater known

concentration

of wild

life abounds here in the

other

region of

the

earth, and

AND

PERSONALITY

field

we

weighed
but and the

not

only
organ

each

of the

220

animals and

that sometimes

we

studied the

also every

of each

animal

skins

skeletons.

brought largest were field laboratory, where into weighed. The they were our of the body were skin and every weighed separately. organ had be weighed in sections, an that to In large animals Routinely,
all animals

except

the

allowance instances

of
we

per

cent

was

made brain and

for

the

blood.

In

all

pituitary gland, the the glands, the celiac thyroid gland, the adrenal eyes, ganglia and sympathetic complex, the heart, the kidneys,
collected the often lungs, the liver,the genitalia, section of the larynx and trachea. In the
case

the

the

spleen, and

of

large

animals

such

as

the

buffalo, the
the

the hippopotamus, and rhinoceros, the giraffe,


we

elephant,
the tions dissecfield laboratory.
to

set
on

up

scales in the the


same case

where field, that


we

we

carried

out

plan
of the

followed it was of the of

in the
necessary

In the

elephant
course

weigh

176
to

different

parcelsin
the entire of

the

dissection

in order

determine In the

weight

14,640 pounds.
and

Museum

Power, Intelligence,
Foundation the whole them
are

Personality
of have of these been their

of

the

Cleveland

Clinic
some

the

heads

animals

and,
and

in

cases,

animals models

mounted,

grouped

about

energy-controllingorgans. Since the striking difference


of the cold-blooded lion
or

between

the

energy

release
blooded warm-

alligatoror
the
was same

crocodile

and

the

tiger of
bird
we

the warm-blooded winter the of 1937


at

weight, of the fish and of still to be explained, during the


field

set

up

laboratory in

cabana

on

Key West, Florida. varieties Here, besides studying many mammals, Dr. Quiring, Mrs. Crile, and
species of fish,those
that
prey

beach

of birds and I studied that with


are

small

various

and

those shark We

preyed
blooded warm-

upon.

We

contrasted

the cold-blooded of the


same

the

porpoise

weight.

discussed

the

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

needs

of such

cold-blooded
in the
water

animal
in
a

as I

the
per

shark,

which

breathes
as

the oxygen contrasted the oxygen

cent

tion, concentra-

with

the

needs
a 20

of the
per
cent

porpoise,which
concentration.
animal

breathes
The

in the air in the

porpoise was
studied
to

only

warm-blooded
man,

that

we

had

that

time,

save

in which

the

normal

notably largerthan thyroid gland was arose as Naturally the question next
systems Professor for
some

the adrenal
to

glands.

the energy-controlling

of other K.

cetacea.

E. M. has

of Ceiling,

years

been
at

University of Chicago, and studying pituitary collecting


the the

the

glands from Through his

whales courtesy L.

Queen

Charlotte of
to
one

Islands.
of

and

cooperation
we

his the

Dr. Lewis assistants,

Robbins,
of
a

were

able

secure

total whale, whose be 122,000 pounds. collections had been Since our made largelyin tropical Africa or America, where the subtropical and temperate effect of habitat temperature alone could not be estimated, next we organized an expedition to the subarctic regions. In Churchill,on Hudson and Bay, at 58" North latitude, around Chesterfield Inlet, at 63" North latitude, at the we compared the effect of cold edge of the Arctic Circle, the size of the energy-controlling of se per upon organs

energy-controllingorgans calculated to weight was

blue

the This

warm-blooded

animals

on

the

land

and

in

the

sea.

expedition consisted of Dr. Quiring, Mr. Fuller, Mrs. Crile,and me. and shown Interest by Mr. W. E. cooperation were
the
manager

Brown,
Hudson's

of the

Nelson

River

of district,

the

Bay Company, Mr. R. H. Cook, manager .Hudson's Bay post at Churchill, and Dr. Alvin The in charge of the small hospital at Churchill.
the
at

of the

Cohen,
office of beach

district manager, a turned was Churchill, cookhouse. officer


8
at

small
over

house
to
us

situated
to
serve
was as

on
a

the

laboratory
medical of the

and health

Dr.

Thomas

Melling
Inlet. He
was

the
in

Chesterfield

charge

AND

PERSONALITY

district wide
not

of

Keewatin,

Northwest the
walrus
a

Territory,
Dr. for and and
us

and Mrs.

had

had

experience among only


had
a

Eskimos.
in cache

Melling
turned for

young into

but

had

their
our

storehouse

laboratory

had

arranged
studies and

quarters
On this

with

them.

subarctic

expedition,besides
also made studies

making
of the

of

the

energy-controllingsystems
animals,
we

of cold-blooded

blooded warm-

metabolism the
of

of

the

Cree

and Dr.

Chippewyan Melling, we
of Eskimos. of metabolism altitudes and the

Indians1; and, through


were

cooperation of
the metabolism studies These the

able

to

make

studies

led
upon

to

further the

inquiriesinto
ingly, Accordundertaken metabolism temala, Gua-

effect of of in

varying
animals
an

energy-controlling
of
was man.

systems

metabolism Guatemala
me

1938,

expeditionto
Crile Indian of and

by

Dr.

Quiring, Mrs. Maya-Quiche


at
an

to

study
at

the

of the

soldiers

Totonicapan,
of Indian
800

altitude coffee

8,100 feet and


at

laborers

serving on
the sea.2 aid For medical

plantation
studies

Samayac,
much

feet

above

in these

we

are

indebted

to

our

Galvez, dean of the Medical colleaguesDr. Ramiro School of the Mario Dr. University of Guatemala; J. Mariano Wunderlich; Dr. Julio Bianchi; Dr. LopezHerrarte; Dr. Ezequiel Soza; and, in particular, to Dr. Estevez, Goubaud,
At
Colonel the who minister of

public health, and


us

to

Mr.

Antonio

assisted

in

our

work.

the efficient Totonicapan, under organization of posal, disCipriani, every facilitywas placed at our and
we

found

the of

most

cordial

interest

in the in

study
that

of

the

metabolism

the

Maya-Quiche

soldiers

district.

CRILE, GEORGE CRILE,


GEORGE

W., and W.,


and

DANIEL

P. QUIRING,

"Indian
10, 1939.

and

Eskimo

lisms," Metabo-

Journal of Nutrition, Vol.


2

18,

No. P.

4, Oct.

DANIEL

QUIRING,

"A

Study of

the

Metabolism
10, 1939.

of the

Maya-Quiche

Indian," Journal of Nutrition,Vol. 18, No.

4, Oct.

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER, of the
an

Since

we

wished
upon

to

make

further
we

study
made Nils P.
to

influence

of climate the Hawaiian himself

the Islands

races

of man,

expeditionto
has
we are

in 1939.

In Dr.

Larsen, who
of man,
we

made
a

valuable

contributions

the To

study

found

most

cooperativecollaborator.
valuable in the human subarctic
we

Dr. Larsen from

indebted In the
our

for much dissections

material
were

Hawaii.

large brain, the largethyroid gland, and


found in the the warm-blooded smaller animals
contrast

impressed by the large blood


of the
north

volume
in

with blood

and the

smaller

volume

brain, smaller thyroid gland, found in comparable speciesin


me a

tropics.
observations

These

suggested to

study of

the potential

gradientsof the brain and the blood under the influence A long series of experiments conof the thyroid hormone. ducted by Otto Glasser,Ph.D., director of the Department Clinic of Biophysics of the Cleveland Foundation, Dr. that the thyroid hormone cally specifiQuiring, and me, showed the potentialgradients,that is to say, the increases of oxidation olism metabthe rate increases or thyroid hormone and is a fundamental adaptation against cold. animals in the tropics, As a corollary, as an adaptation the smallest thyroid glands. against heatstroke, possess results of this research The were reported by me, in and Dr. Quiring, before the with Dr. Glasser collaboration
American Association for the Advancement found and
was

of Science
we

in

we June, 1940. In 1941, when the manatee unique animal expedition to Florida

that

lacked

that

certain made.

fish, a

mentary supple-

expeditions,as presented in and that the intelligence, show the followingpages, power, indicated by the absolute and are personality of animals blood and volume, relative size of the brain, the heart the adrenal-sympathetic system. the thyroid gland, and in the land, or in the air; whether in the sea, on Whether
The data from
our

various

the

tropicsor
10

in the

arctic;whether

warm-blooded

or

cold-

AND

PERSONALITY

blooded,
energy

it would
or

appear

that

each

animal

has

its

own

formula

pattern.
should be made of the collaboration of

Special mention
Mrs.
Crile in these

She attended to the infinite expeditions. details of preparation.She kept the field notes, weighed all for shipment, and has specimens, and prepared them assumed a large part in the preparation of the material for publication.

II

ANIMAL

ENERGY

/-|-VHE earth and its atmosphere are constantly subjected A to two universal forces,gravitation and radiant and
the sun. from electric energy the water part of the earth
"

Gravitation
"

into final soluble and

brought the fluid equilibrium in the


soil
to

great
as a

oceans.

Gravitation which the

brought
radiant life.

the

ocean

basis upon
sun

electric energy

from

the

produced organic
is the
so on

Gravitation animals from has the been

constant,
are same

land

powerful that cold-blooded scarcelyable to lift their bodies


so

ground. This
a

factor

heart, thyroid, and


the warm-blooded air
to

continuous, in the high development of the brain, adrenal-sympatheticsystem, enabling


of the earth and the and birds
to
move

universal force,

and

animals bodies

of the
at

raise

their

against gravity
force essential
to

various The the down work

speeds.
second of universal the

genesis and
energy

upon

protoplasm is solar energy. the earth, and lightning and


the air fix
stream

Solar

pours ity electric-

terrestrial

passing through
a

continual The

of fixed

nitrogen,thereby producing nitrogen,the basis of protoplasm.

intensityof the energy put into the nitrogen fraction the nitrogen fraction with the highest by lightning endows tion known; hence, generally speaking,the nitrogen fracenergy positiveelement, and the carbon fraction becomes the in the negative element synthesis of life. These nitrogen and carbon fractions with their positiveand negative signs of charge are continuously coalescing in part of the earth, on the land, in the air,and in the every plant and each animal growing in accordance sea, each
with its
use

becomes

the

of energy.

Each

form it and it

rises then

as

far

as

its food with

supply and energy dispersion of the


dissolution and

will carry
energy

breaks

down

that

received, thus

entering

death. 15

The electric animals The the

source

of of

all the

plant
sun,
or

energy

energy

the

being the plants taken


reradiate

radiant
as

and
into

fuel

and

there
energy
as

oxidized held

burned the
or

solar energy. taken


into

solar animal

within

plant, when
burned

food,
the build

is oxidized

in infinitesimal Thus and


comes

quanta capture
reradiate the

within and

billions
up

of cells of animals.
energy;

plants
animals from

solar

furnaces of energy

solar energy; of

the reradiation

burning
the

within This

coal, wood, oil,or gas and cells of a fish, an eagle, a lion,or

from
a man.

oxidation

universal cells

fuel in the

principleappliesequally to of the animal body. Oxidation


and electric energy, in the muscle Oxidation countless fibers

the

burning
enables

of

in the

brain the

cells releases brain


to

radiant

which

think. and

billions

of the

voluntary
warmth and

involuntary
action.

provides body

muscular

The
Plants

Energy
the

Control

of the

Living

equivalent of a bony skeleton in their and fasciae. cellulose. Plants have the equivalent of tendons They have a skin,they have lungs (leaves) and circulation
have of
sap,

and

the

protoplasm

of

plants
animals

is

analogous

to

the

protoplasm
In
one can

of animals.

fundamental

respect
alter the and

differ from of oxidation the

plants:
in their of this
or

animals
various energy in

adaptively
and in
one

speed

organs

tissues of
a

increase

speed
and

output

number
organs

of organs and

tissues That

combinations
can run or

of

these
or

tissues.

is,

animals In the
senses.

walk

swim; and
are

animals

the

specialsenses
and
a

plants cannot. highly developed. Only plants


and have

Venus's-flytrap
The
to
a

few

other

special
release of

specialsenses
promote
their metabolism. is

in animals welfare. The

facilitate the

energy

Animals

have and

basic

basic

metabolism their and

plants alike of plants


As mals ani-

animals

required to
searched

maintain for food

structure.

evolved 16

and

protection against

AND

PERSONALITY

enemies, better
demands
demands
To

of

the

energy-releasingsystems developed. but are plant for energy constant,


for energy adaptive control of the These animal
are

The the

of the establish for the

not

constant.

control

of energy, nisms specialmechaspeed of oxidation have been mechanisms


are

special the heart,the the brain and communicating nerves, senses, blood volume, the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands, and These the sympathetic system. energy-controlling organs is released and the means in tissues are whereby energy of muscles this or that gland and in this or that combination and the animal enable to to to secure food, to escape,
in

evolved

animals.

the

procreate.

transmitting system of animals includes the sensory tary of the organism, the nerves that control the volunnerves that supply the muscles, and the sympathetic nerves of blood vessels,which, in turn, are supplied great network
The
to

each

of the

hundreds the

of millions

of cells of the These


so

liver,the
energy-

thyroid gland, and controllingsystems intricate that, were


except
these the
or nerve

digestive system.
a

constitute all the

network of the

vast

and removed

so

tissues

body

mechanisms,
as
a

there

would

remain

an

effigyof
work all

body
all

whole.

Standing alone, without


nerve

accelerators

these controllers,

mechanisms

would

day,

night,in danger, in hunger, in

of prey
vary
to
an

in the presence of mates but would their speed and Little benefit power.
or

the presence be able to not would


accrue

or a zebra,if, lion, having a for generating and distributing ity, electricperfectmechanism mechanism it had no by which speed could be adapwould altered. Man be able to adapt his mechanism not tively his changing requirements. The lion would be able to not as a

animal

such

man,

to

rush

its prey.

The

zebra for

would

not

be able animals be

to

meet

the exist
a as

energy
at
a

requirements
constant

escape.

All

would

energy

level; they would


of these

operated at
would 17 be

given speed.

The

energy

animals

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

changeless as mating season


There

the

energy

of the

protoplasm
with
every

of

tree.

The

would be
no

be identical

other
to

season.

would

rhythms
if every
or

of

adaptation
had the

cold
same

and

for

reproduction.Thus,
energy

animal basic

transformation be alike and

metabolism,

There would be predictable. oxidation,not adaptive oxidation. The ovaries, the testes, the mammary glands, the hypophysis, the muscles, the tissues of none bones, the tendous, the fat,the connective of basic oxidation of itself change the rate these can or The brain can metabolism. supply the spark that produces
"

would

speed of everything only basic

oxidation, but
blood system, and

it cannot,

without

the

heart

and

the

red

cells,the
the of oxidation.

thyroid gland, the adrenal-sympathetic special senses, adaptively regulate the

speed
The

brain-heart-thyroid-adrenal-sympathetic system, then, is the distinguishingfeature of higher animals. The the adrenalbrain, the heart, the thyroid gland, and adaptively control muscular action, sympathetic system emotional glandular secretion, and expression, thereby and generating and controlling the intelligence, power, should to personalityof the animal. Therefore, we expect find variations in the size of the brain,the heart,the volume adrenal of the blood, the thyroid and glands, the celiac in warm-blooded ganglia, and the sympathetic system cold-blooded animals. in contrast the animals to Among
warm-blooded animals
we

should

expect

to

find variations

and in the size of the brain, the characteristics in energy heart, the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands, the celiac

ganglia,and the sympathetic system in such animals as the protected group, on the one hand, which possess carapace, sting, barb, and color protection, and the pure-energy the other hand, which on depend solelyupon their group, and the of attack such the tiger and as power escape, antelope.In these two groups there are intermittent energy requirements.
18

AND

PERSONALITY

The and

in the sea animals consists of the master third group is characterized the land. This group by the sion on possesis than in other level of of a higher seen activity any

group.

The

of representatives land breathe animals the

warm-blooded
continued
to

this group in the sea the that returned to

are sea

the but

air,namely, the whale


on

rich oxygen concentration and the porpoise. The sole

of the
master

the land No

is

man.

animal, including man,


that does
not

possesses

any

organ

or

any

power

have

survival

value.

Evolution that
an

is

strict economist. that

Therefore, we
on a

should

expect

mal ani-

depends

carapace,

poison
smaller

would

possess

smaller

thyroid gland, and a more celiac glanglia than and animal without such an system protectivedevices. animal an If, on the other hand, in attack or escape, such as the long distances depends upon high speed over the antelope or caribou wild dog or the wolf that pursues would one expect to find a thyroid gland nearly as large as and the pursued, the adrenal glands in both the pursuers be maintained since a high rate of oxidation must over long
" "

inaccessibility, sting, or brain, a smaller heart, a primitive sympathetic

periodsof
If do
an

time.

animal members

depends
of the

upon
cat

sudden

rushing attack, as

would family, one expect the adrenal glands to be larger than the thyroid gland, and, that the smaller cats as a corollary,the animals rush, be endowed with correspondnamely, the rodents, would ingly large adrenal glands. Since the greatest energy requirement in warm-blooded animals should is the maintenance
to

the

of the

warm-blooded

state,

we

of brain, the heart, the volume blood, and the thyroid gland larger in the cold arctic than in the warm It is constant tropics. expenditure, energy outburst not expenditure, that constitutes adaptation energy cold. should Therefore, we against expect to find the

expect

find

the

19

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,
to

adrenal relation animals Since


to

glands of
to

animals

in

the

north

be

smaller

in of

the

in the the

thyroid gland tropics.


van't HofFs

than

the

adrenal

glands

warm-blooded

animals

owe

their

law, that with of temperature the speed of chemical 10 why per cent, the question arises, the warm-blooded animals evolved not to a still higher were ? The is that be answer protoplasm would temperature heatstroke. or destroyed by detonation
Heatstroke
Since the the brain controls the oxidation of the animal and

operation of centigrade of rise activityis increased


the

superiority each degree

thyroid and brain, why have

glands control the oxidation of the not larger brains,larger hearts, greater blood volume, and largerthyroid and adrenal glands been evolved? has not the elephant a brain bearing the Why relation to its body weight as the brain of the mouse ? same of 98.6" as a normal Why, instead of a temperature ture temperaand did for man evolution establish not a animals, of 120"* as a normal, thereby greatlyincreasing temperature and the intelligence, personality of animals ? To power, these questions it is necessary consider to answer again the and some of the propertiesof protoplasm. nature As previouslystated,the universal base of protoplasm is its nitrogen and its carbohydrate fractions. These fractions the base of nitroexplosives. also constitute Thus plasm protoand the nitroexplosives certain properties possess in common. Both of constant are normally in the state The of disintegrationis accelerated rate disintegration. by heat. The relation of chemical disintegration specifically of nitroexplosives is expressed by the mathematical tion equaof Berthelot.
are

adrenal

This

law

expresses

the

fact

that

explosives nitroare

unless they continually disintegrating


that under excitement the temperature of
a

at

It has n6"F.

been

reported

bird

may

reach

20

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

plasm that is exquisitelysensitive to all stimuli, is easily stroke disintegrated by heat, and is the mechanism by which heatis Animals
energy

produced.
take into of their bodies food
a or

large
the

amounts

of

solar mals. ani-

in the This

form

plant
thus

flesh of other
well
as
an

energy

constitutes

as liability

asset,

for the of

nitro fraction

taken

in the food

is the

fraction

decomposition that the heat produced by this leads to to is that produced by the oxidacontinuous tion disintegration induced by the brain and controlled by the thyroid adrenal and glands. It is clear,then, that each animal could be provided with only as large a brain,heart,volume of blood, thyroid gland, and adrenal-sympathetic system the body temperature would maintain safe level at as a protoplasm
below The heatstroke. level of

that governs Added heatstroke.

the chemical

heatstroke,however, is not dependent alone the size of the brain, the heart, the volume of blood, upon the adrenal-sympathetic system, the thyroid gland, and metabolism. that is, it is not It is dependent solelyupon the facility for cooling,which, in turn, also dependent upon of sweat depends on the size of the animal, the presence of the skin, and glands, fur, thickness and vascularization the size of the lungs. The ratio of the surface of a small animal to its weight is greater than the ratio of the surface of a large animal to its and the elephant. The the mouse mouse weight. Consider and the elephant exist at different levels of oxidation only does the relative per unit of surface. Therefore, not
size of the organs
two

that

control

the

rate

of oxidation

in these

animals
excess

under

for facility not only is

rapid disintegrationof protoplasm heat, but also and equally it controls the coolingthe animal. In animals, just as in motors,
prevent
combustion but essential, in animals of the
so

also is the is

cooling

system.

Since

the loss of heat the

surface,the greater
22

ratio

at the essentially surface to the body

AND

PERSONALITY

for cooling,and the greater weight the greater the facility for heat the facility dissipation the greater the bodily The endure. can activity a given animal great activity of an insect would quickly destroy an elephant. An examination shows of of insects
to

with the

respect

to

heat

tion elimina-

the insect
to

body

surface

consideration

the

tubules respiratory Add this the constant for heat elimination. to facility and we flow of air from the wings and from flight, see insect the most perfectof cooling mechanisms. That the metabolism from of the muscles the fact that in
a

advantage of a large ratio If,in addition,we take into body mass. for cooling in the added surface area there is a greatly of the insect, increased
have swift in the

of insects

is

at

level is obvious
may
move

the

19,800 times
to

minute.

be able

increase
as

the

metabolism
as an

wings of a A large animal would of its entire body were


in the

high housefly
a

it ventilated

completely

insect.

Since surface that

heat of
an

elimination

occurs were

only

lungs and
in such
a

on manner

the

animal, animals

evolved of heat

the

maximum

elimination

could

be

effected.

evolved We in the process. the see Many expedientswere long legs and the slender bodies of monkeys and of 'man. took the direction of cooling, Evolution not only by means and colder air,but of the absorption of heat by colder water by the cooling device of equally by evaporation of water evolution set by which sweating. In man up a mechanism much shifted of the blood from the
warmer

internal

part could

be

by dilation of the blood vessels in the skin, thus further facilitating the loss of heat, and in certain hunting seized animals, such as the dog and the wolf, evolution and upon the large moist surface of rapid respiration upon
the tongue heat. So fundamental
energy
as
an

additional

means

for

the facilitating

loss of

is this balance elimination


to

between that

the

production of

and of

the

of heat much

evolution in the

adapted
water,
23

animals

larger size

spend

time

in

INTELLIGENCE, swamps, in the cool shade

POWER,
on

of all

sides. inhabitants
In

Throughout
or

and forests, large ages


ocean.

the

tain high moun-

animals

have

been

the

of swamps warm-blooded

of the animals

in the

sea

there

was

no

Instead, the problem in the cold problem of heatstroke. that of too much heat loss. Thus, in the was polar seas of heat, such as adaptation to the cold sea, nonconductors evolved. The warm-blooded land blubber, and fat,were oil, prevention of the loss of heat and death from freezingas fur,feathers, wool, and fat, all of which are inert,insulatingmaterials. In the tropicsthe temperature of the air may daily rise that causes of higher than the temperature disintegration If the animals in the tropics protoplasm, or heatstroke.
were

animals

in the arctic evolved

such

devices

for the

ensheathed would

in

they
cause

acquire

skin of copper or any heat conductor, internal that would an temperature

heatstroke.

against the loss of heat is water. The composition of animals is approximately three-fourths exhibits the highest known Since water water. heat, specific water gives the greatest protection against the adverse effect of rapid changes in temperature. well as frozen. It is as Protoplasm may be disintegrated in the tropics are fact that the animals as a significant with hair for protection against too completely covered
The

greatest protector

much with

external fur for

heat

as

the

animals

in the north

are

covered heat.
as

protectionagainst too
serves

little external
contents

A
as

Thermos hot.

bottle

to

keep

its

cold

well

beest, the zebra, the kongoni,the wildeeland, the giraffe, the oryx, the impala, the Thomson's gazelle,the dik-dik,the reedbuck, and the steinbok of the tropicsare the the musk So also are all high-speed Herbivora. ox, of the north. the elk,and the moose caribou,the reindeer, All are covered with hair,and when they run their internal heat mounts rapidly as to threaten heatstroke. so The
24

AND

PERSONALITY

The the the All hot

attacking animals, the Carnivora, such as the lion, leopard,the cheetah, the wild dog, the wolf, the fox, lion,have a lightcovering of hair. coyote, the mountain in a their protoplasm, whether maintain these animals
or

cold

climate, at

a as

Some which that


nature

animals, such
are

level. safe temperature the elephant and the rhinoceros,


to

is

usually considered actually a semisolid mass


the the animals

be

have hairless,
or

skin
as

of hair of which
a

wool.

It is

if

produced
ensheathed

compounds
in

hair is made

and

of hair layer of plastics in hair itself. This rather than great envelope of plastic of hair has the same property of being as low a conductor the elephant, the rhinoceros, hair. So, in reality, heat as encased in a comparatively and the hippopotamus are hair. These animals increase their heatprooflayer of plastic their backs, as in the heat loss by spraying water over of the elephant, or by seeking the damp of the cool case and streams. jungle and wallowing in the swamps It would then, that heatstroke is a fundamental appear, and personality fact in determining the intelligence, power, and that the size of the brain,the heart and the of animals blood volume, the thyroid gland, and the adrenal glands is then related It
to

the

surface

area

of the

animal

and

to

its

mass.

might be suggested that instead of the size of the brain, the heart, the thyroid gland, and the adrenalsympathetic system being limited by the tolerance of protoplasm of a given to heat, the size of the energy system the muscles. animal is related to the supply of oxygen to of this suggestion might be cited the so-called In support the result of vigorous as "oxygen deficit" that occurs such as running and fighting. muscular exercise, facts, (i) Each We two must, however, take into account has the highest of the heart, which fiber of the muscle of the body, is supplied metabolism the muscles among in close apposition to it so as to prevent with capillaries deficit in that fiber as it performs its maximum oxygen
25

INTELLIGENCE

work.

(2) The

voluntary
than

muscles

have

capillarysupply
muscle. muscles

far less abundant If oxygen the were the


amount
as

that of the fibers of the heart the great


mass

in deficiency
cause

of

voluntary

of the limitation of evolution


to

of the size of the have of

brain, then

process

would

of blood
case

the

great

mass

supplied a larger voluntary muscles,

in the If
a

of the due of
to

whale.
an

fever

infection

temperature
There
since

approximately
in bed.

kind has reached of any a 108",heatstroke will develop. muscles the of such
a

is

no

oxygen

deficit in the We of

patient,
of the and

he is relaxed horse
to at

took
a

temperature
in

winning
found
may
race

the

end

it be

be

104".It

is clear the the

trotting race enough that an


limitation of
even

July speed

oxygen

deficit
of
race a

coincident

with

the in
a

horse.

Considering
of the
oxygen

fact that
rose

short

the

temperature
that from

this

horse

to
a

probable
death

deficit is

104", it is more protection against


had been
to amount
more

heatstroke.

If in this horse
more

there and and

supplying capillaries
muscle, the oxidation
of heat and track would have this

oxygen

nutrition hence
us

the

in the been

muscles

the

increased, let

say,

4" further,
died
on

winning

racing stallion would


in the

have

the

of heatstroke. that significant of

It is the

temperature

the

applicationof heat therapy be safely increased patient can


case,

only to 108". In such a removed, the temperature

when the

the

source

of heat
to to

is

of

patient

returns

the

originallevel.
heat The stroke brain
occurs.

If the

temperature
the

is increased

108.5"
most

contains nitro

greatest
of the

percentage
This
fact
to

of the

sensitive the brain

of the is the The and

compounds. point

explains why
succumb
are

first

organism

to

heatstroke.
confusion of the detonation. 26

first symptoms stupor, followed


may

of heatstroke

mental

brain Thus

be

so

the chemical

the disintegraor tion by coma; abrupt as to be equivalent to pictureis in accord with our

AND

PERSONALITY

postulate. When
animal
has risen

the
to
a

internal certain

plant or of the point, disintegration


temperature
a

of

be heat cannot protoplasm is so accelerated that the excess accumulates until eliminated, and internal temperature stroke the universal ceilingof heat tolerance is reached. Heatfollowed then occurs, by the death of the plant or animal.

27

ANIMAL
o

BEHAVIOR

OXIDATION among
oxidation. While attack such
enzymes
we were

is the

only

source

of animal

energy.

gle" "Strugof
rates

animals

is

largely competiton Africa, the


zebra that
to
me

of

hunting
swiftness and

in

rush
in

of the

lion in

and

the

of the
power

escape

exhibited
action
to account

lightning speed
and

the

feeble

of

catalystsseemed
this the

inadequate
energy.

for the Let these

genesis of
us

fulminating

compare

high-powered of the amoeba, mechanism

of oxygen-controlling mechanism with animals the oxygen-controlling for these


may

represent

different

oxygen-controlling systems. In unicellular organisms negative cytoplasm


oxidation oxidation there
a

the

positive
and

nucleus strain

and

the

maintain

their

electric

through
rate

controlled

by

enzymes

The catalysts. than in the and the

of

being higher in
in in

the nucleus the

is maintained

between

nucleus

cytoplasm, cytoplasm

difference

difference and One would the


more

that establishes concentration a electrolytic is adequate for the low electric potential.This level of the that
to

constant

basic

energy

of the of the

amoeba. amoeba of

would

suppose

this energy the nucleated

formula

apply equally
animals. nucleated
energy

cells in the

organs

higher

In the
a

cells in the

organs

of the

higher
of the

animals cells
are

similar

pattern
and

is

seen.

These
structures

nucleated

found tract,

in the the

organs

in the

digestive

genito-urinary tract, the pulmonary tract, the the spleen, the skeleton, the skin, the liver,the pancreas, adrenal the thyroid and lymph glands, the bone marrow, glands, and
The the brain.
cells

nucleated of the

of all these but these

organs

take

the

energy

pattern
minor

amoeba,

nucleated
as

cells form
mass

the
as

part of the higher animals, both


2S

to

and

to

by
of

fibrous the

tissue.

This

indicates
unit

that

the

universal

pattern is the

nerve-muscle

nucleus-cytoplasm
There pattern could of the death

of energy transformation pattern of the amoeba. been


no

have

interruption
the pattern have would

between the

the

unicellular and

and

animals, or

dissolution of the

higher followed,thus
unicellulars

of

stopping the the higher to Logically proved, that


of the

progress

evolution

of the

animals. would brain


appear,

it

although
descendant

it has

not

been nucleus
of
a

the

cell is the

of the

ancestral be

unicellular

view, it would
distance
nerve

this point organism. From understandable why the brain cells from

send

electric thus

impulses
maintain

over

the

communicating
and the
tural struc-

fibers and

the

function

of the muscle fibers. This would indicate that integrity of the not only the function but also the physical structure impulses from the brain voluntary muscle depends upon and catalysts. and not enzymes upon Of equal fundamental is the fact that both significance oxidation of the whose and muscular contraction of the severed and the maintenance muscle fiber

protoplasmic nerve supply


stimulation about the
no

structure

voluntary
can

has

been

be maintained

by

electrical What the


man

from red blood

without. cells ? Unlike all other Mammalia


as

the red

cells of and
to

body,

blood

cells of the Red


a

higher
cells
are

possess
as are

nucleus.

blood human cells.

essential
are

life

the

brain

cells. In red blood

being there
no

about

twenty-five trillion

Although
by means powerful
an

these

red blood

cells generate

electric strain
carry
as

of

oxidation

within
as

themselves, they
do the brain cells is derived

electric

charge
of the

cells. The from red

tive position oxidablood

electric within cell bears From


a

charge
each

brain

cell. The

electrically powerful
the red blood

negative sign of charge.


source

what

does

cell derive

its

high
al-

negative
30

electric

charge? Logically

it would

appear,

AND

PERSONALITY

though
the

it has

not

been

proved, that
whose

the red blood from

like cell,

voluntary muscle
at

is a descendant cell,

the ancestral
was lated accumu-

unicellular

cytoplasm

negative charge
my

its surface.

problem of Hugo Fricke, in the biophysics the determination was laboratory of the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, that the
The firstfact that

emerged from

study of

this

envelope surrounding 1/2,500,000centimeter


of
a

the in

red blood

cell is

on

the

order

of

or thickness,

about

the thickness

molecule endows

of oil

thinness

This extreme of 30 carbon atoms. the red blood cell with a high capacity for
or

holding electric charge, and which of the red blood cell,


and

friction,increases
order
to account

the

shape peculiar biconcave is ideally adapted for tumbling of its covering surface area
the electric

membrane.

charge-up of the being, we twenty-fivetrillion red blood cells in the human turned the well-known to electrophysical principlethat a moving in air or in fluid takes on static charge,the particle of friction. of charge being related to the intensity amount which in the air This is the principle on particles floating through friction take on negativeor static charge and, being of like sign of charge, repeleach other and float as dust. I postulated that this electrophysical principle could red blood be applied to the originof the electric charge on since the heart, with its powerful contraction, causes cells, the red blood cells that the such violent agitationamong become red blood cells would charged with static electricity and repeleach other and not agglutinate.
In

for the

In collaboration P.

with

me,

Dr.

Otto

Glasser

and

Dr.

D.

Quiring, of
red
Study
at

the

Research

Laboratories

of the

Cleveland

'Clinic of the
1

for the charge-up Foundation, tested this principle1 blood


cells

through
Gradients
before the

the

action
and

of the
the

heart

and

"A

of the Potential

of the Blood

Organs

of Certain and of

Mammals," Medicine, Science,in

paper

presented meeting

Society

for

Experimental Biology
for the Advancement

the

of the

American To be

Association

Seattle, June

20, 1940.

published. 31

highestcharge on the red blood cell is in the is most where left ventricle, violent. We found that agitation in the course the speed of the red blood cell decreases of as its slow circulation each red blood through the capillaries, its electric charge on cell contributes certain electrostatic of oxidation, thus in the area collectors building up a
voltage. The
considered
energy
a

found

that

the

left ventricle condenser metabolic system


arc.

and

the

arterial

tree

may

be

that contributes

the

negative

of the the

perceivesa lion by sight, smell, or sound, the brain cells flare in oxidation,at once increasing the positive potential.Instantly impulses pass the motor from the brain over the running musto nerves cles; the two instantlyimpulses pass from the brain over trunks, namely, the major, minor, and sympathetic nerve
lesser trunks

When

high-tempered

zebra

splanchnicnerves.
divide into
two

At

their terminal
one

these

two

nerve

suppliesthe adrenal medulla, stimulating the output of adrenalin,and the other lating supplies the celiac ganglion and plexus, stimuof sympathin. These the two hormones, output instantaneous increase an sympathin and adrenalin,cause
in the
hence power

branches,

of which

of the

heartbeat

and

circulation

of the

blood,

negative potential. the celiac ganglion and From plexus, the sympathetic fibers pass along the arterial blood vessels down nerve to the capillaries, deliveringpositive electric charges to the blood-vessel walls. The negative charge is supplied by cells within the arteries and capillaries. the red blood The involuntary muscle fibers of the arterial wall lie between the positive charge delivered by the sympathetic nerve fibers and the negative charge delivered by the red blood
cells. with its continuous single capillary of negatively charged red blood cells may stream serve both as a negative pole to the sympathetic nerve fiber on its wall and as the negative pole to the positive end plate of fibers. the voluntary muscle
a

raise the

It is

clear,then, that

32

AND

PERSONALITY

Thus,
brain

in

man

the

62,000
not

miles

of

receive capillaries the great


tive execu-

positiveelectric
but

stimulation the

only

from

brain,namely, the When the adrenal medulla, the celiac ganglia and plexuses. the abdominal thinking brain is asleepor under anesthesia,
also from abdominal brain We amoeba continues
can
now

to

control

the vascular

system. of the nucleus of the

glimpse the homologue


vast
nervous

in the
can
we

Equally
the animals.
elements

amoeba

in Kofoid akin

higher animals. glimpse the homologue of the cytoplasm of the muscles, glands, and blood of the higher
system
has
to
a

of the

illustrated
nervous

this in the in
a

appearance

of

system

unicellular

diplo-

dinium.

in the

cellular dominating positivenucleus of the unievolved smell to to was see, to hear, to touch, and tive higher animals, that is,the forces that give the posiThus the

charge to the nucleus of the unicellulars also determined similar positive charge in the eye, the ear, the touch a of the higher animals. corpuscle,and the nose that the thyroid these simple principles From we see gland, whose hormone, acting as a catalyst,increases the
rate

of oxidation

in the

billions of brain

cells and

in the

sympathetic system, produces electric charges only, hence influences the activityof the brain in training and in maintaining the warm-blooded and education state.
cells of the The the the increase
in the
rate

of oxidation

in the brain alone would

cells and
not

in

cells of the

sympathetic system
but the the

affect the the

body temperature; brain, controlled by


constant

potential of thyroid hormone, provides


of the
vast
mass

increased

electric stimulation maintains the the

of muscles

and This
in
man

thus

warm-blooded

state
or

against cold.
metabolic
arc

constitutes and
as

first great oxidation

animals. the nucleus of the ancestral


in the
to
a

Just
universal universal

amoeba

was

the is the

executive, so the brain


executive. In addition for temperature,

higher animals
constant

executive and for

stimulation

for muscular

work,

33

INTELLIGENCE,
intellectual crisis energy.

POWER,

work,
In

the

brain

is

equally

the

executive

for

combating an infection with a fever,in from in the expressionof the an fightingor fleeing enemy, emotions, the adrenal glands and the sympathetic system brain and violentlystimulate inhibit the thinking or new brain that executes the old or energy fighting, escaping and
emotion. Thus In the brain
two

types
the is the

each

of energy be discerned can In brain is the executive. and the adrenal brain

among
one

mals. ani-

executive

synthesis glands are the


cells mobilize the

excitants executive electric

of outburst
energy,

oxidation.

The heart

the

pounding
the

increases red

potentialof

trillions of

blood

negative the cells,

and the entire is accelerated, respiration for executing violence is mobilized. adrenal The glands play a lesser role
of
constant

energy

mechanism

in the mobilization
necessary for

energy.

The

constant

energy

muscular work, such as is adaptation to cold or to constant required for a long migration, a long chase or by the porpoise for rising and the whale at frequent intervals day and in his breathe to or by man night to the surface of water dailytask,is established by a synthesisof the brain and the thyroid gland, the heart and the blood volume. centered in muscular of the higher animals Evolution is controlled by the joint action of Muscular power power. the side of the metabolic the positive arc, the brain, and

negative side of
blood The cells.
constant

the

metabolic

arc,

the heart

and

the

red

tempo

of the

brain

and

the

heart of the the

is

trolled con-

by gland. The
controlled medulla the The

the hormone
emergency

thyroxin,the product
tempo
of the brain

thyroid
heart
is

and

by
of the

the

product of
energy

adrenalin,the product of the adrenal sympathin, gland, and the hormone the celiac ganglia and sympathetic plexuses.
hormone
is derived
arcs

of the whole

from

oxidation the

that animal.

pletes com-

the trillions of metabolic


34

within

AND

PERSONALITY

Basal

metabolism

includes

not

only
and

the

metabolism

of

all the nucleated


but

cells of the organs in the

tissues of the

also the oxidation the

maintain the

warm-blooded
response

voluntary muscles state. Adaptive metabolism


mere awareness

body required to
is outburst

oxidation in

from

to

energy

From

or fightor flight the foregoing it are

in the would

expressionof
seem

the emotions.
man

that

in

and control of

mals aniof the and

there oxidation.

two

kinds

of mechanism
possesses

for the mechanism

One
in

system

the

amoeba,
cells in

which

oxidation

is controlled

by

enzymes

This catalysts.
man

system

appliesequally to
which is constructed furnishes the

all the

nucleated

and

animals.

In the other

system,

of the carbon and the red

lamp,
blood

the brain

principle positivecharge,
on

the

cells,through the
of the

mechanical

energy

given by the charge. Thus


in the

heart, supply the negative tions are provided the quick and powerful variacular speed of oxidation,hence in the speed of muscontraction from
a mere

contraction the lion Thus


or

muscle zebra.

tone

to

the

rush

of

the

escape

of the

and personality of man intelligence, power, the absolute and animals would to be dependent on seem relative sizes of the brain, the heart and blood volume, thyroid gland, and the adrenal-sympathetic system. the

and the the

35

3.

THE

AFRICAN

FRONT

INthe
man

THE

civilized part of the animals


one can are so

world

the

the plants, and soil, the of the domination of

that

completely under scarcely see the play


modifications War
I

great natural

forces, free from


In the

the

made

by

man.

of attempted an interpretation in France1 at war man rich, beautiful France, for ages modified by a brilliant, industrious,artistic people, a land of terraced vineyards and trained trees, a land of metaled
"

First World

the cycle of villages,a land where highways and model sowing, reaping, and fertilizing fertilizing, again keeps a

part of the
It that
was

surface this

of the

earth

in ceaseless
an

rotation.

from

at territory,

intensely human
masses

stage,

I viewed

the Great

War.

On

this land

of

French,
land, Zeawere

German,
crowded

English, Italian, American, Australian, New East Indian, Canadian, and Portuguese troops
in dense concentration. On this land
was

also the

mechanisms There ever massing of human seen. were mules, horses, dogs and pigeons, bred and trained by There such nonliving mechanisms of energy man. were as and tanks motor balloons, cars, tractors, airplanes and bombs shells and bullets, and mines, firebrands and poison graph, bayonets and trench mortars, radio and telegas; there were

greatest

Red In that
our

Cross

nurses,

surgeons,

expeditionsto
man

civilized
as

has
as

and oaths. priests, prayers, equatorial Africa I visited a front not dominated; a front in many French front of the First World front and
events

respects

intensive

the

War,

of though devoid its driving energy derived soil energy

civilized from
one

the

elements; a equatorialsun
greatest
of the

that
some

of its rich

from the

of the

in rift

geologic time, namely,


between
1

formation

great

Africa

and
View

Asia.
of War and

"A

Mechanistic
1915.

Peace,"

The

Macmillan

Company,

New

York,

39

INTELLIGENCE, In
was

POWER,

the First World for dominance. and


no

War On

the

struggleamong
front the On the French the African of the

rival nations

the African
prey.

struggleis for
front there front
young

food
were are

against a
women

natural

and

children. each

On

born

and

and raised,

member

family spends
see

his life On
"

struggleon
French
no

the front. front


a

the
gun,

casual
nearer

observer the

could

nothing
the
on.

no

soldier. The

front fighting
no

more

peaceful and
likewise
every

quiet it
the of grass.

seemed

when front.

"kill" African and

was

It is
is in

with

African

The
water

front

blade
every

It is in the
or

in the

air. It is

behind the

tree sheltering deepest jungle,and on

rock. It is in the

burrows, in only. The


soldiers front. On front

In

France front

the

front

the open plain. existed for several years, life


as

African

began
raids

when front
were

began.
On
war

As

many

populated
the
no

the French front

animals
common.

the African

French

the African

night passes
In Africa
arrow,
are

without
are

raids. In born the

In Africa

animals each

camouflage camouflaged.

is utilized.

day

poison
natives

spear,

by day, also, lions, leopards, cheetahs, civet cats, jackals, tards ostriches, secretary birds, and the greater and lesser buskill thousands of mammals, pions. birds,snakes, and scorBirds kill kill thousands of

killed

kills many animals with of or trap, and each day a number poison fangs, teeth, or claws. Each
native

insects,and

insects,in turn,

myriads of birds and animals; and the countless billions of living thingsrevealed only by the microscope the greater take the largest toll. world of bacteria in constant world Not struggle in only is the animal wider front, plant warfare is extended. Africa, but, on an even Many animals attack plants,and plants,in turn, defend themselves againstthe animals by thorns,by poison, by bitter acrid taste, by climbing heights,by delving into relentless and by forming jungles. Just as the most swamps, is animal warfare of animals against animal, and just as
" "

40

AND

PERSONALITY

man's

warfare world the A

against
most

man

is

the

most

bitter,
is for draw insect for subsidize seeds. that

so

in of

the

plant against
for

relentless

warfare

plant
and
mals. ani-

plant.
and
to

plant
this of and

fights
bitter flowers To the

for

sunshine, plants
the

moisture,
many
to

soil,
The

struggle
entices
exact

nectar

fertilize the

distant which

plants
bears

trees.

payment
trees

fruit,
animals

energy

to

animals,
their kills billions born the

to

spread
Thus the

their

kind

by
sustains the

carrying
and

plant
kills and

the of

animal; plants day


in

the and this is

animal animals

sustains

and

plant;
are

are

killed,

millions

every

age-long
a

struggle;
countless

in

fact,

day

on

African countless

front

day
less count-

of

deaths,
and

countless countless

births,
defeats.

conflicts,

victories,

MAJI

MOTO

CAMP

A^
past

MAJI

MOTO 2"
were

CAMP south of

in

the

Rift

Valley, Tanganyika,
and theoretically Here titanic

Africa,
and

the

equator,

we practically

engulfed nonliving

in energy. and

forces,

present,

during geologic ages, Our in the midst of a dense was regressing. tropical camp of forest that hugged the base of the high west escarpment Rift Valley and was from the East African only a mile away
Lake
was

living,have been at play creating, destroying, advancing,

Manyara.
green

The in

little rains

had

just

ended. the

The the

grass
sun

and

rapid growth. During


our

day

poured
A

down

its energy. trek from


camp
were

short

the
was

Maji
the Mount Meru. the

Moto

hot
of

springs.
all African and south
was

In

the

distance, to
the miles

the

east,

highest
jaro, KilimanTo

mountains,
a

snow-covered
away
was

hundred the

Mount

the of

beautiful
west
was

Oldonyo-lengai,
the
enormous

Mountain

God,
and

and

to

the

crater
one

Ngorongoro.
19,000

Besides
more

size,down
progeny.

giant volcanoes, into the skies,there were to mere potholes. It was


crater

these

towering
also volcanoes
as

feet

of lesser its

if every

giant had

The
It

great

of

Ngorongoro
rim
or

is

12

miles

in diameter. feet

is surrounded soil of this

by
crater

escarpment
a

1,500

high.

The the

affords

deep
a

volcanic luxuriant head

produce
about and

ash, the growth


of

high yield of life energy; and the tropical sun rainfall,


sweet

of

clover. wildebeest of

This

supports

50,000
this

animals,
mass

the

ing, predominatin turn, and

unbelievable numbers of

Herbivora,

supports
vultures. For
energy

large

lions, leopards, hyenas,


soil and of the

centuries,within this crater, the been have producing cycles


and
42

sun's beest, wilde-

clover,
of

soil

again.

constant

stream

innumerable

AND

PERSONALITY

insects, flowers, scorpions, spiders, snakes, birds, ants, Herbivora, predatory animals, and
all
return to

native

men

go

in

"

and

it

again!

cycle of change, life has moved on, as a as sometimes a as flower,sometimes hyena, sometimes man as a livingthing has once a snake, sometimes every the to been something else;every livingthing will return Through
this endless
"

universe

in

some

other

form.
energy

energizes the clover,in the clover, and all all that is under them and cytoplasm of the identical nucleus the clover above identical identical water; identical electrolytes; livingcell; sunlight;in fact,in all essentials life is identical. It is the the many forms of life only colors, forms, the many many Obviously, it is identical
"
"

that

creates

and

"

the many What


a

sizes
romance

"

that

appear

to

be unrelated. of the adventures of


a

could

be written

born in the endless abyss of that was one singleelectron, earth perhaps of the great fire mist from which our space, life today was old, yet beginning its new condensed, aeons in the body of a young just born in the clover fields gazelle of Ngorongoro! How of the that the structure significant island of life remains livingcells in this sequesteredtreasure the
ocean

same or

as

that

of the cells of the animals arctic! How it significant remain in


constant
man or

of the is

in the

far-away that, despite


in

their

living cells instability,


and
constant

dynamic
or

pattern
clover! This

whether

wildebeest

constancy
of

of the

livingform
the
nature

is due

to

the constancy

of the laws their

Life physics and chemistry. of


one

is constructed

When interplay.

beam

of

by light is
the
nature

discovered,we
nature

shall know
atom

the

nature

of all

when light; the

of

one

is

we discovered,

shall know
one

of

all matter;
we

when

the

nature nature

of

livingcell
greatest

covered, is dis-

shall know

the

of life. in the rift in the

It

was

this theater

of Vulcan there

earth's

surface,where

exists the

largestaggregation
43

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

of volcanoes of animal between existence Under


masses

in the world

as

well

as

the greatest could


enormous

aggregation
rift and
the ?

entered. What that we life, the cataclysm that caused this of


most

be the relation

abundant

animal
a

this

rift,probably
rock that

vegetablelifeknown hundred miles deep, are


heat
at
"

and

of tumbled

still generate

millions

Hot ples springs and earthquakes exampoints of contact. of injury and repairof the earth are frequent in this region. of upheaved rock causes The friction in this pile a melting and vaporization of rocks, and the eruption of volcanoes, of square thousands small, spreads ash over great and of
"

miles. This the rocks.

volcanic

ash

is

mixture
a

of all the

elements

in formly uni-

Chemically,
enters

it is

perfectlymixed
and
roots

soil,so

pulverizedthat
that oxygen in any out that Thus and direction,

rain is absorbed

held, so
may

light

into it easily; therefore

stretch tion vegeta-

the result is the abundant animal had


a

supports

abundant
camp

life.

Maji
water,

Moto

ample
kind of

great

swamps,

vegetation from grass and the trees mimosa and dense were jungles. Among supported the long-necked giraffe,dense acacia, which and open bush plains where the rhino roamed, enormous of coarse forests in which elephants fed, swamps grass that hid buffalo,and impenetrable marsh, the habitat of the

settingof plentiful grass, forests yielding every vast and flowers to scrub growth

hippopotamus. In plains near eland, kongoni, impala, giraffe, by were gerenuk, hartebeest, kudu, zebra, wildebeest,oryx, steinand Grant's dik-dik,and wartgazelles, bok, Thomson's the plainslike sanitarypolice were ostriches, hog. Patrolling all of which greater and lesser bustards,and crested cranes, derived their living from toads, and the locusts, lizards, found the plains. small animals on many varieties of ducks, On the shores of the lake fed many marabou,
44

and

European

storks

and

the

beautiful

pink

POWER

As

sound

and

odor of

constantly
ears

pervade
nostrils and and

the

air

that

passes

through hearing
of thousands Masai

myriads
and

and

as

the with

senses

of

smelling
animals of here

by

day
and and

night
our

vary camp

the known the

ments move-

there,
little

was

to

our

great herds

neighbors
These
each animal.

and

to

native

with and
native

their

of
all

cattle.

animals,
well.

meat

eaters

grass

eaters, Masai he is

know

other
In

The his and animals fellow

the

top
a

cooperation
can

with

men,

can

spear

lion. his

He hut. their

trap
of food.

leopard
other

build

boma do

to

protect
than

None

the The

can

more

secure

grass

eaters

merely killing
life the the from

crop grass

the

grass.

The The the

meat

eaters

secure

food take

by
their

eaters.

grass
water

and and the

the

trees

the of

soil this

and

sun.

All

parts
are

living
of

picture
energy.

"

insects,
Masai

animals,
native of them
is

and the all.

plants
most

mechanisms

The mechanism

"

highly

specialized

energy

5.

RHINOCEROS

AND

BUFFALO

EFE

in Africa

eaters
an

posted on
antelope
stationed
he

Among sensitivelybalanced. is cooperation for defense. A there sentinel for herds a serves as anthill,
is zebra.
a

the

grass

kongoni,
of

and

When
sees

a a

baboon

or

small

grazing monkey,
animals

high in will,through

tree,
own

his

nearly submerged alarm, signal danger

crocodile,
to

beautiful buff-backed and egrets coming to drink. The from the high reeds and dense white herons, suddenly rising the near-by elephant and buffalo to be wary. cause papyrus, Lake trekked As we out to one Manyara morning, we rhinoceros in the high grass at the edge of the a solitary saw of him, we fifty yards downwind sandy beach. Passing some noticed small brown birds from his back. rising and, catching the within
once

Immediately
scent, of
us,

sensing danger, he whirled in our direction; but when suddenly stopped, circled
into

started he
as

50

feet

or

twice,

then

trotted

off

the

bush. his lack


a

The of

of the rhinoceros to ears insignificant testify The show that sight is not enemies. pigl'ike eyes factor
in his survival.

mount paraupon
to

The that When

rhinoceros

depends
his

the
serve

small,
as a

red-beaked

birds

perch
these

upon

back

him,
in

the

associates
are

warning to him. simple memory the danger. Thus

tickbirds of and the the

fly from
rhinoceros

mechanism rhino bird

rhinoceros

cooperation. Although the eyesight of the elephant and the hippopotamus is poor also,the elephant, the hippopotamus, and the of sight and buffalo,having used their senses hearing to detect a danger, have evolved intricacy of action greater
patterns
than the rhinoceros.

Wearing a heavy armored skin, the rhinoceros pushes the shrubs and noisilyalong among bush, through thorns and high grass, crushing everything before him. He sees
47

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

little until
reason,

he
eats.

bumps
Had best

into

it. Whatever
no

he foe

meets,
to

within
contest

he him

the rhinoceros stand of

worthy
and
to
a

with would

for the
to

heavy

grass

bush,
carry

he

need

have and
to

only

sufficient

muscle

his

ample paunch
he could

procreate; But

and, being
table.
peace

vegetarian, though
same

always
eat

find food. the

the rhinoceros abundant

has formidable Even

rivals that these

from

same

apparently at it does not follow that they do not area, rhinoceros The has a powerful muscular and has a peculiar belly-tearing horn
are

powerful

beasts

in the

fight each
machine evolved but
is
a a

other. behind swift does

charge at not spend


Since

the

first

scent

of

possible enemy,
animals. the
same
sense

he

his time

in

other killing active


eats to at

His

defense

mechanism,
the of

passive
more

and

time. of his

rhinoceros value It

noisily,his
in the of in the when bush smell dense

hearing, sight,is
the of
not. can-

although
not

him
sense

than that bush

adequate.
of his
serve

is his

discloses the and


sense

approach
smell
can

rivals,and
the

rhinoceros

his eyes

ears

Since

the and

body
since

of the his

rhinoceros horns
are

is massive

and

near

the the
to

ground
make

poised vertically on
it is
to

platform
a

of his sudden

extended
mass

snout,

his

advantage
his

attack

before

giving

opponents

opportunity to maneuver. has no for Clearly, this great bush mechanism pattern jumping or for long-distance running. The rhinoceros is not geared for a long chase. His effort is always a short attack.
His mechanism
is

patterned

like could

heavy
be
seen

tractor.
near

morning Maji Moto, and


could
to
on

Each

fresh tracks each

the camp rhinoceroses of the

at

afternoon the sand


to

near
near

sundown the shore


warm

be

seen

rollingin
skins

lake

rid their the beach.

of ticks

and

enjoy

the

sunshine

Early one morning, Mr. Fuller shot Intelligence,Power, and Personality

for
an

our

Museum
male

of that

adult

AND

PERSONALITY

weighed 1,683 pounds. Raising a tarpaulin over suspending our 6oo-pound scales on a limb, we
dissection where he fell. that the distribution Dissection the rhinoceros showed differs

him made

and
our

of the muscles

of

greatly from that found in antelopes in the lion. There five principal of muscles: were or masses and for the powerful head for each of the four one one The muscles of the back were not stocky legs. comparable those of the antelope or of the horse family.The to rest of the body exhibited but relatively little muscle, which suggested a mechanism adapted to straightforwardprogression with powerful action of the head and little or no power of jumping.
The bones much ribs which those The
apex grams.
were

of the blood

vertebral and

column

were

soft and skull and of the massive

tained con-

cancellous

the tissue, the


were

the

exceedingly hard, and operated the great horn, which operated the legs.
dimensions of the heart
were

muscles
more

neck,
than

12

inches heart
was 2

from

base

to

and The

inches wall

The transversely. of the


2

weighed 4,800
inches thick.
was

left ventricle in

The

aorta

measured thick. the The

inches

diameter, and
was
so

its wall

%6

inch

coronary

artery

large that

it

forefinger. The brain weighed 655 grams little less than or a oneseventh of the weight of the heart. The convolutions of the brain were small as compared with those of the brain of an antelope. The olfactorylobes were especiallyprominent, in bony cavities leading toward being projectedforward
the and alligator crocodile. The pituitarygland was relatively large. The the eyes of a eyes of the rhino weighed 22.56 grams; 55-pound Thomson's gazelleweighed 26.9 grams. The major, minor, and lesser splanchnic nerves pathetic (symwith those of man, system), contrasted were and the heavy, sympathetic complexes and celiac ganglia snout,
as
case

admitted

somewhat

in the

of the

49

INTELLIGENCE,
were

POWER, is

massive, showing that the rhinoceros


adrenal

equipped

for

explosiveattack.
The
grams.

medulla

elongated. They weighed 88 glands were found adrenal that the gland, we Incising one of the was approximately half the total volume
the medulla is one-tenth the total volume of

gland. In man the gland.


The 53.05 This
grams.

thyroidgland was
There
was no

and weighed elongatedvertically isthmus. that the rhinoceros


possesses

dissection of
a

showed

the

armored mechanism high-powered, flexibly adapted to bush life. Through the high development of the adrenal-sympathetic system and the heavy muscles massed and oxygenated by a large and vascularized in five areas heart, a large vascular tree, and largelungs,this old-world beast is geared for powerful attack. This dissection showed mechanism that the rhinoceros a adapted for possesses As indicated of energy. mobilization instantaneous by the prominent development in the brain of the olfactorylobe it is and lesser development of the ophthalmic area, a that rhinoceros obvious a apprehends danger primarily

equipment

through
of the order

the

sense

of

smell.

Since

the

rhinoceros association

is

predictable un-

and brain of

implusive in behavior, the


as we

tract

was,

expected,small, indicatinga
the

low the

but intelligence;

high development
an

of

adrenal-sympathetic system
The rhinoceros attack. and curiosity

indicated

unstable

ment. temperaor

exhibits

and curiosity

indifference

small brain of the relatively By reason to the relatively and the small thyroid gland, in contrast able it is inconceivlarge brain and large thyroid gland of man, this great that pachyderm could either develop

exophthalmic goiteror intelligence. there are many Inasmuch as conflicting opinionsas to the the African and of the rhinoceros buffalo,it is prowess of the energy-controlling interestingto compare organs
these
two

animals.

The

table

that

follows

shows

that,

50

AND

PERSONALITY

although
collected
the

the

male of

rhinoceros

and

the

male

buffalo the that

that brain of

we

were

approximately
was

equal
heavier the the rhinoceros

weight,
than

of the

rhinoceros the heavier of the adrenal

i%

times of of

buffalo,
times

glands
those

were

nearly
the

i%

than rhinoceros of the

buffalo,
times

and heavier

thyroid
than the

gland
thyroid

was

i^i

gland

buffalo.

The

weights
great
a

of

the

energy-controlling
to

organs

of

these

two

animals

seem

indicate immediate

that

the

rhinoceros than

can

execute

more

formidable

attack

the

buffalo.

60

EAGLE

AND

VULTURE

WHETHER of
sense

the smell

soaring
or

vulture
sense

locates of
one

carrion

the the

sight is
almost
is

often
never

by the subject
sees

of

During speculation.
in Africa

day
an

vulture then

except

when

animal

drop from the sky in apparently from long distances,with the if they had been spread above as
The collaboration of vultures is
a

vultures

brought down; numbers. They come and against the wind,


earth like
a

net.

Were

example of cooperation, of one animal since the carcass provides food for many. there no fare badly because cooperation, vultures would of the rapid disintegration of the dead. By soaring in

fine

could form of vultures air,spaced apart, a network of the land in Africa. air patrol over most an valiant The eagle does not thus organize, for he kills no vidualist. alone. The animal eat larger than he can eagle is an indiSpeed with him is a prime necessity.He must the ground. Vultures and eagles reprework fast and near sent two principles in nature, the cooperative and the the cool
.

individualistic. of cooperation the vulture spends little energy By reason for finding his food, since the telltale actions of those that the signal to those still stationed as descending serve are and little energy is used in the actual process of in the skies, gorging.Thus the vulture is operated at a lower kilowatt cost than the

eagle,and
the
as

vulture
to

cooperation and
support
more

economy

of operation

enable Inasmuch

land

eagle is adapted to to flyingvigorously and the vulture passively and is not adapted to flyingvigorously,we expect the vulture and the eagle to exhibit a distinct and in the in their adrenal-thyroid relation
their brains. The

the

eagles. soaring passivelyand is adapted to soaring


should ence differsize of

vultures

than

eagle
52

must

first overtake

its prey,

then

seize

and

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

largely insectivorous. They follow the herds of buffalo and elephant through the dense of reeds and often lightingon feathery papyrus, swamps of these large animals. the backs Their habit of darting after swift-flying insects,taking them on the wing, as the elephants and buffalo force their way through the thick and larvae the feet of reeds, or searching out worms as them in the marshy ground suggest these animals uncover that the egret bird possesses a preponderance of adrenal glands over thyroid gland, as compared with the ratio found in birds in the passively soaring vulture such or the stately crested that as crane quietly pick up their food while they walk on the veldt. adrenal The glands in the African yellow-billedegret the thyroid gland of 14 to 7, showed a preponderance over
egrets
are

The

beautiful

and
crane

in the the

great

white

egret, of
30

21

to

preponderance was
to

to

26

13; in the crested and in the guinea of adrenal


stant con-

fowl, 36 glands over


in the

29.

The

greatest
found

preponderance
of flash energy the birds in

thyroid gland, hence


that
we

over

energy,

among

Africa,was

eagle,which is a bird Another contrast interesting


birds is
or seen

of

between

of prey. in the energy the European


year

characteristics stork and the

adjutant
makes

marabou

stork. Each from

its

migration
locusts

Northern
at

Valley,where
would exhibits The Like and
an

drop

its feet.
energy.

necessitate

sustained

European stork Europe to the Rift Such a long migration The European stork
a

the

adrenal-thyroidenergy
stork of Africa
a

pattern
is
not

marabou the

43. migrating bird.

of 49

to

vultures, it is
incredible

scavenger.

Its the

flightis powerful
marabou stork
is

reaches

heights.But

the kill. The the vultures at pugnacious. It dominates than three stork are adrenal more glands of the marabou times largerthan the thyroidgland. feeds on of the goose tribe,lazily The pink flamingo,one and seems make to no specialenergy aquatic invertebrates 54

AND

PERSONALITY

into its capacious bill bending its neck to scoop filter the brackish its head to small Crustacea, then tilting water through the lamellae of its lower jaw. brackish leave The one flamingoes in thousands may food in another. One lake to search out volcanic night in effort in

Maji
their

Moto

we

heard
saw

the them

whir

of the

untold

numbers in

of

wings across flight


Africa As is
one

and the
a

for hours of the bird.


a moon.

silhouetted But the

not

pale face migratory


expect

graceful flamingo of feeding,the nearly equal

would and

from

life of such the

easy
are

adrenal
in size

thyroidglandsof

flamingo

(0.51 to 0.50). The Egyptian goose, in contrast, has to search out its and pools and small lakes,where food. It frequents streams animal life. In contrast it feeds on grass, algae,and minute to the flamingo, the Egyptian goose is "quarrelsome." It bears an adrenal-thyroidpattern of 42 to 34.

55

7.

WARM-BLOODED COLD-BLOODED

VERSUS

Two the
animals. The the that the This In

great

energy

divisions

of the and

animal the

kingdom

are

warm-blooded

animals

cold-blooded

energy

advantage
state

of the

warm-blooded

state

over

law expressed by van't HofFs with each degree centigrade of rise in temperature cent. 10 activity is increased speed of chemical per law appliesequally to livingand to nonliving systems. accordance with such
a

cold-blooded

is

law

it would

follow

that

cold-blooded be

of 22"C. would having a temperature mal aniat a disadvantage in a fight with a warm-blooded of 37"C., for the warm-blooded having a temperature animal
warmer

animal, being 15"


would
per
cent

than
a

the

cold-blooded

animal,

be

endowed

with than that

speed
of the

of chemical cold-blooded order of

activity 150
animal.

greater

Cold-blooded
power,

animals, with
devices
to

their low
a

and

personality,occupy
protect

less favored from animals the

intelligence, place on the


evolved. animals
case

earth.

Many
had

them

keener, more
have

alert,and
Snakes
were

powerful
to

warm-blooded
a

accept
resort to
a

life

on

their

bellies. Other in the of the

obliged to

to

color

protection,as
as

of

certain The

or lizards,

carapace,

in the

case

turtle.

Since they and crocodile took to the swamps. alligator nisms build up mechafor them to are armored, it is unnecessary for Like biologictraps, they lie in wait for fighting. and their prey require but slighteffort to find their food, them while is supplied to directly through their energy
carapaces
as

It may

be

they bask on the sunny urged that reptilessuch


the turtle breathe that the the

bank.
as
same

the

the alligator,
its
20

crocodile,and
per
cent

air, with
the

of available

oxygen,

lion and

porpoise

56

AND

PERSONALITY

and breathe, yet the alligator


a

trie

lower

level than
some

the lion factor

or

the

energized at porpoise.Therefore, there


are

crocodile

must

be

other

than

oxygen

tension

that

mines deter-

the
organs

relativelysmall
the low

size of

the

and

level of the

energy

energy-controlling of the alligator and


lives is of the

the crocodile. The


factor

kind

of habitat

in which In the

an

animal

always a
swamps

for consideration.

still waters
oxygen

tension,we find cold-blooded sluggish fish,sluggish turtles,and sluggish In such waters hunting is not necessary. reptiles. The animals is territoryavailable to the warm-blooded the greater part of the earth's surface. The lion,the hawk, and the fox employ their keen eyes, ears, and noses their of chemical cent 1 50 per higher power activityin hunting. Should the Herbivora be decimated, the Carnivora would
starve.

and

with sluggishrivers,

their low

The

Carnivora

could

never

exterminate would

the

grass

and

leaf eaters, since the


cannot

Carnivora
or

be exterminated

first. They What abundant of

eat

grass

leaves. in the reptile, As


an

about

the

The reptiles? remains


energy

midst

of

oxygen,
no

cold-blooded.

adaptation
with
secure

safety,with
with
a

required for keeping warm,


for defense
or

little muscular and and


state

power

needed of food

to

minimum
are

the crocodile of these


two

requirements, the fed by their prey. The literally

food, alligator passive

reptiles protects
are

the that thus

level of their food

supply, and
any

they

so

formidable

they
further

can

destroy

other

food-competing animal,
supply. the alligator and
with keen
eyes

protecting

their food Were endowed

the

crocodile
and

warm-blooded,
with
a

and

ears,

empowered

vigorous nervous system on the order of that of the porpoise, their own food supply. they would quickly exterminate Thus the competition among reptilesis toward tivity, negaand the struggle among warm-blooded animals is toward Competition for negativity takes the positivity.
57

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,
armor,

form
most

of the

development

of the

most

effective

the

effective sting and concealment, the most and the crocodile we have poison.In the case of the alligator a negativityof the greatest degree, a negativitybelow that of the cold-blooded This fish.

effective

be illustrated by a comparison between point may an captured in Florida,weighing 450 pounds, and alligator white whale a captured in the subarctic,weighing 472 pounds. The white whale, a warm-blooded was mammal,
an
a

occupant

of the cold arctic of food it


to
come

sea.

The

white

whale

requires
state to

large amount
to

to

maintain
to

its wartn-blooded

and

enable

the

surface

once

minute

breathe. The animals


contrast

in the behavior

characteristics

of these

two

approximately equal weight is seen in the striking difference in their energy-controlling The brain of organs. whale the brain of the the white weighed 2,390 grams; The heart of the white alligatorweighed 14.08 grams. the heart of the alligator, whale weighed 1,370 grams; 318 the adrenal The in weight between contrast glands grams. of the white whale (19.13grams) and those of the alligator but the contrast in weight negligible, (11.96 grams) was the thyroid gland of the white whale between (65.32 grams) and the thyroid gland of the alligator (13.32 grams) is a of constant strikingexample of the mechanism energy, which is controlled by the brain and the thyroid gland and not by the adrenal glands. Compared with the white whale, the alligatorpossesses and an extremely low level of intelligence, power, personality. researches of our In the course we brought alive to the Clinic Foundation alligators, laboratory of the Cleveland lethal doses crocodiles,lions, and tigersand administered ether. The of chloroform or contrastingspeed, power, and alertness were strikingly different in the alligatorand When crocodile as compared with the lion and tiger. roped,
58

of

AND

PERSONALITY

feet long, n alligatorand a crocodile,each about were easily weighing 450 and 295 pounds, respectively, and mud ment, environheld by hand. Separatedfrom their water In contrast less helpless creatures. more or they were of the lion and the tiger as it was the fearful power was revealed while they were being chloroformed. partially and crocIn contrastinglions and tigerswith alligators odiles, of muscle we are consideringanimals equal in mass and in length of but wholly unequal in muscular power live a hundred life.An alligator or or a crocodile more may a lion or tigerin the wild seldom attains an years, whereas At first one wonders why evolution age of fifteen years. could not have made crocodile as powerful an or alligator is that evolution The lion- or tiger. a as answer exploited for animals constructed of power the all the possibilities on cold-blooded principle. Warm-blooded animals, cold-blooded animals, fish, tiles, repand leaf eaters are birds, carnivores,grass eaters, be. Since growth, each as large and as powerful as they can function,and work relate solelyto energy, it is clear that of evolution the fundamental is the play of energy. principle the organs the centers on Evolution, therefore, controlling of oxidation,namely, the brain, the heart, the blood rate volume, the thyroid gland, and the adrenal-sympathetic
an

nervous

system.
to

This

energy

system
animals

in

animals

has

the

power

endow

warm-blooded the 204

with A

all the energy

kilograms (450 pounds) has a brain and a metabolism only approximately equal to that of a hare weighing 2 kilograms (4.41pounds).Thus the comparative size of the brain, the thyroid gland, the adrenalof sympathetic nervous system, the heart and the volume the blood, in relation to the weight of the animal, tells the of energy in the various story of the evolution species.
The difference animal in energy
as an

they can utilize to weighing alligator

level of heatstroke.

cold-blooded

characteristics

between does
not

such have 59

somnolent

which alligator,

to

LION

ALLIGATOR

Brain

"

14.08

grams.

Thyroid gland

"

22.52

grams.

Thyroid gland

"

13.32

grams

Adrenal

glands

"

34.64

grams

Adrenal

glands

"

11.96 grams.

Heart

"

1,175

grams.

Heart
FIG.
2.

"

318.4

grams.

60

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER

The but
not

habitat
too
"

of the

python

is the

swamp
"

and
a

thick, forest.
a

The

mechanism

living rope,
LION

python equipped with

damp, cold, slippery


teeth
at

the

strong
ALLIGATOR

FIG. 3.

"

The

adrenal-sympathetic complexes of
two

the

lion and

of the

alligator.

one

end

and

strong hooks
chest

at

the

other,has

been
so

evolved

to
as

encircle
to

the

of its warm-blooded

victims

tightly

small The python possesses a deprive them of oxygen. brain, a small heart, small thyroid and adrenal glands and of food. How is this low-power mechanism requiresa minimum of the python is to proact adapted to kill ? The special duce animals endowed with are asphyxia. Warm-blooded ance powerful and sensitive energy systems and requirean abund-

of oxygen

to

maintain

their warm-blooded

state.

Under

danger they rush into a raging metabolism accordingly a greater respiratoryexchange. the viewpoint of a fair fight or From a evolved in the python to have nature seems
62

and

require

fair getaway, the

technique

AND

PERSONALITY

of

killingat

its

worst.

But

from

the

viewpoint
around death the

of the chest the

needs of its
mum maxi-

of the victim

python, the steady pressure until asphyxiation produces


of nourishment in the flesh

leaves

of its prey. Why should suffer in this adrenal soft and vessels the

not

the

python

itself ? The
are

deadly
of

embrace

glands
in the

all animals The

easilycrushed.
adrenal
are

blood and
as

glands
almost Yet

gland

tissue itself
as

vulnerable

brain
pressure

tissue.
on

the

python puts
of his
own

every

part

body
terms

in

his

ropelike

coil. In adrenal

the

of the in
most

spherical
blooded warm-

glands found
crushed
as

animals, the python


have his
own

would

adrenal

glands
victim.

easily as
adrenal the
are

the

body

of his of the of
away
a

The

glands
pattern
tucked
pressure

python

follow and

shoestring

effectivelyfrom tight embrace.


The bird has

the

of

to

feed in

nace its furorder


to

FIG.

4.

"

The of
a

adrenal

glands

continuously
maintain lies in feed
a

python. gorges,

its warm-blooded semicomatose


state

state.

The

python

then that it

until
a

hunger requires

again. A comparison
grams

of

cold-blooded
sparrow

python weighing weighing


of the brain of the heat and 24.03

6,140
grams

with that

warm-blooded the

shows

weight
As

of

the

brain

python
of the

(1.123 grams) barely


sparrow
or

exceeds
a

the

weight

(1.031 grams).
of the
sparrow

corollary,the python

production
that of the

metabolism

cold-blooded
are

warm-blooded

approximately equal.

INTELLIGENCE AND REPTILE

OF

BIRD

outstanding THE first it the


sees on

characteristics

of the

the

ostrich, as

one

veldt,
is

that like

are

developed
at

to

an

large muscular legs extraordinary degree and the poleare


a

neck,

the top of which is necessary


as

small, flat head


carry
a

that of eyes.
may

seems

little cocks 275

larger than
stand
as or

to

pair
and

The

high
more.

5 feet

at

the

shoulder

weigh
foil his

pounds

The

ostrich whose

is

enemies, mammals,
the
tower

powerful animal, with speed compares


a

whose that

kick of the
open

can

fleetest of

whose

habitat whose him


seen

is

exclusively the
eyes,

plains or
a

bare

desert, and

placed high
and difficult

in
to

watch-

position, make Ostriches usually are


an

wary

approach.
such
as

in of

old cock

with

his harem
or

pairs or small hens, but often


and females.

groups,
one

sees

larger
the that
as

groups

of twenty is

more

males

Although
of birds and lizards

ostrich

omnivorous, it belongs to the group diligently police the veldt, picking up snakes
as

well

berries
us

Let the and


use

gravel. analyze this largestof wings,


such
cat.

and

all birds

to

see

how,
its

without

of

it the

can

successfullymeet
most

competitors
the and

its

enemies,
as

powerful

Carnivora,
the serval The

the

lion,the

cunning of leopard, the cheetah,

and

with a eye-controlled mechanism simple pattern of action. The ostrich needs only to see, to to to brood, to eat. The long, heavily court, to mate, run, muscled legs provide stable support, a long stride, and a legs and wings that are not powerful kick. Having but two adapted for flight,the ostrich requires less brain than a of the same mammal weight. ostrich is
an

On

the

Kiteti

Plains

we

collected

cock

ostrich

that

64

AND

PERSONALITY

weighed

272

pounds. The

brain

that

directed

that

nism mecha-

contrastingbehavior ingly strikcharacteristics antelope were illustrated by the fact that the brain of a 295-pound day weighed 275 grams. kongoni that we collected the same almost brain of the ostrich consisted The entirelyof the There was only optic and auditory lobes and thalamus. tion development of the olfactorylobe and of the associaslight the auditory and olfactory areas as centers, whereas in the kongoni are well as the optic and association centers it is not well developed.Since the ostrich is eye-controlled, than the brain surprisingthat a singleeye weighed more that the two or were equal in weight to the eyes of eyes a zebra, whose body weight was twice that of the ostrich. weighed only
The the and adrenal long,stringlike of the adrenal

The 42.11 grams. of the ostrich and the

glandsof

the ostrich

followed

pattern

and

glands found in the crocodile The bell dumbthe alligator. thyroid gland of the ostrich, in the chest, was similar in pattern in form, located positionto the thyroid gland of the crocodile and the
the ostrich hence aid
were

alligator. The lungs of


is the

adherent

to

the

rib,which

bird
runs

pattern;
is
an

ostrich

equipped
overcome

in energy to by heatstroke. and their

the flapping of the wings when Were the ostrich to respiration. lift himself in flight, he would be

Birds

cousins

the

reptilesprovide
of the
to

clear-cut

examples
and the

of the

influences differing
state

warm-blooded the size of the

cold-blooded

with

respect

brain, the heart, and


Let
a us

the

thyroid and
that 295

the

adrenal

compare

an

ostrich

crocodile that

that about

weighed
75
per is used

weighed 272 pounds, bearing


food maintain the the

glands. pounds with


in mind of the
blooded warm-

fact

cent to

of the

intake

animals
state
a

warm-blooded actual
energy

and,

as

the corollary, animal rather than

fact that for

of

warm-blooded
state

is used

for the

blooded maintaining the warmwork of running, fighting,

65

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

contrasting the animals, let us keep in mind force of an ostrich compared mating.
of
a

In

energy

systems

of

these

two

the with recall


eye

crocodile. and the

Let

us

high speed and kicking the lethargy and somnolence the large,bright eye of
of the crocodile. of the tion Dissecto

the ostrich of the

small, dull
showed of the
"

crocodile The 42.11

the

weight

brain

be

15.6 grams.
ostrich the
was

weight
grams

brain

of the
times

warm-blooded the

nearly three
consisted

weight

of

brain

of the

crocodile. crocodile

largelyof olfactory and optic lobes. It is principally through smelling that the crocodile its prey. senses "Thinking" plays little part in Whereas the ostrich appears this great reptile. be eyeto controlled,studies of the brains of both crocodiles and show the crocodile and the alligator be largely to alligators
smell-controlled brain of both mechanisms. the crocodile The and

The

brain

of the

greater part of the entire


the

consists of alligator and the olfactory olfactory receptors, olfactory nerves, lobe. Therefore, in both the crocodile and the alligator we of that is largely driven have mechanism a by the sense bird has little or of smell, and smell. The its no sense of smell is developed. The sense olfactorylobes are slightly highly important to the crocodile but practically tant unimporto

the

bird.
nature
we

frequently see compensation. If such as the eye is very highly developed, as it is in an organ the is accordingly of the bird, the sense of smell case diminished. of smell is If, on the other hand, the sense the sense highly developed,as it is in the case of the reptile, of sight is diminished. the sense In evolution having the Throughout
greatest The survival
most

value

is paramount.

important characteristic of the brains of these tion is the almost largereptiles complete absence of the associathe tracts or "thinking brain." To a certain extent simple pattern of the brain found in the crocodile and the is seen in all the reptiles. The being coldalligator reptile,
66

AND

PERSONALITY

blooded,
more

has than

correspondingly
the
is the swamp

lack

of energy

for

ing performreptile
energy

simplest acts
or

requiredfor securing food.


the

Since

its habitat

long

grass,

the The

depends largelyupon
equipment shows the reptiles,
association
up
centers.

concealment

for survival. the


energy

of

the

ostrich, like

equipment of of intelligenceor little development take little intelligence It would to pick


and lizards
on

the

small

snakes

the

wide

plain. Were

acts to reptilewarm-blooded, it could perform many its advantage, but to perform such acts the reptilewould of brain for "thinking." require a corresponding mass

the

Since, by
smaller

virtue

of the the
can

large ratio
its
a

of surface

to

mass,

the

the
a

animal

greater

sparrow

support

stroke, protection against heatbody temperature as high the ostrich die of


to

as

112"

without

heatstroke.

Were

attain

such The

it would degree of temperature, sparrow's advantage in having a


a

heatstroke. 12" and

temperature

higher
the

than

that

of the

ostrich
can

is that

in its mental
per
cent

muscular than

actions ostrich.

the

sparrow

be

120

quicker
and

Between

the

of high intelligence the crocodile


or

the

sparrow

the

low

of intelligence the intermediate of

the

there alligator The

intervenes mechanism

of intelligence be discussed
or a

the ostrich. in
a

will intelligence The brain shows


seems

later

chapter.
the for is
more
"

of
a

robin

crow,

like

brain

of

sparrow,

well be

developed mechanism
in the bird
awareness

thinking." likely an object spring


that

What

to

instinct

for quick thinking, an ability be gained. Before there are to


a

of
on a

an

end

or

leaves

tree

in the and

robin

flits from

limb
to

to

limb, looking
its
nest.

this way

until it decides
must

where

build

The

robin,meantime,

prevision the leaves that have not yet appeared. It must perform an accurate job of engineering in placing the in a safe position with nest regard to the wind and storm, and marauding land animals, and to its enemies to snakes of
the air. This
accurate

piece

of

engineering

is done

by

the

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

its sight,the impulses of which fall upon 'thinking" brain, where they are sorted and sifted until This is the same decision is made. by which a human process lism, being locates his house. The bird, with its high metaboits highlyorganized"thinking" of brain,its keen sense sight,thinks through its intricate problems in relation to the day, to rain and to storm, the seasons, to the night and in regard to food supply, in regard to placing its nest in a safe position, in regard to combating other birds, and in and migrating in the regard to bringing up its young robin's
sense
4

of

autumn.

In

all these

acts, makes

it would decisions.

seem

that other

the

bird the

surveys,

judges,and
of the but bird which
an

In

words,

destiny
exercise of its

is determined

by

what

is called
"

stinct" "in-

might
case

be

considered

"thinking" the
protoplasm

of

inherited in the

mechanism of
man.

fixed in the

as species,

68

exist

only
of the

in Africa.

In

our

collection all mammals

of African
was

animals in size

the
to

weight
that the

of this

tallest of

next

has hippopotamus and the elephant. The giraffe unique advantage of browsing on the foliageand young of the
trees
seem

shoots these

scattered
to

mimosa

and the

acacia

trees.

In and

height,
needs. the

fit

exactly they

size giraffe's

Since

these
trees
so

large
and
a

ruminants since

browse
may

exclusively on
18 feet in
cannot

tops of the

reach

they
since fail
to

have

wide

vision

that

they

be

height, lost,and
cannot
a

they
see

remain their

largely in a given area, the young of parents. Therefore, the evolution


have had the
no

voice

in the The African


man.

would giraffe

survival

value. and

giraffeis
animals. It is said

among

most
are

peaceful
the that

harmless

of

Its enemies
to
or

be

seldom

is attacked giraffe
at

killed

by

lion

or

lion,the leopard, and a full-grown, healthy calves a leopard. The

times

off of

is able to beat usually the mother with her powerful forelegs. The enemies greatest problem be the physical process the giraffe, of to then, seems
are

victims, but

moving from balance, and


In its
a man on

one

tree

to

the

other, the maintenance


from with lions. the

of its

protection of its young walk the giraffe moves dignified


the stilts, racklike action in
a

the

caution

of

of the

legs being

similar

to

that

of the

camel.

Living

type

of country

in which

there

is little opportunity for is

giraffe possesses
states, short

"by

reason

running, the only other gaitthe a lumbering gallop,which, as Maxwell1 of their long legs and comparatively
in
a

body,

results in

characteristic
seen

flourishingof
the
rear,

the
so

limbs, although
little effort do
to

realitywhen
great
the veldt." of the

from
move

with
seem

these

ruminants

that

they
due

be The

sailingover
extreme

wariness

is probably giraffe it
a

to

the

fact that
1

its watchtower
MARIUS,
a

position affords
Big Game
African
with

an

opportunity
in

MAXWELL,
with

"Stalking
on

Camera William

Equatorial Heinemann,

Africa,"

monograph

The

Elephant,

Ltd., London,

1925.

70

AND

PERSONALITY

to

apprehend danger.

When

herd, with seeming concerted makes its If taken by surpriseat close quarters, the giraffe its neck and head in an apparentlyeffortless gallop, escape
extended
back. and its tail twisted like
a

danger is sighted,an entire action,moves quietlyaway.

corkscrew

little basis one can see Theoretically, of fear,worry, anxiety,or anger in this great animal. hunted was ruthlessly by the native Formerly the giraffe exceeds that of any other animal in for his hide, which in Tanganyika, Now, protectedas he is from man durability. searches the giraffe inquiringlywith his gentle gaze
as

its high over for the development

to

the

reason

for man's that


was

The

big bull
of which and

pounds
stomach

approach. collected weighed 2,689 pounds,340 we skin;501 pounds, carcass; 285 pounds,
The fore and hind

intestine.

almost appearing unequal in length, were heart and weighed nearly weight. The shoulder neck the

limbs, although equal in length


II

and
head

neck
were

muscles
more

that massive the


one

held

erect

pounds. The the 4OO-pound


of the

and

than

those

lion,

the rhinoceros, or buffalo, head of the


as giraffe,

hippopotamus.
looks
up

The

small,but, viewed from an airplaneor from the ground, the head exhibits its great beast is lying on the horns to the tip of the nose, large relative size. From the face of our was specimen measured 3 feet. The forehead beautifullysymmetrical.The eyes were nent large and promiand bore a gentleexpression. The mobile ears delicate, 6 inches the were long and flexible; long. The lips were covered with thick bristles. prehensileupper lipwas The trachea was The larynx gave no evidence 8 feet long. of vocal cords, but above the larynx the hyoid bone and other bony structure completely protectedthe larynx and pharyngeal space, forming a framework, as it were, for the soft tissue that is related to swallowing and breathing.The 18 inches in length and, over rough thornlike tongue was like the upper With this grasping tongue was lip, prehensile.
71

it,appears above, when the


at

INTELLIGENCE.,

POWER,

lipsthe giraffe plucks his meals from the thorny The of the tongue made mimosa. currycomb appearance us if it is cleaning the body of offensive dust or debris wonder that makes lickingeach other a pastime with these animals. of the giraffe, The energy-controlling compared organs small. The adrenal with its body weight, were glands were only 20 per cent larger than the thyroid gland, about the that is found in most of the antelopes. same relationship
and mobile In the horns giraffe,
even are

present
of the

in both

sexes

and
are

make

their appearance separate from become

before

birth. At first they but skull,


are

the

bones the

in later

entirely life they


skin.

united

with

skull and

invested

with

see can no Although one present-dayuse for horns in the considers his long phylogeny,an adequate when one giraffe, is explanation for his keen eyes, keen ears, and keen nose

seen;
a

so

when possibly,

the

was giraffe

smaller
now

animal
appear

with
to

horns neck, the naked had survival slowly retrogressing shorter

that value.

be

72

THE

HIPPOPOTAMUS

giraffebelongs INASMUCH even-toed ungulates and the hippopotamus


as

the

to

the

first

family belongs
organs energy

of
to

the these

ninth

family, "cousins,"

comparison
their
throw is
a

of

the

energy

of

with

many

contrasting
our

characteristics,may
The

lightupon
streamlined
to

theme. that has the

hippopotamus
of
not

animal
own

advantage
and
water

having
are

bear

its and

weight
the

in the mud
a

that has

its

habitat,
its
own

is giraffe

land

animal The

that

to

support

weight against gravity.


water

hippopotamus
land. He

floats in the

during much
of his time amidst
to

of his

small life, spending a relatively


on

amount

foraging
luxuriant Since
man

the

lives in

tropicalswamp
table
no

vegetation, and
habitat is mud

his bountiful and water,

floats

him.
save

his
proaches ap-

land is
no

animal
water

him,
lakes
not

and

since there of the

open

except
and

in the fish do

and

stretches his

Nile,

crocodiles

share

may
to

inhabit the Since


swamp

surroundings,for although the hippopotamus the grassy marshes of the lake, he is adapted
rather than of the
to

the

water

or

the is

land.

the

weight

hippopotamus

and the buoyancy of the water than the giraffe, hippopotamus requires less energy and, like the rhinoceros and the elephant,has little to fear save Even when the hippopotamus moves of his swamp man. out habitat the land, he does not need to carry to forage on his

by

the

usually borne fluid mud, the

entire

weight, as
the fresh

do land
water

animals, for

he establishes swamps and

runways

along

leading into

the

chooses

legsneed only slide him along on his great belly. Often between the footprints of these great beasts be seen the groove that their huge bulk has may rubbed is the hippopotamus to along the ground. So averse obstacle that a slight an stepping over impediment is often
sufficient
to
cause

soft soil in which

his short

this

lethargicanimal

to

change

its

course.

73

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

Since made
up

the

rapidly growing vegetation

of the

swamp

is

largelyof water, the energy value of the food of of intake the hippopotamus per mass is low. The potamus hippotake in a vast must, therefore, quantity of fodder for growth, reoroduction, and to produce enough energy the securing of food. Since the hippopotamus must provide for an enormous for rough food and since he must be streamlined storage space in order to maneuver sufficiently through the mud to have his food, he would be such an animal to secure as, lives in a houseboat, figuratively by its speaking, propelled
own

motor.

the grass eaters important competitors among his vegetarian diet and share to having no carnivorous him for his flesh, the hippopotamus fights enemies to attack kind. Therefore, this self-building, only his own ing self-repairhouseboat of signalsor requiresonly a limited number

Having

no

lookouts We would other

to

guide him.
expect
that the brain that of the of the would

should be

hippopotamus
As giraffe. be the
most

simplerin

pattern
sense

than

in

marsh

animals, the

of smell

In the giraffe, in the buffalo and as highly developed sense. of hearing,sight,and smell would the antelope,the senses such be fairlyequal. Having vast a receptacle for fuel buoyancy storage, the hippopotamus, in order to maintain in his swamp habitat,would have a bony skeleton that is in contrast not to the long tibias of the giraffe, compact, hard and dense as ivory. which are as The hippopotamus that Dr. Quiring and Captain Hewlett collected was She weighed 2,978 pounds and was a female. which stillnursing her mtoto, or calf, weighed 1,200 pounds. The giraffe weighed 2,689 pounds. The thyroid gland of the the thyroid nursing hippopotamus weighed 118.79 grams; weighed only 64.70 grams. gland of the bull giraffe is the most Since the hippopotamus placid and least should have pachyderms, we aggressive of the African 74

AND

PERSONALITY

expected
have
a

bull

hippopotamus,

had than other

we a

collected

one,

to

smaller the
same

thyroid gland
weight. On

the

environment body heat by water the But body temperature. thyroid gland to maintain is a work phenomenon, and nursing a i,2OO-pound mtoto since the thyroid gland of animals enlarges during pregnancy and with the productionof milk, it was not surprising to find the weight of the thyroidgland of the nursing hippopotamus much greater than that of the bull giraffe. of

giraffeof approximately tion hand, rapid extracrequires a large

Of
milk

is the great significance


cows,

fact

that

the

standard-bred

such show

Guernsey,
The
grams,

adrenal whereas
grams.

Jersey, the Holstein, and the adrenal glands. a largerthyroidgland than glands of the hippopotamus weighed 61.10 the adrenal glands of the giraffe weighed
as

the

78.12
in

The

smaller the lesser

adrenal

expresses

gland of the hippopotamus activityof the hippopotamus

comparison
The fact and

with

that the

of the of

that

heart of the

giraffe. the giraffe weighed

4,990

hippopotamus 4,536 grams may be ascribed to the greater amount of energy required by the his weight againstgravity in comparison to maintain giraffe with the hippopotamus, whose weight is partly sustained by the buoyancy of his part-water medium. In the tropics, the size of the energy-controlling organs, the brain, and the thyroid gland, in particular, is limited of heatstroke. by the ceiling
grams

the heart

Because

warm-bloodedness

increases

the

speed of

ical chem-

animals have activity, the warm-blooded a great the cold-blooded animals. Since heat advantage over elimination is at the surface, the larger the animal the less is its for heat loss. facility the warm-blooded animals as Through natural selection, became the size of their brains and thyroid glands, larger, relative to their body weights, became smaller. Therefore, it is not surprising in the case of the giraffe and the to find,

75

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER, grams

small hippopotamus, relatively for the the and giraffe 723 has
grams
no

brains,namely, 700 for the hippopotamus.


there would be but

Since little

hippopotamus

enemy

in provision

hearing,but the hippopotamus, and water in its swamp environment, would find of smell important. Therefore, as we the sense expected, the olfactoryregion of the brain was more prominent in the hippopotamus than the ophthalmic or acoustic region. Of such little biologicvalue is sight to this placidpachyderm of the hippopotamus weighed only that the eyes is less than the weight of the eyes in a which 42.70 grams, weighed 127 grams. 94-pound impala. The eyes of the giraffe in having for comparison with fortunate We our are female hippopotamus a warm-blooded i,2OO-pound young
the brain for animal In from the the cold arctic
sea.

sight and

arctic the

walrus in the

has

the

same

relative the

status

as

the

hippopotamus
to

Like tropics. in the

hippopotamus
It does
not

the walrus

spends much
its

of its time

water.

weight against gravity and therefore Like the hippopotamus the walrus has no needs less energy. has Like the hippopotamus the walrus enemies. formidable
need support

stationaryfood
chase

and

engages

neither

in the

hunt

nor

in the

These have
one

two

animals, with
factor in The

so

many

factors

in common,

important

variance, namely, the habitat

hippopotamus in the tropicsrequires at for maintaining its body temperature little oxidation The walrus, in the cold of the arctic, requiresa large 98.6".
temperature.

76

THE

MERCY

SHOT

Lion

at crater

196

Yards.

"I

dropped
dawn

zebra
as

in

small

volcanic
next

and, after dissecting it, left it


I started
over

bait. The
gun,

morning crept along


crater

before

for lion. With until I the rim.


was

loaded
at

the

stony
look He

ground
over was

the

edge

of the

and

could

maned
and At
was

lion filled my
near

eye.

huge blacklying 196 yards distant


he had been with
on

the I

zebra
shot

upon

which lion nine

feeding.
a

196 yards,
I

that

times

Sauer

Mauser

and bullets, .30"06,using steel-jacketed found bullet had no penetrated a vital


was

ing dissectThe

organ.

animal A cubs of

killed
at

by

traumatic "I
was

shock."

Lion when

iS

Feet.

tracking

lioness
a

and

two

the bush.

track

turned
I

abruptly
came

into

dense

growth

thorn

Suddenly
of

upon

them
a

thicket

just eighteen feet


on

away.
a a

Making

lying in the quick calculation,

based
'the

my shoulder did
not

dissection shot'
move,

lion the

with
nor

evening before, I made " Holland Holland .465. The


a

lioness

did she make


the middle

sound.
of the

The

soft-nosed

bullet

had

entered

large shoulder,
of the of the

just below
great
nerve

the level of the

spinalcolumn,
within concussion

in the midst distance

trunks

and

spinal cord."1
Of all the animals shot and in this
manner one

in

our

collecting

expeditionsin
The brain of the in escape
every
or

1927

in 1935,

not

escaped wounded.
control drives
every every
ment move-

and

the

nervous

system
that

animal. attack. and lion

It is the brain Like


a

muscle
to

battery,

the The

brain

is wired of
a

muscle that

gland
a

of the
power

body.

brain
to

lion

is

to

what of is

the

plant

is

the

electric

lighting system
entire animal the

through
1

brain

city.If the brain is hit the power of the off. Therefore, a shot instantly turned death. The instant spinal cord is causes
diary, 1927.

Excerpt from

George Crile's unpublished African

78

AND

PERSONALITY

cable

that trunks

carries thousands
are

of

nerve

lesser cables. A of
a

in

nerve

trunk those

leg will
but

at

connecting wires,and the shot in the spinal cord or once paralyze the muscles
not

suppliedby
shoulder

nerves

will

kill the

animal.

The

shot

a is,in effect,

nerve

shot,for
sever

either the bullet


nerves or

passing through
the concussion The
nerve nerve

the

shoulder
or

will

the great animal. their

will disable cells of the

kill the and

brain

extensions,the

The delicate structures known. the most are fibers, cell is 1/2,500,000centimeter membrane surrounding a nerve of oil: it is thick,only the thickness of I molecule much thinner,for instance,than the film of a soap bubble. The films surrounding these cells hold electric charges.The of jellylike brain is a semisolid mass consistency.It is 85 in it is so securely encased Little wonder water. per cent bone.

easily of a highdisturbed. A blow on the head or the concussion the neighborhood of these infinitely striking velocitybullet, such violent agitationas to delicate nerve cause cells, may suspend their function temporarily.Therefore, a shot that does not penetrate the brain or the spinal cord but that vibration sends into it an overwhelming molecular may If an animal drops temporarily suspend its function. the first shot it is impossible to say at instantly when concussion. whether it is dead or only in temporary moment A high-powered bullet merely grazing the base of a horn or
It is obvious that
structures
are

these

delicate

the

lead the unwary top of the skull may delivered a fatal shot, for the animal may the

to

think

he

has

instantlydrop;

for a sometimes animal, immobile be charging or escaping the next moment. long moment, may Contrasting the impotence of the nine long-distance but shots with bullets steel-jacketed the from
a

apparentlydead

Sauer
a

Mauser
at

rifle
18

.30-06 with
feet with
we a a

overwhelming

effect of
a

singleshot
"

soft-nosed

bullet from

Holland mechanics

Holland of

have

'striking example

of the

.465, by killing
79

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

shooting. In

neither

instance

did

the

bullet

penetrate

of the lion. vital organ of the first In the case of nine shots of
were

effects lion,the total concussion required to discharge completely the of brain feet the cells. The second lion
was

hundreds killed

millions

instantly at 18 that spread from waves spinal cord to the completely detonating
cells. Above
so

by

the

powerful
nerves

concussion the

shoulder and

and
nervous

cent adjabrain

brain the

entire of

system,
of

hundreds

millions

all the

things,the
animal
cannot

hunter

endeavors wounded.

to

that

escape

place his shot Therefore, the

of the shoulder,just below the level high in the center of the spinalcolumn, is the "mercy shot." The vigorous activityof an animal after the circulation arrested of the blood has been by a heart shot has an scientific aspect. Mr. Leslie Tarlton, a famous interesting that the vigor of the big-game hunter in Africa, told me the vigor of the charge, after the destruction or getaway his mind, explained largely by the of the heart, was, to shot animal's
state

of excitement roused the


or

when

shot. If the would


go
move

animal

was

quiet and not shot through


he
was on

he startled, and would

little when

the the

away.

In

but if readily, or frightened, chased, he might bound alert, of a lion, however, he might charge case

heart

down

vigorously.
Mr.
a

Tarlton
was

made

practiceof
toward

not

lion that

coming
rifle

him.

firing immediately His procedure was


until the

at to

freeze made

and,

with

pointed,to
he

wait

lion had

his decision. the the


are

Then,

the lion, said, though wounded, established in his mind before

will continue he received Two

intention

shot.

important, (i) The complete heart shot be followed will not in an unsuspecting quiet animal by the the vigorous charge of the animal violent bounding away or anithen shot. (2) When that is first roused or startled, an
facts
80

AND

PERSONALITY

mal

has he

made is

decision
may

as

to

running
out

away

before

shot, he

carry

that been

charging decision,even
or

though
same

the
true

complete
of the of

heart

shot

has

delivered.

The

is the

boa

constrictor.

If its action

pattern

at

moment

then

the headless

body
action
motor

could been
were

had
car

decapitation is to coil and crush a man, less body will continue that intent. The headalter the intent, since the pattern of not established. It is just as if the gear of a
and
car

shifted the
motor not

then would

the

driver

met

neous instanta-

death;
action, and mechanism,
this last

execute

the

pattern

of

it could

change
of which is the

that

pattern

of action.

The with

by

means

the animal instantaneous

is endowed

superpower that steps up

output
power

of

renalin ad-

the the

brain,the heart, and

oxidation,hence the sympathetic nervous

of the

system.

81

12.

THE

CAT

FAMILY

FOR
energy

their size the lion and of energy than


any

the

tigerexhibit
known

greater

burst out-

other the

animals.

Taking
gorge

their food

fresh,the
of and kill the lion
to

lion and the the

tigerderive
their

the maximum the

content

flesh of

kill. After

both drives The kill

the them

lion and within

tiger sleep and loaf until hunger again (Fig. 5). must being dependent upon flesh, tiger,
intervals
most
or

certain that is the

starve.

Therefore,
has

the

carnivore the
one

powerful, that
best food becomes

the best scent,

most

stealthy stalk,the
will survive when

calculated

spring
The the

is the less

that

scarce.

fit lions and


more

fit will The total

be taken tigerswill finally reproduce their kind. number of lions


or

by

hyenas; the

determined the lions

by
and

the number

tigers hand,

are

is tigers in a given area of Herbivora, the stock of which constantly improving through

elimination On from

of the

less fit. the

the other

only

the

of its enemy

line breeding herd, through perfect fittest male, is continuallyraising the qualities Thus by starving the less fit lions and tigers. is established
a

the fiercest interaction the

between

the

herd
up

and
to
a

carnivores, resulting in
of

gradual stepping

maximum If
our

physicalfitness
of the

in all.

conception
find that

respective roles
lion and
are

of the

brainthen

heart-thyroid-adrenal-sympathetic system
we

is correct,

should

in the

in the
not

heart, and the thyroid gland antelope of equal weight.


the In the
supreme energy

tiger the brain, larger than in an


the lion" and the

effort of both
energy

tiger, all the available circulatingthrough the oxidation not only in the entire sympathetic nervous
82

is mobilized. stream,
causes

Adrenalin,
a

blood

flash

of

millions

of brain The

cells but

in the

system.

celiac

ganglia and

AND

PERSONALITY

the
are

celiac

plexuses of

the

sympathetic nervous
to

system

stimulated coincidentally
simultaneous stimulation

their

maximum adrenal

This

of the

activity. glands, the

I
IBH
FIG. 5.
"

A lion in the wild. Rasha


Pat

Rasha, Tanganyika.

(Courtesy of Frank

and

Anderson.)

celiac
nervous

ganglia

and

system speedingof the circulation


transference and
a

plexuses, and the entire sympathetic causes a powerful beat of the heart, a
of the

blood,a

mobilization

and

of the sugar from the liver to the blood stream, The result is a stupendous speedingof the respiration. for attack
a

output

of energy explosion than of

that

more

nearly resembles
a

an vulsion con-

act. physiological Following such there is rapid exhaustion. activity,

On
adrenal

this

premise,

we

should

expect

to

find

that

the

bear glands, celiac ganglia and plexuses would in the tiger a higherratio to the body weight in the lion and than in any other animal, wild or domestic, of comparable
size. Let
us now

turn

to

the

record.
in the

In man, in the wolf, and In the lion and the ganglia.

dog

there

are

two

celiac

tigerthere are clusters of celiac ganglia.In the lion and the tigerthe celiac ganglia equal the weight of the adrenal glands.This does not occur in any
other animal

that

we

have

dissected. On

each

side there

are

83

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

fibers between the eighty-two inter-communicating nerve medulla of the adrenal gland and the celiac ganglia and in the tiger. In no plexusesin the lion and an equal number the whale, porpoise, other animal elephant,buffalo, wolf, the 3,734 caribou,zebra, or thoroughbred horse among
"

animals and

that

we

have of this

dissected

"

have
to

we

found

the

size
to

complexity

mechanism the

be

comparable

that found

in the lion and

tiger.
most

Another
have

pointof
of

interest is that

of the wild animals

formidable

various but

types

the lion and


no

mechanism

and, therefore,have built up mechanisms muscular for running away, the tiger, oped having no enemies, have develfor running away. Their equipment is
enemies animals could be

for attack

only. It is inconceivable that these two that possess only an explosiveenergy mechanism adapted to a long pursuit.
Let
us see

if there

is

difference the
we

between

the

energy

equipment
Of the

of the lion and

fifteen lions that

tiger. studied,nine

were

bred

in

and six were collected in the wild state. This gives captivity the opportunity of comparing the brain-heart-thyroidus with adrenal-sympathetic system of a lion bred in captivity the exception of the that of a lion in the wild state. With lions taken in the wild state, all the lions that we studied, whether William bred in
a

semiwild

state,

as

in

one

from

Mr.

in a or Randolph Hearst's lion farm in California, This fact alone throws lightupon the goiter. zoo, showed effect of captivity. born in Zoo, was Prince, a lion from the Philadelphia adult middle-aged an captivityin 1917. The Bengal tiger, the largest tigerin America. It was jungle-bred, male, was imported when young, and, aside from an injury to an eye, all in excellent condition,although, like practically was Prince's dissection revealed a goiter. animals in captivity, goiterweighed 2 pounds. On the basis of their energy-controlling can we organs, of attack of the and mode throw lighton the personalities

84

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

Bearing on the high incidence of heart disease in civilized there is the man compared with that in primitive man, the size of the heart in a significant comparison between
"civilized"
Garden and lion taken from the

PhiladelphiaZoological
state.

another

lion taken

in the wild

This

suggests
upon
to

the the

effect heart

irritations

recurring frustrations and muscle of the lion in captivity,


frustrations
man

of

comparable
on

the

effect of the

and

irritations

the

heart

muscle

in civilized
power

If the the

size and

of the the
term

implied in qualities
in the world of

autocaptivity. heart were the symbol of of all the lion-hearted,"


"

in his

animals

comparable
be chosen.
term

size the It would

heart
seem

of the that is the

thoroughbred horse should the is implied by what


bravery
of the

"lion-hearted"

have is due to lion,which, as we seen, the size and complexity of its adrenal-sympathetic system. be The however, cannot adrenal-sympathetic system, counted to furnish bravery in all animals, because the upon and the quality of the action adrenal-sympathetic system

patterns
away
as

of the well there


as

brain
energy

or

"mind" attack.

furnishes

energy

to

run

to

Since brain with

is

nothing

characteristic heart of the

in the lion
as

size of the

and other

in the

size of the

compared

?" by "lion-hearted animals,what, then, is meant mechanism The possessedby the lion,which has endowed "lion-hearted" the qualitiesthat the lion with implies, of action patterns in the brain, which, is the mechanism mals, the anithrough millions of years of supremacy among has 86

characterized

the

demeanor

of the lion.

AND

PERSONALITY

The
The

Smaller

Cats

leopard
his prey and

is

seeking
rush animals native's

stealthy and cunning hunter, usually alone at night. A careful stalk,a lightning
a

spring
that he and

leopard'smethod prefersare the monkey


are

the

of attack. and

The the

baboon,
he kill,

dog,
are

the

smaller

antelopes

and
to

ostrich

chicks. takes

If animals their young. Next unlike distance

too

large

for the

leopard

in size the of

leopard in leopard, is geared


to

the

Africa is the
for
a can

cheetah, which, pursuit.


the than For
a or

swift
outrun

200

yards

the The the the

cheetah cheetah

the ostrich

the swiftest In form

mammal.

is taller than rather

leopard.
the
cat

it resembles and

dog family
open

family
The
cats. at

frequents
cat

plains.
of the stands
or

serval It

is the
to

handsomest

smaller about

African
18 inches

weighs
shoulder.

up

24
nests
are

pounds
small
spur

and

the

It

in anthills

in the and

dense such

bush,
game

and birds The

its favorite
as

food fowl

mammals

guinea
puma
next
or

and

fowl.

cougar,

popularly
New Like

called the
cats,

"mountain

lion,"is
the and
upon

to

the

largestof

World

resembling
stalks
can

female rushes

lion in appearance. its- prey,


an

all cats, the puma

unless, like largest,the


World

the

leopard,it
and

spring
most

it from

elevation. the New

jaguar is dangerous of the


in its

The

strongest,

the the

cats,
is

resembling
not
a

leopard
feeder.

spotted

skin. The
comes

jaguar
its way.

fastidious

It takes The

whatever

in the following table shows significantcontrasts size of the energy-controlling of an impala from organs Africa with a member of the cat and dog family,namely, a

jaguar and
The

timber

wolf.
on a

that attack in the cat family depends principle largeadrenal-sympatheticsystem for crisis energy and there is less need for
constant

that for

energy,

hence

less need

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

trated clearly illusof the adrenal gland in the rushing in the supremacy jaguar as compared with the smaller adrenal gland in the long-distance-running impala and timber wolf. Note the small heart of the rushing jaguar in comparison with the wolf and antelope. large heart of the long-distance-running wolf Note, also, the slightlylarger brain of the timber taken in the and cold the north
as

high-sustained activity of

the

heart

is here

contrasted in the

with

the

brain

of the

impala

jaguar

collected

tropics.

family the energy equipment is centered upon in order that energy the brain-adrenal-sympatheticsystem be mobilized quickly for a rush attack. This requires may a large brain and a large adrenal-sympathetic system. the In the dog family, for example, the wolf and, among and grass eaters, for example, the impala, both the pursuers
In the
cat

the

pursued
their

meet

their

fate

in the be
one

run

of

equipment
energy.

must

that

fore, Theredestiny. will produce long-

continued
a

This

requiresa largebrain,a large heart,


a

large thyroid gland, and


These
are

lesser

sized adrenal

gland.

the
state

of blueprints of the
cat

in the wild
eaters

energy-controlling organs family,the dog family,the grass

the

and

the leaf

eaters.

88

15.

THE

HERD

AND

ITS

ENEMIES

THE animals,
and flesh At tend closer
eaters

grass

eaters
are

and

the the

leaf
most

eaters,
numerous.

being primary
The food
grass

naturally
in

the

leaf

eaters,

turn,

constitute

the

for

the

eaters.

first
to

thought,

it would the find The flesh

seem

that and

the

flesh

eaters

would but
on

exterminate

grass

the

leaf

eaters,

analysis we
to

that
most eaters

the

flesh

eaters

help
of

the

grass

survive. Are
to

bacteria. bacteria the

the

deadly not collaboratingwith


the
grass
eaters
can

foe

all animals

is the

kill off and


appears
to

exterminate be

? do

Just
little

opposite

true, for bacteria


health. and Like hence the

against
carnivores

animals

in

vigorous
enfeebled

bacteria, the
the herd in

kill the
we

keep
in the

high vigor. Thus

see

benevolence
of the the

destruction

by
not

the But

carnivores

of the

menace

weak.

why
the and

do

the

lions,the wolves,
the of the members

leopards,the
the leaf
are

foxes ?

completely
weaker the

exterminate

grass

and

eaters

Since
grass
at

herds

leaf eaters,

by breeding from
of energy,

destroyed, the are fitness, kept


it continuously

the

highest possible level


more

making
and is
to
no

difficult for the wild


a

wolves,
the

the

lions,the leopards,
fleet-footed dole for him.

and food. He

the As

dogs
or

to
a

take wild The

keen-sensed
ages,

lion

dog
the

there

dies undefended. In order animal the


most to

hyena
grass

attends
eaters

his needs. in herds.


must

survive,

live

The
up

lone with the

would

perish. Even
that males herd. than shorter the herd the

the

newborn
are

keep
the

herd. Those
for fit,

multiply
compete,

not

only
to

fit but
for the

often

death,

post of leader
an

of the less
or

In this final

fight for procreation,


with
a

antagonist
bit weaker

perfectly brave,
or a

horn

the leave of its of

least
no

bit

more

brittle, may
the herd

progeny.

Thus

is afforded the

protection
is
a

ablest

member,

and

leadershipin

function

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

intelligence, power,
herd.

and

personalityfor
herd the

the

benefit of the

Why
there influence the his

is the
not
a

leader matriarch
one

of the of

always

male? female
may

Why

is

herd ? The male the

could

but

entire

whereas one offspring, herd, thereby endowing that have been

nate impregcrucible

with offspring in the

superior powers

tested

of battle. male breeding from one brings line breeding.If there be no are physical faults,no physical faults can magnified by a blood relation. Line breeding means a that the members of the herd are perfect strain. It means equal to each other and that in seeing, smelling, and endurance they can act as a unit. The fate of the herd can be left in the hands of a dull sentinel, for the herd is never a multiple animal, coordinated by a unison reaction. Herd

The

Correlation and

of the Muscle

Senses Special

The

grass
on

eaters,

leaf eaters,
to

and

flesh

wholly
their

their

specialsenses
for

control
or

depend by triggeraction
eaters

muscle

mechanisms

attack

escape.

The

vast
are

perfectdevelopment of the ear, the eyes, and the nose, as, for instance,in the zebra, the wildebeest,or in the antelopes or deer family is repregenerally,this development of the specialsenses sented by a correspondingly large brain, heart, thyroid out gland, and adrenal-sympatheticsystem. We found throughopment develdissections that the conspicuous and perfect our
a

preponderance of animals belong to the most highly muscled of all the If in a given animal there is seen

these

classes. These

animals.

of the

eye,

the

ear,

and

the

nose

carried

with

it

pathetic highly developed brain, thyroid gland, and adrenal-symsystem, a well-developed heart and arterial tree, and capacious lungs.
90

AND

PERSONALITY

In

our

dissections
we

of these found

running animals,
the middle of muscles

high-powered, long-distancethe long muscles beginning near


column

the

spinal

growing

wider

as

the

This the rump. superb muscle over passed down the most is adapted to make powerful and the most mass ward forcomplete contractions,thereby propellingthe animal with a high speed. airplane,battleship,or motor Just as a perfectlymade
car

will exhibit
to

harmony
whole

of

relations

of each
so

part

that
sense-

contributes

the

mechanism,
was

in

these
a

driven, bounding antelopes there


of
sense

exhibited
to
a

harmony
muscles.

and studies

energy

organs

in

relation

the

Our the adult


young

of herd

animals

also revealed

adrenal-thyroid pattern
state

throughout
found that the of the
to

uniformity in growth to the


behavior adult and of the member

and,
In

as

we corollary,

of the herd.

herd

analogous

of the
are

line-bred

animals

phylogeny
inherited from their

ontogeny

identical. The domestic animals


energy

have

this wild

identical ancestors,
to

adrenal-thyroid
but
serve man

pattern
this

has

modified

pattern
to

his purpose, domestic

although

the

through breeding biologicdisadvantage

of

the

animals.

Thomson's
The

Gazelle
behavior in in the
young

fact that
with
to

recapitulationof
that of the adult

is in

identical
contrast

line-bred
young

animals,
African

the

helplessnessof picture of
which
a

the

of man,

is well

illustrated uninfluenced Thomson's


up

by

three-weeks-old survival natural and


a

baby

by struggleand
gazelle in

three-weeks-old
had

selection

stepped
to

the
a

brain-heart-thyroid-adrenal-sympathetic system
Tommie able
to

such

point of perfection that this little unaided gazelle), by its mother, was
carnivorous
was

son's (Thomescape

from

the

enemies

of the
to

herd. This Mrs.

young

and

toddling antelope

presented

Crile.

Though

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,
to

only three weeks

old, it

had

been

able

keep

up

with

the pace of the herd. Observe the sensitive

face

of

this

little Tommie.

The

FIG. 6.

"

The

sensitive face of

young

Thomson's

gazelle. nostrils
an are

large

eyes,

the

wide-open
an

ears,

the

dilated

evidence

that

such

animal the

is

an

escaping,not
of its

ing attackis

animal, and
heatstroke. As
we

that

limit

speed

of energy

approached, this
of its

little Tommie

its limit of herd, until, reached in exhaustion,we found it,terrified and trembling, in the long grass. Mrs. Crile took it to her hut, warmed it,fed it milk, cared for it, worried about its diet, whether cold it was too it would too or hot, whether sleep better under her bed or

knowledge

leaped from all speed having been

out

in the open,
92

whether

the milk

should

be diluted

some-

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

weeks-old

of

rapid development of the simple brain of the Tommie and the long period development required in the complicated brain of the
are

native

baby

examples

of the

child.

The
The

Senses

extraordinary development of seeing,hearing, and baffles civilized man. animals No animal smelling among in such a competitive world as tropicalAfrica could exist unless its senses were acutely attuned. Native who mingles in the vast menagerie of freely man, powerful, fleet, cunning, and poisonous animals, could not without the possessionof keen senses. survive bering Large, lumanimals like the elephant, the rhinoceros,and the hippopotamus, protectedby strength and by thickness of hide, have no further use for eyesight than seeing their and the surface of the ground; yet the food, their fellows, of all herd animals senses are more highly developed than
in native The the each the
man.

predatory animal predatory animal in


survival of
man sees

must

kill
to

to

and live,
must

the
escape.

prey

of

order

live with

Thus that

speciessees, hears,and
these
senses

smells has

the

acuteness

afforded
sense

its

species.In
and

comparison
hears Africa and and
to

has lost

all his virtually

of smell

The only indifferently. finds himself


acuteness
as

visitor

collect animals
as

outclassed

coming to by natives
fleetness of

animals such

to

the

of his senses, teeth and

limb,
the

natural

weapons

claws, passive
of the
sun,

defenses

against heat
endure
to

and

the

fierce rays

and

to ability
we

thirst and
camp

hunger.
dissections
were

As
Rift

returned

after belated

in the

Valley,our
at

amazed

the

our we lighting way, from myriads of eyes flashing us

lanterns

always
grass,

the

the

high
in the

bush

about
eye
must

and

the

trees.

To

possess

survival

value, the

collect sufficient
more

brain.
94

The

dim

the

lightto lightin which

form the

images
animal

AND

PERSONALITY

prominent with the night feature of a fish is the largeeye. So is it, also, and small the owls, the night herons animals, especially that derive their livingat night (Fig.8). lemurs
lives the
more

prominent

the

eye.

The

most

FIG. 8.

"

Comparison

of eye

Python Elephant
"

1. 1 2
"

grams.

weights. Eagle 30.96 grams.


"

116.15 grams.

Lemur

"

3.70 grams.

largesensitive eyes of the line-bred animals, the antelopes,and the small eyes of a crocodile, especially or a venomous a snake, a turtle, porcupine,animals protected barb. In the latter or by size,poison, carapace, that they are the eyes are so hardly dull,so insignificant, noticed,and the small size of the optic lobe in the brain of sight of such animals indicates the low biologicvalue
Consider
the
to

them.

Thus

one

sees

the

development

of

sense

organs

"

95

INTELLIGENCE,
"

POWER,
to

seeing,smelling,and hearing and brain and muscle degree of perfection required to effect survival.
In dissections
as

that

the it is
to

eyes

are

accustomed
the the

dim

The marine interesting. eye, resembles the large eyes of light,


eyes

night prowlers. In
brain of and the that
even more was

fish the than four brain. the


eyes

often

weigh
a

more

than the and sected disof the

the times In
was a

liver. In that

mackerel heart
we

weight
five

eyes

of the

times the

of

the of

muttonfish nine times

that that

weight

brain. In
nerve

dissections and

we

have

found
eye

that
most

the

size of the

optic
size

the size of the the size of the

in

warm-blooded in the

animals the

indicate of the lobe


to

optic lobe
the ratio entire the

brain, and weight


the for

optic lobe and the weight of


animal

of the brain
sense

of the

the
upon

indicate of

optic ence dependand


sponds corre-

of. the
In the

sight

survival.
a

found a elephant we correspondingly small optic lobe with the fact that the

small in the

optic nerve brain, which


can see

elephant

scarcely

fiftyyards. of the brain of an animal The composition and contour or dile, crocodependent on a single sense, such as an alligator the composition and contour is entirelydifferent from of an animal of the brain dependent on an almost equal development
brains of these
as

of

sight, hearing,
and all the

and

smell,
and of leaf

such
eaters.
a

as

the The

antelope, the deer,


herd

grass

animals, instead alligatorand


are

showing
of

lobulation,
ray,

in the

the

primitive crocodile, the sting large optic


in
contrast

and

the lobes
are

shark,
and
a

composed
number and

and

acoustic Such the the


In

great

of

association

tracts.

brains small

rounded

symmetrical
of the

with

elongated primates
value the
man

brains shark in
man

and crocodile, the

the and

the sting ray, alligator, (Fig.9). there is


a

the
senses.

selective In

progressive loss of the special of these triggermechanisms of smell has deteriorated. Hearing sense
"

AND

PERSONALITY

is not

acute,

and

the

in the

eagleor
work.

the The

althoughnot so keen as sight, tinuous antelope,has a largecapacityfor consense

of

opticmechanism, includingthe
Thomson's

cerebral

Crocodile

15.60 grams.

gazelle 90.8 grams.

African
540

buffalo

grams.

Tiger
107.5

shark grams.

Sting ray 126.4 grams.


FIG. 9.
"

Comparison

of brain

weights.

in representation greater The and than

the

brain

that of any

of man, is therefore other animal.

relatively

table shows the body-weight-to-eye ratios following the brain-to-eye ratios in seven animals of comparable

seven weight representing

species:
97

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

It armadillo value value

is

significant
the of the the
eyes eye eye
to

that

in

the

highly

protected
the the low

turtle survival survival

and

are

smallest,
them in fish and

indicating
contrast to

high

of

to

the

the

bird.

THE

TECHNIQUE

OF

HUNTING

THE family hunt.


spring.The
This

members

of the The

dog family
members is

as

well
cat

as

those

of the

cat

of the
to

family
his prey

stalk and

greyhound
is

equipped
the

take

through
eye.

high-speed sprinting under


technique
the the coyote,

sole

guidance
that domestic the

of the

totallydifferent
and the and wild

from and

of the

wolf,

jackal, dog. The


of

greyhound
the The

is constructed
race

energized on
of of

pattern

thoroughbred

horse.

pursuit
or on

of

the fox

pack
is that

wild
a

dogs,

of

wolves,

of is

coyotes,
based The

of the

chase; this technique


of

the

exhaustion of the

of their

prey.

advantage
on

pack
and their

is that

rest,

relay, and
of the of

strategy,

the

one

hand,
to

the natural
herd. This

tendency
to

pursued
the
upon grass

to

circle back

back circling

eater

gives the dog family the

chance

close in

the

fatiguedvictim.

The such hunt

hunting dog, the wolf, the fox all hunt small animals but if they as mice, rabbits, squirrelsindividually, cient in packs or pairs the prey must supply a meal suffito
serve run

the down

pack. It
a

would More

involve
energy

economic would be

loss for used

pack
the

to

rabbit.

by

"pack than
to outrun

is contained did
a a

in the make
or an

rabbit.
a

Since

evolution

not

enough
theoretic

zebra number

dog large antelope, it fragmented the


successful
ones,

dog

into

of smaller in

namely,

the
are

pack.

Of

all the foes of game

Africa,the hunting dogs

preeminent. A lion returning from his kill will often be the grazing spot of antelopes, but the appearance near
wild The Success evolution

seen

of

dogs
cat
or

in

signal to all antelopes to leave. stalks,and springs. family smells,looks, listens,


a a

district

is

failure stakes

is

instantaneous.
on

In

the

cat

family
this
burst out-

everything
is the

the of

of energy

opposite

spring. Since the technique

of
99

pursuit

INTELLIGENCE,
to

POWER,

dog family, theoretically, would of one expect to find in the cat family the organs that is, the adrenal outburst glands,celiac ganglia, energy, and plexuses,relatively larger than the thyroid gland, the
organ

exhaustion

employed

by

the

of

constant

energy;
was

and

so

we

found
among

it. all the members

Of great interest of the

the fact that

the coyote, the wolf, the dog family,namely, the jackal, husky, with the sole exception of the greyhound, we found the adrenal glands only slightlylarger than the thyroid the fourteen in the dogs studied, whether gland. Among

tropicsor in the temperate zone, we found no domesticated dog except the racing greyhound that possessed adrenal largerthan the thyroid gland. glands strikingly The greyhound, like the cat family, is set for outburst Like the thoroughbred horse, the greyhound has energy. The been evolved as a racing greyhound and the sprinter. racing thoroughbred horse share honors in a record of speed all animals. that is unique among illustrated by the fact that in the Our thesis is beautifully

greyhound
cat

the and

pattern
the
same race

of the horse.

energy

system

is that

of the

family

In other

speciesvariation in the relative sizes of for by variation is accounted energy and plexuses. celiac ganglia, the thyroidand adrenal glands, of fear is the integration Keeping in mind that the emotion of the organism to flight or fightand that the millions cells of the deer or antelope are of brain and nerve instantly the apprehension of the wolf or the flared in oxidation at and is augmented wild dog, that oxidation by adrenalin of the body that are not sympathin, that all the processes needed in making the escape are completely inhibited,it understand is easy to why a thumping heart, trembling comprise the state limbs,staringeyes, a raging metabolism animals under the fear of the of these fleeing of integration pack. of the cat As the members family and the dog family
members in the
100

words, even among in the expressionof

15.

ELEPHANT

AND

MOUSE

The

Hunt

MAJI Mrs.
today
with the

MOTO

CAMP,

December

26,

1935.

[Extract

from

Crile's

for

"We had planned to go to Ngaruka diary.]1 in python, but last night the native boys came
that the

news

heavy
meant

rain that

they had night before


late

seen

fresh
out

elephant

spoor.

washed
a

in the

evening

herd
and

all spoor; this so of elephants had


were

leadingto our camp into the forest along the Rift wall. "Long before dawn they started and Captain Hewlett, with
Quiring, Mr.
at

crossed

the trail

going

north

"

the three

Chief

(my
and

band) husDr.
were

trackers.

Fuller,and
The word

I had

finished the 'a


a

breakfast

work

in the

laboratory when
was

native Tembo'

boys returned,
and that the
we moments, of the lake. On

much
*

excited.
Doctor5
a

Cutting

got it. After


drive of the forest

few

scurried
shore

were

off for

four-mile

along
we

the

the very

we

in

waiting. other man with a "Slowly, in singlefile, big gun, every trails through the thick thorn, followed the sandy game the and around large clumps of bush, around huge

outskirt

found

the trackers

trees, the great feet in each

gnarledbranches

of which

reached

at

least 75

over direction, giant logs,with birds screaming chattering, buffalo tracks everywhere, overhead, baboons

until rhino

finallya
country,
behind
at

snort too.
us our now a
...

and

scuffle warned

us

that

it

was

"Just
of which bank and

rose

the
was

escarpment
a

covered the its

with

thick

forest;just
was

feet

deep karonga,
down

dry. We
few loose

scrambled

sandy bed precipitous

over

there, right in the middle giant basaltic bowlder, rose


1

and a turn, rocks, then mounted of this sandy river bed, like a the black
mass

of the
W.

elephant.
"

CRILE, GRACE, Inc., New


102

"Skyways

to

Jungle Laboratory," W.

Norton

pany, Com-

York, 1936.

AND

PERSONALITY

"The
was

Chief told

me

later that

to

watch
out

Captain Hewlett
was

like
a

not

watching a detective speck of evidence that

work the

his clue. There did


not

Captain

examine:

FIG.

10.

"

The

elephant.

the

age

of the

spoor,

as

shown

by

the

of configuration
as

the

when the grass was footprint; this tree was its dryness;when
branch show If he would
was

last trodden

evidenced

by

that
were

scraped against,when that broken; whether or not any of these happenings him. old Tembo following. suspectedthey were said,he suspiciousof them, Captain Hewlett
rip bark
from the
trees
or

branches, he moved browse but instead would as along. noiselessly suspicious "Captain Hewlett felt that the elephant was but was he not of them as only always kept down-wind continually going deeper into the forest where his tracks would finally mingle with those of the buffalo. a "Once, while penetrating deep bush, they disturbed huge buffalo which, just in time, changed his mind about coming in their direction. A little further on, they heard the rumbling of the elephant's arresting and unmistakable
not

break

off

intestines.
the
exact
one

Captain

Hewlett

sent

native and
to

tracker the

to

locate
sat

down;

position.Captain of the boys climbed

Hewlett
a

Chief

tree

watch. 103

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,
turning. hurriedly re-

"Shortly, they
Old Tembo

saw was

the

barefoot located.

tracker With

rifles loaded

and

safetycatches off,the men tiptoed cautiouslythrough the head-high thick bush, Captain Hewlett constantly testing the wind by dusting ashes from his little bag. Across a dry river-bed, through heavy forest, over big logs,they made
last,standing at right angles to them, his great gray head facing the stream, was Tembo. He had down from the a just come precipitously steep dirt bank Rift wall, breaking a tree as his foot slipped,and was on
at

their way

until

his way

to

cross

the the

dry river-bed
Chief and
at

not

more

than Hewlett

fifteen feet first

beyond.
him,
it neither

When
was

Captain
the

spied
as

like

looking

top

of

black

wall,

the hind

quarters

nor

the head

of the

elephant was

exposed. "On tiptoesthey crept to within thirtyyards of the big a shot, but the long distance for a finishing pachyderm thick cover the risk of losing in too to run elephant was this distance the entire elephant could him. Even from
"

be seen, so thick of the elephant and


not

was

the

bush, but the top of the side


of the shoulder
were

the

top

clearly
to

exposed. For days


"

there
two

has

been

discussion of
as we an

as

to

how

kill the brain brain

elephant.The
shot and the the and the the heart

fatal shots

heart it
was

shot, but
necessary

elephant are the the are collecting


some

to
an

find

other

shot. As
at

.465 and muzzle,

.470 guns the Chief

have

impact
four
or

of 5,000

pounds
in

felt that the

five shots

quick

in the shoulder big nerves and they did. should kill by shock alone "From beginning to end, it lasted only a couple of minutes and, from beginning to end, the elephant did not twice his own length. In majesty and dignity the move succession in the

region of
"

great beast
wits with

made

his exit. It

was

as

if he had and

matched had

his

against those of Captain his defeat." resignation


104

Hewlett

accepted

AND

PERSONALITY

Dissection
The skin of the

of the

Elephant

beautifullyreticulated. It elephant was in color and blended soft slate-gray curiouslyinto the was and the rock. the dead foliage, landscape the green foliage, Looking closelyat the surface of the skin,one could see a These little grooves. of depressions beautiful interlacing or in bending. perhaps are for giving spaces for elasticity
"

A the skin

few

scattered

hairs

on

the

surface of the skin attested

ancient
was

phylogeny
there
was

of this great
a

pachyderm.
about white
an a

When inch

the and
a

cut

darkish
into

area

half in

which thickness, The skin seemed four

faded

rubberlike of the and

stance. sub-

bloodless.

The the

weight
knees

skin,
the

except
was tail,

that

of the

legs from

down

2,005
ears were

pounds.
enormous.

The

They
tusks

measured

3 feet

1 1

inches

by 5
entire where

feet

weighed 85 pounds. Their length was 67 inches, the length from the point spicuous inconthey emerged being 43 inches. The eyes were of the elephant,small. and, related to the mass
10

inches.

The

contribute nothing to the Obviously, better vision would present securityof the elephant.But the elephant would for especially would have little use an good vision. What elephantdo with the eye of an eagle? The elephantdoes not search for distant food or danger. His food is immediately before him. His enemies are only other elephants and man. On the other hand, the elephant has a most oped highly develsense

of smell

and

good

sense

of

hearing.
The front The

The foot hind


was

great foot
see

legs resembled round, measuring


was

Grecian
60 inches inches

columns.

in circumference. in circumference.
on

elongated,57
as

One
his foot

could
the

that

the

elephant placed his weight


if it
was

foot would

would

expand, and elongate as he drew


it
more was

in the

mud

the him

foot
to

it out, thus

allowing

extricate The

easily.
the indescribably adaptable and flexible,

trunk

105

INTELLIGENCE,
numerous

POWER,

muscles toward the

in

mass

being placed along the axis,increasing thus giving the beautiful conical, skull,
were

symmetrical shape of the great head. of muscle As in the rhino, the masses
in five
areas

concentrated the head and

of the those

body

"

that

which

moved

jaws and
muscular
was a narrow

which

moved
over

each

of the four

sheath

extended

the sides

stripof
around

muscle
were

The
to

abdominal

viscera

along the so largethat

legs.A thin, and bellyand there length of the spine.


it was that
necessary

place ropes boys might pullon them in unison until we dissected them free. At the point of freeing the stomach from the esophagus, found was no specialmechanism by which the animal introduced could have his proboscis to suck out water to himself when stated. The weight hot, as is sometimes spray and with their contents, of the stomach was intestines,
2,034 The and about

the segments

in order

the native

pounds. diaphragm
the
a

was

great

Around surprise.
up
a

the

sides of

at

base

of

attachment, running

distance

of muscle a mass that, at the point foot,there was of its attachment, was just over 3 inches thick. The chest capacity, compared with that of the rhinoceros, much the lungs weighed 306 pounds. was larger; line. It The heart lay low in the chest, in the median and measured in circumference weighed 57M 51 inches pounds. The wall of the aorta was extremely heavy and, in

comparison,
thin. I thrust For

the wall of the


my
arm

vena

cava

seemed

exceptionally
cancellous and skull. dense
to

into the

aorta.

the

most

part, the
was

bony

skeleton

was

and light,
The and the bones
very

this

that difficult
was

of the in the case true especially were directlyweight-bearing were


to cut
so

with firm

an

ax.

The
was

muscle
necessary

attached
to

periosteum
a

that

it

chop

it

off with

weight of the trunk, or proboscis, the skin,was without 264 pounds. The head alone,without skin of the and skin,weighed 625 pounds. The the trunk
hatchet. The 106

AND

PERSONALITY

head
entire

and

ears

and

trunk

weighed

510

weight of the head to 1,399 and fat,weighed The total weight of the muscles,fascia, in sections, was 4,365 pounds. This does not include the
weight of
The the four

pounds, bringingthe pounds.

legs from
235

the

knee

down.

pounds; the kidneys,40 pounds; section of the trachea, includingthe larynx, 16 small a pounds; and the salivaryglands,nearly 18 pounds. of the penisweighed 44 pounds ; the The pendulousportion internal portion, 25 pounds; and the testes, nearly 20 pounds. into the chest as followed the splanchnicnerve We up
liver

weighed

far

as

the
a

fourth small
at

rib,but
vertebra

better The

dissection

might

have

carried

film further.

splanchnicnerve
way

received the into the

additions

each
at

all the

down

through

diaphragm,
a

which

sheet

about

out point the splanchnic widened it entered ij-^ inches in width, where

celiac The

complex.

thyroid gland
in the
case

was

fused

and

lay

in

the

thoracic

opening, as
fat. African animal that

of the
we

hippopotamus.
collected little be
or no

In this entire

dissection

only
to

26

pounds
the
a

of

animals would

exhibit

neutral show

fat. The
most
quence consecrave

perhaps
lions of
we

inclined

fat is the

zebra. The

showed

little fat. As

of the absence it. In


our

the fat,incidentally, have found and found fat

natives

dissections in certain animals. heart of

constantly present,
organs

however,
the base wild

locations

in certain fat

of all
at

We
and

have
at

distributed

the

of the

distribution

fat, like

brain, is
brain The muscles The In
are

not
a

consumed

beginning of the aorta. This the special fats constitutingthe The of the in starvation. lipoids
therefore brain lose
are

the

vital structure,

constant.

heart of

muscle, the body,


a

like the does


not

and

unlike

all other

weight
that the

in starvation.

heart
our

vital organ. dissections we have


as a

is

found

pathetic adrenal-symglands,

complex

the whole, including

adrenal 107

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

is

enveloped
is also
a

in

there the the

orange-colored fat. In all special highly specialized fattyenvelope that


a

animals
encases

large nerve optic nerve


the is
a

trunks and

and behind

the

spinalcord. So, too,


fundus of the
a

around
site oppo-

the

eye,

retina,a specialcovering of fat is


nonconductor. In
as a

constant.

Fat

It is also cold

reservoir

of

surplus and,
In
mer sum-

potential energy.
under the skin

north, fat is protection against the


store

the

accumulated cold
in

hibernating animals, as a reserve fat largely disappears, then


autumn.

of energy.

In

this

sense

fat

is

again in the supplementary thermoreappears

regulator. the specialfat that covers the brain, But, theoretically, the spinalcord, and nerve trunks of the splanchnic nerves and adrenal the retina,and, in glands, the fat behind the fat in which the celiac ganglia and plexuses particular, embedded electric insulation. are as might serve the Against this,it might be pointed out that around base of the urinary bladder, at the base of the gallbladder, at the base of the intestines, at the hilus of the kidney, and covered not by the peritoneum, there is a white fat, not
the

specialized type
situations

of fat found is

in the

nervous

system.

In

certainly little or no genesis of but these radioelectric positions are chemically energy, The fat found vulnerable. in these mals positions in all anicould serve a as physiologicprotection against the chemical penetration and infiltration of bile,urine, and
these intestinal What the size
contents.

there

does of

the evidence the the

show

as

to

the

relation

between

brain-heart-thyroid-adrenal-sympatheti
behavior characteristics of the

elephant? brain of the elephant weighed 12.59 pounds and, The with the exception of the brain of the blue whale, is the largestanimal brain in the world. The brain of the elephant and the intelligence, personality of the power, expresses elephant.
system
1

and

08

INTELLIGENCE, The adrenal

POWER,

gland weighed 2.07 pounds; the thyroid gland weighed 1.89 pounds. Except in of the arctic, larger adrenal glands than thyroidgland is the pattern of the leaf
and the
grass
eaters

the world

over.

The from other

elephant needs
the
swamp

and

crisis energy for extricating himself for climbing the mountain side in
"

words,
energy

for

meeting

the

mechanical

vicissitudes

of his

daily life.
The involved principle shall
mouse see more

in the

mechanism

of the

elephant we
of the the adrenal

clearly by comparing
that of the times
as

the mechanism the


mouse

with

elephant.In

large as the thyroid gland. This is a pattern of insecurity. Although the mouse is a well-adapted animal, it lives a very precarious life. The mouse represents the highest degree of adrenalism gland
known. Because of the of the

is nine

largesurface
rate

in relation

to

the

body weight

is many cooling in the mouse that in the elephant. Relatively, the times greater than brain of the mouse is much larger than the brain of the and 1:1164 elephant, the ratio being 1:33 in the mouse stroke the elephant. In the elephant it is the principleof heatthat limits the size of the brain-heart-thyroidmouse,
'm

the

of

adrenal-sympathetic system. The elephant is slow; the


in the
energy

mouse

is
two

quick.The
in the

difference
to

tension

of these
per

animals
mass mass

is due
mouse

the

high
The

rate

of metabolism
rate

unit

of

and

the low

of metabolism is
mouse

difference

cooling in the elephant.

elephant. for due primarily to the great facility for cooling in the and the low facility
per

unit of

in the

Comparing
of 300
movements

per

with its heartbeat high-tensioned mouse, with its nearly glacial minute, and the elephant,
the an'd its heartbeat of the from
mouse

of

28

per
two

minute,
years,

we

find that

that

the life span

is about

and

of the

elephant
no

eighty to ninety years.

FISH

KEY

WEST,
as our

Florida, the
held

first cabana

on

the

beach

served

laboratory. Benches
our

inside and

this

provised im-

laboratory large scales


barrels
swung

small
eaves.

scales On the

supplies.Our
stood
two

over

the

porch
on

filled with stood


our

formalin

solution, and
and

the

smooth

sands As

8-foot
out

table. dissecting the


ocean

we

looked

upon

beheld

vivid

ning lightstream

pierce the sea and contemplated the constant and the land and of electrons striking the sea the clear sky, the tropicalsunlight,with observed
rays,
we

when

we

its ultraviolet of gen nitro-

visualized

the

untold

numbers

fixations showers of
as

continually taking place through lightning, free electrons,and ultraviolet light.


roots

Just
nitrates Sea the
as

the in the

of

plant

life and

Azotobacter
sea

utilize the

so soil, plant life

in the

utilizes nitrates. contained in

water

contains
sea

in solution

all the

metals

soil. The in the


case

is soil in

of the in the in the for

solution,and to this soluble soil, land, there is constantly being added


of nitrates. could well form
sea

fixed The
as

nitrogen
nitrates food

form

organic molecules
These ultra-

basic

ultramicroscopic

forms.

life would then be microscopic units of plant and animal subject to struggle and survival, building up living units of increasing size and of increasing power until such a unit would be largeenough to be classed as a "lowest" form. The varieties
as are

of

plants

and

animals

would

seem

to

be

as

inevitable

the

physicaldifferences
and
to
seem

in the of

variables the
energyas

of

temperature

and

moisture,
would and bones its

evolution be hair it is
as

controlling organs
evolution When
power
a

inevitable and

the

of teeth

and

special senses.
the
prise sur-

river overflows

banks,

of

gravity

fills every

surprise that depression:equally,it is no


no

that the force of

sunlightand lightningfillsevery
in

energy

INTELLIGENCE, niche in the world of the


are as

POWER,

living. Therefore, it
many

should

be

no

surprise that there brain, the

variations

in the size of the and the the


sea

heart, the
system there blanket the land. of oxygen
I
or

thyroid gland,
the
wave

adrenaland
on

sympathetic
the
in

in
are

animals

in and

land the
sea

as

lengths
falls

chemical

units

great and
amount to

of

life that

continuously upon
fish in the
water
sea pared com-

the

The limited

available
cent

to

the

is

the the

per

of oxygen of oxygen

in the in the

with
to

20 on

per

cent

air available

the The

animals

the land. the fish is about the


same as

gravity of specific specific gravity of the sea fundamental advantage


warm-blooded whereas the
water.

the
a

water.
over

Therefore, the
land animals their in
own

fish has that

the

land

animals

must

carry

weight,
of

the

weight
In

of the fish is borne fish attack


or

consequence,

by the buoyancy develop neuromuscular


escape

mechanisms maintenance Since


oxygen

primarily for
the
power

and

not

for the

of the warm-blooded of the in the

state.

fish is limited
we

by

the

amount to

of find
a

available

water,

should

expect

small

development of the heart and blood of the capillaries size in fish. The especially,
vary

vessels of the
of

and,
brain
muscular neuro-

should

in

accordance that

with

the

number with

patterns, of the The


sea.

is,in accordance
the great

the

activity
of the

animal.

jewfish is

not

found

on

highways
the

It is found

down

the blind

Like alleys.

lobster,the

turtle, the
rather than

alligator,the
a

crocodile, the
His build the

hunter; he is
an

stillfisherman. active

a jewfish is not is for a stationary

life. Therefore

ratio of the

brain

weight of the inactive jewfish to its body weight would be that of an active, aggressive, expected to be far below hunting shark. of a the energy-controlling mechanism Let us compare jewfish with that of a sand shark of approximately the
112

AND

PERSONALITY

same

weight,
We

as

the

ratios

express

the

energy

characteristics

of each.
see

in the

brain
in the

in the

following table shark as compared


"

strikingpreponderance of with the weight of the brain


a

jewfish

as

strikingas
two

the

difference

in the

behavior

characteristics

of these

animals.

The and head floats The and that hence has the

green

turtle
armor

of

the

sea

is

protected by
withdraw which the

complete
and lives

efficient and
to

into which of the

it food

can on

its neck turtle

feet. Much it.

great

advantage
that

that the

the

turtle has

has

over

the

shark air
"

jewfish is
a

turtle

lungs
with has

and

breathes the

has the

high
blood

concentration
"

of oxygen.

When
oxygen,
to

lungs
turtle
on

"

is well than in the


a

saturated
a

the

greater

power oxygen

fish that
water.

depend
of the

the

attenuated

The

muscles

turtle,
the

therefore,exhibit
muscles The turtle of
a

greater

capillary circulation large


for volume muscle
state

than

fish. heart and the


not

large
are an

of
power

blood
or

in

the

adaptation
of the
to

for the

maintenance
stores

warm-blooded sustain the

but

for

providing submerged following ing weighpounds reptile


peting Com79

of oxygen of food. A

turtle

while

he is the

in search evidence:

This

turtle

point is supported by weighing 150 pounds had a


a

brain

5.81
had
a

grams,

whereas

sand
grams.

shark

weighing
to

brain

weighing
unlimited

50.03
oxygen
a

Though
has been

is available minimum
use

it, the

evolved

toward

of oxygen.

against other

reptilesand

against the

warm-blooded

INTELLIGENCE, mammals

POWER,

of inaccessibility and a minimum by means food maintains supply, the reptile only a pilotlightof energy. The fact that reptiles evolved for negativityand fish are for positivityis shown in the following table, in which reptilesand fish of approximately the same weight are contrasted.

Although
in the world

fish and

are

the

most

numerous

vertebrate of the
to

animals

occupy

three-fourths

earth, in their
I

struggle for
cent

existence tension
to

they
in

are

limited
to
20

from
cent

to

per
sion ten-

oxygen

contrast

per

oxygen

available because

warm-blooded
at

land

animals.

Therefore,

the fish has

its

disposalfar
we

the warm-blooded of the

animal,

should the

than has less oxygen expect to find the size in


a

brain, the
than fact in
a

heart, and
warm-blooded

thyroid gland
of the
on same

fish

smaller This

animal table

weight.
are
a

is illustrated of

in the

page

115, which

presents
fish and In

comparisons
a

two

groups,
same

in each

of which

mammal

of

nearly the

body weight.

is the universal animals, heatstroke that limits the size of the brain, the heart, the blood ceiling warm-blooded

volume, and
114

the

thyroid gland.

AND

PERSONALITY

In The
are

the

fish gill-breathing

size of the

brain, the
on

ceilingis just the opposite. heart, the thyroid gland of the fish
the of oxygen
as

dependent
is
no

the

concentration with fish

in the

water.

There
water

problem
heat

to

heatstroke,
faster

because air of

abstracts
same

twenty-seven

times

than

the

temperature.
is
a

There than
organs
are

greater

concentration

of oxygen

in cold

water

in

warm

water; fish and cold the

therefore, the
power

energy-controlling
the
warm

of the

and

personality of
arctic than beaches in the
stream

fish

greater of the

in the Gulf

water
on

of the the
oxygen

in the

water

Stream;
holds
more

shallow than

where

the

bubbling
of the

water

still waters than in the

marsh;
blow

in the in in

rapid
water

mountain which the

quiet river; and


winds than winds. fish beneficent In such

over

the

constant

trade of these

water

outside

influence

habitat
trout

is the that

sting ray, with shallow, foaming water


as

the

its batlike of the mountain surface of


a

wings, whose
stream,
water

beaches, in the
and fanned

is found that

in the swims

tumbling
near

in the

tarpon

the

by
a

winds, one would expect to find largerheart, a largerthyroid gland, and one
chromaffin Increased

the trade

larger brain,
may suppose

more

tissue,the forerunner
and oxidation.

of the adrenal of oxygen oxidation electric


power,

glands.
in the confers

concentration

constancy Increased

water

give increased
electric increased

increased
executes

potential. Increased
nervous

potential
hence
a

and

muscular

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

quicker strike,a more powerful rush, a better game therefore a higher ratio of energy-controlling organs
be found
trout

fish;
should

in the salmon

fish of the than

cold

north

and

in the

mountain

and

in the

sunfish, the sucker, and


dim

the

carp.

The

marine
on

eye retina

deals

with the

light,which
of the
eye,
amount

is

trated concen-

the

by
the
to

large lens. The


the

characteristic
which is

is
set

the

pupil prominently so
The
most

wide

and
as

large size

catch
sense

greatest

of

light.
in

outstanding
in fish may

in fish is that
the
rest

of smell. The of the brain

olfactorylobe
size,and
This the

approach
are

olfactorynerves emphasis by evolution


when in
one

the

largest nerves
the that

in fish.

upon

olfactory sense olfactory lobe


in the

is

easily understood
animals, except

considers of man, the

in terrestrial is

the

case

highly developed and especially in


that stimulate
as

in all the

large mammals,
The
smell

ungulates,
emanations
are

the

carnivores.
sense

chemical
in

the in the
to

of

the

water

alleven

pervading,
greater
scent

air, and
it is
more

the
to

sense

of smell
on

is of

value

fish than the


water

animals

the

land,

since

permeates the

evenly than

it does

the air. the

Like
scent.

wolves, foxes, and


substance

dogs, pursuing
that is the
this

fish follow

The
excreta

chemical

basis

of

smell is the

is the
tion secre-

of fish. In land of the skin and

animals

substance
no

the feet. Since the

fish have

sweat

or

oil,
the

only
scent.

the

excreta

and and

intestinal

tract

scent specialized from organic matter

glands about
the outside

give
the With

The

internal

ear

of the
appearance

fish is within of
a

the

skull,near

brain, giving the


the

exception perhaps of delicate balancing mechanism


mechanism
or ear

sounding chamber. monkeys, fish require


than mammals. The
in the lies loose

more

ing balancchamber from

small in
ear
a

"stone" fish. After

of the internal the

removing this
an

stone

cavity of
116

the

and

replacing it by

exact

counter-

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

well To

as

to

the

connective

tissue

that

divides that
are

the
emerge
nerve

plates.
from muscle

94 plates are supplied 94 nerves the spinalcord. Thus, in the ray, there

these

188

I Brctchictf | plexus

Vertebral
column

Spinal
nerves

FIG.

12.

"

Nerve

supply to flapperof stingray. end


nerve

mechanisms,

each

with

an

organ,

driving brain,
energize
a

conducting spinal cord, muscle plates. It is as


muscle We control found
were over

and if
an

fibers that had

the

eagle
of the
to

each the

feather

of the

special nervewing.
rays

that

brains relation

sting

that

we

lected col-

largerin

their

brains 500

of any other fish except The large brain of the grams.


to

body weight than the those that weighed under


sting
ray is related
use

not

only

gross 118

power

but

also

to

finesse in the

of many

AND

PERSONALITY

muscles
to

in the

execution
content

of coordinated
on

action shallow

as

well

as

the oxygen

of the foam the

the

beaches.

The
to

finesse of the that

flapperof
of the

of the trunk of of

stingray may be compared of a elephant,which, consisting


move

ninety-fourpairs of fingerson each hand would be an equivalent in man. action muscles Numerous require numerous patterns action : numerous necessitate, (brain patterns) patterns accordingly,a larger brain, for the size of the brain, like
the size of but
a

large number development

muscles,

can

in any

direction.

The

comptometer,
to

is related

not

alone
acts

to

gross

energy

also

the

number

of separate
as one

performed.
expect
needed

The from
to

thyroid gland
the size of the

of the

sting ray,
and the

would
energy

brain

constant

action of the ninety-four pairs of supply the constant muscles, is also large in comparison with the thyroid gland of other fish.

The
A

Electric

Ray

and

the

Sting Ray

comparison of the sting ray with the electric ray is The stingray, as we have stated, has ninety-four significant. pairs of nerves leading to the ninety-four muscular ments segof the flappers. The electric ray also has ninety-four of the pairs of nerves leading to the different segments difference and between the sting ray the flappers.The electric ray is that, in addition muscular to contraction,
the neuromuscular electric energy. muscles in the mechanism This of the electric ray generates electric energy is transmitted the to

The electric ray, instead of escaping flappers. its electric by swimming or by hiding in the sand, uses mechanism as a defense by giving electric shocks to energy the animal that attacks it,for the speed of the electricity generated in the electric ray is greater than the speed of action of the muscles that close the jaws of the attacking Therefore, the discharge of electricity instantly enemy. disarms the attack. This circumstance is in harmony with
119

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

the

electric in conception that all animals are essentially the sting ray could not not have so nature, for if they were converted brain from
a

been The of the has


a

muscular

to

an

electric mechanism. each brain


same

stingray, as stated, is largebecause ninety-fourpairs of nerves emerging from the


mechanism the brain that has of its
own

of the

in the

brain.

For

the

reason,

muscles
own

of the electric ray is large, for each of the been converted into an electric cell has its in the brain. The
was 1

mechanism

ratio of
1209;

body weight

to

brain
ray

weight
was

in the The

sting ray
need the

that

of the electric

1:441.
to

of

constant

muscular-electricof electric energy to by the comparable for the

energy

maintain the

sting ray
ray
to

and

maintain ratios of
ray,
1 :

electric

is shown

thyroid gland

body weight, 1 : 9989


the
energy

sting
richly

11897 f"r the electric ray. where Thus, on the shallow beaches
with

water

is

mixed the

air, evolution

raised

the

and

increased

The batlike ray, energy-controlling organs. living at the shallow edge of the sea, where the trade winds blow and the waves mix the rich oxygen content ceaselessly has been of the air with the water, adapted to a greater than is possessed by other fish. The supply of oxygen of the tide and the trade winds brings about a constancy constancy constant,
in

size of the

of foam
water

waves

and

foam.

The

trade

winds

being

is constant,
is

increased and

the

constant, of the

atmospheric oxygen the and larger brain


with its increased

higher
muscular

metabolism

sting

ray,

Thus the tides and the constant. activity,are trade winds are for the exceptionally largebrain, responsible large heart, large thyroid gland, and rich blood supply of the sting ray as compared to other fish. have two mals aniIn the sting ray and Thomson's we gazelle animal far removed from each other a gill-breathing and a animal and a lung-breathing animal, a cold-blooded warm-blooded animal. The sting ray in his foamy habitat that of oxygen has such an exceptionally high concentration
"

120

AND

PERSONALITY

it is able

to

operate

mechanism

almost

as

complicated as
by
the the fact
two

that of the Thomson's

This is evidenced gazelle. also the thyroid glands that the brains and in of nearly equal weight, as shown animals are

of these

following

comparison:

thyroid gland of the sting ray and Thomson's gazelle are of nearly equal weight, the work they do is of unequal value, through the operation of van't HofFs law, that with every degree centigrade of rise the speed of chemical in temperature activityis increased Although
the brain and the
10

per

cent.
were

We

fortunate

in

the swifttropics of the same sloth is one of The flowing Restigouche River in Canada. the most it occupies negative of all animals. For inactivity about the same scale as the place in the warm-blooded does in the cold-blooded scale. It is not alligator possible the intelligence of the warm-blooded sloth and to compare Nor the cold-blooded salmon. is it possibleto estimate the brain of the sloth that is required to portion of the 23-gram its warm-blooded spark the oxidation needed to maintain
state

the a sloth from collecting from weight as a salmon

American

and

its limited

and intelligence
to

muscular the

It activity.

is the

reasonable, however,

think

that

greater
to

part

of the

weight of the brain of the sloth is used


the sloth and

maintain

body temperature. In this comparison between have an excellent example of


of the brain
power,

the

salmon

we

the fact that

the

primary
sustain
121

role

is

to

maintain electric

the

body

temperature,
to

muscular the

and

the

strain

necessary

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER

livingprotoplasm of by determining the

the

body.

This

point could
of the
two

be clarified
animals.

basal

metabolism

of the porpoise and a tiger shark, two occupants Ocean Atlantic having approximately the same weight, we found of an example of the influence of the concentration the size of the brain,the heart, the volume of the on oxygen blood, and the thyroid gland. In
a

These

two

animals
state

represent in the
sea.

the

warm-blooded The

and

the

porpoise, a lunganimal, although livingin the sea breathing,warm-blooded of slower in the midst ously. swimming creatures, lives dangerIn constant danger of drowning, the porpoise brings its young into the world, suckles them, and protects them the piratesof the sea. of sharks in the presence Immediately after the death of the porpoise we made an
"

cold-blooded

incision

in the It

smooth

skin

and

inserted

clinical thermometer.

of human registeredthe normal temperature 98.6". The layer of pure white blubber varying from % Q recalled the thick inch in places to 2^-2 inches in thickness the in the rhinoceros, the hippopotamus, and skin found

elephant.
In the
to
case

of the African them

animals, the thick skin heat; in the


case

serves

insulate
"

against external
animal
to

of the
sea
"

porpoise
the medium

warm-blooded
serves

livingin
the

the

cold heat

thick

skin colder
as

preserve

internal

in

than
water

air. abstracts heat twenty-seven that times returned


a

Inasmuch faster
to

than
sea

air, the warm-blooded


would be

mammal
a

the

equipped

with

larger brain,

larger

122

AND

PERSONALITY

Shark

Porpoise

Brain

1735.69

grams

Heart

291.5

grams

Heart

737.5

grams

Thyroid gland
12.73
grams

Thyroid gland
18.29
grams

Adrenal
10.41 "Fie. 13.
"

glands
grams

A comparison of the energy-controlling organs

of

shark

and

porpoise.

123

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

heart, a largerthyroid gland, and


than the
to
a

greater

volume

of blood

mammal

abstraction
use

such

corresponding size on the land. It is of heat by water that enables the porpoise without high degree of constant energy
of the

of

heatstroke. In the that and the dissection muscles


were were

porpoise it
of
a

was

at

once

evident

those

mammal.

In from

vascularity
those and of
a

in color

they

different strikingly muscles of


a was even or
a

fish. The than The that

color of the

richer zebra.

darker

of the muscles

lion

thyroid glands lay in the usual mammalian position and were connected by a slender isthmus. The weight of the Not until we the saw thyroid glands was 18.29 grams. adrenal did we glands, which weighed only 10.41 grams, tain to mainfullyappreciatethe continuous activitynecessary the high level of mammalian oxidation in a cold sea. Outbursts of activity would benefit the porpoise. The not porpoise requires an exceedingly high level of constant oxidation. Therefore, activity, supplemented by emergency the porpoise needs a large brain, a large heart and blood smaller volume, a large thyroid gland, and, as in man adrenal glands. Dissecting out the brain and the pituitarygland in the the brain out of almost difficult as chiseling as porpoise was its bony case brain of the porpoise in the elephant. The It was strikinglylarger than the weighed 1,735 grams. of 1 185, human brain and had a ratio of brain-to-body-weight approaching the ratio of the brain-to-body-weight of man. The energy requirements of the porpoise are above those
bird or fish,since the land animals land animal of any or and the birds and the fish do not have to travel to get their breath. In order the
to
secure

its prey,

the

porpoise

must

compete
aeons

with

shark, the
been
to

the barracuda. sailfish, under the

For

the
to

porpoise has
surface

ming necessity of swim-

the

fillits mammalian life.

lungs. It is

as

if

the

porpoise ran
124

uphillall its

THE
.

HORSE

FAMILY

WE
animals

HAVE some as

now

completed
which
are

our

studies
ancestors

of the
of

wild such

animals,
domestic

of the

the

horse, cattle,sheep, swine, and


and

fowl, which,
modified
man,
tion. muta-

through breeding by
we man.

domestication,
influence of

have
as

been

In these
to most

domesticated the

animals,

in civilized

expect The

find

hybridization and
of the
seen

outstanding examples
and mutation
are

influence horse and

of in

hybridization
civilized The
cattle
man.

in the

antelope, the
possess

deer

family, and
of
the

the

wild

ancestors

of

horns
sole

for defense defense the


over

against their enemies, the


horse endurance the horse is its

carnivores.

The have has

speed.

So

effective that he

been

speed
most

and
of

of the

horse
In

spread
the

grazing world.
goes

geological time forty-two million


The alone. horse

record

of

the

back

about

years. sole animal

is the

that
to
us

man

has
our

bred

for energy into the

It therefore

occurred

in

research that and


the

energy-controlling systems
modification the
in

of

animals

long-time

the

intelligence,power, by
man

horse, effected
means

through
for man,

personality of breeding, offered a


for the

unique
we

of

testing our

thesis. If it holds and

horse,

may

expect
mam

that

it will hold

especiallyfor

civilized The
are

types
ass,

of horse
or

bred

and

adapted
the mule.

for

carrying burdens
type type and of horse of horse

the

the

burro, and

The

bred bred horse.

for for The


man

drawing loads is the Percheron. riding and light harness is the


horse famed
in
romance

The saddle

trotting
ion compan-

and in war,

the fiction, is the Arabian

of The
in

in the

desert

and

horse.

horse
contrast
or

bred
with
race

for centuries

for short-distance
is
a

long-distance endurance,
The Shetland
pony,

speed only, the thoroughbred


native

horse.

of the

126

AND

PERSONALITY

cold, wet
exists

Shetland

Islands,is
runner,

used

as

circus the

horse.

The

zebra, a fast and furious


in great

mingling with
lions and

antelopes,
Carnivora

numbers

among

other

that

always

seek the

its flesh. horse


a

Because

validityof the at long last to


organs
we

family presents conception in our energy a study of the pattern


of these various
1

fair

test

of

the

we thesis,

turned

of the

trolling energy-con-

types

of horses. To
were

that

end

burros, mules, work horses, hunters, saddle horses,polo horses, western tucky stallions,Kenponies, zebras, Arabian ponies, Shetland foals,and fetuses. thoroughbreds, newborn
23 For
was an our

studied

horses.

Among

these

purpose,

we

tested these data for horses for slow with bred


power,
more

to

see

whether

there

energy

formula bred

for

carrying a pack;
as

another

for horses

such

the

work such with

horse; another
as

for horses horse and and

mobile

energy,

the

saddle

hunter; another

for horses

great endurance and such We wild cold


upon

another
as

the

such as the Arabian; gentledisposition, for horses with great speed or explosiveenergy, thoroughbred. these various

also contrasted zebra north of the


to
see

types of horses
the the Shetland influence
pony

with

the

hot

tropicsand what might be


mechanisms. the

of the

of climate

their energy For thousands


man

of years

horse

has

been

developed

through breeding selection. Breeding selection by man partlysuspends the law of natural selection in the wild, such as is effected in the lion, the tiger,the leopard in fact, in all the carnivores, the rodents, and the hoofed
"

by

animals. In the the natural selection has


are

there herbivores, of those that

imposed by the carnivores upon nation always been involved the extermiin muscle and the least fit leaves
most

weakest

in

the

special
with the

senses;

therefore,natural
senses,

selection

those

keenest
to

the

fleetest

feet,the

minds intelligent

reproduce

their kind.

In this selection 127

the

carnivores, unlike

man,

did the
was

not

impose
future.

selection

as

calculated

advantage
the

for

long

The

immediate

necessity of the carnivores


In

food.

breeding
calculated needs

horse,

man

imposed
contribute

on more

the
to

horse man's

tions condiown

in effect
to

to

future

than

his immediate of the

necessity. Therefore, in
bred the horse
not

his selective
alone
to

breeding
but
to

horse, man
kinds

for energy
man

for the

of energy

most

calculated

help
In

survive.
state

the
as

wild the of

the the the

horse

evolved

in much the of with

the

same

way

deer
years

and of

antelope. During
known took existence

forty-two
the the

millions the
man.

horse,
rise of

greatest

change

in its fate

place
the
man

The

brain, the thyroid gland,


among

and

hand

of

man

are

unique

all animals.

The

rise of

appears

to

be

an

example of the principle of orthogenesis applied to the thinking brain and the thyroid gland. This principle,as a explained by Eimer, is that when species begins to vary
in any direction definitely its own is tending toward

it

cannot

reverse

itself, even
As

if it

destruction.
man intelligent,

made
over

man

increasinglymore
of

orthogenesis gained control


as

the energy

plants and
coal.

animals found

as

well

of the

wind,

the

waterfall, and
could in be

Man

that
own

the
two

four

feet of the

horse and

substituted and

for his that

feet in
was

traveling

carrying burdens

the horse

of

particular
early
him

advantage in war. The sculptures of early


date faster
man

man

show
a

that horse

at

very carry
own

found

that
in

the attack attack


or,

legs of
or

could his

and

longer

retreat

than
man

legs.

By

riding,he
the horse

could

his fellow
in
case

by
a

combined
bat, com-

man-and-horse

attack,
would
a

of fresh

hand-to-hand for

deliver
was

him

In

fact, such
in
art
we

unit find and

man

and the

his

surpriseattack. horse in early days


of the
centaur
"

that beast

realized half
man.

concept

half horse
128

AND

PERSONALITY

As

man's

brain

the greatest best


at meet

evolved, he bred endurance, speed, and


the
man

those
courage

horses and

that that

had could Even

with

vicissitudes
must

of food

and

climate. the

that

early day
He

have noticed and

glimpsed
that the that slow

inheritance.

must

have their

of principle horses of highest and inefficient of the brain and ance endur-

speed reproduced
horses of
man

kind

reproduced their
carried of the with horse.

kind. Thus

the advance of the

it the advance

speed

It would horse would

naturallyfollow
occur

that the

the greater

advance

of the

people who depended most those who represented high completely on it,in particular This would be among the desert people who intelligence. had to fightfor the water hole and travel long distances for
among

pasture.

The

desert

belt

runs

across

North

Africa

and

Arabia, the domain


It is here and that

of the
was

Barbs, the Arabs, and the Turks.


advanced

the horse The

plains and could have human north need not produced as much for the highly developed horse as was provided by the breeding.
fertile desert.

by natural selection valleys of the far

Thus, with
until the British

the

rise of

man

came

the
were

rise of the

the finally

desert-bred

stallions
were

horse, transported to
native
mares

Isles. Here

they
blood of

bred

with and

whose

brains, hearts, through the influence


climate, had
Dr. W. been

volume,
the in size. in his

thyroid glands cold, blustering northern

advanced

study of the thoroughbred, cites evidence that the thoroughbred horse owed an important debt to the native English mares. The Shetland is an example of a horse whose pony has been modified by cold. The ratio of the system energy weight of the brain and the thyroid gland to the body collected was that we weight of a Shetland pony 1:294; the ratio of the weight of the brain and thyroid gland to the body weight of Equipoise, the famous thoroughbred, was J. Stewart McKay,
129

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

weight of the brain and thyroid gland to the body weight of Nureddin, the famous
Arabian In
our we

1:619, and

the

ratio of the

was stallion,

1:694.
the subarctic ratio of the the

to expedition

region
energy

studied
to

the
the

body weight of caribou, the wolf,the husky dog, hare, the fox, the lemming, the
system
as

the

mouse,

well

as

of
to

the

Eskimo

himself. in the
man

We cold

wished north

learn whether animals


rate

wild

and

require a greater
to

of oxidation

maintain

the

warm-blooded

state, the

as

shown

by
to

higher ratio
and

of

weight of the brain


the
man

of the

thyroid gland
than is shown animals

body weight,
and
ble compara-

in

in the temperate

and
to

the
be

zones. tropical

This

we

found

the

case.

It would

seem,

that the therefore,


to
mares

factors contributed horse north


were

the

bred thoroughof the cold

by
a

the

larger brain, a larger

heart, a greater volume of blood and a larger thyroid gland than were
such by the desert stallion, possessed the Arab, the Barb, and the Turk, as
to

which
were

these native bred.

mares

in Britain

Dr. rather
new

McKay
abrupt
type of

has

shown

that of
seen

the

appearance

this
in

horse

was

Matchem,

Herod, and
from

period ranging
130

in a Eclipse, 1748 to 1764,

AND

PERSONALITY

and

he

states

that it is certain
can

"
. .
.

that back
to

all the

important
Herod,
or

horses

of

today
in
a

be traced

Matchem,
the because

Eclipse;but
we

dealing with
wider other and view

the

origin of
before

thoroughbred
we

must

take
were

of the matter, the

know

that the

there

horses the

Byerley Turk, richly origin


of the
to

Darley
some

Arabian credit

Godolphin

Barb, who
the

deserved of the

for their

contributions

thoroughbred.
we
mares

"While Eastern
out

must

give the their due, we English mares.


Eastern

Eastern
must at

sires and the


same

some

time

bring

the tremendous the native of the

importance

of the contributions
it was fact,

derived
bination com-

from

In

the

happy
country,

sires and
a

the that

English
no

native

mares

that

brought
and

into existence

horse
to

other

but

Britain Eastern

Ireland,
with

was

able

produce by
to

the that

sires

mares

indigenous
in the
no

crossing of particular

country." During product,


native Africa size and
among

the the

rapid change
native
was

speed and
change
or was

size of this
seen

new

thoroughbred,
or

in

the
in
or

Arabian Asia. the


or

Barb
any

native
seen

Turk in the

stock

Nor

advance in the

speed
or

native

stock The stock

British

Isles
was

in due Dr.

Scandinavia
to

in France. northern

only
with

advance the

made

blending

the

desert the

stock.

McKay
mutation the

logicallyaccounts
as

for this fact

by

principleof
considers and the stocks

laid down stallion


a an

by

De

Vries.

Dr.

McKay species"
these
two

desert

"elementary Crossing
in the

English
would

mare,

"mongrel."
variations line. This

produce great
to
a new

offspring and
The

might
result

give rise
was

actually occurred.
bred in the Shetland
Endurance

the The

thoroughbred. zebra, for instance,is opposite


to

tropics under
pony.

ditions con-

those

for the

The
and

quick
Staying

McK.AY,
of the

W.
Race

J. STEWART, Horse,"

"Evolution
"

of the

Speed
1932.

Power

Hutchinson

Co., Ltd., London,

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

getaway stable heart"


In

power
master

of the in the
was

zebra world
"

was

"bred"

by

the the of

most

the

of the wild

zebra the

"bred"

lion; and by the pack

rigid "staying wild dogs.

of the zebra daily life-and-death races keep him in a continual Derby. The Shetland pony, on the other hand, is bred by the rigorous discipline of cold and In either case the energy-controlling have storm. organs been "bred," that is, stepped up over long periods of
state

the

time. Let members Since does the


us now see

how

the

energy compare

systems with

of these each other.

two

of the cold
race

horse

family
up

alone of

steps

the

energy

organs

higher than

destiny,we should expect that the Shetland would have a higher ratio of the combined weights of pony the brain and thyroid and adrenal glands to its body weight ratio of the weight of the brain the zebra. The than and thyroid and adrenal glands to the body weight in the case Shetland which of our weighed 150.35 kilograms pony, of the zebra,which tne case (331.52 pounds) was 1:285; weighed 254.37 kilograms (560.88 pounds) the ratio of the weight of the brain and, thyroid and adrenal glands to the body weight was 1:432. the weight of the brain and Let us the now compare thyroid and adrenal glands to the body weight of a wild zebra collected on the plainsof Tanganyika, the American stallion thoroughbred stallion Equipoise, and the Arabian
'm

132

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

The adrenal

combined

values
on

of

the

brain

and

the
are

thyroid and
as

glands, based

the power

formula,
VALUE

follows:

BRAIN-THYROID-ADRENAL

Nureddin
Zebra

1.721
i
.

745

Equipoise
Shetland
pony

1
.

764
004

2
.

In Dr.

McKay's
note two

account

of the

rise of the

thoroughbred
Barb
with the
a

horse, we
1.

component

facts:

In the
mares

crossing of the Arab, Turk, and


of the This

native

north, there
is

appeared occasionally
mutation.

superiorhorse.
2.

typicalof
mutants

As

these

superior
of the

numbers, the percentage


The summation the desert-bred the horse

appeared in increasing of superiorhorses increased. mutation of the horse by crossing


the cold-bred represents
the
mares was seen

stallion with

in
this

Eclipse, which
In other the

pinnacle of
to

transformation.

words, according
of the

the

power

cold-adapted energy-controlling system Shetland shows a degree of development 1.15 times pony that of the thoroughbred American stallion greater than Equipoise. the offspring It would that further crossing between seem would of Eclipse and the Arabian, the Barb, and the Turk would advance the present thoroughbred, nor not crossing the advance with the native mares thoroughbred. The of its own career to have seem a thoroughbred would now of Matchem, that began with the appearance Herod, and Eclipse. advance If there has been further no by the crossing
(from
time
to

formula,

time) of the how, then,


the
and
to
can

desert-bred
we

stallions

and

the

northern in these

mares,

account

for the fact that


as

years

thoroughbred
height?
the second

has

advanced

to

speed,

conformation,
This
account

brings us
of 134 Dr.

McKay,

point of great namely, that the

interest in the advance


was

AND

PERSONALITY

through
great
We
can

selective

line

breeding

from

foundation
account

stallions

Matchem,

offspringof the Herod, and Eclipse.


advance of the the
man or

the

for this continual

oughbred thor-

only one namely, through way, When of the law of orthogenesis. or a a horse a progressiveincrease in the size of an organ until this progression may continue organs,
in

operation
exhibits
group

of

offspring affect the line unfavorably. exhibits such extremes to as In man, the brain, the heart, the thyroid gland, and the sympathetic system have been increased in activityby the of his operation of the law of orthogenesis to the ceiling In some the activityof man's cases possibilities. energy is so extreme that he is impaired energy-controlling organs and destroyed by exophthalmic goiter,by hypertension, by diabetes, and by nervous, mental, and heart diseases. Therefore, we may expect that some day the thoroughbred horse, in which the brain, the heart, and the adrenal-sympathetic have undergone an increase in size and system reach the pinnacle, and this achievement will,as in man, power, will be expressed by an increasingincidence of sterility, and energy diseases not nervous instability, yet well defined. Examples of such instability in Brown seen are Eyes and Roxana. The of Katy of the out thoroughbred Brown Eyes was West, by Caughkill, and the sire of Katy of the West was a an Spendthrift, outstanding race horse. Brown Eyes was horse of high promise; her owners believed that if she could
be started her in
a race

the

she would could


not

be

winner.

But

because

of Her size

she excitability
was

be

properly
the

started.

behavior of the

clarified when

we

found

abnormal

in any glands,the largestthat we have seen horse. These adrenal the glands weighed 60.78 grams; ratio to the body weight was contrasted with the 1 19030 as adrenal-to-body-weight ratio in Equipoise of 1:11187. Brown

adrenal

Eyes

is
as

an
a

example
race

of

mutation

so

great

as

to

her disqualify

horse. 135

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER

interest in relation to point of fundamental Brown Eyes is the weight of the brain. The brain of Brown should be compared with Eyes, which weighed 650 grams, One other

Brown 1.18
FIG. 14.
"

Eyes
Grams

Roxcma

Ky.Mares
1.4!
per

Ky.Geld ings
1.53

Equipoise
1.54
various

1.32
of brain

kilogram of body weight in

horses.

Roxcma 0.0468
FIG. 15.
"

Brown

Eyes

Ky.Mares.
0.0573
per

Ky.Geldings Equipoise
0.0665

0.0484
of

0.0735
in various horses.

Grams

thyroid gland

kilogram of body weight

the

Equipoise, which weighed 808.5 grams. 1:840. Eyes was brain-body weight ratio in Brown 1:645. brain-body weight ratio in Equipoise was
brain of

The The

136

AND

PERSONALITY

Another

example

characteristic horse. This

yieldinga bizarre behavior is seen in Roxana, a thoroughbred saddle be restive, temperamental horse could not
of mutation

Ky.Geldings
0.0683
FIG.
1

Roxana

Ky.Mares
0.1002

Equipoise
0.1028
of

Brown

Eyes
horses.

0.0970
of adrenal

0.1112
in various

6.
"

Grams

glands per kilogram

body weight

Roxana 7.01
FIG. 17.
"

Brown

Eyes
per

Ky.Mares
8.25

Ky.Geldings
8.40

Equipoise
10.56
horses.

8.12
Grams of heart

kilogram of body weight

in various

showed Eyes, investigation in Roxana size of the adrenal gland, the adrenala striking body weight ratio being 1:8507, as compared with 1:11187 for Equipoise. In both Brown have we Eyes and Roxana unbalanced an control, the adrenal glands being energy in the
case

trained. As

of Brown

137

INTE

LLIGENCE,

developed in
horse. system.
to

excess

of the brain-adrenal

pattern

of

able dependenergy

In

Equipoise
seen

we

see

well-balanced

These

mutations
seen

in the horse

family are

similar

mutations

in the human

family.
Generations

The

Arab

Compared with Three of the Thoroughbred


kindness had the of Mr.
we

Through
Arabian

the

mouth, Roger A. Selby, of Portshis famous

Ohio,

of studying privilege

stud, breeding stallion Nureddin, bred at Crabbet England (sire,Rijm by Ibu Mahruss, out of the famous Rose of Sharon, dam, mare Narghileh, by Champion
as

Mesaoud)

well

as

his

famous

white

Arabian

stallion

Ajuz, of the Anazeh; dam, A. Mirage (sire,A. Kehilan Seglaw ieh Jedran, of Dalia). Through the interest of Major Beard, of the Whitney stables, and Dr. Dimock, of the University of Kentucky, we were given the opportunity in Lexington to study Pennant, the famous twenty-seven-year-oldthoroughbred and an stallion, eight-months-old colt. The sire of Pennant Peter Pan of imported Andirella; the dam, Royal out was Rose by Royal Hampton. Through the cooperationof Major Beard of the Whitney stables, Dr. Fred Rankin, of Lexington, Kentucky, Dr. Dimock, and Dr. Errington,the brain-thyroid-sympathetic and heart of the famous horse race Equipoise, system sired by Pennant, out of Swinging,were to the Cleveland sent Clinic Laboratories for study on the night that he died. This gave the unique opportunity of comparing three us generations of thoroughbreds Pennant, Equipoise, and of imported Air the young colt sired by Equipoise out Fleet grandfather, father, and son, with Nureddin, the stallion. tallest known pure-bred Arabian A comparison of the size of the brain, the heart, and the thyroid and adrenal glands of these three thoroughbreds
" "

with

those

of

Nureddin, the Arabian, follows.

138

AND

PERSONALITY

consideration,it will be noted that the brains of the thoroughbreds Pennant, Equipoise, and the Equipoise colt are all larger than the brain of Nureddin, the Arabian. weights
are

If the

relative

taken

into

It will the

be

noted

in

the

Arabian

horse

Nureddin

that

thyroid gland is largerthan the adrenal glands,showing the adaptation of the Arabian for long-distancetraveling. In the colt of Equipoise, also,the thyroid gland was larger than the adrenal glands, showing that the energy organs
had
not

yet assumed In

the adult

pattern

characteristic

of the

thoroughbred.
is the pattern

of

Equipoise the thyroid-adrenal relation the thoroughbred horse. In a study of 142

thoroughbreds, this is the pattern that obtained. Pennant, a retired thoroughbred, twenty-seven years old, showed pathologicchanges in the heart and thyroid gland; these organs could not be used for comparison. so Of significance is the fact that of a total of eighty-seven fetuses and newborn foals of thoroughbreds examined by followed the Arabian in which the pattern us, eighty-three thyroid gland is largerthan the adrenal glands.In one grade
foal and
in

twenty

saddle-bred

and

in

two

standard-bred
was

foals,a
would
state

similar
appear

thyroid-gland
that the
energy

dominance
organs in

found. the

It

prenatal
of the

have

the

pattern

of

the

Arabian

ancestors

thoroughbred. The thoroughbred,


man
"

or

race

horse,is
the

under

the control

of

control

that allows

brain, the heart, the thyroid


139

POWER

gland, and
remarkable chase with
so

the

adrenal-sympathetic system
these
race

to

increase

to

size. Were

horses the

or by a pack of hounds wolves, its ability for high speed,might, in

subjected to a thoroughbred,
to

its effort

escape,

increase

its internal

temperature

that

it would

be

come over-

by
No
so

heatstroke. such
as

animal

the

zebra

or

the

oryx

possesses
as

highly developed an thoroughbred horse. In


mind all heat that the horse
over.

energy-controlling system
this connection
it is
save man

the
in

to

be borne that of
sweats

is the

only

animal the

Sweating
in

facilitates

elimination

internal

permits the development of a larger brain, larger heart, larger thyroid gland, larger adrenal glands,and larger celiac ganglia and plexuses, with diminished danger of heatstroke.
consequence

and

The

endowments

of the
man,

Arabian

horse

that

make

him

of food, requiringa small amount capable of enduring long-distancetravel but not equipped the thoroughbred, for as high a speed of outburst as energy are expressed in a brain and adrenal glands smaller than balanced of the the thoroughbred's. The system energy Arabian horse is comparable to the balanced system energy Thus it is this unique energy of Oriental formula, man. it with horse, that endows possessed only by the Arabian its unequaled endurance, coupled with high intelligence

gentle companion of

and

gentleness.
Pattern

of the
does

Draft
not
or

or

Work

Horse
of energy, as draft horse. The

The would

draft the

horse

requireoutbursts
the

cavalry horse horse requiresa mechanism carrying of a pack and


load. The
to
a

running

adapted to the long, continuous the long, continuous pulling of


wished
to

kind member

of energy man of the horse of of

transfer that The of

from

self him-

family was
man

carrying a
horse draft

load, including the load


does
not

himself.

draft

need

outbursts

energy.

Therefore, the

140

INTELLIGENCE, The captivity.

POWER,

brain

is the

master

organ.

Throughout

adult

life it does

not

change

in

weight.
and

The

Ass, the Mule,


to
entrust

the

Shetland

Pony

freight to its back, man selected an animal and breeding,possessed that, by nature the very opposite of those of the thorougha characteristic bred, needed animal that an namely, dependability.Man not was easily frightened,that had less temperament lower relative of adrenal-sympathetic hence amount a than the excitable tissue thoroughbred. Therefore, man bred the ass and the mule for carrying the load. The koulan wild ass of the Mongols and the onager of or held by many authorities the ancients to be the same are Wishing
"
"

valuable

animal

as are are

the

koulan

still found

on

the

steppes

of Asia. and

So
so

highly
skillful wolves The

these

animals in

endowed off

with with

energy

they
not

warding
the
are

danger

their hoofs

that

do

attack

vigorous koulans.

progenitorsof according to Brehm, of the plains and ass


a

present-day ass live represented by two


Somal
ass

in Africa

and,

the

ass,

which the

is

the species, thought to be

link between Like

the

Asiatic and

and

zebra.
ass

the koulan
ass run

the

Somal

the onager, the in herds of about

of the

plainsand
each herd

twenty,

ass guarded by the leader, a stallion. The shy and wary domesticated of the plains has been from earliest time, wild tain specimens having been continually used to mainthe vigor of the breed. Of all the asses of Arabia, bred in of the plains, the asses Jemen, are the most superior.One type is large and well adapted to the use of the saddle; the other is small and adapted to carrying burdens. The drier the soil and the more frugal the food, the

healthier the desert


as

the

ass.

The

desert
not

ass,

like the
a

desert

horse

and

camel, does
animals

requiresuch
regions

large amount
food

of food

do

those
142

in

in which

is abundant.

AND

PERSONALITY

Although
warm

the

ass

has

for

long
energy

time

been

adapted
of the
ass

to

climate, the size of the


been for

system of

has of

not

heat
case

adapted to maintaining
Shetland

the the

production
warm-blooded

large amounts
state,
as

in

the

of the

horse

much size.

Therefore, this low-geared pack like the burro, requires of the tropicsand subtropics, Shetland less food than the northern of equal pony
pony.
to

Relevant the
master

this statement,

it must

be borne

in mind

that

spondingly lazy ass is correspondinglylazy and correthe master of the requires less food, whereas is subject to the same active Shetland adaptation pony and, therefore, against cold as the Shetland requires pony of food. The cold Shetland a correspondinglylargeramount of course, and his vigorous master perform a can, pony the warm, of service than amount can lethargic greater and his lethargic master. ass The subarctic-adaptedShetland pony and the subtropicof the horse family adapted ass are not the only members of the energy-controlling at our disposalfor analysis system. member of the horse been has The not remaining family This animal is the African zebra. modified by man.

of the

The
The The zebra zebra is

Zebra
the
senses

adapted
keen

to

tropicsand
and great

possesses

subtropics. speed and is so

the

has found it difficult to tame. high-tempered that man An analysisof the energy-controlling systems of the ass, the Shetland of their
pony,

and

the

zebra, with

respect adrenal

to

the sizes

brains, hearts,and

thyroid

and

glands, is

given below.

143

INTELLIGENCE, The

POWER,

ratios of the and adrenal

combined

weights of the brain


to

and

the

thyroid

glands

the

body weight

are:

Shetland Zebra. Ass

pony

i :

285

i : 43 1 i :

505

According

to

the power

formula, the values

are

as

follows

Animal

Sex

Brain

Thyroid

Adrenal

Heart

Ass Zebra

(burro, Panama)

Male Stallion

0.4357

0.2498

0.2764
0.4740

0.3269
0.4885

0.6431
0.7850

0.6285 0.6907

Shetland

pony

Stallion

0.5289

0.5469

The

combined

values

of

the
to

brain the
power

and

thyroid
formula,
0.9619
i
.

and
are:

adrenal
Ass
Zebra.

glands, according

7456
0046

Shetland

pony

2
.

These Shetland zebra

values
pony 2.08

show
to

the be

energy-controlling system
times than greater the
ass.

of

the

1.14

than

that

of the

and

times

greater the

In the

Shetland

pony

large brain, the large thyroid

gland, and the vigorous temperamental personality show an adaptation to cold. In the zebra, which is tropically adapted, there is also a large brain, large thyroid and adrenal glands, and a highly temperamental personality.
The the
energy

system

of the

ass

seems

to

be far below

that

of

and the lion and cold-climate-adapted Shetland pony wild-dog-adapted zebra. the high-energy equipment is norIn the Shetland mal pony, the highfor the subarctic to region and conforms
energy

whale, equipment of the warm-blooded porpoise,seal,and walrus found in the


as

the

blooded warm-

cold Arctic the Eskimo exhibit

Sea,
found

well

as

for the

caribou, the wolf, and


warm-blooded

in the north. 144

All these

animals

AND

PERSONALITY

high-energy equipment
state

in order

to to

maintain exercise

their their

blooded warm-

and

to

enable

them

ability

in

securing food.
Then what of the We
may

high-tempered
as

zebra

that

lives in the

hot

tropics?
wildebeest

well

ask

what the

of the

highly
the

gized ener-

lion, the
the
"

leaping leopard,
in

fact, the

entire

impala, antelope family in the

wild

dog,

tropics.
The
answer

for the

lion, the tiger, the leopard, the wild

dog
To

is that catch

they
rush

are

obliged spring
the

to

chase

high-tempered
the carnivores in order
to

food.
must

such

highly energized food,


and and the

themselves

pursue

live.
water-

So,
but

too, the

must

antelopes, the
zebra

great

eland,
not

the

buck,
For

wildebeest, and
the

be bred

for climate

for escape.
aeons

zebra, like all wild


the has been

horses, has

been

bred
energy

by

the

lion,the leopard, and


of the zebra

system
escape.

pursuing pack. The adapted not to climate

but

to

But

what
save

of the
in

ass

? True

asses

differ little from from


to

the

zebra,
the
ass

their

coats.

Whether

Africa lion's

or

Asia,
from

has

been

long subjected
the
as

the

rush, the

leopard's spring, and


its energy that either
or

carnivore's shown line the

pack. Judging
its
must

system

alone,

by
ass

ratios,it is evident
have been bred mountain
more

somewhere in the

along
food

the

high plateaus along


was

with

the

sheep
of food it

goats,

where

scarce,

or

in the

istic individual-

background
was

of the
water
ass

deserts,where
holes become far

the

supply
thus

meager

and the

apart,
to

making

possible for
and drink. ratio The

to

adapted
brain with

restricted

food

of the

weight

of the

of the

ass

to

his

body
the

weight is 1:530, as According to the


ass,
: as

compared
power

1:645
the

for

poise. Equifor
as

formula,
for

values
are

compared

with

those

Equipoise,

follows

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

These

power-formula
But the

values

place Equipoise
and
rest

on

higher
that
of
to

plane of intelligence, power,


the
ass.

personality than
of the
energy

ratios of the

system

body weight place the ass in the low-energy from the rushing and pursuing canivores.

group,

away

Where steppes strung mountain the


ass

is such there
are

habitat?
many
as

In

the

desert

and

in the

high
highgoats,
was

carnivores,such
? remain
so

and high-strung herbivores mountain sheep, mountain desert lions.

lions,wolves, and
two

Where, then,

There
a

alternatives: that the the


ass

the high steppes, first,


alone

or a

desert

barren level
as

could
animals.

find But
a

as
no

low

sustenance

cold-blooded is known the


ass

other
tenance sus-

warm-blooded level. cold But steppes

animal

to

live

at

such
to

low

Apparently
the the
man

stems

back

neither

the

nor

barren
ass

desert.
a

this leaves

without found
man

family tree.
ass

The the

second
ass
was

alternative

is that

the

when
a

highly energized,when
of of

himself

had

difficult

survival,and

that

by

the

joining of forces
of the

problem through a sort


man

biologicsymbiosis, the greater the greater burden-bearing power


man

intelligenceof
ass

and

profitedboth
that

and
In

ass.

the and

absence the

of

facts, let
ass

us

suppose

struggling
the

man

struggling

found

each

other

on

high

146

AND

PERSONALITY

steppes
suppose

or

at

the the

edge of, or
ass,

even

in, the

desert. of

Let

us

that

from

the

energy

point

view,

was

had man highly energized animal. Let us suppose of man already found the sheep. The greater intelligence and the sheep to the green lead the ass and would pastures of man, which The superiorintelligence had the stillwaters. invented the spear and developed the tribe to give effective, lead watchful care against the wolf or the leopard, would and the sheep to a land of greater plenty in order the ass with the sheep and the goat that, by the association of man in larger numbers than if and the ass, each could survive Thus the ass, the sheep, the its separate each went way. find better pastures, and, in turn, man would goat would find food and clothing from the goat and the sheep and transportationfrom the ass. The sheep and the goat were once wild,just as the ass was wild and just as man wild. Man could have was once once bred the sheep and goats only from the sheep and the goats be least likelyto run from the fold. Man that would did breed from the lost sheep.The lost sheep were not prevented from being man-bred by the wolf that took the lost sheep for the good of the wolf. So, too, with the goat; so too with then
a

the

ass.

of man encircled the sheep and the goat intelligence and the ass restraint,benefitingall three by a benevolent of the sheep,the swine, partners; but the protectionby man the cattle has taken from them the necessity for high speed
or

The

endurance.

Wild

asses,

wild

goats,

wild

boars

"

all these

animals, when
On and horse the other

domesticated, have
hand, the
constant

work, of the pack horse, the


has
so

changed

their

energy

low-energy mechanisms. adaptation by breeding work horse, the cavalry that they are systems
cow.,

of the entirelydifferent from the energy systems sheep, the goat, and the swine. The bred for docilityand ass was strength so could
carry

the

that Had

he the

his burden

with

the minimum

of food. H7

INTELLIGENCE,
ass

POWER,

been
as

bred
is the
a

by

the

intelligenceof

man

for for

sport, for

thoroughbred
have
in the

horse, or

cavalry or for turning a wheel,


same

drawing
ass

the load, or for ploughing the field,

human system
of

would intelligence the


as
ass

stepped
work horse loose

up
or

the

energy

it did had

in the

thoroughbred.

exposed to the lion or would have the wolf, either the ass perished as a species it would have matched the lion and the wolf through the or breeding of energy-for-survival characteristics, as in the
case

If the

been

turned

and

of the The

zebra.

This

the

wild
a

ass

did. animal
or

question arises,could
man

domestic arctic
as

be

bred

by

the
zone

intelligence of
to
as

in the

in the of the

temperate
ass

low

an

energy

level
ass

that

? We

believe
as a

not, for since

the

is

warm-blooded,
of is
as

its existence the


blooded warm-

species
state.
an

demands The

the

maintenance
state

warm-blooded
own

maintained
man

solelyby
and and would Shetland Eskimo.
warms

animal's animals.

oxidation, except
the
to
ass

shelters cold north


it

Had

been

bred

in the

been

left unsheltered

take

the

penetrating cold,

have

developed the high-energy equipment of the husky dog, the wolf, the caribou, and pony,
we

the
the

Therefore,
could except
not

may

conclude the pattern

that

in the
energy

tropics the
of the

ass

have

taken

of low

tropics

of man's protecting intelligence. by the encirclement element of the Man's protecting intelligence allowed demobilize the thyroid gland and the to tropicalwarmth feature that was adrenal stepped glands of the ass. The one could that which most was by the intelligenceof man up of man. advance the progress Therefore, the ass effectively that was most trustworthy and could best carry the heavy kick his load survived by being bred. An ass that would
master
or

buck

him

off its back

or

run

away

would

not

receive less

and, therefore, would approval of its master likelyto multiply and replenishits kind.
the

be
.

148

INFLUENCE AND DOMESTICATION

OF

CAPTIVITY

To
and
must

DOMESTICATE

animals
must must

requires superior intelligence.


animal

Not

only

the

life of the be

be
will

protected, but
promote and health

living conditions

provided
animal

that

tranquility. For produce


or

the
eggs,
must

must

thrive

multiply; wool, good


to

good
the

good
have
or

leather, good

meat, the
man;

good milk;
or

adequate
hunt for man, will fail.
in the

strength
or
even

plow
cajole
the the

fields

carry

pack

otherwise
our

domestication of the variation

In

study

relation animals

between

intelligence, power, development


system, animals indebted section
not

and the

personality of
in rich

through
and

of

thetic brain-heart-thyroid-adrenal-sympazoological gardens


field
for

animals
a

tic domesare

offered

investigation. We
cited
in

only
also Mr.
to

to

those

already
Hancock

the of

preceding
Louisville,

but

Mrs. A. B.

Henning

Chambers,
and Mrs. and

Kentucky,
Edwards,

Ogden
Mr.
on

M.

Jr., of
We

Lexington,
also

Kentucky,
Mr.

J. M.
of

Dickinson, of Franklin, Tennessee, for material


horses. the W. Bureau R.
are

bred thoroughSwett,
Mr.

indebted

to

W.
on

W.

of Animal and

Industry,
the

for data

cattle, to
of in which

Hearst,
the have

zoological gardens
for various animals and the

Cleveland,
we

Detroit, and
observed We of

Philadelphia
effects found in of

of domestication

captivity.
data
on

special interest
in

the such

effect

keeping
of

captivity
as

zoological gardens
and

powered
birds It would

animals
prey, appear is the

the

lion

tiger,the

highleopard, bears,
and in seals.

gorillas,chimpanzees,
that
a

monkeys,
of the

common

effect of restraint of

ical zoologlions brother

parks
bred of the Metro
in

production
fame

goiter.One
of
roars

great the

the

zoological garden
that

Philadelphia,
at

lion of movie

the

beginning of the
in
our

Goldwyn

Mayer

film, was

examined

labora-

AND

PERSONALITY

tory. In
were one our

He

had,

to

our

surprise,
we

an

exceptionallylarge goiter.
eleven lions
or

laboratory
obtained

dissected

and

tigersthat Every
cases

from

zoologicalgardens
the the fact with food. from

circuses. in
some

had

goiter,in spite of
been and
no

that

iodine

had

given

Likewise,
animals
in

bears,

chimpanzees
had
the

monkeys
case

taken

zoological gardens
taken wild in the suffer

goiters.In
wild have

did

corresponding
animals

goiters.Although
not

from and

privation,uncertain
live

forays, a precarious food


have

supply,
porters, imas
signment con-

Even

dangerously, they do when we purchased


the effect of

goiters. directly
Such when that and the them that from animals the

animals

captivity was monkeys,


We goiters.
in

evident. examined

chimpanzees, baboons,
arrived, had
of

later found wild


state

instead

capturing
Asia
were

the

animals the

the

delivering
animals in
in

them Africa since

immediately,
or

importer
who had Thus

secured held
seem

from

natives

captivity
fact of the

they
of

young.
more

it would in

the

captivity place
For

is

important

producing goiter than


to

captivity.
reasons we
were

these

compelled
None of the

secure

animals
so

ourselves had

in the

wild

state.

animals

taken

goiter.
us

Let the

take
state

the lion and the

as

an

example
of

for

comparison
In

between Research
we

wild

that

captivity.
Clinic of chloroform One of these

the

Laboratory
killed studied
near

of

Cleveland
means

Foundation

have

nine them
sea

lions

by

anesthesia, and
lions the
was

immediately.
at

bred of Mr.

the R.

San

Simeon, California, on
the
a

ranch

W.

Hearst, under
lion had wild
state
a

most

nearly perfect
African

conditions six lions 1927

possible. This
taken and in the 1935

large goiter. None


our

of the

on

expeditions in
is the other

showed

goiter. Not

only
but

thyroid gland
organs

profoundly
tissues
as

affected
are

by

captivity

and

well

affected.

INTELLIGENCE, In

POWER,

the

wild, the

lion

must

starve

or

exist

by capturing

the
in

it

high-powered antelope or zebra. The food of the lion the zoologicalgarden is given him at regular intervals; is regular as to selection,bone, vitamins, and, in some
iodine, for the "zoo"
as

cases,

lion
man

eats

from from
man,
a

table table has

prepared

for

him, just
The
texture

civilized

eats

prepared
teeth,
of

for him.
poor bone.

"zoo" of

lion,like civilized
and

poor

hair

skin, and

impaired strength
in
as our a

only did expeditionsexhibit


Not
all their tissues

the
no

six wild

lions taken their bodies in


a

African whole
"

goiterbut
"

higher state of physical perfection than those of the lions in captivity.These the glory and the romance of the characteristics go with
organs
were

and

wild

state.

thyroid gland, two other organs show between wild and the contrast captive life. The heart of the lion the from was Philadelphia Zoological Garden hypertrophied, probably as the result of the long years of and daily frettingin a cage, just as the heart frustration and of civilized man is affected profoundly by the frettings
In addition
to

the

frustrations he the has wild

of his incarceration The


no

in the

web

of life which lions taken


in

created. showed

hearts

of the

African

hypertrophy. Not only did the thyroid gland, the heart, of the zoologicallions and the bony skeleton
from
organ

the show
most

skin,
portant imin

teriorat de-

captivity but
showed
a

another
contrast

and

marked those
seem

in the state,

lions

captivityas compared the adrenal glands. It


that
state
more

with would
so

in the wild
to

namely,

be of

cance especialsignifi-

the the
any

with than

markedly contrasting in the wild that expresses of captivityis the organ state and the personality the power other organ
organ

of the would
known tissue
"

lion. One be
in
seen romance

might
in the
as

suppose

that the

the heart

greatest
of the
the

change
animal
nerve

brain

or

being "lion-hearted," but


celiac

brain, spinal cord,


152

ganglia, celiac

plexuses,

AND

PERSONALITY

sympathetic
the brain

nerves

never

become

enlarged by
system do
not

use,

and

and

the

sympathetic

shrink

through
On in size and

disuse.

the other

hand, the thyroid and


and lion in

adrenal

glands vary
power,

well as of the lion as captivity, in the wild state, are expressed primarily by the adrenalsympathetic system and since this is the only system that should we provides the intensityof the flash of energy, find that the adrenal to glands of the wild lion expect and absolutelythan the adrenal be largerrelatively would glands of the lion in captivity. adrenal found We glands of the lions just that! The taken in the wild state were larger than the 25 per cent of civilized adrenal glands of the nine "house guests man."
at the large size of the was surprise goiter in the great Bengal tiger that had often been exhibited his eye a as performer in Beatty's Circus. Because able to secure had been injured we this adult animal were As we in prime condition. have already stated,the celiac branches and are largerand the plexuses ganglia have more are complex in the lion and in the tiger larger and more than in any other animal of comparable size. This significant fact is correlated with another fact, equally significant other animal of comparable size can namely, that no execute an equal outburst of energy. In this connection it is significant that that great primate, defends the gorilla, which itself and its family by sheer againstthe lion and the leopard,possesses so violent power and so great an a equipment for outburst temper energy that only few survive and it is captivity, rarely that a gorilla bred in captivity lives to adult age. Through the kindness of Dr. William K. Gregory and C. Dr. Henry Raven Museum of the American of Natural History, Dr. of the Quiring and I were permitted to take measurements

according to use of the personality

disuse. Since the temper,

Perhaps

our

greatest

153

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER, Dr.

of glands,in situ, After careful the

the

collected by gorilla

Henry

Raven.1
were

measurements

of the various

dimensions
was

made,
3 5 grams

body weight estimated between at was 375 and 400 pounds. effect of captivity In contrast the highly to the adverse on gators, energized animals, the low-powered animals such as alliand crocodiles,snakes, turtles,
to

weight of the adrenal and the thyroid gland at

glands
6 grams.

estimated

at

The

fish

seem

indifferent
we

captivity.In breeding
variable effects
upon

and the

domestication, however, energy-controlling

find

organs.

Effect

on Breeding and Domestication Energy-controllingOrgans of Animals

of

the

The

mechanism

of the

bull, the
male

bullock, the
members

ram,

the herds
an

the buck, and stallion, and flocks of leaf- and

other

of the

grass-eatinganimals
of the
male

exhibits that
in
many

evolution respects the

of the is the

characteristics that

opposite to
of the of

of the female.
is greater, young

Inasmuch

as

contribution work

female

because
uterus

of the
and

metabolic of

producing

the

in her

the helpless over fabricatingmilk to carry the young tion period, her functions represent a very important adaptais the male The for the perpetuation of the species. protector of the
upon

of the female
or

as

well

as

of all the other

members

herd chance

flock.

Therefore, natural
endowed

selection,seizing
the male with
a

mutations, has

powerful muscles, and better developed he protects the and more powerful horns. In consequence, and the young female against the carnivores. He fightsoff He the less fit males. impregnates the females, securing the male Thus thereby the highest fitness in the offspring. well as is endowed with as greater intelligence greater and bravery, a larger heart and a size, physical power,
larger brain, more larger blood
1

volume

than

the female.
H. C. RAVEN, "In
Darwin Quest of Gorillas,"

GREGORY,

WILLIAM

KING, and
1937.

Press, New

Bedford, Mass.,

154

AND

PERSONALITY

In the
more

young

males

castration

prevents

the

development

of

namely, the largerbrain, typicallymale characteristics, powerful muscles, largerblood volume, and the mental
of
we

characteristics

pugnacity.
may presume

Therefore,
hormone

reaches
to

the

brain

cells the

that, just as through the


brain cells
as

the blood

thyroid
stream
as

and

continues

influence

long

the

thyroid gland
reaches the
to

functions cells the

brain

normally, so through the


brain cells

the testicular blood


as

hormone and the


tinues con-

stream
as

influence

long
the of
a

testes

function If the
then every

normally.
billions brain of brain cells take
gray
matter

up

sex

hormones,
bull is
matter
a

cell in the

great white

bull there
the

brain
are

cell,and, correspondingly, in the


bull action

patterns.
of is

Thus

may

we

account

for and what

characteristic When the


occurs

behavior male
at

bulls, boars,
no

rams,
at

stallions.
age,
a

castrated,
the

matter

change
the of

once;

masculine
are

characteristics,
the and tion mobilizaand
ing, mat-

physical,mental,
In female the

and there

emotional,
is
an

lost. between

analogy
in

thyroid

hormone

summer

winter

the

mobilization

of the

thyroid hormone
and

in the

cyclesof
In the

fertilization, pregnancy,
the

lactation.

female is creases in-

neuroglandular
up

mechanism

governing reproduction
which,
in turn,

stepped
As

by
act

the

thyroid hormone,
of the

the in the that


energy

metabolism of

body.
is
so

fight or
from

the organism flight,


to

grated inteand
as

it is directed

the such

one

purpose

only,

is withdrawn

diverse

mechanisms

eating and

digestion,until

If, however, during the


more

flightis concluded. integration for reproduction the


of fear is started, involving flight supersedes the integration for

the

fight or

powerful integration
of fear

the

integration reproduction.

Thus, through selective

breeding, on
man

the

one

hand, and
domestic

desexing,on

the other

hand,

has

"invented"

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

breeding of breeding and as care as domestication varies with the needs and taste and fancy of The influence of man the energy-controlling man. on organs of the Jersey cow, the Holstein the the hen, pig, the cow, these animals horse has caused reach a point somewhat to the limit of their physicalsafety. near The aims of breeding vary according to the desired end. of the thoroughbred horse and the racing greyIn the case hound, for short distance the a high speed aim, man being takes advantage of the mutations and breeds for a large brain, a largeheart,and a largeadrenal-sympathetic system but not for a largethyroid gland. breeds for endurance On the other hand, when and man of the Arabian horse, he companionship, as in the case breeds for a largerthyroid gland and a smaller brain,heart, and adrenal-sympathetic system.
term

animals, for the


well

"domestication"

includes

and

The training.

influence

When
a

man

desires

greater

largeramount
and

of fat from

of eggs from the hog, better steaks and number of

hen,

chops
greater for

from
amount

the beef and

sheep, a largerfleece
of milk from the temperament.
smaller

wool,
he

or

richness

cow,

breeds

rather than tranquility ity,he breeds toward a sympathetic system. To

To and

produce tranquila

brain
more

smaller
more

adrenal-

produce
toward

eggs,

fat,beef,

wool, and
order hence Let
to
more
us

milk, he breeds
maintain
eggs
a

high
more

level of milk. the


so

large thyroid gland in protoplasmic activity


"

"

and
an

take, for
mind

example,
of
man

Jersey cow.
altered the

breeding, the
that she in
now
a

has

By selective Jersey cow


factory,
not forming trans-

finds great
amount

herself of

taking

largely a chemical hay and grain but

of fodder into roaming the prodigious amount lion or a pack of wolves, or fields, escaping from a mountain and other pastures; to other scenes journeying in adventure not knowing the thrill of being hungry and thirsty and findingfood and drink; not being permitted to be cold and this

156

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

The

foregoing tables
as

indicate

the

influence deteriorating

of domestication.

Just
but

the
use

Jersey

cow

has
so

survival hen

value also she the and has


too
cow

not

for itself forced

for the
a

into such
value

high

of man, level of

the

been

only

for the for

milk, the
is bred

steer

production that of man. use Just as meat, the pig for fat

has survival is bred for

lean, so the hen

for eggs and meat. by man But just as carrying a heavy pack is hard work, so, too, is the production of milk and eggs hard work. It is significant how the thyroid gland of the hen is stepped up to see as compared with that of the fightingcockerel. Her fame is in egg-laying contests, and the organ that contributes is the thyroid gland. the egg-laying marathon most to

We cockerel

should
to

expect
the fact

the

adrenal those

glands
brain

of

the of

fighting
eagle

be

largerthan

of the hen. But of the

surprising

is significance collected

that

the

tawny

largerthan the brain of a leghorn hen of comparable body weight. The large brain, the large heart, and the large adrenal istic individualof a bird of prey. The glands are the formula eagle is the "lion" of the air. Although the cockerel be a fighting to bird, a comparison of the size of his seems brain, heart, and adrenal glands with the size of the brain, eagle establishes heart, and adrenal glands of the tawny of the cockerel in this respect. the inferiority
in Africa is four "times Since
eggs,

butter, cheese, milk, wool, and


constant

meat

are

produced by 158

energy

analogous

to

that

required

AND

PERSONALITY

growth, the animals supplying these products require of the thyroid gland rather than the the specialfunction The ical biochemof the adrenal-sympathetic system. function required to produce a steak, an omelet, or a energy tion thick growth of wool, is the product primarilyof collaboraof the brain and the thyroid gland to provide a high
for level of
constant

energy.

produced by adrenalin, such as would interfere with manifested in fright or anger, and quiet growth of the lazy sheep, the idling cow,
Outburst
energy,

is the the

hen. Thus stuttering toward to serenity, converted wasted into wool

man

has bred that

his domesticated bit of food and milk

animals
energy

the end and

every

be
not

meat

and

eggs

and

or running or fright. by fighting The sensitive cona trol adrenal-sympathetic system exerts of animals. Note the psychic serenity the digestion over in a milk-producing contest. that is desirable for the cow is the brain-adrenal-sympatheticsystem So sensitive that of a quiet visitor or the during milk trials the presence change of clothing of attendants change the milk may production. In the domestic ing dog we have a further example of breedin the case and of true training. This is particularly all dogs that hunt the greyhound. Whereas by scent have the wolf pattern of brain-heart-thyroid-adrenal glands, the but not runs greyhound, which by scent by sight, has of breeding and trainingby man, a developed, over years

race-horse overtake

pattern

his prey greyhound follow

of energy in a short the

organs

that

empowers organs

him

to

rush. The of
a

energy

of the

pattern

short

sprint at racing
with Wolf

high
hound grey-

speed.
Note the from adrenal

predominance
Tennessee,
in the

in in

the
contrast

Memphis, thyroid predominance


northern Minnesota.

the from

pursuing
a

Timber in the

Cold

is

factor

size of the

thyroid gland.
159

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

Just
system work in the

as

we a

found

higher development
horse than

of the

energy
or

in horse

thoroughbred
and in the

in the Arabian Shetland


pony

the than

cold-adapted

tropic-adaptedass, so we found a higher development of the brain-heart-thyroid-adrenal-sympathetic in system a racing grey-hound than in a petted house dog. With the exception of the thoroughbred horse and the greyhound, all the domestic animals, as well as all members of the grass- and leaf-eating are families, geared to run the of destiny, whether it be the chase, the escape, or course the long pullof producing milk or meat for man. The or eggs the pursued, and the wild animals bred by man pursuers, be domestic drones in order to make the long-continued to of energy, have thyroid and adrenal glands that are output more nearly balanced. It is interesting to compare the means by which cattle and with the sheep are bred for domestication by man for speed means by which antelopes and zebras are "bred" by the lion and other carnivores. of the By taking for his food the slowest-goingmembers does for the herd what man herd, the carnivore is effecting The kills animals. carnivore in the breeding of domestic
the less

fit; man
influence

breeds of
man

from
were

the

most

fit.

If the the

withdrawn

overnight

from

world, what would be the effect on the domestic animals and form has been adapted whose body formula of energy for food they could not have found in the wild state? The well as the brain and the heart of domestic as special senses,
animals, have
from the
1 so

deteriorated of

that wolves

the

chance be

of

escape

pack

dogs

and

would

seriously

60

AND

PERSONALITY

diminished.
run

How and
to

down

easilywould destroy these


wild
state.

the

pack

of wolves animals

or

dogs
are

domestic The

that

unadapted
would the

the

size of the

trolling energy-con-

speedilychange, and natural selection the energy-controlling of ultimately restore organs


organs

would

domestic

animals

to

the

state

of those

of

their

wild

ancestors.

In made

the of

breeding
mutations animal.

and
to

domestication

of

animals,

use

is the is
mal ania

domestic carried
may
to

When

the be
so

extreme,

is desired in develop what line breeding of these mutations the physiologicbalance of the
up
occur

stepped
may

in

one

organ

or

system
or

that systems.

serious

unbalance
seen

in other this

organs

It will be
a

later that

principalof
diseases

mutation

plays
man.

role in the

genesis of

certain

in civilized

161

19.

THE

PRIMATES

INmightprimates expect
THE

in anthropoid and, particularly,


to

apes,

one

find

the

pattern

of

the

human the

being

with and

respect adrenal
a

to

the relative

size of the brain in the


to

and

thyroid
that
we

glands. We larger ratio


or

found of brain animal adrenal the

dissected other wild

536 primates body weight than


in the of

in any

domestic
to

of

comparable
the

size,but

the

ratio of the than adrenal The


energy
man

thyroid
did
not

glands

primates

other
to

follow
man.

relation

thyroid
require

glands primates

in

in the wild

state

in their

tree

life that

an

mobilization
man.

exactly the opposite to


surface
area

of

walking,
their

thinking
long
for
extreme
arms

The

of the with heat

primates, with resulting


from

and

legs, endows
the

them

exceptional facilities
their

eliminating
has the had would

internal

activity. only
enemy
to

One

consider of the

the

stealthy, tree-climbing
to

leopard, primates
man

primates,

realize

that

if the

the be such

thyroid-adrenal equation possessed by


more

they

but intelligent dramatic

too

slow

to

escape

the the

leopard. In
energy

existence, primates having


man,

pattern

of

walking, thinking
small adrenal

with

his

large thyroid gland, and


left
no

glands, would

have

progeny.

The

physical
that of the of his
a

prowess

of and

the

gorillais overwhelmingly primates, possibly even


brain he and of the
can

superior to
to

of

man

other

that

lion. The

size of the

gorilla,the

degree
and that
to

the intelligence, caricature

fact that of man,

walk

upright
fact

is

ferocious adrenal

the been
"

further

the

glands
as

of the the

gorilla have
of the
human

estimated the
"

be five times

large as
of

thyroid gland

formula suggest

of the the

adrenal-thyroid relation
man.

fetus

apelike ancestor
162

AND

PERSONALITY

Budonga forest in Uganda, in the midst of a vegetation in which the trees tower tropical 150 feet or more the undergrowth is so thick that the only in height and Dr. of penetration is to follow the elephant trails, means
In the great

Quiring
adult

and

Mr.

Fuller

collected

an

adult

male

and

an

chimpanzee. Pulling themselves up into these from bough to bough, giant trees, leaping fantastically in the sunshine,and tending their young, chattering, lolling as screaming, bickering, these great anthropoids looked in the dimly sunlit forest. large as men brain of the II 5-pound male The chimpanzee weighed the brain-to-body-weight ratio being 1 : 129. The 440 grams, female, which weighed 97 pounds, had a brain that weighed the brain-to-body-weight ratio being 1:135. 325 grams, formula, the size of the brain for According to the power the male chimpanzee was 1.179 an"^ f"r tne female, 0.8978. A comparison of the chimpanzee with an African antelope of approximately the same in the weight shows, as seen followingtable,that the chimpanzee has a largerbrain and the thyroid glands in the larger adrenal glands, whereas
female the same in size. The adrenal relatively glands in the chimpanzee are twice the weight of the thyroid adrenal the thyroid and glands, whereas glands in the
two

animals

are

fact antelope are nearly balanced in weight. The significant in this comparison is the unique size of the brain in the ligence chimpanzee, indicatinggreater intelligence. Superior intelin the chimpanzee is associated with large adrenal in man, glands, whereas superior intelligenceis associated with a large thyroid gland.

163

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,
man

What
so

were

the circumstances the other

under

which

departed

primates in the relative size adrenal the chimof panzee, glands? The gorilla, the baboon, and the monkeys have adrenal glands three times largerthan the thyroid gland, for all of two or these need for outburst tree-dwelling anthropoids have in their the leopard and other enemies to escape energy and long legs active tree existence. Although the long arms his final upright posture, and his manipulative hand of man, evolved during his tree life,the brain and the thyroid could have been evolved not during that gland of man in the tree would be an period. Walking, thinking man misfit. Nor did the tree life equip man his to escape energy enemies by running. Man's adaptation was the evolution of of strategy, namely, a thinking brain. The the organ early underwent their gradual evolution from a of man ancestors the ground, with a slow assumplife in the trees to a life on tion of an upright posture, as exemplified by the gorilla today.
Thus the
trees
we

completely from the thyroid and

may

suppose

that

dawn

man

came

down food In
to

from the

in the

tropics,followed
a

his animal and


a

grasslands,and became gradually the selection, devoluted,and reaching the formula of


is
two

hunter

nomad.

quence, conse-

and

half times

glands, through natural the thyroid gland evoluted, finally whose modern thyroid gland man, the size of the adrenal glands.

adrenal

164

Yet than where animals the

there in the

is

greater of the is
are

amount

of life in the

northern the

seas

seas

equatorial region. In
the
most

arctic,
the also but

the

sunshine
sea

seemingly only the


must

least

abundant,

in the

not

numerous source

largest; therefore, there


arctic that fades alone
out

be

some

of energy

in the Since
since
can

southward. generate

sunlight

cannot

protoplasm
Azotobacter and

and
alone

and lightning, terrestrial electricity, fix

nitrogen, the essential


snow

base in the

of

protoplasm,
zone

since in the

there
warmer

is less

and

rain

arctic

than

climates, there fixation, hence


there
no

is, therefore, less lightning and


there would therefore in the be less arctic
less

less terrestrial

and electricity,

nitrogen region, were


The is the greater
one aurora

protoplasm,
than solar

source

other electric
aurora

energy.

overwhelming
borealis.
any
as

phenomenon
borealis is
as

in the

north

The

stupendously
temperate than
or

than

electric
enormous

phenomenon
blue
or

in the

tropic zones
other This
to

the

whale

is greater
zones.

any

animal
one

in the

temperate the

tropic
aurora

form

of energy,

borealis, is peculiar
toward the the
same

the
area

arctic

region. Its intensity fades

equator,
manner

the that
way

of strongest

sunlight, in
trees, and
areas

much

sunlight, rain,
toward
most

plants fade
of least northern Baffin

in the

opposite
band

the

poles,the
aurora

sunlight.The

of the
across

intense

passes

Russia, Siberia,

northern Newfoundland

Canada,
at

and about

along
60"

Land, Greenland,
this electric in the world. of telephone,

and

latitude, and

phenomenon Accompanying
As the

is the it is

most
a

colossal

spectacle

violent

electric

disturbance

radio, and

telegraph through
into the

systems.

they
gases

pass

atmosphere, light rays


and the electrons that ionize the

ionize
are

in the pass

atmosphere,
space,

set

free, as they
tion of the northern

air. It is this ionizathat is

air

by

the

free

electrons

expressed

in

lights.
166

AND

PERSONALITY

When
at

these

free

electrons
are

come

into

the

magnetic
the

field the

poles,they northern lights are


the

deflected
not
so

southward. around

Therefore,

marked 60" north

magnetic
there band this

pole
seems

as

they
to

are a

at

about of

latitude, where
earth and is
at

be

band

highest intensity.From
upon

southward,

the

impact
its force

the

increasingly
the
eauator

oblique;
there As is the

hence

is

diminished,

none. crow

the magnetic pole, which flies, about


800

is in Boothia

peninsula, throughout
that which

is

miles

north

of

Churchill;

yet

Hudson

ships are

turbed disare so Bay the ships' compasses obliged to carry a gyroscopic compass,

is uninfluenced

by

the

proximity
bombarded that

of the in the makes

magnetic pole.
same manner

If the

arctic

region were
and

by by
the

the

radiant

electric energy and

up

the

aurora

borealis,as the temperate


the radiant and and electricity cold air
to

tropicregions are
that makes
up

bombarded terrestrial

electric energy

gravitate
as

in occur lightning,nitrogen fixation would the fixed nitrogen would in the frigid zones, the sea, and be formed, just plankton would units
on

the
"

smallest
are

the

land

"

the

Azotobacter

of the

soil

accounted the

for

Since electric electron


aurora

genesis of
and

through nitrogen fixation. living forms is due to radiant


the
a

and and the tensity inthe

energy

since is
at

intensity of
of the of band there
so

radiation

bombardment

measure

intensity of
aurora

borealis, then
it would
appear
sea

the that

greatest be

should there is.

found

greatest The

massing of
sea

life;and
it all the and
sea

holds of

within

elements

needed

for the with

formation this

vegetable
both the

animal is

life. In accordance

point of view, the


In

nitrates.

soil and

continually fertilized with the sea an infinityof living


exist. From these
are

ultramicroscopic and
energy

visible forms

ing emerg-

units

tiny plankton and


of
a

giant whales
other marine

formed. for

In the

hearing

committee whales

representing the
and

council

conservation

of

majnmals

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,
resources

before United

special committee
States

on

wild-life

of the would

the
mate esti-

Senate, Mr.
year

Lewis
alone

Radcliffe
42,000

gave

that

in the

1931

whales

be
oil.

killed,yielding at
If each

least

150

million

gallons of whale

of the 42,000 in

whales would

killed in 1931 establish


a

pounds
whales
But

weight,

that

averaged 34,500 total weight of


pounds.
are

taken

annually, of about
of the total

1,450,000,000 whale

what
42,000

percentage

population

these In

whales, taken

annually?

pounds, the weight of the whales taken annually would equal that of 14,500,000 sheep, averaging 100 pounds each fat steers, averaging 1,000 pounds in weight, or 1,450,000 of good pasturage each in weight. If one two acre supports of land to support sheep, it would require 7,250,000 acres of sheep that equal in weight the number the number of
whales of
seas.

taken
green

in 1931.

This in

gives
the

some

idea of the

vastness

the

pastures
the

dark

depths

of

the

polar

with handicap of far less sunlight, and with only a desert level of rainfall, little or no lightning, that there is produced in the sea it is estimated 2% times that is produced in I acre of land in the the food value fertile Mississippi Valley. From the arctic

In the

with arctic,

regions toward

the

equator

there

is

of of the fading out fading out of plankton, just the reverse sunlight from the equator to the poles,of the fading out the equator the poles, and of the of plant life from to fading out of trees from the equator to the poles.Therefore, basic energy contribute the building up of must to some life in the Arctic and Antarctic
oceans

that is and

not

found

in

comparable amount Looking out upon


at

in the temperate the


water

tropic zones.
noon

in the brilliant

sunshine
one

Churchill,

on

the

Hudson
were

Bay,

we

noticed

white

flash after another. whales and the


as
were

These
on

here

the

white whales, such or belugas, day, in 1782, when the French Prince of Wales and all it

English fought
168

for Fort

AND

PERSONALITY

commanded. and the

The

white
were

whale

was

here

before

the

French

English
the

civilized. The and the Indians whale

whale from
was

arrival of the Eskimos


came came across

preceded the Asia when they


before
most
man

straits. The
a

here

into

the whale

being as has kept

Breeding from the species. its biologic ledger balanced.

fit,

169

2L

INFLUENCE

OF

COLD

INrises
death

WARM-BLOODED or

animals, when
falls
a

the
or

body temperature
below of the
man

few

degrees
the

above

normal,
rises
to

occurs.

When

io8.5"F.,he is in the the body temperature degrees below


From habitat the the equator

body temperature of inaugural state


of
man

heatstroke.

When of

falls from

limited cold
occurs.

number

normal, death
to

the

arctic

region, every
animals

degree
and wide of
men

of

temperature equator of winter


man

exists. and the

Countless arctic of the wild

live between of the cold

region.The
torrid and heat

swings
summer

and and

profoundly
In the cold

affect

the live
as

domestic
a

animals.

north, animals
oil and of the

if within

Thermos

bottle,
of heat

fur, fat, blubber, and


from In
a

within

serving as icy cold from


zones,
some

nonconductors without.
many

winter,
fur
are

in the

temperate
may

animals the skins climate


not

put

on

thicker

arid

gain
seal
or

fat. In
or

tropics all
are

animals in the

lean.

No

mink

otter

found there
is

tropics.On the contrary, in the heat by protection against external


carnivores pant
in

hot

hair,
and the

fur.

All

the
seen

hot

noon

of
man

the

tropics;sweating
horse.

over

all the
In

body

is

only

in

is universal truce a day, in the tropics, observed by lions,leopards, foxes, the antelopes,and man. conflict occurs external The only in the cool of night and the elephant, in the early morning. Such as great animals for cooling,are adapted to the with its critically low facility

the

heat

of the

water

and
us

the
now

swamps.
turn

Let

from

considering these
of the heat of and the size

external cold
to

negative
internal

adaptations to extremes adaptations, such as


organs,

energy-controlling
the

the

blood

volume, fat, and


expect
alone in

blubber.
to

should we Theoretically, adaptation against cold 170

find that the arctic

principal
be
a

would

AND

PERSONALITY

brain

of

spondingly uniquely large size, a thyroid gland of correof large size,a large heart, and a large volume

blood, fat, and


bottle encased in

blubber.

It would

seem

that the

the

Thermos is and

in evolution, whereby principle

livingfurnace
cold north
a

blubber, is
furnace other

not

sufficient in the
to

that the inner

has

be stoked in the cold

to

intensity;in
maintain furnace the
must

words,
more

higher constant north, in order


the

to

normal burn for

warm-blooded

state,

internal

Allowing adaptation
be
seen

the

intensely. slight differences


upon

in

weight,
brain in of in
a a a

the
may

to

cold

alone

the

size of the of the brain with that

in

contrast

beest

collected

in

weight equatorialAfrica
summer an

of the

hartecaribou

collected of
an

during

the

in the arctic and Arctic hare.

contrast

African

hare

with

In

Hudson We and

Bay
took found

at

Churchill

we

collected

whales. capture

their them

temperatures
to

eight immediately
as our own

white after
peratures. tem-

be

the

same

The

internal

temperature

of the

whale

and

the

porpoise is
and heat. blubber

the
can

product of all the protection that fat, oil, give to keep out the cold and keep in the

executed hand, the high rate of metabolism by the uniquely large brain, the uniquely large thyroid gland, and the uniquely large heart and blood volume of the whale and the porpoiseproduces a rate of oxidation not 171

On

the other

INTELLIGENCE,
at

POWER,

all

approached by
zone.

any

land

animal

in the

tropic or

the

temperate
Thus the
not

only did thyroid gland in


and in the animals of

we

find that

the. brain,the
animals

heart,and
in the

the warm-blooded
sea

cold

north

cold

larger than in the warmblooded comparable weight in the tropics and


were

the temperate zones, size of the heart and land The 1217.5 animals

but

we

found

also

an

increase in the

in the
blooded warmsea.

in the volume

of blood and

in the cold north whale blood the that of the


we

in the cold

largest white pounds. The


content,
cent

collected whales

weighed
showed
a

white

high
20

oxygen

hemoglobin being approximately


that of man, and there
were

per

higher than
vessels

vast

numbers
hence

of blood

holding reserve

of blood, supplies

On

of oxygen. what basis do the white-whale

family and

the human

? The human analogies family and family exhibit surprising rich oxygen of the the white-whale family breathe the same has a largedevelopment of the brain. Each has a air. Each great thyroidgland.The thyroidgland in its location in the flattened lateral two neck, in its connectingbridge between the same lobes,is of precisely being pattern in the human
as

in the white

whale.
to

Harry C. R. Darling, F.R.C.S., of for the energy-controlling of an Sydney, Australia, organs in the In the brain of this aborigine, Australian aborigine. brain of the white whale, and in the brain of the porpoise
We
are

indebted

there The

are

marked

resemblances

and

marked

differences.

brain-to-bodyweight ratio in the aborigineweighing 1:56; in a porpoise 76.2 kilograms (168 + pounds) was weighing 142 kilograms (313 + pounds) it was 1 182; and in white whale weighing 552.25 kilograms (1,217+ pounds) a it was formula, the values 1:235. According to the power
for the brains
White
whale
were as

follows:
'. .".'.".' ." 2 ".". '.".
. . . ......

'.

301

Porpoise
Australian

.:2 737
.

aborigine

3 080
.

172

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

weighed

kilograms. The animal taken in Kentucky of the most The was one highly energized animals known. forebears of this animal point back forty-two million years. animal from the arctic has a heritage of forty million The the animal from Kentucky and the years. Therefore, both animal from Hudson Bay preceded the animal that rode the or Kentucky thoroughbred Equipoise in his winning race dissected the white whale of the cold north by millions of is credited with a heritageof less man years, for the animal
521.52 than The
a

million

years of the

on

this earth. of

weight

brain

Equipoise, one
was

of the swiftest

warm-blooded
was

animals

known,

808.5

grams.

Equipoise

geared for a high-speed, short dash to exhaustion. The weight of the brain of the white whale that was obliged to keep its protoplasmic fires burning constantly at a high
level in the surface The
process
at

cold short

arctic

sea

and
to

that breathe of

had
was

to

swim 2,355
acts

to

the

intervals

grams.

extraordinary number of breathing and the


the brain
to

individual

in

the

infinite number
to

of the

impulses
internal

from

the
at

muscles such

maintain heat

protoplasmic
demanded for
an

against the cold exceptionally largethyroid gland in the whale


the
rate

fires

intense

stepping
whale

up

of oxidation

of the

brain.

For

the

white

vital. requirement was needed. For Equipoise the opposite was To win the race, adrenal the vital requirement for Equipoise was an gland larger than the thyroid gland. The followingtable shows the marked animals.
contrast

this

in the

energy

requirements of these

two

174

AND

PERSONALITY

These heart.

two

animals

also show the heart

difference striking circulates the blood

in the from

In
to

the death

whale,
at
race

birth

thoroughbred
the deficit

fairlyeven horse, the


as a

speed.
heart had
to

In

Equipoise, the
the task
an

of

culating cir-

blood the

crisis need

prevent

oxygen

pinnacle of expenditure of energy in the the task of establishing heart also had The a race. high negative electric potentialto balance the exceedingly high of the brain. Thus the brain and the heart potential positive together form the pinnacle of drivingpower of the muscles in winning the race. The weight of the heart of the white whale was 3,175 and the weight of the heart of Equipoise was 4,455 grams, during
grams.

Thus, in the
upon

energy

formulas has
years,
to

of these lavished
we

two

exalted

animals

whom

evolution million
as

her

giftsfor
of intelligence,

forty

and

forty-two
of and
our

see

still another

corroboration
power,

thesis

the

mechanism

personality. After two days' sail on the Nascopie from Churchill,we Chesterfield anchor at to came Inlet,at the edge of the Arctic Circle. As we stood on deck, waiting to land, four settlements spread out before us : the gray Mission Hospital, the Hudson's Bay post, Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Melling's
littlewhite house with the green

roof,and

the radio station.

were Long-haired, but jolly-lookingEskimos unloading. Their short legsand long bodies showed and great strength, old and young seemed capable of carrying heavy burdens. Through the kindness of Dr. and Mrs. Melling, there had been collected for us seals, a young caribou, and even

walrus. The be
in

thyroid and adrenal glands of the seals we found to of the pursuing dog and wolf pattern nearly balanced weight, and unlike those of the white whale, which have
"

the pattern The

of

man. or

big "oodjuk,"

square

seal,known flipper

to

us

as

the "bearded"

seal,which

Dr.

Melling had

cached 175

for us,

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

weighed
so we

620

pounds.

It

was

too

largeto
or

hoist from

its

tomb,

dissected

it where seals and than the

it lay.The
is
more

bearded less

seal is the

largest

of all northern

in solitary northern

its habits. seal and

Its skin is thicker is much valued


on

that

of any

other

by

Eskimos. and

The

bearded The

seal,like the

walrus, feeds
a

mollusks

crustaceans.

ring seal

is

fish

eater.

When
progress.

we

reached

Morso with

Island,

walrus

hunt

was

in

The

Eskimos,

long, curved
the

knives, worked

with In

incredible
contrast

speed.
to

equatorial regions, the mammal walrus, a warm-blooded living in the cold sea, had a thyroid gland much larger than the adrenal glands. of animals studies of the energy-controlling In our organs found in tropicalAfrica and of animals in the arctic,we
definite evidence
upon

animals

in

of the the

influence

of cold

and

of heat

alone

of warmblooded energy-controlling organs animals. Temperature alone in the arctic requiresa larger brain,a largerheart and blood volume, and a larger tain mainthe oxidation to thyroid gland to execute necessary the size of the warm-blooded is secured In
state.

The
case

influence of the

of habitat walrus that

perature temwe

clearlyseen
arctic. of the

in the

in the the
case

rhinoceros

secured

in

equatorial

Africa,the opposite is seen, for, because of the ceiling of is toward heatstroke,the influence of tropicaltemperature smaller brain and a smaller thyroid gland. a second in the comparison of the The basic influence seen 176

AND

PERSONALITY

energy-controlling systems
is that

of the walrus

and

the rhinoceros

always reflected in the hot-tempered, rushing rhinoceros, the adrenal glands are 3.79 times larger than those of the even-tempered, slow-goingwalrus, as indicated by the following comparison:
of energy behavior, which is size of the adrenal glands. In the

POWER

FORMULA

VALUES

In other

words, although this


the 2.07

young

adult of the

rhinoceros

was

larger
walrus

than
was

walrus, the
times

brain

largerthan the brain adapted rhinoceros,and the thyroid gland of the walrus was 1.49 times largerthan the thyroid gland of the rhinoceros. These of the arctic and the two outstanding animals the tropics illustrate the influence of cold and heat upon size of the brain and thyroid gland. This principleapplies of the races of man. equally to the habitat temperature In a comparison of 28 tropical rodents with 123 subarctic Carnivora with 23 subarctic ones, 14 tropical ones, 15 tropical
ungulates with
8

cold-adapted of the tropic-

4 subarctic

ones

and

in

an

examination

of

of the relativeQuiring, by means growth equation, found the degree of brain development to be markedly largerin the subarctic rodents and Carnivora than in the tropicalones. The brain was larger in the 177

white

whales, Dr.

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

subarctic the brain


those

ungulates
of the white
any

than whale of

in the
to

tropicalones.
per
cent

He

found

be 300

largerthan
of

of
"

other

the

284 species exclusive


animals studied

the

human

examined

among

the 3,734

in this

research. exhibited a aquatic Carnivora degree of brain development 89 per cent higher than that of the tropical land the Carnivora, and subarctic, doglike Carnivora possessed a brain coefficient 26 per cent higher than that of catlike Carnivora. the tropical, In his study of the thyroid glands evaluated the on scale and expressed in terms of the thyroidrelative-growth Dr. Quiring found ization coefficient, that both the subarctic The rodents and than
we

the

subarctic

Carnivora in the

showed

larger coefficient
white
over

those

collected showed the showed


next
a

whales 300
per

that
cent

collected

Carnivora,
difference The

and

the
not

larger than ungulates


so

The tropics. thyroid coefficients of highest group but the difference,

was

great.
expresses

coefficient that

the relative

development, Dr. Quiring found, shows a favoring the subarctic rodents, the Carnivora, and found the ungulates.The heart coefficient of the whales was level as that of the tropical be on the same to ungulates. and differences the tropical between the northern The animals studied, when expressed numerically, Dr. Quiring
found
to

degree of heart ference difsignificant

be

as

follows:

178

AND

PERSONALITY

The

influence

explains the
volume animals

forty million years on the larger brain, heart, thyroid gland, and
animals of the
also

of cold for

whale blood the

in the of the
volume

arctic

as

contrasted

with

larger

metabolism far north north


as

explainsthe largerbrain,the the higher the larger chest, and and Chippewyan Indians of the of the Eskimo of the tropicsand the compared with the man
It tropics. of blood,
zone.

temperate
the

Through

collaboration

of Dr.

Melling, of

field Chester-

studies were Territory, metabolism made at on level, 63.45" noi"th latitude, sea 63 Eskimos, reading of +22.7 per cent. At Churchill, giving an average studies were Manitoba, 58.44" north latitude, metabolism made on Indians,giving an average reading 13 Chippewyan of Dr. P. of +18.2 Through the collaboration per cent. Kahle, Dr. Quiring made Jorda Kahle and Dr. H. Reichard

Inlet, Keewatin

metabolism

studies

in New

Orleans

and

around

the Mississippi

Delta, 30" north


an

latitude, on

thirty Negroes, giving

reading of "14.6 per cent. of the Eskimo In keeping with the high metabolic rate are his livelypersonality,flushed, warm skin, and free perspiration of the brachial and the radial arteries Palpation
average
a

of
a

number

of Eskimos volume.

indicated

low

blood

pressure

and

large blood
This is in

harmony
and that

with the

our

concept

that

the

brain

executes

energy

the

rate to

of oxidation cold and wide


to

in the

thyroid gland, which governs brain,varies in size as an tion adaptaof of


constant
man

the needs of studies

energy.

In
seen

our

range

and

animals

we

have

comparisons of their adaptation to the heat of the cold of the north the tropics and that heatstroke in the hot tropics and freezingin the cold north have been determining factors in the size of the brain, the thyroid gland, and the blood volume. This, however, does not take into account that part of the brain which we designate the "mind," or "thinking brain," and the manipulative hand.
in the 179

The

rise of these

two

organs

has
as

been
master

an

important
animal.

factor

in the

development

of

man

the

The
A the
master

Energy
animal
zone,

Pattern
must

of the
able
to

Master
survive in the

Animal
in the

be

tropics,

temperate
on

the

Arctic

zone,

desert, in the
the air and
animals

marsh,

plains,or in the mountains. of their breathing the rich oxygen Because of their higher speed of oxidation, the warm-blooded
of the of what and If with that The
no

the

sea,
man

namely,
is
on

the

Cetacea,
No
match

are

in
a

the

sea

something
whale,

the land.
is
a

fish is

match

for the

land
master

animal animal

for able
vast

man.

must

be

to

compete hordes

successfully
of smaller fish
animals. animal
are

all other
are

animals, then

the

eaten

shark the

by larger fish could not be be disqualified as family would


the
of the

master
a

master

by

fact that What


as

killer whale formidable the

and

the

porpoise

their

masters.

killer whale?
to

Just
in
so

the

lion and and

large numbers
the

tigerfailed on the land therefore to qualify as master


failed the
as

appear

animals,
numbers.

killer whale

has

to

appear

in great

The

salmon,

the

cod,

herring, although
master

they
man,

are

numerous,

cannot

qualify
in the every

animals,
them
sea,

for
vast to

as

well

as

many

animals

sea,

takes

in
up

ties. quantithe great


is that of

This whales. the

eliminates The
most

animal

in the of
sea.

perfect example
reentered
calves continue

adaptation

mammals blue
at

that whale

the
measure

Brandt1
more

According to Karl twenty-three feet or


one

birth.
at

They
end

to

grow

to

two

inches

day,
whale Brandt blue
1

until
may

the have

of the
a

nursing period the

young

blue

attained
not
220

length
a

of

some

feet. fifty-four does the time


Research

states

that

only while

being suckled

the of

whale

calf
KARL,

gain
"Whale

pounds
An

day,

but

from
Food

BRANDT,
Stanford

Oil:

Economic

Analysis,"

tute, Insti-

University Press,

1940.

80

"

INTELLIGENCE, until it is
a

POWER,
two

weaning
continues
an

at to

about add

seven 200

months

years

old it
at

pounds
it blue
ceases

day
to

to

its

weight until

age

of eleven
states

years

grow.

Brandt of
100

that
a

whales of 150

reach

maximum tons,
or

length
330,693

feet and

weight
their
years

metric

pounds. They
age

reach three

maturity for reproduction at the


and the

of

two

to

period of gestation is
to

days. So completely adapted


he
or

is the whale

life in the

sea

that

has
to

no

need

pursue

for emergency to overcome gravity power food. The great whales take their nourishment

in the form
soup.
no

of

plankton,for they swim,


is balanced
as

as

it were, The

in

bowl

of

The

whale

in the

water.

whale

needs
of

crisis energy, and up the mud his

security.The
whale and

elephant,to pull himself out slipperybank; the whale is in command of the whale family are only enemies
man.

does

the

of
a

fellow

The

killer whale

benefits the

the whale the fit

the least fit; just as family by killing antelope by killingthe least fit. Man
among

lion benefits
most

kills the

his fellow

men.

largebrain,the largeheart, the large blood volume, the large thyroid gland, and smaller adrenal glands we see of the arctic. the typicalformula whale The by his size, by his giving birth to but one at a time, by the certaintyof his food supply, by his young nearly perfectadaptation record,and by his most geological
In the is the
most

masterful found in the


a

animal,

save

man.

Having
of animals

neuroendocrine

formula

characteristic

arctic, a formula

in the whale size of the

family, the
heart

ingly strikexpressed most Is the unique question arose: blood

brain, the

and

volume,

and

the

thyroid gland in the whale family an adaptation to cold, both? muscular to or to activity, is not the unique size of these organs That an adaptation the in the comparison between muscular to activityis seen
racing stallion Equipoise and
182

the white

whale.

AND

PERSONALITY

To north found
waters

determine
is
an a

whether

or

not

this formula studied

found the

in the

adaptation
member refer
to

to

cold, we
manatee.
sea

evidence

in

of the order the


on

Sirenia that

lives in

tropical

only. I
manatee

The
upon

feeds
its

grass.

Sea

grass

sunlight for year-round warm


manatee

growth.
as

Therefore shallow
to

it

dependent requiresan allThus the


perature tem-

is

climate

and

water.

not

only is limited
is the habitat

its of

habitat, but its


that of the

habitat and the

opposite
of the enemies.

whale;
it from

shoaly

manatee

protects
we

large and
that have
a

formidable

Therefore,
to
a

expected
would blood

manatee
a

comparable
brain,
smaller
a
a

in size

white
a

whale smaller

smaller

smaller

heart,

volume, and
In
our

subarctic

thyroid gland. collected expedition we


in
to

the

energy-

of whales that varied controllingorgans 764 to 1,217 pounds. Therefore, in. order it
was

weight
make of
a

from
parison, com-

desirable

to

secure

manatee

comparable

weight.
In

the

protected by law, but through interest and cooperation of Mr. S. C. Murray permission was granted by Mr. G. W. Petersen, the conservation
manatee

Florida

the

is

agent,

for

us

to

secure

one

manatee.

Captain Blair of the Goodyear dirigible also granted to Mr. "Reliance," permission was Murray for our of Mrs. Crile,Dr. Quiring,Mr. Al party, consisting Pflueger,Mr. J. H. Kearns, and me, to observe manatees from the air,in order to select one the size that we required. From the able not only to select the Reliance," we were that we manatee wanted, but so slowly does the manatee that we able to return Miami to were and, in a move, boat with the motor guidance of Captain Blair from the air, identify and that we had harpoon the manatee
"

Through

selected. This
manatee

measured with

10
a

feet 3 inches

and white

weighed

935

pounds.

Compared

928-pound

whale, the 183

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

weight
as

of the

brain, the heart, and

the

thyroid gland

were

follows:

difference between striking heart, and the thyroid gland of The cold arctic
sea

the the

size of the white


warm

brain, the
of the

whale

and

the

manatee

of the

tropics,each lungs breathe,


most to

being

warm-blooded

and

each

having
of the alone

mammalian
water

necessitating rising to the surface


offers further evidence
in

that

climate

is

one

of the

potent
This

factors

the

evolution

of warm-blooded evidence
a

animals.
neuroa

comparison
formula and

affords of the

further

that the

endocrine

north, namely,
a

large brain,

large heart
an

blood

volume, and

largethyroid gland, is

adaptation against cold. As a corollary, it requiresa higher degree of intelligence,


and than

power,

personality
an

to

live

an

active

life in the

cold

north

indolent

life in the

tropics.

184

2o

MAN

IN

THE

ENERGY

SCALE

follow that thyroid gland it would work animal that must at a high tempo continuously an fires burning at a high level to and keep its metabolic cold would state against constant protect its warm-blooded active thyroid gland than be equipped with a largeror more

IFgland

THE

constant

tempo the

of the

brain
"

is

governed by

one

only

"

the

warm-blooded

animal.

Such

animals

in the

sea

are

the

whale, the porpoise, the walrus.


On animal

land, the only


which
covers

animal the

with

such

requirements
animal which

is that works

earth, that

physically,mentally, and emotionally all day and worries civilized man. all night According to the power formula, and other organ of the brain and the thyroid gland no bears a higher ratio to his body weight than is seen in man
" " "

any

other

animal.
to

In addition tempo

the in

provision for maintaining


man

the
a

constant

of energy

and

animals, there
energy

is

for emergency

energy.

Emergency
and the

is

provision preeminently
of the
cat

required by family
and the hoofed birds
to

the

lion

other

members

in their

explosive attack, by the animals, by the wild animals


air. All
are

escaping
on

rodents and lesser

the

land
or

in the
execute

evolved

in

greater

degree
The the

mechanism

flash energy that executes adrenal

in attack

and

in escape. is the

flash energy celiac The


are

brain,
and teristics charac-

heart, the
the of what

plexuses, and
the emergency

glands, the sympathetic system.


call the of the "wild"

ganglia
the

energy

we

state

result

of

power

the brain and sympathin, each of which the sympathetic system. The of the adrenalactivation affects every cell in the body more sympathetic system than in the lower races of intensivelyin the lower animals of man than in the more intensivelyin the lower races man,

action of specific profoundly affects

adrenalin

and

185

higher
adults. We

races

of man,

more

intensively in
of

children

than

in

have

stated the

that The but

the

power

an

animal

is executed is due
to

solely by produce
outburst of the In

brain.

constant

oxidation

the
not

thyroid influence,
emergency

the

thyroid gland
The the
or

alone

does

energy.

adrenal-sympathetic thyroid gland,


governs

tem, sys-

in collaboration of energy emotions. the

with in attack

the

escape

and

in the

expression

delicate infinitely

white

matter, of

or

matrix, of the
sions dimen-

brain, physical conductance


are

paths paths
cells of

microscopic
as

established These with

by

electric

charges

they

pass

through
become
currents

the

matrix.

molecular the

of conductance of
gray
organs.

facilitated that brain


are

repeated
in the

passage

electric
matter

generated
this network white
matter

the

of

the

which

is stimulated

by

the

sense

Could
of the

of facilitated be detected

pathways by
an

in the

matrix

infinitely powerful

of number a might exhibit microscope, a single brain hookups'* comparable to the telephone wires, exchanges,
"

and

receivers

in

great

city.Could
the therein read that

one

look

with

an

eye

of

infinite of
an

magnification
one

into

recording
the

matrix

of the

brain
its

animal,

could

configuration of
could the read
moment

multitude act, every birth. This

of action

patterns, of that mechanism


in
man

is,one
from

every

experience
is
or

animal,
of and

of its and

the

memory,

reason,

imagination,
But within
senses

"mind,"
have

animals.
matrix
on

this

plastic and
caused
of
to

passive
be

which

the
of

special by
the

etched
no

this

network
is

conducting
which

pathways
its intricate
gray

action,
can

power

generated
It
is in

system
matter

be

operated.
that the

cells of the
to

of the is

brain

energy

required
Since which the
1

operate

this system
energy

generated.
to

the

only

available in the form

the

animal
from

is that the

animal

captures

of food

plant

86

AND

PERSONALITY

and solar

since

the

energy

held from the is


not

within

the
nitro

plant
group

is

captured
the

from

radiance that

and

the

in

soil, the
memory,

energy
reason,

operates

brain

in

fabricating
is, in fact, the

imagination
electric
energy

like, but
is released

radiant in the

and brain

that

by
"mind"

oxidation

cells and

controlled

by

the

thyroid gland.
or

It would is
not
a

appear,

therefore, that
and
no

intelligence
board switch-

separate of memory,

power.

Intelligenceis the
matter
cause
or

use

of the

reason,

imagination. Intelligenceis
how the
any

present

in

any

animal,
currents

low muscles

in the

animal mal anicease

scale, whose
to
move

action
away

of that
or

from is the form exists

toward

object
of the

to

movement.

This this

kindergarten
of

stage

intelligence. intelligence only


"

Between of
a

lowly
there

and intelligence intermediate that mechanism

Newton,
what

every

stage.
the force brain it is

Upon
that
can

is based this

the
most

statement

operate

delicate

the that

"is

electric
energy

energy

? The electric
upon

principal
energy

evidence that

electric mechanism
no

and

alone

operates

this

is based but the

three

facts, of

(i) Brain
electric

cells possess the

function

generation
(2) When
and

charge by

process

of oxidation.

oxidation

is diminished
or

by

anesthetics, narcotics, asphyxia, hemorrhage,

shock, the
the
to

intelligence,power,
reduced. surface its work As
a

personality
of part it that

are

correspondingly
cells of brain
outer

(3)
of the

Electric brain

stimulation

the of the

causes

perform

precisely as
student I

it

performed
with of

naturally.
brilliant He the
surgeon-

worked

that London.

scientist, Sir Victor


separate the
centers cortex

Horsley,
brain brain of

plotted
and

the

of the of the

by noting
cortex

effect of stimulating

chimpanzees
of the
man,

by

lating stimubrain

the electrically

exposed

the

human

during operations
contractions.
centers

and

observing
and
movements

resulting
when

muscular cortical stimu-

In the
govern

chimpanzee
the

the
were

that

of muscles

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER, eyes,

lated,there
of the
were

was

lips as
such

in

of the grimace, movement whistling,or pointing of


movements
as

puckering finger.Not

the

only
and

gross

movements

of the also such

arms,

but

motions

shrugs of the shoulder fingers, toes, and hands duced, proused in were produced as are
"

running. The
pass

question that
brain
to

arises is

did

an

electric

current

contracting muscles ? During the stimulation, the galvanometer indicated the passing of electric currents, in the spinal cord.
In such
our own

from

the

the

researches
constants

on as

animals

we

have

found electric

that
ductivity, con-

physical

temperature, electric

electric the

capacity, and

potential vary

in

livingbrain in the normal state, in the state of excessive and in the state administration of depression.The activity, of thyroxin is followed by an increase in the electric potential, electric conductivity, electric capacity, and ture temperathe followed of brain. Thyroidectomy is by a slow decrease in the electric potential, electric conductivity, of the brain. The electric capacity, and temperature tion injecof adrenalin electric of the
causes

potential,
temperature fall in these In
man,

abrupt rise in the electric conductivity, electric capacity, and brain, followed by an equally abrupt
an

physical constants. thyroid deficiencyis

attended

by

ingly correspond-

lowered

activity of the brain. Excessive

thyroid gland, whether gland


the normal
or

activityof the through hyperplasia of the thyroid


raises

level

of thyroxin, through the administration of activity of the brain, causing, first,a

high

tone

and, if carried
the

to

the

extreme,

excitability
the of

delirium. and, finally, Not

only does
in the

thyroid
nerve

hormone

increase

rate

oxidation the and does

billions of brain the the

activity of
nerves

of

entire

equally increases cells constituting the ganglia Not only sympathetic system.
cells but fundamen

thyroxin produce
188

all these

INTELLIGENCE, the brain and

POWER,

sympathetic

nervous

system,

but

it increases

the effect of the sole agent On the other

of flash energy, excision

hand, total

of

namely, adrenalin. the thyroid gland

FIG.

20.

"

The

nervous

system

of the

insect

(grasshopper).

causes

state

of low

metabolism,
this

almost of
upon

vegetative state. In of a even syringeful


heartbeat, the
state.

cold,drowsy, lethargic, tion state, a hypodermic injeca

adrenalin

has

little or and state, the


a

no

effect
mental

the

blood

pressure,

and

the emotional

In the normal

few

drops

of adrenalin tremors,
increase

sweating, cause injectedhypodermically may dilation of the pupils, weeping, and such an
blood
pressure

in the
190

and

in the

activity of the

AND

PERSONALITY

heart, that the subject of the


as

treatment

may

be

described

crisis. emotional an suffering A final proof that thyroxin governs


Foramen
"

the

rate

of oxidation

ganglion Sympathetic
Ventral aorta

Vagus to gills
Vagus to intestines
"

"

Vagus gang/ion
Brachial artery

First spinal

nerve
^

Intercommunication
Dorsal aorta

/fa/77/70spinal nerves

Sympathetic chain

FIG.

21.

"

The

sympathetic

nervous

system

of the

fish

(barracuda).

of the brain shown of

cells and

the cells of the effect of

by the immediate exophthalmic goiter.


second

sympathetic thyroidectomy

system in
a
case

is

is that severing significance the sympathetic nerve supply to the adrenal glands exophthalmic goiter,the increased vascompletely cures of hyperplasia of the thyroid gland disapcularization pears, of the and of the brain, hence the exalted state normal. to state return metabolism, and the emotional the innervation of between There is a significant contrast of the adrenal glands. the thyroid gland and the innervation The is so slightthat it is not to thyroid innervation easy and find. The innervation of the adrenal glands is abundant and personalityof the complicated according to the power In the alligatorthe adrenal animal. glands, the celiac in ganglia, and the sympathetic system are insignificant; the lion they are large,powerful, and formidable. Figures 19 to 33 illustrate the rise of the sympathetic A
191

fact of fundamental

INTELLIGENCE,
nervous

POWER,

system

from

the fish found

to

those

most

sympathetic
The
Bucca

systems

in the lion and

complex of all in the tiger.


in the proc-

role of the
I cavity

adrenal-sympathetic system

Vagus ganglion

Pneumo-gastric
branches

Spinalnerve Lung
Brachial
nerve

Brachial artery

SpinalnerveJ
Spinalco/umn
Stomach Greater sp/ancnnic

"

"

Coelib-mesenteric artery Spinal


nerves

Small

intestine

"*

"

S-6"

Kidney

Largeinfestine

"

Spinal

nerves

7-6-9-10

"Arch i-nephr/cduct

"

Rectum

"

Terminal branches
rectum cloaca jduct,

to

FIG.

22.

"

The

sympathetic

nervous

system

of the

amphibia (bullfrog).

is a minor imagination in man role of the thyroid gland; but one and of high oxidation adrenalin, through its establishment be etched to a deeper action causes high potential, pattern, and a more hence vivid memories highly facilitated pathway. tion are largely a collaboraAlthough trainingand education of the of the brain and thyroid gland, the secretion adrenal glands so reinforces the action patterns that the facilitated pathways are lastingly more quickly and more
ess

and of memory, reason, in comparison with the

192

AND

PERSONALI

TY

made

under

the the

facilitates

state

deepens and action pathetic during the adrenal-sympatterns of fear, anger, love, worry, pity,etc.
drive of emotion. Emotion

T11

Coeliac

ganglion
"

Coeliac artery

T12

Abdominal

sympathetic chain
Aorta

FIG. 23.

"

The

sympathetic

nervous

system

of the reptile(alligator).

In the

our

discussion

of the

adrenal
cortex

gland, we
of the

must

important fact that the


to

adrenal

of the brain. This fact is integrity due to the unique composition of the adrenal cortex, a lipoidsubstance that possesses many propertiesresembling those of the matrix of the brain and the lipoid films enveloping
essential

the

adjust gland is probably

the Without level.

brain the

cells. Without

the

adrenal

cortex

life ends.
at
or
a

adrenal
is not

medulla
a

life

continues, but
for adrenalin

low

Thyroxin
cortex.

substitute

for the

adrenal When

the

brain

is

integrated for fear, for fight,or


193

for

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

impulses flight,
and from there stimulation

are

sent

to

the is

adrenal-sympathetic system,
sent to

adrenalin the

the

brain, giving the


system

that

brain

and

the

sympathetic

1st. thoracic

gang/ion

Vagus
Double abdominal sympathetic chain
Aorta

Splanchnic

nerve

"

Coe/iac

gang/

ion

Superior mesenteric
Coeliac
Coeliac

artery

plexus
*
^

plexus
artery-

Aortic plexus (from


Left

Sup.
Nerve
"

mesenteric

_______
~"

adrenal" to /?.
vena cava
"

Branch plexus to /.adrenal)


adrenal

Inferior

(Note itsposition on ventral of right adrenal) surface

Testis

Right kidney
External

"?!jP

Left

renal

vein

iliac vein

Separate

kidney

lobe

Caudal

vein

FIG.

24.

"

The

sympathetic

nervous

system

of the

bird

(horned owl).

require.Animals
controlling systems
controls the and The heart
The

are

bipolar
are

mechanisms. into
two

Their parts: that

energy-

divided

which

the

positive potential and

that

which

controls

The negative potential.

positivepotentialis generated maintained by the brain and the sympathetic system. by the negative potential is generated and maintained
and
the vascular

system. of the heart beat


is correlated of
arc,

force the

and

frequency completes
are

with

degree of intensity of
itself the

stimulation

the
as

brain. in the

Oxidation carbon executed.


194

metabolic and

lamp.

Thus

basic

adaptive

metabolism

AND

PERSONALITY

What

is the

difference and

between

man

and

the

ape

as

to

intelligence, power,
and
apes

the

adrenal

? In monkeys, baboons, personality much larger than the glands are

__.

Sympafhef/c
chain

Splanchnic
nerve

Adrenal

q/ctnd

"

Coe/iac

gang/ion

dor fie plexus

FIG. 25.

"

The

sympathetic

nervous

system

of the

duck

bill

(the lowest
.

order of

mammals).

holds; the thyroid gland is 2^-2 times the size of the adrenal the gland. The gorilla, chimpanzee, and the monkeys have probably reached the of highest level of intelligence possible in the presence preponderating adrenal glands.A thinking,reasoning brain is possibleonly with a high level of thyroid control. made that memory, Upon what basis is the statement and imagination in other words, training and reason,
man

thyroid gland. In

the

reverse

"

195

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

education

"

are

interfered adrenal

with

when
? In

the

thyroid

control

is

superseded by

control

advanced
is
so

exophthalmic
increased that
a

goiter the normal

action

of adrenalin

^
Sympatheticchain
-

_________

Jorfa

------

Vagus

nerve

Greater

splanchnic
-

nerve

Coelfac

artery

--

Coeliac

gang/ion

Lesser

splanchnic

4-

Least

splanchnic

"-

x-

-Adrenal

ganglion

FIG.

26.

"

The

sympathetic

nervous

system

of the

ungulate (gazelle).

state state

of

continuous is marked
or

emotionalism

is

established.
memory,
can

In

this

there

interference "mind."

with
we

reason,

and the

imagination,
fundamental of
man

Thus,
a

reason

why
the

the education As the shown


ape

is that power

gorillacannot is adrenal-controlled. gorilla


cannot

glimpse that respond to


of

by

the

formula, the size of the brain


man.

is below
even

that the

of

The

ape

acquire the

intelligenceof

lowest

aborigine.

The

Missing
missing link
man?

Link
between

Where,
ape

then,
the

is the

the

adrenalized from
an

and

thyroidized

Did

man

arise

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

Greater

splanchnic

Vagus nerve
Greater

splanchnic

Coeliac

artery-

Coeliac L
esser

ganglion ganglion

splanchnic

Sup.

mes

5up.

mes.

artery

"Lesser
-

splanchnic
gland

Adrenal

gland"

Adrenal

Least splanchnic

-\ Leas/ splanchnic

FIG.

28.

"

The

sympathetic

nervous

system

of the

carnivore

(walrus).

Sympathetic trunk
Greater
nerve splanchnic

Lesser

splanchnic

nerve

Coeliac artery
--

Coeliac gang/ion

Superior mesenteric
Least

artery

splanchnicnerve ganglion
-

Adrenal
_

gland

Renal

"

Renal

vein

Renal

artery

"

FIG.

29.

"

The

sympathetic

nervous

system

of the

cetacea

(porpoise).

198

AND

PERSONALITY

lished and the adrenal

the

adrenalized

thyroid gland is about 2)-^ times largerthan of the the evolution glands. This suggests and also interprets ape to the thyroidized man

Greater

splanchnic

Coeliac artery" Coeliac ganglion Sup. mes. artery Adrenal

"

Renal

ganglion

Renal artery

FIG.

30.

"

The

sympathetic

nervous

system

of the

cetacea

(white whale).

the adrenal and

influence

in the behavior

of

infancy,childhood,

adolescence.

Although the followingfact may not greatlyreinforce the of this observation in the fetal life of man, it significance presents an analogy. The between thoroughbred horse is the result of a cross Arabian stallions and In the Arabian lion stalEnglish mares. the thyroid gland is larger than the adrenal glands. In the thoroughbred horse the adrenal glands are larger
199

INTELLIGENCE, than the

POWER,

thyroid gland. In the fetus of the thoroughbred, the adrenal however, the thyroid gland is larger than of thirty-four glands, as we have found in an examination

Vagus
Greater

_JLJ

._

-4.

Aorta Greater

splanchnic

splanchnic
^

Thoracic chain 'Coe/iac

Lesser splanchnic

gang/ia

'Adrenal

ganglion
Adrenal

gland

Superior mesenteric

ganglion
"

^*

Aortic plexus

-Abdominal

chain

Inferior mesenteric
_

gang/ion

FIG.

31.

"

The

sympathetic

nervous

system

of the

primate (chimpanzee).

thoroughbred

newborn foals. Thus fifty-three of the the fetus thoroughbred betrays its thyroidized the Arabian to assume horse, as we may venture ancestor, the fetus of man betrays its adrenalized ancestor, the ape. of civilized man and the The long period of adolescence that he requires is long period of training and education correlated with a largerbrain, a largerthyroid gland, and in the following be seen adrenal smaller glands, as may comparison of the energy formula of an Australian aborigine and a chimpanzee, taken by us in the wild.
200

fetuses

and

AND

PERSONALITY

The

absolute adrenal

and

relative fixes

size of the
a

brain, the thyroid,


the

and

the

glands

gulf between

thyroidized

the now aborigine and the adrenalized compare ape. Let us glands of the brain, the thyroid gland, and the adrenal Australian aborigine with the brain, the thyroid gland, and of the the adrenal glands of a Scotch laborer. In the case have Australian a laborer, we aborigine and the Scotch two differing thyroidized mechanisms comparison between

only in size. In the comparison between aborigine and the chimpanzee, we see the and the formula thyroidized human
formula.

the
gap

Australian between the


ape

adrenalized

formulas, it would comparing these three energy and that intelligence, personality are due appear power, primarily to the absolute and relative sizes of the brain, the thyroid gland, and the adrenal glands. However, we must consider the contributory system that circulates the blood adaptively, that digests food adaptively, that eliminates waste adaptively,and that transfers glycogen from the liver
In
201

INTELLIGENCE,
Rami communicans
nerve

POWER,

to cervical

/
nerve
"~

"

Ganglion nodosum
Cavernous

Infernal carotid

plexus nerves

Superiorcervical ganglion Laryngopharyngeal


branches

3$
JrKr
"

Vagu"

nerve

Superiorcardiac
trunk. Thyro cervical'
" -

Phrenic Middle

nerve

r-gsa:-

cervical ganglion

Inferior cardiac
Anterior

nerve

Inferior cervical ganglion


'Thoracic

aortic plexus

ganglion/

Recurrent

nerve

.Anterior pulmonary plexus


Posterior pulmonary plexus

Greater

splanchnic

nerve

Oesophageal plexus
Left vagus stomach to anterior wall
to

Right vagus
stomach
Lesser

poster for

wall
nerve

splanchnic

Coe/iac

ganglion

ftenalp/exus
forticorena/

Coeliac ganglion Superior mesenteric

gang/ion

gang/ion
Lumbar
nerve

Aortic plexus

HSV^ Branch to ovarian

j [\jjjC

artery

p/exis Hypogastric
To i/iac arfery

Sacral
I

nerve

i
*

A
FIG. 32.
"

i-" PJ
fi

y/p^-f

Branch

to rectum to bladder

Branches

-^Branches
uterus
and

fo

ovary

The

human

sympathetic

nervous

system.

202

AND

PERSONALITY

to

the celiac adaptively, namely, the celiac ganglia, and the sympathetic system. plexuses, As we the celiac plexuses, have shown, the celiac ganglia,

the blood

FIG.

33.

"

The

sympathetic nervous

system

of the lion,showing the


known.

most

highly

developed sympathetic complex

the aortic adrenal

plexus,and glands, vary


evidence

the

splanchnic nerves, as greatly according to


animals.
to

well the

as

the

energy

characteristics Much size of

of various tends

show
power

that

the

variation
among

in the humans

the

sympathetic
individual. Some

station

indicates

variation

in the characteristic individuals

power

and

of the normal

have

personality larger than

celiac

ganglia and

plexuses.
203

INTELLIGENCE
,

POWER,

Just as the inheritance of a unique thinking brain and a itself in a high uniquely large thyroid gland expresses degree of intelligenceand at times in exophthalmic goiter,
50

30

10

1000 3~5mo. (Foetal) FIG. and the 34.


"

2000 6-7mo.

5000 3-6mo.

10,000

20,000

50,000

100,000

Adult 7mo.-5yrs. 6-l2yrs. !3-l9yrs.

Body
cross.

weight,
This relations

grams

The

adrenal-thyroid
years,

chart of the

shows

that and

between
adrenal

birth

age

of twenty-one

the

thyroid

glands

become

reversed.

unique thinking brain,large adrenal glands, celiac ganglia and plexuses, and heart expresses itself in a high degree of intelligence, and, great activity, disease. at times, in essential hypertension and coronary
so

the inheritance

of

It

was

natural

selection
a

that

endowed

man

with is

a no

large
such but

thinking brain thing as chance


natural

and

largethyroid gland. There


selection. It
was

in natural that

not

chance

selection
was

endowed chance the

glands.It

only by

all apes with large adrenal adrenalthat the large, agile,


tree

down ized ape came How did the ape

from

and

survived.

exchange the large adrenal glands for build up the large thyroid gland and, coincidentally, a occurred have thinking brain ? This change could not have first appeared when except for an advantage. It would he found the ground, where some great ape ventured upon food in greater abundance and prospered.Life on the ground
204

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

plants and
the
man

fellow of
man

man.

In

its

mind
as

has
an

invested ancestral

if it

were

phylogenetic recapitulation, competition with his fellow fightor flight.

the distant that came ancestor today wild man, the protoplasmic bridge, lives within civilized man. over Around this wild man the matrix or thinking brain has of educathe web of religions, of laws, of customs, tion, woven in the exercise of his restrainingand limiting man wild behavior. But civilized
man

Even

is unable

to

sever

himself

completely from everything but


civilized
man.

the law himself.

of the The

jungle.Man
enemy

has

conquered
man

only

of civilized

is

206

25.

THE

LAW

OF THE

ENERGY

RELEASE:

LIFE

LINE

INthe
domestic

THE

preceding
animals

pages

we

have and

discussed

whether

or

not

intelligence, power,
are

personality in wild
the the work of the

and

created

by
and

brain, the
is

heart, the
system.
is the We
or

thyroid gland,
have found that

adrenal-sympathetic
the animal
blooded warm-

whether the

cold-blooded,
in the

whether

habitat

of the the

animal
sea,

tropics,the arctic,the land,


size of the and

the

air, or

the of

variation the

brain, the heart, the volume


the of variation in the

blood, the thyroid gland,


is the and

adrenal-sympathetic intelligence, primary


and role
to

system
power,

only cause personality.


the is
to

Since, throughout
of the drive brain the muscles

animal
the

kingdom, body
in

the

maintain

temperature and
cent

and

organs

attack
per

escape

and food

since, in the warm-blooded


intake state,
is
we

animals, 75

of the

required for
searched

the maintenance for


some

of the warm-blooded

fundamental
energy

regularity or
in all animals

general law underlying the release of that would be expressed by the ratio thyroid gland to the gross weight of
but We of the animal. We
no

of the the

weight of the
A

animal.

trend,
ratio

law,
next

was

found. for
a

searched of the
a

law

that

would
to

express

the

weight Again
then of the

adrenal
no

glands
law,
a

the found.
on

weight of the
the ratio of the animal. Once

trend, but
to

was

attempted
brain
no

find

law

based

weight
more
a

to

the

body weight
was

of the

trend, but
ratios

law,
the

found.

The

of

the

combined adrenal
were

thyroid glands, and


of the but
no

weights glands to
tested.

of

the

brain, the trend,

the

body weights
a

various

animals

next

Here, too, brain, the


207

law,

was

found. the

Finding

that

relationshipof

the

thyroid

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER

gland, and the adrenal glands to turned be expressed in a law, we


to
see

the

body weight
anatomy be found

could
to to

not

from could

ology physiexpress

if

fundamental

law

ELEPHANT

"

MAN ALLI"ATOR * ALLI"ATOR

STEER*

AHORSE

CO

5
"
-J

*
" CHIMPANZEE

"IANT*TURTLE
PYTHON

5
^
"*

RAYLER
* TURTLE

"CAT

EAGLE**
FLAMINGO*

RABBIT.

"

CRANE

I"
WILD LIZARD* RAT GUINEA

*OWL

^*"
ALBINO

PI"

RAT

" PI"EON
CANARY

"

SPARROW

OXIDATION
1
10
100

IN

CALORIES
l
1000

PER
I

DAY
100.000

10,000

FIG.

35.

"

In relation

to

metabolism

the but
not

weight
a

of the

thyroidgland

shows

trenc

law.

the and

between relationship

the

weight

of the

weight of the metabolism, and the weight of the brain and metabolism. We plotted the weights of the thyroid glands against the number of calories (oxidation or metabolism) generated in
metabolism,
the
24

thyroid gland adrenal glands and

hours

in

the

animals

that

we

had

studied, including animals,


man.

insects, fish, reptiles, birds, rodents, hoofed carnivores, monkeys, baboons, anthropoids, and
208

AND

PERSONALITY

The adrenal showed

ratios of the

weights of
the
not
a

the

thyroid glands and


of the various

of the

glands
a

to

metabolism
law.

animals

trend, but

1000

ELEPHANT

"

100

(/)

ALLIGATOR

\CH.MPANZEE
ALLIGATOR

O.ANTTVLE
000 "

"".G60AT
"GS
SHEEP "PELICAN

Z
"

TURILE
-J

RHESUS MONKtY " RABBIT

""CAT
" CRANE "FLAMINGO

^
LU

RATTLER

EA"LE"

Of
i_
~

GUINEA

?!"" "WILD
RAT

"OWL

"
" ALBINO " PI"EON RAT

MOUSE "

"

SPARROW

OXIDATION
"I
10

IN
I
100

CALORIES
\
1000

PER.

DAY
L_
10.000 100.000

FIG.

36.
"

In

relation

to

metabolism

the but

weight
not
a

of the

adrenal

glands

shows

trend

law.

the relative role of the point it will help to clarify various of the energy-controlling if we recall system organs is the exalted analogue that the brain in the higher animal At this of the and nucleus of the

amoeba;

hence

the

brain
in

is the
an

one

of energy controller or only executive of the Therefore, since it is the function


execute

animal. alone
to

brain

the the

oxidation short

or

metabolism of both

of the the

long and

rhythms

body thyroid

for the and the

209

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,
a

adrenal
express

glands, we
the relation and

endeavored between the

to

find

law

that

would of
an

weight
animal

of the brain
in 24

animal

the metabolism

of that

hours.

woo
HORSE

"
" STEER HORSE

"

*PIG PIG

"

" SHEEP

" CASSOWARV

OPOSSUM*
"IANT BITTERN* " ^GUINEA SQUIRREL

HERON TURTLE PIG

C^"!E0-W1U"RAT

STARL,N"SJ
TURTL

PCRCH* BAT ""

M"USE

BLUE

RACtR

SUK" "WOOOROACH

WMM
"
"

BULLFROG

" "

GRASSHOPPER TOAD ,inl

OXIDATION

IN

CALORIES

PER

DAY

HORNED
,

FIG.

37.

"

In relation

to

metabolism

the

weight

of the brain

shows

law.

that it embraces insects, law, so fundamental birds,rodents, ungulates,and carnivores,but fish, reptiles, This law is expressedby the ratio not higher apes and man. We found
a

between number We 12,115

the

weight of the
that
I

brain

of

an

animal

and

the

of calories found small

produced by
gram

that is

animal

in 24

hours.

of brain

required to produce
ratio

calories in 24
to

hours; that is,the

of the
calories

weight
is
I

of the brain 12,115.

the heat this

production in
metabolism animals

small
law

to

Into

brain those

or

"life

line"

all animals
210

fall except

whose

"think-

AND

PERSONALITY

ing"
of This

brains

enable
to

them aid

to

use

strategy in

or

energy

outside survival.

themselves

them

dividingline brings us this "life and the Why do not man bear in mind that from the line ?" At this point we must animal that exhibits adaptive to the elephant every worm of to a varying degree the mechanism possesses response but the mechanism by which thinking is executed thinking, of thinking consists The mechanism little oxygen. consumes
of patterns of action. the mechanism When of

effectingtheir to the primates. higher apes fall into

thinking is
are

advanced
use

to

such

degree that
of survival

the value

possessors
or

able

to

either

strategy

energy

outside

of a the energy of such animals

or club,of fire, than the brains of the animals will be larger The higher within themselves. that execute entirely energy the larger is the portionof the brain the order of intelligence and required for thinking, that is, for memory, reason, imagination,or "mind."

themselves, whether it is of another animal, the brains

Lower

animals

possess
most

little "mind"

and

much

energy.
are

In the lower
to

animals

of the cells of the brain

used

the total energy utilized in 24 hours. In man, a larger part of the brain is required for "mind," and the is comparable to remaining portion of the brain in man
execute

the

simple

energy

brain

of the
to

lower the of

animals.
energy
man
man

Thus, the
of man, unique size. in the

"mind"

brain

of man,

added

brain
to
a

raises the total What

weight

of the brain

constitutes

the "mind"
man

brain of deviate that


man

Why,

life line does the brain of wild The of


two

from have and the

the brains of the been animals studied ?

and
mass

the

domestic

animals of both
matter

of the brain
gray

consists The
or

parts, the
matter

and

white

matter.

gray

consists cells
are

cells. These cells


or

of energy dynamos. Within the of


cortex
or

of units

transformation,
these
matter

dynamos in through the process required to operate

gray

9,200,000,000 of the brain,


energy

oxidation,is generated the


mental
processes
as

such

memory,
211

reason,

and and

imagination, working.
matter

the

emotions,
contains

and

such

acts

as

walking
The
a

white

of the

brain is
a

no

it cells; within

is

not

dynamo.
matter

No

driving
of the within

force is the

generated
in the

it. The electric


an

white

brain

matrix

which, by
gray

charge generated

cells of

matter,

network of conducting pathways of infinitely delicate action is laid down, and, with the passage of each electric

paths charge, these molecular facilitated. patterns,"1 become


Francis Benedict
or

of

conductance,

or

"action

states

that

abstract In
a

little oxidation effect of mental measured mental the work

metabolism.
on

work

metabolism while

thinking requires critical study of the (oxidation),Benedict subjectsperformed


was

rate

of oxidation found that

the

and it
was

if there

any

change

in

metabolism,
The of of

slight.
of the and

the circulation respiration, food, the work of the kidneys, oxidation


"

blood, the digestion


minimum life of basal the
amount

the the

necessary
are

to

maintain in what does


not

the

brain

cells

all these Basal

included

is called

lism. metabooxidation

metabolism

include

required
The line
to

for

walking
of
man,

and

running, thinking, hearing and


those
an

speaking, seeing and


evolution civilized

smelling. the brain, from


consisted the
or

animals

in the

life

of

increased
or

involving
and brain added value. of the
gray

both matter, level

white
cortex.

matter, In wild the

specialization thinking brain,


of the
were

evolution

from
many

the
new

of that

of

animals, there
of which had the hind
a

mechanisms,
of

each

survival

balancing upon walking, bending, kneeling required not


in the units wild units of the gray
matter. matter

The

mechanism

feet,
great

only
also
an

increase in the No
1

but

increase

of the
or

white

domestic
W.,
New "A

animal
Bipolar

possesses
of

so

complicated
The

CRILE,

GEORGE

Mechanism

Living Processes,"

Macmillan

Company,
212

York, 1926.

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

survival

value
awareness

largely to
to

the

mechanism
of

of

seeing, which
and

brings
From there

the

mechanisms

locomotion

manipulation.
the organ
are

of

Corti,the
with of

nerve

mechanism of brain

of

hearing,
stituting con-

communications the
center

millions
in the
a

cells

hearing
cells

cortex

of the

brain. with

From the From

each

of these

brain

fiber communicates of the

intricate mechanism infinitely the thinking brain these


to

thinking brain. impulses of hearing are


cortex

broadcast
to

the

motor

centers

in the

and, from

these,

glands of the body. A mechanism possessed by no other animal except in of the evolution rudimentary form is the unique giftto man of speech. The speech center, although related to the ear primarily,also consists of millions of brain cells in the of the brain. The brain cells constituting the speech cortex connected fibers with the mechanism center are by nerve of the thinking brain. By this means the work of the thinking brain, or thought, is expressed in spoken or written language. that the mechanism of hearing, it will be seen Upon analysis, of speaking and, to a large extent, like the mechanism mechanisms. sensation common supplement the other Coincidentallywith these mechanisms, as an axis partner, evolved there was a corresponding rise in the expansion of of the brain for thinking that has little or the mechanism
no

the various

muscles

and

counterpart

in the

wild

and of

the
man

domestic is

animals.
a

Thus wide

the brain

of the lowest that


course no

order

separated by
from
ape
to

gulf from
In there the is

of the

highest apes.
vast

of the

evolution

man,

of corresponding change in the mechanism and the circulation in the action of the heart respiration, of the kidneys, in the function of the blood, in digestion, and of procreation.These in the mechanism or organs of life itself. By the maintenance tissues are to necessary these
organs

and

tissues basal

metabolism

is effected.

214

AND

PERSONALITY

With between A
grams The

respect
man

to

these

organs

and

tissues

there

is

parity

and
man

the wild

and 150

the domestic

animals.

civilized

weighing
to execute

pounds
or

would

require 135
metabolism. civilized of the
man

of brain

his basal

animal
a

remaining part
appear
to

of the

brain
vast

of such

would

consist and

of the of
a

evolution

special
in the

mechanisms white
memory,
matter

cited

still greater mechanism

evolution that

of the and

brain

of the

executes

thinking. find that the thinking brain is Thus in civilized man we his simple larger than is essential to execute 780 per cent This 780 per cent basal metabolism. the giftof represents civilized man. It represents evolution the weight of the to in the complicated mechanisms driving cortex or gray of the brain and the of the matter weight infinitely complex of the thinking brain. It represents white matter ence the differbetween the intelligence, and personality of power, civilized man and the intelligence, and personality power, of the wild and domestic animals that obey the life line.
reason,

imagination, or

215

40

THINKING CODE

BRAIN

AND

MORAL

INmade
and of chance
was

THE

nature
more

of evolution fit than

an

animal

or

plant
survive.

cannot

be

just fit enough


have
an

to

Animals of life. All

plants, therefore, animals, including man


and left in of in the
was

uncertain
were

tenure to

himself,

evolved

the

tiptoe
it

partialperiland
man

partialsafety.Since
took
action
man

brain

early
that

that
were

his evolution

place,
his

it

in the

brain

there
means

created which

patterns,

called fellow In

knowledge,
animals. the brain of

by

of

excelled

early
how
to

man

were

included animals

those and

action

patterns how obtain value. that


to

denoting
make food It
was

domesticate shelter and

plants,
how
to

from from the

these them.

clothing, and
patterns had

These

action

survival brain the and that the of the


man

superior thinking mechanism


man

of the
over

enabled

early
animals.

to

secure

these this laid

advantages
the
were

competing thinking
beset
man.

But
were

in

sensitive down
man

recording dangers
recorded the of

mechanism In the

also of

brain

early
of the In

danger

of the

lion, the rush


the fact that
some

elephant,
the brain animals
were

fury

buffalo, the sting of the serpent.


was
man

early

recorded and

many

injure or good,
some

destroy
were

that, although
that
even

animals
were

bad, and
bad

good
like

animals

sometimes

bad

and

animals

sometimes
man,

good.
man

Thus, early

today,
the

existed

on

the

unstable
on

boundary
breeze that and
convey

of is

chance.
never

Like carried

feather
contact

that

drifts with of the

the

beyond
left
on

forces

it,early man,
waves

the
sun

beach reached

time, where,
him
"

alternately, the
twilight
zone

and

the

in

the

of

chance, within

the

reach

of both mutations

safetyand
of his

peril
"

evolved 216

through

the

favorable

AND

PERSO

NALITY

thinking brain
a

amidst

the forces

of

nature

of which

he

was

part.

Early
to

man,

like

fear. An

animal

primitiveman possessingno
have and

and

man

today, had only


or

much

fear and It is

livingin the midst


the alert animal,
escape,

of

danger would quick to


and has Fear

not

survived.
to

fear

survives

has

quick offspring.
value. in

attack

that

survival

Fear

exists in all animals

that

have fleet these

enemies.

Who,
the had

the observing the dynamic gazelle, would ?


not
as

zebra,
animals

or

alert wildebeest

know the

that vores, carni-

dangerous

enemies

Just

through natural selection, gave to the gazelle its its keen smell, so, through acute hearing,its quick eyesight, natural selection,the dangerous competing animals gave of strategy, the brain. These his organ to peting comearly man
animals
man

for escape

also gave to and survival been


out

man
as

his
to

fears, as

necessary

to

the

gazelle.
of the forces of

Having

never

of the

domain

found evolution, early man good and evil in everything about him. Since, in the early stages of his evolution, the laid down were by his fellow early man considered animals, his simple mind everything in animal He found that by giving food to the animals that he terms. had domesticated he could control them. He found that by and whether his relatives, giving something to his young it were he could win the food,shelter, a skin, or hospitality, good will and favor of his people. Thus, after he had passed the first stage of worship and action patterns of fear of the natural that forces and animals about

him, it followed

began to worship and fear unseen beings, and, since the most powerful animal for good or for evil in the life of early man his early fellow man, it is was natural that the gods and the devils that he created should have been created in the image of himself. Since man has been evolved of the struggle for existence, the out never word "struggle,"even today, just as in the long yesterday, early man
217

indicates moral the

good god

and

bad

and of

life and

death.
"

Thus,
the
"

in

the

codes, both bad,


a

phases
a

the

struggle
and

good
have

and been

and

devil, heaven
the with brains the

hell

represented.
In
or

material

and
are

structure

of all

animals, wild

domestic,
in the

identical

brain

of man,

differing
in the

only

matter

of size and part

organization. Except
brain which
a we

development mind,
within the the

of that of
as a

of the

designate
as

brain

lion, an
the brain brains of

elephant, or
of man, of wild and

dog
in

is

efficient
of

its scope

the
are

control

special senses
the

the brain

animals

far

more

efficient than Unlike themselves. themselves.


reason can

man.

man,

wild Therefore Unlike

animals

do do

not
not

appear

to

think
error

about about able


to

they
man,

think
are

in

wild minds because


up

animals
can

not

that

because

their

review

the

past,

they
and

project a future, and therefore they are made


their The
not

they
parts,

have

imagination,
bodies

of

two

their

spirits. elephant
the would
not

make for
a

such

an

error,

since

he does Could
doubtedly un-

possess

mechanism such

making

the
his

reaction.

the

elephant
be

have
a
man

reaction,
and have
not

god
a

would

luscious
seems

leaf
to

his devil made know within


a

mouse.

Early
reaction.
was

and

primitive
that

similar there

Suppose
a

today
brain

we

did the
was

that the

such and
we

sensitive

structure

as

brain inert

skull

believed
a

that Yet
man

the

material, like the hump


could function
a as

of

camel.
not

if the

brain

of

man

it

does,
in his it

might
tasks became

today, then,
his when
too

believe

that

spiritinhabited
him

him, governed him, made


and
a

decisions,directed
inactive
he

that little

it became active
angry,
not

slept, when
it
was

he

dreamed,
it
was

when

pleased diswas

he

became he it

when that

satisfied

he hand it
was

happy?

Might

believe
his

it

taught

his that

its
a

cunning, that
218

guided

footsteps to school,

AND

PERSONALITY

beneficient failed ?
it made

and spirit Might he not him


was a

did his believe and


a

lessons,or
that
when

that
it
was

it erred
a

and

he

good spirit,
was a

brave

truthful

and
a

when liar? He

it

bad

he spirit that
a

coward,
it stood

cheat, and
him

could of
a

believe and

good spiritgave by
and
a

the

attributes for him


up
a

love

affection,that
it led

and

found

wife, that
he died it

through the it taught him industry If I were took its flight.


him
aware a

trials of

bringing
man

family, that

thrift,and

that

when

jungle

that

I have

brain, I would

not today and were willinglyacknowledge

and attribute it all the movements of my life. to spirit codes of man that in the moral It is significant function no is not assigned to the spirit clearlythe function of the brain. Therefore the idea of the spirit found often among the so beliefs of native faiths and of people is a natural error confusing a functioning brain with a spirit.A functioning brain
accounts
as

for the
as

action the

patterns of

of
an

man

and

animals

just

completely
for the difference animals is in

mechanism

accounts

mathematical between
not

patterns brain of
man

adding machine that it performs.


and that of the further
in the

The lower

the

in the of that

structure

itself but

development
memory,

man

part of the brain

which

exercises

imagination. The dog, the lion, the have identical elephant, the ape, and the simple native with mechanisms, varying degrees of development. This variation is expressed in the "life line." It is this dominating mechanism, this thinking brain, which his language, his science, his invention, his gives man law and his religion, his hopes and his passions,his libraries and his laboratories, his schools and his universities. This remarkable than mechanism, composed of nothing more has been invested with lipoids, proteins,and electrolytes,
reason,

and

mystery In
our

since

early

man.

experience

in

Tanganyika
of

among

the

various
to

highly disciplinedtribes

Africa, there

seemed 219

be

I NTE

LLIGENCE

standard

of moral

codes the

suitable basis

for their

degree of
The

tion. civiliza-

teaching of the parent, the teacher, the medicine the priest, man, the force of public opinion, and, finally, the punitive influence of the tribe or state are strong factors in establishing
the
man.

Discipline is

of moral

codes.

code

of

behavior

in

both

native

man

and

civilized

220

5o

TRAINING

AND

EDUCATION

WHAT
can

is civilized mobilize
can run

man,

and

what

is he
energy

not? than

leopard
man. cover

greater
faster in
a

outburst
man. man. sense

An
a

antelope
greater
acute

than than

The Man's of

wolf

can

distance the

day

eyesight is
is less
to

less

than the and teeth


to

Man's eagle's.
sense

hearing
are

acute

than wild the


even

deer's. Man's domestic of every

of smell Man's Man's

is inferior teeth

that

of
to

animals. wild animal.

inferior

digestion is
Man
as

inferior

that

of his domesticated

animals.
stones
as

has

lized monopo-

gallstonesand
The skin of man, in domesticated Man cells is the
are

kidney
is

well the

peptic

ulcer. and

comparison

with

skin

of wild

animals,

soft, velvety, and

vulnerable. blood has


as

bald. Man's that becomes only animal Only man subject to great fluctuations. The bones of
man
are

pernicious anemia.
bones
woman

not

so

hard of

the

of wild is
not

or

domestic
to

animals. milk
nor

The

milk wild

civilized domestic have

equal
the

the

of the the

and

animals.

Neither

wild
or

domestic

animals of

insanity or psychoses
facts
we

neuroses.

For

this array

powerful

must

seek

biological interpretation.
domestic animals
man

Among
is inferior skin and
were

all wild
in bones

and and

joints,muscle, teeth hair, sight,hearing, smell, and mother's


not

unique. He and digestion,


milk. As

is

if this
man

sufficient
on

to

establish feet and


to

his

physical inferiority, apelike hands running.


the breast This has in

is

poised
lost

his hind
power

possesses

that

have

their

assist him
so

impossible
been
young;

posture
to
a

has

existed

long

that

moved and

comfortable
young

the than

of
young

man

his helpless position to nurse are totally helpless for a other wild
or

longer time
animal.

the

of any

domestic

Despite
man

this

is

more

of large category widely distributed

fundamental
over

inferiorities,
earth than
223 any

the

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

other
man

large animal.
must
so

This

fact alone

proves which

that

the animal survival

have

evolved

advantages
that swift and

had

powerful muscular of sight,hearing, and action, a more nearly perfect sense a smell, perfectdigestion, complete equipment for running with the herd at the time of birth,and body covering of hair
value
or

fundamental

wool
no

or

fur had
organ
or

no

survival
not

value

for

man.

Yet other the

man

sesses pos-

tissue

possessedby
man

animals. level above

The that

equipment by
of the great of the the

which
was

rose

from

ape

development
from

factors

lion,the
net

provided through a further entiated by which the great ape differwolf, and the antelope.
result of the subtractions and

What,
additions

then, is the
of this

compared with other analysis of man animals ? It is that through the unique evolution of three and three organs there only acting in synthesis, organs his superior position among all conferred man was upon
" "

animals. survival

These value

three that

organs

conferred
power

upon

man

so

great

muscular wool and

alone, teeth and


alone It and
was

claws

alone, fur and


smell medulla alone
"

hair and heart

alone,sight and
blood value.

hearing and
the adrenal this creative

alone, the
the

lost their survival

trinity
"

brain, the thyroid gland, and


to

the

upright posture
that who had
came

that

yielded the manipulative apelikehand


the great-ape The
ancestor

survival down

value the

of

man

of the distant long legsand arms nal ancestor provided a largersurface for regulatinghis interof a thereby permitting the evolution temperature, larger brain and a largerthyroid gland and, in consequence, and personality. a greater intelligence, power, It was through this creative trinity the brain, the that man was thyroid gland, and the manipulative hand from
trees.
" "

enabled

utilize energy characteristic is man


to

external

to

himself.

In this

single

This

new

formula

distinguished from other placed at the disposalof man


nonliving
energy

animals. the

measurab im-

living and
224

in the world.

AND

PERSONALITY

At

the

time
to

of birth

few

of the
to

offspringof
environment;

animals the

are

equipped
the

adapt
of
a

themselves

simpler

for species the earlier is its mechanism adaptation completed. find that the methods of each species For the young we as for completing the adaptawell as the intervals necessary tion for adult life differ, varying from the simple adaptations know their parents the birds, of the fish that never to their simple whose parents protect, feed, and give them offspring are training; of the beaver, whose taught to play at making dams; of the gregarious animals, whose herd and with the flock or remain are taught by young to kill; example; of the Carnivora, which train their young and of the young monkeys, who receive from their parents a trainingin strategy. From the periods of training and education received by of anthropoids we the progressively the young to pass of the Bushman, the longer periodsrequiredfor the training the semicivilized man, civilized man. cave and, finally, man, The brain of a human being may be likened to a movingfrom birth to death. picture film that runs Among the number of images thrown the film, only a few vast upon obtain possession of the final common path of action. These become action-patternequipment patterns of action. The individual of an produces the only acts he can perform. Training, therefore,consists in making action patterns. Action make conduct. Training, not education, is patterns reaction the
creator

of behavior. action

Man's mirror.

patterns
up

reflect his in the


man

environment it becomes patterns


are a

as
a

in

horse;
behavior but the

colt grows if it is trained


a are

If

wild

wild its

by
The

its action

and

domestic.
most
a

young

of all animals the

plastic,
savage

child is

If plastic.
savage;
man.

child lives in
a

web, he becomes
becomes in the
a

if he lives in Thus the the

civilized patterns

web, he
formed the indi-

civilized

action

plasticbrain

constitute

personalityof

225

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

vidual
as

and

make
as are

the the

reactions reactions

of the of
a

human man-made work

mechanism machine. of the


mobile, auto-

inevitable The
steam

roller

cannot

perform
between the

the

but automobile and the

the difference is less than

the

steam

roller and the between

the

difference

between

savage

scholar.

The the and

essential African the

difference

the

philanthropistand
between The the teacher white
matter

native, like the


their action
a

difference patterns.

is in pupil,

of the brain

is

not

passive mechanism
the white beeswax
matter

like the that

matrix

of the the

produces
brain

phonograph record or piezo electric effect. In the


is
a

of the

there

constant

electric

strain, as

is indicated

the

of an the presence electric strain is the

by

The originof potential. generation of positive electric

electric

by oxidation. The rate of oxidation in the brain cells is governed primarily by the secretion of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is governed by the adrenal-sympathetic system. The adrenal-sympathetic system is governed by the brain, and the brain is "sparked" by sight,hearing, touch, taste, and smell, thus forming an of mechanism. In this intricate physical system automatic the parent and the teacher lay down the pupil, new patterns of action that, by training,increase the capacity of the charge
brain
energy.

in the brain

cells

cells of

the

child

to

generate

radiant

and

electric

The
The

ProtoplasmicBridge
the teacher
acts
as

parent

and racial

do

not

need

to

tion give instruc-

ing, sucking,walking, hunting, fightmating, drinking,and eating,the patterns of which the action the protoplasmic bridge. Those child brought over not to came present-day man by contemporary patterns but by a external integrative action of the nervous system the over repetition of the integrativeactions transmitted to offspring.Affection protoplasmic bridge from parent mother and child,protectionof the young, taste between a
226

in such

AND

PERSONALITY

or

distaste

rain and

food, hunger, thirst, seeking shelter from wind, trust and distrust,attraction and repulsion,
for
"

herited killing these inpity, cruelty,cheating, lying, stealing, not only had integrationsof the nervous system of man value in the long ascent be such survival to as the prototransmitted from one generation to another over plasmic even today an bridge but are integration to civilized man. We call them "instincts," but they are laid down as merely integrationsof the nervous system of man. Those action patterns in the long upward evolution that benefitted
man

became mechanism

part

of the

action

patterns
that the protoplasmic

laid down had


no

in the

of his
man

phylogeny.
pass
over

Those

survival

value

to

did

not

bridge.Thus in all the natural tastes and appetites, in animals well as in in fears, in dislikes and attractions as the reconditioning of this or that phylogeneticor racial man, awaits refacilitation by the receiptof an adequate memory stimulus through the specialsenses. It is especially adolescence in infancy, childhood, and that we the protocan see more over clearlywhat came plasmic bridge. Over the protoplasmic bridge there came the female the care of the baby, as is seen to universallyin the play of little girls with their dolls. Over the protoplasmic the struggle of tribal man to the male bridge there came with his fellow man, as expressed in boys in fightingwith each other and playing at fightin competitive games. Over the protoplasmic bridge there also came the once lifesaving necessityfor ancestral hunting, trapping, and snaring of
animals, alone
or

with

the

tamed

puppy

of the

wolf, the

the loyalties, dog. Over the protoplasmic bridge there came had survival cooperation, and sympathies, all of which value in the family and the tribe. Throughout the vicissitudes of man the protoplasmic bridge all that came over from the apelike ancestors to the present day would seem
to

have Thus

had the

survival parent

value and

at

some

stage in man's have


no

evolution.

the

teacher

problem
227

in

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

the establishing the child. These

emotions
came over

of

fear, anger,
the

love, and

hate

in

protoplasmic bridge. The problem of the parent and the teacher is to place patterns of the child while the phylogenetic wild aniin the matrix mal is playing and fightingand courting and growing. It
is while

the

child

is still a
a

wild

animal

and

there

is

only

prospect
parent

of his and the

becoming
teacher

civilized human etch the way.

being

that

the

must

PhysicalFactors
Life, normal
and

That

Govern

Mental

Processes

pathological,is a function of protoplasm, is a special and education of changing protoplasm. process is a dynamic not a static system. The Protoplasm protoplasm of a plant is identical in principle, though not in pattern, with the protoplasm that executes the heartbeat
in man, that
executes

the that

movements

of the

football

player, that
executes
an

sings a

song,

that reproduces offspring,

emotion, that

fabricates is attacked

fever, that

is altered

by
has

shock

and

injury,that
exalted

its action

narcotics,and
upon

by infection,or that thetics, or depressed or suspended by anesstimulants. It is the same protoplasm


etches the action patterns of

which

the

educator

learning and built up by

protoplasm that is and by a proper ance bala between activityand sleep, of normal ductless glands, the hypoby the contributions physis, the thyroid and adrenal glands, the gonads, the and the liver. Each of these glands fabricates and pancreas, throws into the blood stream molecules, and from specific the blood stream protoplasm everywhere are showered upon fields countless millions of the green like drops of rain on organic molecules, each organ and each tissue appropriating molecules of those specific it needs what required for its old the protoplasm grows growth and activityuntil finally
and breaks down in death. Thus
are

it is the same discipline; diet properly balanced work and play, between

it is that etched

on

this

swiftly
of

moving protoplasmic
228

film there

the

patterns

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

fetishes,are

they obtain remain until, in turn,


after

placed in the minds possessionof the final


the
process

of little
common

children, where

generation. Thus scholastic leaders,long


minds In civilized inherited
were

is it that after their

path and there is repeated generation and political, religious, death, remain as leaders
is
to
overcome

in the

of their followers. life the action beset homeless


most

difficult task etched

the

patterns

ancestors

by

innumerable
man,

by phylogeny. dangers. Great


shelter
as

Our
mals anias

attacked the hands survival

who With

lacked naked

well

protection of
he
met

weapons.

body
His

and

naked for

the in

attack

of

his enemies.

chance

quick action for himself alone and, if of ours ancestor possible,for his family. This tormented survived by being an individualist,"a liar and a thief." kind and gentle,trusting and philosophical, Had he been instead of being fierce in fight, swift in flight, a convincing liar,a successful thief,and a sly strategist, we might not exist today. The great primitivevirtues fighting, stealing, lying,the made means by which man's early existence was possible not are now required.It is only in the fierce theoretically nomadic the struggleamong people in the desert or among primitivepeople that these traits have survival value. do the wild and In Africa lives as today native man of his survival he makes use powerful animals. To secure
" "

rested

"

every

animal
to

sense

he the

possesses.

He

bands

with

his

panions com-

spear

lion that He

carries off and the great

crunches

the and

bones

of

his into

fellow. He pits.

tricks
as

elephant

rhinoceros

lives

his fellow animals.


eyes
ears

Endowed

unprotected a life as any of with a thinking brain, but with


feet less of smell

unadapted to penetrating the darkness, less acutely attuned to sound, and a sense
than that of the with burdened animals
his

fleet,
less

sensitive toothless
slower

about

him, native

man,

compared
and

process

enemies, multiplying by a with his helpfor many years

230

AND

PERSONALITY

less young,

lives in the
a

midst

of his cutthroat his


stern

enemies.

His

is only superiority has

brain

in which

environment than role of


in
a

laid down

greater

number animals.

of action

patterns
in the

the brain

of his fellow

Man,

when

be elusive,resourcein war, must ful, hunting animal, like man brave, and persistent. Through the adaptive, deceitful, handed action from on patterns parent to offspringfrom makes of fire, one use generation to another, native man and the simple means the club, the spear, by which he is labor for him. He able to enslave animals, making them the milk to which, by abstract law, their steals from them entitled. He are own slays the animals that trust young him and
eats
are

their flesh.

These time.

facts,not
form
our

They

so-called

"Christian" of does

animals, plumage

fancy.They do not belong to ancient world today. Not only does our own furs of trapped civilization demand alone in the birds, but today not
the relentless
our

jungles of
man

Africa beast

struggle between
is rocked

naked

and

for exist,

civilized world
man.

by

the

greed
In but
at

of individualistic
some

civilized

the of

known
crimson

such traits religions time of the founding the imperfect record founders

trail. The

"original sin," of such religions little was of man's ascent along a of various religions were
are
was an

called

individuals. usually solitary science of his day. They were


meet

None

exponent and

of the

the battle
not

would

have

the inheritance for himself. The and


man

willingto of life with naked hands. In the jungle they survived. The of "original sin" is concept from the days of struggleof the individual
of science and invention

enthusiastic

present-day development
control
over

of the wide has taken


to

the forces of

nature

by
The

which

legsof

steel and

wings

for

has flight
man.

allowed action

man solitary

be succeeded

by

collective

patterns

laid down

in the brain of children of truth and

teachers, and

preachers are

today by parents, honesty, unselfish231

INTELLIGENCE,
ness,

POWER,

and generosity. such With industry,fairness, trained of action, together with mind and a a of tools, and knowledge, skilled hands and a maze
over

patterns
store

of

control
man

the forces of nature, for survival shoemaker than

what

better

equipment
to

could

have The

cooperation?
his talents

making shoes only because he has knowledge of the common honesty of for he knows that in exchange for his shoes his fellow man, Thus the tailor will give him a coat. has present-day man action This for his background a community pattern. standardized form, this community thinking,this common is the profitable for man action pattern in his present way individualized The estate. jungle brain is today antisocial.
consecrates

Civilization Let
us see

means

cooperation.
well
we

how

can

patterns. wild

The

average

child

interpretmodern-day begins as a prototype


and his
a

action

of his

ancestor.

He is

is "a

liar

thief"

and

an

vidualist. indias

He innumerable the

governed by
patterns
are

phylogeny.

Later,

action

implanted by
ancestors

the parents,

teachers, and friends and


patterns
and

as, in his ontogeny,


recent

intelligent
tated faciliaction

action

of his

more

become

predominate
so

over

the

phylogenetic
that in

patterns and

of his ancient

ancestors,

the child becomes

tive coopera-

progressivelygregarious

school

and

the herd instinct and can hardly be collegehe possesses the to prevailedupon to be different from his fellows,even detail of dress, manners, or opinion.At this period slightest stands out who the occasional obstinately as an boy or girl individualist invites group opposition, since the student body possesses the collective spirit. who In later life the man deplores the herd opinion,the standardized of living, be he scholar or politician, way libertine or outlaw, scientist or religiousfanatic, prefersa lifeof contention
to
a

lifeof

accord, and these individualists,


their great rivals
in

although they differ violently from

pendent indeThese

philosophy,
232

often

soar

to

heights.

AND

PERSONALITY

individuals Chance It
was

may

become

great
came

successes

or

great

failures.

mutation
not
so

perhaps
many years

their that
man

way.

ago

lived

by piracy,

neighbor'spastures, and seized his enemies' wives. We might as well criticize the hunger and thirst that sent his depredations as criticize such the lion forth a on critics of our of long ago. The forebears strugglingancestor of today. One as might as properly criticize judge them for not having a universitydegree. them the creatures of the are Obviously morals and behavior of the times. Mathematics and phystimes, not the creators ics and the forces of gravitationhave the same "morals" today as in ancient times, but not history, literature, These, like morals, change with geography, and religion.
stole his the times.

233

26.

THE UPON

INFLUENCE MAN

OF

CLIMATE

Two
lot's law. like the

basic of
man

biologicalprincipleshave
in the

limited

the

tion evolu-

tropics.The

first

principle is Berthe-

operation of this law, protoplasm, is detonated at a fixed temperature nitroexplosives,


Because it is the sensitive nitro group in

of the

level;therefore
that would limits the follow

protoplasm
animals. It the
to
a

temperature
the human

in warm-blooded

that

being

who

evolved

in

with tropics, smaller than the

its intense
a

external

heat, would

be limited

brain,
human

smaller

temperatures.
of
man

As the

thyroid gland and blood volume adapted to the colder being who became the average basal metabolism a corollary,
lower basal than than that of of
man

of

tropics is
and the is lower

of the of the of
man

temperate
temperate of the The the
man zones

zones,
zones

metabolism basal

man

the

metabolism

arctic. second

biologicalprinciplethat has interfered with of the thinking brain evolution to higher levels in in the temperate in the tropicsas compared with man is the principle of struggleand survival. The thinking
organs,
owes

brain, like other


value.
at

its size

solely to its survival

In the lowest

the

tropics,where requirement
temperate
summer

the lowest
value

survival

food, shelter,and clothing are the thinking brain has for man, to the highest survival value, in contrast
zones,

in the

where

there

is

an

abundance of
man

of food cultivate What


extreme

in the and about

that

the

thinking
In
upon

brain

must

store
man

against the
in the

lifeless winter. the

arctic?

arctic,with

the

cold,

evolution
state

centered

warm-blooded
an

by lessening
short thick-set

the

protection of the surface area through


in
contrast to

evolution

of

body

the

usual Eskimo

tall,lithe, fat-free native


is 234

of Africa.
any

The

brain

of the

larger than relatively

other

human

brain.

AND

PERSONALITY

Is the

Eskimo, therefore, the

most

of intelligent

human for

beings ? A
the
same

large brain
reason

is
a

that in the

in the required in man large brain is required in

arctic the
blooded warm-

whale the warm-blooded Shetland


pony
"

walrus, arctic,in the warm-blooded the warm-blooded caribou, and the seal,
a

defense, through high oxidation, to On the biological the warm-blooded maintain state. ple princiof brain that Dr. Quiring and I established,that I gram is required to execute 12,115 small calories in 24 hours, the is in Eskimo, despite his igloo,despite the furs he wears, that is,a high metabolism need of an intense fire, burning his body temperawithin his own protoplasm to maintain ture at 98.6"?. be accounted for on The can large brain of the Eskimo of the basis of the higher requirement for the maintenance
as

the

warm-blooded of the of the the

state

in the of the

cold

arctic. What ? The

of

the

thinking part thinking part


In the Eskimo

brain brain

Eskimo
to

size of the value.

is in ratio value

its survival

thinking brain in the Negro of the tropics because the is higher than Eskimo control must fire, clothe himself, build igloos, construct kayaks, and fashion tools by which to hunt and fish under difficult conditions than the Negro in more the tropics. The thinking brain of the Eskimo, therefore, would have greater survival value than that of the Negro in the tropics. But the survival value of the thinking brain of the Eskimo is not so high as the survival value of the in the temperate thinking brain of civilized man zones, where be man-made in food, clothing,and shelter must
contrast to

survival

of the

the

natural

food

in the

flesh of the

arctic

and

the fruit of the Thus

tropics.
that the
extremes

it may be seen arctic and of heat in the the evolution volume of


to
man. man

of cold

in the

gland

tropicshave profoundly influenced of the brain, the thyroid gland, and the blood The gift of a largebrain and a largethyroid of the temperate zones provided the back235

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

ground
the

of

constant

energy

at

conditions and
of

of

survival and

under
seasons

high level for mastering of contrasting seasons


of warmth in climate of the part and of cold
ditions con-

plenty
and

dearth
extreme

storm.

These

variables

present

for the

highest survival
well
as

value

thinking part
brain
a as

of the brain also for level of


a
a

as

of the

energy

of the

and

thyroid gland sufficiently large to


oxidation. Has evolution

maintain created

constant

high large

thinking brain, as large a thyroid gland, celiac ganglia and plexuses,and as large a blood volume the limits of as safetywill permit ? In other words, can civilization advance ? indefinitely is now The answer appearing in the diseases peculiarto civilized man. The brain-thyroid axis is destroying many
of
our

most

brilliant of oxidation
is due
to

men

and called

women

in

pathologic
and As also

physiology
which in death

"exophthalmic goiter," in
soldier's heart. for the

what

is called "heatstroke"

neurocirculatoryasthenia, or
driving brain, its limit
United the
its

great of

is indicated

by

the

existence diseases

606,394 hospital beds


States. The

for mental
axis

and

nervous

in the

partner

of the

brain

that

maintains

reaching
that claims and in

negative potential,the faithful heart, is shown as ceiling of possibilities, by the fact


cents out

1938 50

of

every

dollar of the diseases system,

paid
United due such

in

death States

by

the

insurance
was

companies
from the vascular the

Canada

for

deaths

to
as

work over-

of the heart
coronary

and

disease, and

cardiorenal

hypertension, syndrome.

The

of civilized man's limitingthe further advance ceiling of also in the increasing incidence is seen possibilities Raynaud's disease,neurasthenia, peptic ulcer, indigestion, and psychoses. We now see can why these diseases are peculiar to and why neither the native of the tropicsnor civilized man the native of the arctic can acquire our civilization or, as a Modern the diseases peculiar to civilized man. corollary,

236

present
that
can

tropical standards." people livingin readilyaccomplished


more more

He
a

calls attention where

to

the heat

fact

"... be

climate
a

body

loss

have

higher internal
reach earlier,

tion combusa

level,grow
stature, greater than Health do
are

rapidly,mature
to

larger
have
energy
a

resistant of

infectious

disease,and
and of mental moist
a

abundance those

both under

physical
conditions countries

living
in much

warmth.
more

in temperate-zone

has

thus But

namic dypush

quality than
and from

tropicalwarmth.
greater existence." climate:
rate

with

this

vigor
the

goes

of

body

breakdown

more

stressful make of
up

Three the The the


zone

factors

the variables and the

of temperature, of
seen

variables of greatest in

humidity,
variation arctic has
an

variables is

storm.
not
zone.

in temperature but in the


on

in

tropics or Temperature
the volume

the

temperate
the

alone

influence

size of the

brain, the size of the thyroid gland, the size of the heart,
and of blood of all warm-blooded animals. the size of the adrenal Temperature has no influence upon formula, has glands. Dr. Quiring, by applying the power exhibited graphically the powerful influence of cold itself the brain, the thyroid gland, and the heart. upon When
we

recall

that

75 is

per

cent to

of the

food

intake the
blooded warm-

in

warm-blooded
state

animals and

required
into the

maintain

take and
zone,

consideration variable factors the

the

abrupt
that

changes
seen

in temperature temperate maintained


more

in climate factor of

in the and
no

it is clear

that

raised
man

the

high-energy
in To

state
a

civilized

is

plant is adequate temperature and thyroid formula


civilized Let
us man

mysterious than the required in winter than


in
to
a

fact that
summer

ing largerheatto

maintain brainstorm,

house. variables for what

the

simple
and

the basis the

of climate he is. that

owes

the

now man.

consider

variables

affect the

heating

plant

of

If the

heating plant of

man

burns

too

intensely his proto-

238

AND

PERSONALITY

plasm
that

will the

in heatstroke, and disintegrate

if it burns the

so

low his

temperature
will be

falls much killed

below

normal

by freezing,since, according to van't HofFs law, each degree centigrade of temperature rise or change is followed by a corresponding 10 per cent fall in chemical, hence electric, activity.Therefore, it is dead lines that the brain, the thyroid these two between like a bird balancing itself on gland, and the heart of man, their equilibrium. during a storm, maintain a wire have called attention the In the preceding pages to we took from the hairy covering of fact that evolution man protoplasm
shaved faster when the ape. A rabbit loses heat 35 per cent shorn of the of its normal furry covering.Therefore, man,

furry covering of

his

arboreal

ancestor,
to

could

sustain

without greater activity


ape.

succumbing
man

heatstroke

than

the

Evolution
area arms

has also endowed other animal

with

the greatest the

surface

of any of man,

of his size. Thus and


"

the hands mechanism


any

larger heating
man

long legs and permit a relatively long fingers brain and thyroid gland for
"

than

for

other

warm-blooded from
man

land

animal

of

comparable
In
power also
to

size without

death

heatstroke.

addition, evolution

endowed heat

modify
a

his internal

only with through sweating


not

the but
to

with

vasomotor

mechanism horse

that and

transfers
man are

blood the

the

surface that

for

cooling.The
all
over.

only

animals These

sweat

adaptation to internal with his larger-than-apebrain and heat have enabled man, of the tropics thyroid gland,to survive the stagnant warmth well as the cold of the ice age and to make as alternating and the cold winter of the adaptation to the hot summer
north The greatest hand

mechanisms

evolved

for

temperate

zone.

thinking brain
gave
to
man

and

the versatile
to

hand

constitute brain and

the the

gift of evolution
the

man,

for the for

substitute

hair, fur, fat, and


239

blubber

in the
him winter

form
to

of

clothing, shelter, and freezing. heating plant


tone

the

use

of

fire,

enabling
In the
up.

live

without internal muscle

the

of in

man

is

stepped
to

Recall and

the

high

in winter
tone

contrast

the the

inertia

diminished

muscle

in

summer.

Recall

thyroid-gland enlargement
in
summer.

in winter incidence the

and

its demobilization from in of vascular cardiosummer.

Recall disease

the

high

of deaths number

in winter

and and

fewer

Recall
in

the

aggravation
than in
summer

higher
and from the

incidence

diabetes and the


in

winter

aggravation
that of

higher
the
summer.

incidence and

of

death

exophthalmic
with

goiter

autumn

winter

compared
have

spring only
to

and

Thus

far in brain

our

analysis we
and the external death
to

attributed the

the
viding pro-

thinking
winter
to

thyroid gland supplementary


from

task
to

of
man

sufficient

heat

in

prevent

freezing and
from warm-blooded

sufficient

loss of

heat The
man

in

summer
mere

prevent

death of the

heatstroke.
state taxes

maintenance all other

beyond
cent

energy

requirements,
man

because
to

75

per

of the

food

intake But

of

is and

required
cold
are

maintain of

his warm-blooded factors


must

state.

heat

two

the
man

that make

make

up

variability in
which is
an

climate

to

which

adaptation.
factor When
to
man

Another

must

make in the

adaptation humidity Although

is

humidity.
naked

there

increase heat

great

sufferingfrom
increases ratio in direct absorb.
man

depression
man's
to

and

ensues.

being
loss is
air will

heat
amount

loss

by

35

per

cent, that from


amount

heat the the of

the

of moisture of heat
to

Therefore, the
in in the air.
room a

absorption proportion
of

skin
water

of

is diminished

the

vapor

In

steam

maximum little

depression is experienced,
the
rate

because

the

skin the

loses

heat, and
the

of

heat

produced
240

by

large brain,

large thyroid gland, the

AND

PERSONALITY

large heart, and


so

the

large blood
becomes

volume

of civilized

man

is

great

that

heatstroke

imminent.

rapidly the temperature is higher than body temperature. bath which so highly energized that unless he can lose
Consider how his temperature The studies will rise of the basal
to

of

man

rises
man

in

Civilized heat
at
a

is

high rate

the

critical level of heatstroke.


rate

metabolic

of

Eskimos, made
me,

by

Dr.

Quiring, Dr. Thomas


to
man

and Mailing,, about Ohio.


.22

showed

the

Eskimos civilized Benedict


man

have
in

basal

rate

per

cent

higher than
Francis
in

Cleveland,
the metabolism
zone.

In

the than

tropics
that
express

found

lower These

found the

of the

temperate

values

size

of the
as

brain, the thyroid gland, the heart

and Thus

blood the

volume

an

adaptation
needed

to

external

temperature.
zone

cyclesof
to

humidity
the the

in the north loss of


to

temperate
to

interfere

vitallywith
heatstroke. and the

heat

the

surrounding air, hence


death from in

tendency
addition in

heat
to

prostrationand
variables
a

In

the

temperature
has This
an

variables

humidity,

third

factor

important
factor is the

factors of man. bearing on the energy of the barometric variability pressure. The influence that of in
oxygen

tension

on

metabolism

is

so

important
among

metabolic

observations have barometric

it is necessary,

other influence Thus

conditions,to
of barometric
we can now

the

barometer In the

brings universal preceding pages

readings, and tabolism. changes is expressed in the meunderstand why a rapidlyfalling depression to a population. studies of the we reported our
upon
we

tension varying influence of oxygen thyroid gland in fish. In our studies and reptiles in habitats of variable the stilltropical waters, the shallow and bubbling with air and oxygen, its rich We

the

brain

and

the fish
as

collected

many

oxygen

tension, such
of arctic

shoals the
we

sandy beaches,
sea

cold

with

supply
found

of oxygen. the

What
gameness

did of

find ? fish
"

that

the

that
241

is, its

INTELLIGENCE, energy

POWER,
"

pattern,
with

the

brain, and

the

thyroid gland

sponded corre-

the

concentration

of oxygen

of its natural

habitat. landlocked water still, and inactive. Oxygen tension of the cold, bubbling water In the where found. which there A is
a

in the in the northern

fish tropics,
water

are

slow

is low.

In

the

mountain
game of the

streams, fish
are

rich

mixture

perfectexample is seen is found in the richlyoxygenated


The brain in the cold-blooded in warm-blooded

of oxygen, in the case


waters

of

stingray, the sandy

beaches.

the size of the brain

stingray approaches land animals of equal


pressure

weight.
When the barometer the falls,
oxygen

ished, is diminished. is diminrarefied


man
parable com-

and, accordingly,the energy and The falling barometer


oxygen

of the

body

consequent
on

concentration
to

exert
a

an

effect the

civilized

taking
in

trout

from

high

concentration
stream

of and

oxygen

found

placing it in
pressure of

of feet.

cold, bubbling mountain a warm, pool. A drop stagnant effect comparable inch exerts an
a

in barometric
to
an

altitude

968
What

would
case
a

happen
of

to

an

advanced
serious

case case

of heart of

disease,

an

incurable

diabetes, a
Peak? the
a

exophthalmic

and goiter, transferred Thus

case

of essential

to

Pikes

it is clear that pressure

hypertension if these cases were A death toll all the way! depressinginfluence of the falling
is due
to

barometric
oxygen,

in

storm

the attenuation

of

just as,
The

in

ascending a mountain,
are

and

the

breathlessness three and


or

due

to

the loss of energy of the attentuation temperature,


occur

oxygen.

factors
oxygen

of

climate, warmer
tension

humidity,
same

low
at

usually

at

the

overlap each other. of Having interpretedour viewpoint of the implications the energy-controlling the variables of climate upon system of civilized man as they bear upon the diseases peculiarto
time,
least

him,

we

quote
242

the

following

statements

from

"Health

and

AND

PERSONALITY

Disease Mills:1

as

Influenced

by

Climatic

Environment,"

by

C. A.

mortality is related to climatic stimulation, the disease becoming a major medical problem only in those regionshaving invigoratingclimates. America its relative importance as a cause of In North with the disease in death is greatest in the region of Iowa States being much Northern of our the storm zone more than in the South. prevalent and troublesome "Diabetes almost invariably patients from the North
"Diabetes
"

find when

their

disease

less troublesome

and

easier

of

control

they migrate to tropical or subtropical climates. this increasingseverity "Negroes show most strikingly of the disease toward from the North, their death it rate more markedly than does that for the white risingeven population. In Europe too and in Australia this relation of diabetes mortality to climatic drive is just as definite as in North
"

America. be responsible for these diagnosis cannot observed for highest rates not differences, are always found where medical practiceis supposed to be best. With be the level of sugar diabetes, it cannot consumption. would Rather it seem be the level of bodily activity to demanded of the population in these areas. "Errors in

"There and
stress

can
on

be

little doubt

that

human

blood
are

pressure

the

circulatory mechanism

lower

in

areas. tropicalregions than in stormy People temperate to going from west central Europe or central North America the tropics nearly always suffer a marked fall in blood within a year or two, even though no debilitating pressure

disease

or

infection

has

occurred.

International

Vol. Clinics,

2, pp.

143-167, 1936. 243

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

"Most that

important for cardiac load, however, declines the combustion as body efficiency During winter cold a given amount
costs
more

is the
rate

fact

creases. in-

of

physical
and heat

work and

in

terms

in summer heat. A expended hyperthyroid person pays a higher metabolic price for the of a piece of work execution does a normal than person. Tropical natives are far more efficient physicallythan are the energetic refers northerners, remembering that efficiency the energy ences to cost accomplished. Differper unit of work in energy be quite strikingand cost play an may important part in making heart failure so much more common during the colder portions of the year. These the metabolic of work have failed to receive cost on findings the attention they deserve in regard to the growing problems of the heart. People not only feel more energeticin around and move cold weather more quickly to keep warm, carries a higher metabolic and but each move they make energy

of oxygen it does than

consumed

heart

work

cost.

"Herein much "Of


more

lies the
common

main

reason

why
than in

cardiac
summer.

failure is

so

in winter

particularinterest
fall in blood took

in this connection and


oxygen

was

the widespread level heat In


a

pressure

that

place during

the

severe

consumption and prolonged


of blood 1934.

West the Middle afflicting goodly proportion of the dropped about 30 per cent obtained. marked in Relief from

in the

summer

population
from whatever cardiac

pressures viously precially espe-

level had
was

symptoms
as

general body climatic fell to low levels. This experiment on metabolism to effects, staged by Nature, gave strikingsubstantiation uncertain in no ideas previously stated, and indicated our be that can the shift toward tropical metabolism way by only population mass brought about in a highly energetic h) pertension cases
a

the

few

weeks

of F.

severe

warmth."
in his

William
244

Petersen,

study

of "The

Patient

and

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER

ulcer gastric
west

on

the West

coast, Petersen

says,

"The

entire reveals

coast,

high rates,

including California as a focal this time includingNevada, Utah,

state, and

Colorado.

Under! (Per hundred thousand)

FIG.

Exophthalmic (Reproduced from William


39.
"

goiter during 1920-1930 F. Petersen, M.D., The


"

(American
Patient and the

mortality). Weather"}

The

South

is

in Louisiana unstable. ulcer


as we

In

of the observe

free but does reveal a lightincrease relatively somewhat and Florida, regions that are more often from the Negro dies more the North of Florida, stomach, though the environment for the the white
race,
seems

somewhat

more

precariousfor

colored
out

too. individual,

"Newfoundland,

of the

region of the

major

storm

246

AND

PERSONALITY

tracks,has a mortality of only 1.8, but Hawaii is relatively high, with 7.2." showing the distribution Referring to the mortality map Petersen of exophthalmicgoiter during the decade 1920-1930, that it deserves is so characteristic emphasis. states, "This Region I has Oregon as the focal point, then lower rates but along the in the dry highlands of the Northwest occur southern fringe of the cyclonic tracks (Colorado, Kansas,
Missouri)
an

accentuation

occurs

until
we

we

come as

to

the focal

actually begin with Minnesota, Ontario, Wisconsin, and Illinois. Again the northeastern show a states are spared, and New Hampshire and Maine low mortality. "And north into the turbulent the Negro, as he moves illwith exophthalmic goiter. atmosphere, becomes Newfoundland "In exophthalmic goiter is practically non-existent, and in Hawaii, too, the mortality is only 0.8
rates

region of the Lakes high point. The

(2) and

now

find Ohio

the

for 100,000 Of

inhabitants."

cardio-vascular-renal leads
some as

disease,Petersen
of death.

says,

"Heart that

disease there
are

the

cause

It is estimated

people in the United States who afflicted. But unfortunately, statistical material is so are our When the map examine by no means we satisfactory. for deaths from heart disease for a singleyear we find the tracks clearly outlined. New storm Hampshire is high with of 323 (per 100,000) approximately three times rate a as
two

million

many

deaths

from

heart

disease

as

is shown

for Arkansas.

The

ested examining this distribution will be interprimarily in observing that the rate is a reflection of the old-age grouping." It is interesting Petersen's of the incidence to contrast maps of his
map

statistician

the

various the

diseases distribution

of of

civilized

man

with
perature tem-

showing
for 1925.

of variability

Of

arteriosclerosis

Petersen instability,

says,

"There 247

can

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER

be

no

question but
their
will pressure)

that

undue in
tissue

meteorologicaldisturbances,
stimulation of (lessening

with blood

reflection

often

be followed

by overcompensation,

New

Hampshire-323

302-310
250-300 200-250

FIG.

40.

"

Death

from

heart

disease

[American
Disease

population)].(From J. S. Whitney, "Heart Heart Association,1934. Reproduced from and the Weather"}

mortality, 1932 (per 100,000 American MortalityStatistics," F. Petersen. William The Patient M.D.,
"

with

spasm,

and

with

increased
may

blood

pressure. with in the

In

the

unstable

person
to

this the

ultimately, along
that
we we see

other young

factors, lead
individuals.

hypertension

In scientific
as an

terminology

discuss

lying under-

change
of

arteriolosclerosis

and

speak clinically
map

malignant
of

incidence In the

hypertension." hypertension found


that

Petersen's

shows States

the draft.
to
are

in the United
of the relation

foregoing discussion
civilized the

of climate mentioned
pages
we

disease, it will be noted

the

diseases

peculiarto
shown that

preceding highest development of


man.

In the

have
man

civilized

appeared
most

in the

temperate
to

zone,

where

the conditions of the

were

favorable

the

highest development

brain,

248

AND

PERSONALITY

the

thyroid gland,
to

the

heart

and

blood of

volume

and, in
mental

consequence,

the

highest degree

physicaland

activity.

America. storminess North or (Base over Temperature variability A. Clarence Company, Chicago. Reproduced Denoyer-Geppart from of map "Medical M.D., Mills,Ph.D., Climatology.") FIG. 41.
"

courtesy

High physical later,is the common


diseases
to

and

mental basis of

activity,as
both civilized basis
man.

will

be

shown and the tied In

civilization

that other

are

peculiar to
the
common

each

by

of

They are high energy.


249

INTELLIGENCE,
terms

POWER,

of

milleniums of

of

time, both
as

civilization and mental

and

such

diseases

civilization disease
"

nervous

disease,
coronary

cardiovascular

essential

hypertension,
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS

(Hypertension)

Soulh Carolina- 1.60 1.17-1.01 0.97-0.78 0.60-0.52

0.48-0.40 0.37-0.32
0.29-0.24

Under 0.20

FIG.

42.

"

Arteriosclerosis William

United (hypertension).
"

States and

draft. the

F. Petersen, M.D.,

The

Patient

(Reproduced from Weather"}

syndrome exophthalmic goiter, neurocirculatory asthenia, diabetes, peptic ulcer, be regarded as due to mutations and Raynaud's disease may
the
"

disease, and

cardiorenal

in certain

units of the

energy-controlling system.

250

7o

THE

HAZARDS
Mutation

OF

LIFE

DESCRIBED

by
in the
to

De

Vries, mutation
or

consists tissues from

of

tion variato

size of the organs

parent

offspringdue
of the and
germ

changes

in

the

chromosomal modifies

constituents individual
to
man

cells. Mutation Natural

often

animals.

selection, according
the favorable of the in
in herd

De

Vries,
into

incorporates and
the

stabilizes

mutations

permanent
is

equipment
most
common

Mutation in line and We

species. hybrids and


animals. In

least

common
man

breeding, as seen the thoroughbred


therefore in civilized

civilized
common.

horse

out-crossbreeding is
to

should

expect
man

find

the

of mutation The
man,

and

in the
man,

highest incidence thoroughbred horse.


contrast
state to

instabilities
appear
to

of civilized that

in

native
so

indicate exhibits

the

civilized

is

new

that

inheritance of the

strikingmutations.
in both the
mutation

In

the

tion opera-

bipolar

mechanism
man,
so

thoroughbred
trolling energy-con-

horse

and

in civilized
may
a

of certain
as

organs

be

excessive

to

defeat and

normal
even a

tion funcdisease.

and

become

pathologic physiology
of Mutations
a a

Influence

on

Behavior

as

Exemplified by
Horse
In

and

Thoroughbred Gangster

Chap.

17
in

we

saw

mutations

the

such how, through breeding by man, brain, the heart, and the adrenal-sympathetic occurred
as

system

have

unpredictable certain behavior thoroughbred horses studied we cited the example many Brown Eyes, a thoroughbred of great promise that, due
mutation,
As
was

predictable and characteristics. the Among


to

render

of
to

failure in behavior. in animals


extremes

stated and

above, mutation
in

appears in those

most

quently fre-

the

greatest

animals

251

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

that

are

most

highly hybridized. Therefore, the


mutations is found
in

greatest and
seen

incidence the

of

civilized
are

man

in
in

thoroughbred
animals the
case

horse.

Mutations
state.

rarely
case

line-bred
man

in the wild

In

the

of civilized

the

selection mind of

principle of natural selection is suspended. In of the thoroughbred horse the principle of natural is also suspended, not by the horse but by the
man.
man

In civilized the

there is

seen

the

extreme

thinking brain, the thyroid gland, and hand. the mechanism that has powered emThrough mutation outside himself has evolved to develop energy man eases disthe highest degree, as seen of energy to by the ceiling
that
man.

development of the manipulative

interferes civilized of his

with
man

the

further
on

progress

of civilized and machines

Since do much
has
to

depends

animals of
man

to

work,
race,

the mechanism the

for outburst

energy

diminished, whereas
a

order

win

has

been

thoroughbred horse, in evolved for the by man

Thus these two most highest degree of outburst energy. and the thoroughbred highly hybridized animals, civilized man horse, have been developed to a high degree but toward the thoroughbred horse in the principles, opposite energy in the equipment equipment for the wild state, civilized man

for the machine Mutations


are

age

of the

civilized

state.

usually most strikingin the organs that the animal. In man the the greatest significance have to the thinking brain and of highest significance are organs the central nervous system. In the thoroughbred horse the the brain, the heart, and of highest significance are organs of man the In the case the adrenal-sympathetic system. of the brain is shown mutation by the fact that there are and mental half a million hospital beds for nervous over
diseases Brown the famous trained
in in the

United
a

States

alone.
as

Eyes,

thoroughbred horse, was racing stallion Equipoise.Brown of the outstanding racing one

well

bred had

as

Eyes
stables

been

in Ken-

252

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

In civilized man, members of the of the

and

in particularly
group,

the

most

advanced

drive high energy brain-heart-thyroid-adrenal-celiac-ganglion-sympasystem endows civilized great


man

civilized

the

thetic

not

only with
sustained
over

his

high
and

his degree of intelligence, his

for ability

work,

valor, his inventiveness, his control


his

plants

animals, and
also

setting up
diseases.

of

complex

civilized life but

with

certain

following discussion of the hazards of civilized man adult life is prein infancy, childhood, adolescence, and sented it would for that in its seem biological solely aspect, heretofore the biological significance of these diseases has not been fullyrecognized. peculiaronly to civilized man
The At the time the of fertilization of the
ovum

there
mass

exists
ever

probably
appears

highest metabolism
source

per

unit

of

that

in the life of the individual.

The

speed of growth

of

the fetus is this and

unique. The
is identified

growth
adrenal

by

of the energy that controls the increased size of the thyroid

due to the showering by glands of the mother the fetus. these glands of growth-producing hormones upon In addition, there is a very development of early marked the adrenal glands in the fetus itself. the subject extensively, has studied Dr. Quiring, who

reports

that

in

the

third

month

of fetal life the

adrenal

giving a ratio of the adrenal glands weigh 0.06 gram, weight to the body weight of the fetus of 1:238. At birth the weight of the adrenal glands is 8.6 grams, giving a ratio of the weight of the adrenal glands to the body weight of
254

AND

PERSONALITY

the infant

of

1384. In the adult the weight of the adrenal

glands
of the
1

the ratio of approximately u grams, adrenal glands to the body weight of the
is

weight adult being

the

15,000.
The

thyroid gland in the fetus is smaller than the adrenal the adrenal that whereas glands glands.Dr. Quiring states birth the thyroid gland weighs only at weigh 8.6 grams reversed This adrenal-thyroidrelation becomes 3.2 grams. the thyroid before the twenty-first sometime year, when gland weighs approximately 2^ times the weight of the adrenal glands. In a comparative study of the thyroid and adrenal glands data regarding different age in which in 747 wild animals available, Dr. Quiring and I found that the periods were from 24 to 450 per cent adrenal glands were largerin their relation to the body weight in the infants than in the adults. In the human are being the adrenal glands in the newborn times largerin their relation to the body weight twenty-one
than
in the

adult. anatomical facts that

From of human

the

fetal life the adrenal their relation


to

largerin weight glands


than

the

the adrenal and

glands in
that
even

the adult several

during the third month times glands are twenty-one weight of the fetus than are in relation to the adult body
after birth the adrenal infant the
are

months

in relation adrenal
must

to

the

weight

of the
to
a

smaller

the

glands
not

in relation is

fetus,we
adrenal in the indicate

conclude is

that there

weight of the unique factor during


fact that the the young child and would also seem to
are

fetal life that

present

in adult

life. The

glands
that

are

larger in relatively
than in the adult

adolescent
some

extraordinary
years

activities

present

during
The
young

the first twenty-one

of life.

brain-to-body-weight ratio in the infant and the child is higher than the brain-to-body-weight ratio
adult. In
our

in the

studies

in

comparative
infant wild

anatomy animals 255

the
was

brain-to-body-weightratio

of the

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

from

91

to

630

per

cent

higher
same

than

the

brain-to-body-

weight
animals

ratio in adults the

of the

species:in juvenile wild

from 6 to 221 brain-to-body-weight ratio was higher than the brain-to-body-weightratio in the per cent adults of the same In humans the brain-to-bodyspecies. is 560 per cent weight ratio of the newborn higher than the brain-to-body-weight ratio in adults; in a child of ten it is 250 per cent higher than in an adult; and in an years adolescent of fifteen years it is 160 per cent higher.Thus the the anatomical child is the characteristic of the

fetus, the infant, and


of the brain and the of the

relatively large size


the animal.

glands. This also is infant, and the juvenilewild The giftof evolution to man
adrenal his dominance in the its world

formula

fetus,the
achieved and the

by
is the

which

man

has

thyroid gland

delicate matrix, in which large and infinitely that guide and govern written the action patterns him. are Not only is the brain of man characterized by the greater of recordingmatrix, but almost as significant, mass lying at basis of training and education, is the fact that the very of the lower animals the available in the case recording has all or matrix nearly all its recordable capacity filled with simple animal action patterns at the time of birth,

brain, with

and

there is but

small

amount

of blank This

matrix

upon appear

which
to

stimuli after birth may the

be recorded.

would

be

physical reason
to

but

why animals can limited degree.During


our

be

trained

and

cated edu-

human
are

fetal life only in the of the

the

patterns of the

of

wild None

ancestors

established of

matrix man's
process

brain.
state

of the

patterns in fetal

actions

civilized of

is established and
of

life. In

procreationman
in the
one

other

animals matrix

differ fundamentally that each

amount

recordable
to

brings from
the

generation

the bird
all

next
comes

generation across
over

protoplasmic bridge. The bridge with almost


in its

the

plasmic proto-

of The

its

action
comes

patterns
over

established

governing

matrix.

infant

256

AND

PERSONALITY

the the

protoplasmic bridge with


infant, the
from

blank adult

matrix.
to

This

enables action

child, and
anatomical

the

acquire

patterns In

their environment. facts of the energy their behavior, we systems find that

the correlating and

of the infant the infant

the child with

like the young of all wild animals, child, are highly cephalized and adrenalized. The infant and the and quick response emotionalism child show to fevers. It is because the not enough to say that these phenomena occur and the is
an

individual the behavior that the

infant

or

child. We

must

conclude the

that

of the infant
are

and
to

the child and


a

they
brain

exhibit and

due

far greater

phenomena development of
in the adult. the
trolling energy-con-

adrenal
"

glands
racial inherited

than

is present
"

Through
endowed

phylogeny
is
young
an

experience
energy

system the

pattern. with
as

Evolution

of wild adrenal

animals

thyroid gland, and


without When adrenal
a

glands
ten to

as

was

large a brain, vival possiblefor surof age, the

heatstroke. reached twelve


years

child has

glands and the thyroid gland approximate each other in weight. This changed relation in the size of the thyroid and adrenal glands is expressed in the behavior of the child. During this time the child is an energy machine, this period of childhood often points and, significantly,
to

the fact that the child is "father


a

of .the man."

On

the

one

hand,
active
powers

child may be for his future should


not

too

be

highly energized,too incessantly safety. In that event, his physical unduly developed in school lest in

as develop such diseases of civilized man essential hypertension,coronary the cardiorenal or disease, syndrome. On the other hand, a child may so high an equipment possess for mental work to as endanger his safety in another direction. Child prodigiesshould be restrained rather than stimulated. and They should be trained to offset mental emotional work by interests other than mental lest in adult

adult

life he

257

life

they develop hyperthyroidism, neurocirculatory


or

thenia, as-

nervous

breakdown.

The
In

Adolescent
is

Pupil
a

pupil there of the ductless glands expressing the body and the development of Rapid growth only
of the in the with the
is hard

the

adolescent

crescendo
a

itself in the organs

activity rapid growth of


of

of

procreation.1

work, overwhelming

the the the

novelty and strangeness of but also by procreative mechanism


entire

organism not development


magic change
emotional

anatomy of

as

well

as

in
as

the

entire

state.

The

changes

are senility

nothing compared
Fortunate several
over

with
it is years.

the that What

transformation the
process

enacted of adolescence
in
a

in adolescence. is

spread
of this

if it occurred

night!
fact transformation
a

Not

only
load
on

is the

physical
organism
organs
too

heavy
but
may

the

of the

adolescent
new

boy
to too

and

girl

the

dominating
one

themselves,
of

their

tasks,

be in

instance
to

active, in another
of organs and the mind of the hard
as

inactive,
tion procreagone

thus

adding growth
work

the

overload

general growth and


emotions

the

disturbance
in

wild. hard of the


in

Therefore,
of mechanism

training
and of

adolescent, the
fabrication hard work the

growth

the

work well
emotion
terms

of the
as

procreation
excessive in
account

the

expression
be taken

of the

of this

period

should
energy

into the

of

competition for
for sustained that

required in
the her the
in

process has
a

of

training the mind.


need

Because
energy

female role of

greater

reproduction, the thyroid gland


oxidation and in the the metabolism
is in the
more

controls

rate

of

larger

relativelyto
therefore, as
to

the
one

body weight
might
expect,

girlthan
female
is

boy;

subject

simple goiter and exophthalmic goiterduring


the
male.
"The Phenomena of

adolescence

than
1

CRILE, GEORGE,
1935.

Life," W.

W.

Norton

"

Company,

New

York,

258

AND

PERSONALITY

During
is likewise

adolescence
in

the

fightingside
becomes

of the
more

partnership
muscular,

developed
more

the

male, who

aggressive, pugnacious, and individualistic. is an hazard of adolescence The unequal development of and ductless glands, the sympathetic system, the various of growth activity may result outburst the brain. Such an and whole the body as in the skeletal muscles a being for other built up with such speed that there is less energy Nordic of the body. We functions see boys, especially, and fail in inattentive growing so rapidly that they become excel in athletics. their lessons,although they may of pathologicalhabits that may There is also the hazard differentiation that is taking place result from the rapid sex from ten to fourteen in the neutral boy or girl old, a years transformation that brings with it many feelings strange lead to the development of abnormal habits. that may sex there is the adolescent Then who, lackingthe development girl of the hormones mone, estrin,gonadotropic pituitary horand corporin, may, as a result, develop social and
sexual On indifference the other and become
a

recluse.

burst hand, there is the hazard of such an outof activity of the ductless glands, especially the adrenal glands and the hypophysis, that obesity,hirsutism, and tachycardia the telltale symptoms of polystriations, in the glandular disease develop. This disease occurs may adolescent woman. girlor the young We also see another hazard in adolescence, during the as abnormal of the activityof the energy system, disturbance
" "

pancreas

that

may

result in diabetes.

The

Superintellect
occasional

Through
an

mutation, the

boy

of the brain and an activity for the acquiring of knowledge. The superlativemind may danger to itself. There carry is little danger in the brain mechanism of the pupil who, by 259

abnormal

girl exhibits abnormal capacity


or

INTELLIGENCE, virtue

POWER,

of his the be

capacity
a

for continued leader of

intensive his

application,
may,

becomes

intellectual defect
super

class. There education


may
not

however,

in the

training and
in

of the
grasp
man

pupil with the the advantage


within him. Thus

intellect

that

he

of

training and

coordinating the
introduction
to

wild

human passions and average possesses, tions missing the advantage of the commingling of civilized reacin the fighting,playing, mating man. The drudge sometimes he develops or develops a deformed personality, his wild'
is
so man

he may lack an that the emotions

the human

out
as

of season;
state

but

neither brilliant scholastic

of these student record

conditions with brain

so

vital

the keen

of the
a

abnormally

that these

high

is achieved

without brain

effort.

In

brilliant

activity may
In

finallyreach
instances
recovery.
an

breakdown. from which

certain is
no

excessive personalities the physical state of a occurs early senescence

there

Adult
Individuals
as a

Life
ized, charactermental that and the

successful
a

rule,by

during middle life are capacity for high sustained


is characteristic

physical activity.It first forty years are


the

of this group of

those

of

ease

achievement,

great

rarely with fatigue,and quick restoration. activity,


brain
is very active

Whereas

and

almost

tireless in this successful the


organs

group
at
an

during
abnormal

the

first

forty years,
taxes

driving of
as

the

body
the

speed
the

such

the

heart,

blood

vessels,and
can

kidneys.
his brain is tired because

Anyone
the brain

tell when

through

tell when can personalityis expressed.No one tired. These his heart, his blood vessels,or his kidneys are and the first warning of possibleimpairment are mute, organs his is
one a

diminished
organs

function.
may
soon

After

that

warning
one

comes,

of these

fail,and
down the

when

of these
man.

vital organs

fails it will bear

life of the

Exophthalmic
260

goiter,or

hyperthyroidism,is*a

disease

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

exophthalmic goiter but


there is
no

two:

there
rate.

is

no

exophthalmos
celiac and

and

increased

metabolic these
mutants

in Significantly, smaller in
cases

the

ganglia
in
cases

are

of

exophthalmic goiter
than in

of

neurocirculatory
whereas is in
cases

asthenia

normal

of

exophthalmic goiterthe
individuals. that these
two

individuals, thyroid gland


diseases
may

largerthan
In support

in normal

of this statement,

regarded as mutations, is the discoverythat exophthalmic be cured goiter may by breaking this universal energy by denervating the adrenal glands. This alone system
be
causes

the

brain
state

to

return

to

the

normal

and

the

pathological activity thyroid gland from its state of

from

its

its normal to hyperplasia and excessive vascularization to its normal state. Equally does the rapid heartbeat return of the rhythm. In neurocirculatoryasthenia, denervation the excited brain to its normal adrenal glands restores state, the excited sympathetic system to its normal state, and the

excited Of

heart great

to

its normal

state.

excision is the fact that of the significance cures exophthalmic goiter, has no thyroid gland, which effect upon neurocirculatoryasthenia. Therefore, one may In different the mutations involve thalmic exophorgans. suppose, involve the brain to goiter the mutation appears in neurocirculatory asthenia and the thyroid gland, whereas the brain-adrenal-sympainvolve the mutation to thetic appears the thyroid gland remaining normal. system, The childhood, the school and collegedays of the hyperthyroid patient show a brilliant scholastic record and an The victim of neurocirculatory active, colorful personality. and nervousasthenia exhibits a greater degree of instability ness

than show
so

the

victim

of

exophthalmic
record
as

goiter but

does

not

high a

scholastic

that of the

exophthalmic
is

goiter mutant.
The

equipment
of

of the

large

brain
man

and and

thyroid gland
animals
in

characteristic 262

warm-blooded

the

AND

PERSONALITY

cold

north.

Therefore, the

native

of the

tropics could

not

develop exophthalmic goiter or neurocirculatory asthenia, is he likelyto attain the high rank in scholarship. nor
There in is
a

third
man.

energy

or synthesis,

mutation,
is

civilized

This

third

mutation

only equally defined,


seen

from this mutation equally individual. The victims suffering of blood, constant but have larger hearts, greater volume not thyroid glands, and abnormally active brains, normal normal or slightly largerthan normal adrenal glands.These also possess individuals uniquely large celiac ganglia and under celiac plexuses and a normally are high constant the hyperthyroid and the hyperinternal drive. Whereas and tremble, the individuals adrenal subjectstend to sweat synthesis have dry skins belonging to this third energy and rarelytremble. The victims of this third mutation
prone
to
are

not

so

brilliant

those are as scholastically but they range in the upper school and collegethey are in and These

third leaders

of in for

exophthalmic goiter, their class. In grade


and athletics, active

clubs, whereas
individuals

the

candidates
are

exophthalmic goiter
in the classroom.
possess

neurocirculatoryasthenia
are

leaders and

more

stable

sounder

than the mutants judgment and more predisposed courage to exophthalmic goiter and neurocirculatory asthenia. These but stable mutants, in highly energized, tireless, addition to being successful leaders in industry,finance,the and in public affairs, in war, professions, particularlyas for essential hyperpilotsin aviation, are also candidates tension and Another
coronary

disease. that
is
seen

mutation the is

in adult

civilized This
are

man,

particularlyin
energy
mutation

north, is peptic ulcer.


not
so

fourth three

clearlydefined
it has
a are
common

as

the

previously mentioned,
with and them
carry
a

but

characteristic

in that

its members

also

highly energized
seem

high

order

of achievement. of this group

It would

that

the inherited

mechanism

escaped

the

thyroid

263

dominance dominance the victim this

of of

the the

exophthalmic
celiac

goiter victim
and

and heart

the
of

ganglia, plexuses, and


coronary of
a

of essential fourth
group

hypertension
we see an

disease. competent
a

In

example
level of

thinking brain, driven


balanced
The

to

high

activity by

well-

thyroid gland
of this
is the than

and
group

adrenal-sympathetic
are

system. ambition
essential

individuals
worry

more

prone

to

and

more

stable disease.

candidate

for

hypertension
Peptic
in those
or

and
occurs are

coronary
more

ulcer

commonly
stress

in men, of their under

particularly occupations
of

who

under

because

in

individuals

who,

struggling
or

conditions
are

conflict, discouragement,

maladjustment,
and in active

especially
ulcer

subject
goiter
appears
men.

to

worry,
more

anxiety, commonly
of the

fatigue. Exophthalmic
women. careers

occurs

Peptic
of the midst of

in

the

midst

ambitious
the

Exophthalmic
worry

goiter
the

appears

in of
a

domestic The brain

and

social

drive

women.

fifth and It is
a

mutation,

diabetes, is
found of

synthesis of
active and

an

active
tem. sys-

high

normal

thyroid-adrenal-sympathetic
among
a ful success-

most

commonly
The scholastic is
two

individuals.

childhood
career

diabetic

is characterized
an

by
does tend

brilliant child

and,
of

on

average,

diabetic
not to

years

ahead

his

grade.

Diabetes
may sonalities per-

produce
in

brilliant

minds, but

brilliant the

people

acquire diabetes.

Many
been

of

outstanding
that
in

history

have
it is

diabetics.
to note

In

this connection

interesting

thalmic exophbohydrate car-

goiter the incidence


metabolism The
the
mutants

of diabetes

and

disturbed

is far

higher

than
are

in the

population.
by
These

victims

of these

five mutations

characterized
man.

in civilized highest qualifications seen progressive,the most represent the most valorous in the fraction of civilized
man.

inventive,
are spicuous con-

the

most

They
in

professions, in

government,

business,

264

AND

PERSONALITY

in

finance,
and the size

in

public

life,

and

in

war.

They

appear

as

great

leaders In of

great
of the size and the lack

failures.

thinking
of the

brain,

the

heart

and adrenal

the

volume

blood,

the

thyroid
these and

gland,
mutants

glands,
to

celiac evidence in

ganglia
of

plexuses,
of

appear

be

uniformity
Civilized in
man

fixation has

of

istics characterthe

civilized

man.

appeared
been

upon
to

scene

so

recently

and that

breeding
inheritance

has

subjected stabilized,

so

many

out-crosses

is

not

and

mutations Since the

appear

frequently.
and in the and for the disasters in tension the of life and
career

diseases

of

many

individuals

high

civilized it would

life

are

due

largely
to

to

worry

emotionalism,
emotions the

seem

logical
evolution

substitute civilized

greatest

gift
childhood,
tendencies

of

to

man,

namely,
life,
detected the

reason.

If, in
inherited the

adolescence,
of these
mutants

or

young-adult
could be

the and

danger

of

their of

high
these

endowment

glimpsed,

pathologic
systems
or

physiology might,
avoided.

superlative
and

energy-controlling
be minimized

through

training

education,

DISCUSSION
AND

SUMMARY

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,
state

8. The
recent

rise
so

of

man

to
man

his

civilized

has

been
so

so

rapid and out-crossbreedingthat


and variations
have 9.

has been
to

subjectedto

much
many
we

in order

account

for the

in the De

size of the Vries' law

energy-controlling organs

evoked

of mutation.

10.

ence profoundly influTemperature, humidity, and storm the size of the energy-controlling organs. has unique The thinking part of the brain of man value.
ten
we biological principles,

survival These the

believe, account
and

for

unique

and and

variable
man.

intelligence, power,
that

personality

of animals The

first

is biological principle and


man

the universal

energy

pattern
tissue

of animals the

is the pattern

of the unicellular and of


all other
a nerve

organism. In
follow unicellular

higher animals
pattern

the brain nucleus

the

of the

primordial

organism and, like the nucleus of the unicellular organism, exhibit a positivesign of charge: all the other
organs

and

tissues

of

animals

follow

the

pattern

of the

cytoplasm of a primordial unicellular organism and, like the cytoplasm of the unicellular organism, exhibit a negative sign of charge. is that the bipolartheory second The biological principle and animals offers an interpretation of the operation of man
of the mechanism When systems: and
we

of metabolism.
an

dissect

animal and

or

man

we

see

three

great

the brain first,

the infinite network

of voluntary

extending to the most involuntary innervation muscle distant cells,and gland cells;second, capillaries, the heart, the blood vessels, and the capillaries extending to microscopical unit of living tissue in the body; every
third, a system great voluntary
greatest
mass
as

essential
muscular

as

the

other which

two,

namely,

the the

system, is the

constitutes

of the of

adaptive energy
There
are

body and the body is


of units

mechanism

by

which

executed. transformation
to

millions

of energy

270

AND

PERSONALITY

which part.

each These

of these
units

three

systems

contributes

an

essential

of energy

transformation
nerve

consist

of

voluntary muscle
wall of the muscle red blood cells in

or fiber,

plate on the fiber representinga positivepole, and the capillaries representinga part of the
energy

furnace, a

end

negative pole.
balance

These the

units the

in

delicate

electric

between stimulus

positiveand
the brain.

negative poles await


nerve

the

nerve

from

This

stimulus

of
arc

the end

plate on
Thus

the wall
are

of the muscle and muscular

fiber closes the action

by oxidation. produced.
The
the

heat

adaptively maintaining that keeps

brain

and

the heart

are

axis partners metabolic


two

in
arc

constant

electric force in the animal and the


man.

alive the

These

working day and night,respond to every the specialsenses, from common sensations, the emotions, for executive to the stimulus required for labor in the fields, work in industry,for the duties required of a presidentof a bank of a professional or man. The of controlling thyroid gland has the unique power the level of activity of this energy team, higher in the north, the climate is cold, higher in the winter as compared where with the summer. The constant working tempo is controlled by the thyroid gland, and the outburst energy required for the expressionof the emotions is executed by the brain and the heart through flash oxidation controlled by the adrenal glands. In civilized man find a largerbrain, a largerthyroid we in of blood than gland, and a larger heart and volume native in the tropics. The man hard-working brain, the
lead horse
were

tireless organs, changing stimulus

in this energy team, is so overworked in the United States, in 1939, 606,394 beds diseases. This in civilized and
man.

that

there

for mental of the role

and

nervous

is

eloquent testimony
have
a

of the brain The than brain


any

the heart of the

muscle

other

organ

higher metabolism body. They perform the greatest


271

INTELLIGENCE,
amount

POWER,

of work

per

mass.

The

heart
at

muscle such
a

itself with

its

unique blood activity that


United Thus States
we

supply
the

is maintained

high

level of in the

greatest

percentage cardiac

of

deaths

is caused that

by
the

disease.

see

varying
axis

potentials required
the brain and

to

change the
man

rate
on

of oxidation the
two

for all the purposes

of civilized the

depend
The third of
an

partners,

heart. that biological principle,


animal
I

in the habitat
is

ature temper-

gram

12,115 for

small

calories in 24

required to execute hours, offers a unique opportunity


for animal

of brain

estimatingthat
and that part

part of the brain of the brain for

ments require-

distinctlyhuman
basal metabolism brain"

requirements.
The
common

brain-oxidation
to

law

expresses

the The

all the

animals, includingman.
energy

"animal

represents
maintenance

requirements of of the protoplasm


warm-blooded
"

of

the

growth, for the tenance of the body, for the mainstate, for the digestion of
for all the basic and
energy
man.

food, for procreation in fact, for

requiredin
Since
man

the wild

and

domestic

state

of animals the lower

has been

differentiated

from

animals

by

development of a thinking brain and since significant Benedict critical study of metabolism the by Francis is required for abstract revealed that little or no oxidation have method a by which we are able to thinking,we now estimate the weight of the thinking part of the brain of
a
man.

In the consideration
vast

of the

thinking brain
oxidation
matter

we

include

the

numbers energy

of brain that

cells whose

supplies the
of the brain

electric

etches

in the white

the many being,especially patterns of action of the human of the manipulative hand, those established through the use
the
erect

posture,
acts

and

the

vast

numbers
man

of

mental, physical,
in the
man

and

emotional

that civilized

executes

course
are

of his life. In 272

the

large brain

of

civilized

there

AND

PERSONALITY

infinite numbers of which


energy
must

or

combinations executed

of patterns

of

action, each

for
vast

for the
man.

by brain cells that supply the thinking,for the expressionof the emotions, and of muscular number acts performed by civilized
be
to

An
brain

analogy
for the
was

civilized

man's
many

requirement
separate brain of the

of

large
he
ray

execution
seen

of the

acts

that

performs
that
four
we

in the
at

size of the West.


must

sting
contract
on

collected of

Key

The

sting ray
of

has and

ninetythe

pairs

muscles
many

that

coordinate

rhythmically in

vicissitudes In the

orientation the brain

shallow, sandy beaches.

stingray

is accordingly

in any other fish or relatively larger than that seen since in the brain of the sting ray there must exist reptile, not only the patterns of action of the ninety-fourpairs of

muscles
execute

but these

also

the

necessary

number

of brain

cells

to

patterns

of action.

conception explains the large size of the brain of man compared with that of the ape and the large whose size of the brain of civilized man, thinking brain and the feet so drives his hands continuously in the compared with that of native operation of the web of life,
This
man.

that in man the brain biological principle, and the thyroid gland rose together, has been clearly in our established long study of the energy-controlling and of the various in certain species of animals organs The racial studies The the that of
man.

fourth

thyroid
sends

hormone

controls

the

rate

of oxidation
center

in

billions of brain

cells, including the ceils of the

the sympathetic nerves the to impulses over celiac ganglia and plexuses and adrenal rectly glands, thus indithe force and frequency of the heartbeat controlling the electric potential of the entire and, in consequence, organism. Therefore, the thyroidgland may be considered to exert adaptive control of oxidation in the entire organism. 273

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

The
to

fifth

that biological principle, animal

natural

selection than

gave

each

wild

larger
adrenal

adrenal

glands
energy in addition

gland, expresses
the hormone
energy

the

necessity of crisis

thyroid mobilized by
to

of the

glands
the

the

stant con-

mobilized

by

hormone

of

the

thyroid

gland.
nance domiadrenal-gland-celiac-ganglion in the cat family and the rodents, marked to be most and defense attack in which both outburst depend on dominance is The adrenal-gland-celiac-ganglion energy. less marked in animals requiring the long chase or long such as the wolf, the deer, and the antelope. escape, In the evolution of wild animals,natural selection favored the adrenal glands, celiac ganglia and plexuses.In man, the thinking part of the natural selection centered upon formula of a large brain, brain and the thyroid gland. The large thyroid gland, absolutely and relativelysmaller adrenal glands, and variable celiac ganglia and plexuses is that of a walking, thinking animal, namely, man. than that of man, of a brain smaller The formula a large of blood, large adrenal glands, and large heart and volume celiac ganglia is that of the thoroughbred horse. of an extremely large brain, a largethyroid The formula gland, comparatively small adrenal glands, a moderately of blood is that large heart, and a strikingly large volume the porpoise. of the whale or We have The formula
a

found

the

of

brain
so

of lesser size than

that

of

man

or

the ape,

distance large as in the high-powered, longvolume of blood, antelope, a moderate large adrenal glands in comparison with the thyroid gland, and celiac ganglia and plexuses as large as the adrenal glands is that of the lion. Among the 284 speciesthat we have dissected the lion the largestand most complex celiac ganglia and possesses
heart
not

plexuses. These

structures

we

found

to

be the

most

guishing distin-

characteristic 274

of the lion.

AND

PERSONALITY

Inasmuch has heretofore


lion

as

the
not

role of the been

celiac

ganglia and
seem

plexuses
that the of

determined, it would

explains it.
energy

outburst The

the greatest power lion possesses of comparable size. of any animal The
a

formula small of blood


are

of

very

small

brain, a simple sympathetic


and
a

system,
volume there

adrenal is that

glands, white muscle, Whereas of the alligator.


branches
are on

slight
celiac

in the lion of the

eighty-two
the Museum of

each

side

plexus,in
In the
at

alligatorthere
Clinic

but

three. and have

Power, Intelligence,
Foundation
we

Personality
illustrated

the

Cleveland

the

and that intelligence, principle, biological power, personalityare dependent on the absolute and relative size of the brain, the thyroid gland,the heart and blood volume, and the adrenal-sympathetic the celiac gangliaand plexuses, To exploit this interestingfield properly will take system. offer studies of but. as can a beginning we years, many animals, representing 284 species and 60 human 3,734 and studies,1 including 3 racial types 15 nationalities. invoked seventh Haeckel's In our we biological principle recapitulates phylogeny. Although we law, that ontogeny recognize the limitations of this law, Haeckel's principle for the adrenal-gland dominance in would to account seem the human fetus, in infancy, and in childhood, such as is exhibited in the ape of today. It was during the rise of man from the ape that through natural selection the adrenalto gland dominance thyroid-gland dominance. gave way At the time of birth the beginning of a gradual decline of the adrenal-glanddominance This decline continues occurs. until about the twenty-first year. At this time the thyroid sixth

gland is 2^
rule

times

the

size of the

adrenal the

glands, and
of

the the

of

reason

should

supersede

dominance

emotions.

For

our

of mutation
1

we eighth biological principle advanced by De Vries. The

turned rise of

to
man

the
to

law his

See

Appendix, Record

of

Body Weight

and

Certain

Organ and Gland

Weights.

275

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

has rapid,and man that been so extensively subjected to out-crossbreeding, in the size of his energy-controlling mutations seen are many We believe that this principle also be applied may organs. the size of the brain, the thyroid gland, the adrenal to glands,the heart and blood volume, the celiac ganglia and
state
so

civilized

has

been

recent

and

so

plexuses.
De

Vries
in

pointed
animals Africa

out

that
are saw

mutations

occur

more

quently fre-

that
we

hybridized

than

in

line-bred
mutation

animals.
among the male slow

In the

little evidence the wild

of

antelope,since
the defeated under

the lion and

dog destroy
is the the of years
an

and

incompetent. The
all rivals. For

leader

of the herd

that has
has
to

thousands

herd

been the

which line-breeding, advantage of the species. In

is itself the

tion evolu-

antelope the

senses

of

smell, of hearing and

seeing, the size of the brain,

thyroid gland, the adrenal glands, the heart, the blood volume, the celiac ganglia and plexuses all the units of
the
"

the

mechanism

of

these

beautiful

animals

"

are

uniform

of the brain, the compared with the mutations gland, the adrenal-sympathetic system, the heart blood volume in the thoroughbred horse and seen
man.

thyroid
and the in civilized

The
as

ancestry

of civilized

man

includes
as

the weak
as

as

well

the the

strong, the
unfit find
as a

incompetent
as

well this

the
reason

competent,
we

and

well

the

fit. For

should

expect
man

to

higher percentage
wild there is greater

of mutations

in civilized

than

in the line-bred
man

animals. variation in the size of

In civilized the

brain, the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands, the heart and blood volume, the celiac ganglia and plexuses, resulting
variations in
to

in great and In

intelligence, power,
diseases.

and

personality,

the incidence
our

certain

have invoked biological principle we Berthelot's law HofFs law of nitroexplosives and van't chemical expressingthe effect of temperature on activity.

ninth

276

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

thinking brain is not comparable to the survival has of the thinking brain of man who created the value machine age, developed science, art, agriculture,invented
of the methods of

communication,
of
zone,

and

devised

educational

tems, sys-

and philosophies, The mind


man

government.
its greatest survival value

has

in the

temperate
zone

especially in that
is
an

part
of

of the

temperate

where

there

abundance
storms

coal,oil, iron,farming
a

and

grazing land,
man

where

and with this

change
greater
zone

of

seasons

invigorate
storm
man

and mental
not

endow
energy. the

him In

muscular,

emotional, and
we

of

change

and

find

only

highestdevelopment

of civilized

highest incidence of diseases peculiarto civilized man, for the genesisof each depends upon a large of brain, a large thyroid gland, a large heart and volume blood, a large celiac ganglion and plexus and adrenalalso find As stated previously, we sympathetic system. effective for both civilized man and his diseases particularly the one the applicationof the law of mutation, which, on hand, produces scholars and philanthropistsand, on the
but also the other From Eskimo achieve

hand, mental
these
nor

defectives

and

criminals.

considerations the African

it is clear
nor

that

neither

the could

native

wild

animals
more

nor civilization,

could

they acquire any


man.

easily
further

the diseases civilized


man

peculiar to civilized
is

It is

clear,also,that
safe

approaching

the

ceilingof

development of his energy system. We recognizethe fact that we have not given final proof laws of any one of the applications of the several biological
that
we

have

evoked
man.

in

our

attempt the

to

define

ism the mechan-

of evolution cannot principle be proved, though it is accepted. Nevertheless, Darwin's principle of struggle and survival, Haeckel's principleof of mutation, and phylogeny, De Vries' principle ontogeny have Berthelot's we law, which applied to explain the of civilized Even limitations of temperature and heatstroke
among
warm-

278

AND

PERSONALITY

blooded
to

animals, van't

interpretthe

law, which biological advantage of


law

Hoff's

we

have

evoked

the

warm-blooded
us

state, and

the brain-metabolism

that enabled

to

open

ascertain the the way to all these harmonize brain


"

weight
offer
man a

of the

thinking part
we

of the

the data

that

have

collected. for
sessed pos-

From civilized

the
man.

foregoingwe
Civilized
man or

neuroendocrine
no

formula
not

possesses

organ

by
man,

native

wild

and

domestic

animals.

lized Civi-

by the power formula, possesses a largerthinking brain and thyroid gland than any other animal, coupled with an upright posture, a manipulative hand, and in comparison with wild and domestic animals, small adrenal glands, celiac ganglia,and plexuses.
The
energy
or

when

evaluated

brain units other number

of civilized
or

man

possesses

greater

number

of

brain

cells than

any

animal

of

possessedby native man comparable size. It possesses also


among

is

greater parts

of lines of communication itself and


as

the various

of the brain

well

as

to

the

muscles, especially
many

those of the hands of civilized In man,


man.

for executing the feet,

activities

when

there and

is

driving brain other words,


power
to

the there

when

continuity between adrenal-sympathetic system bisection is a physiological


is lost. Ambulance
at

break

in

the
"

in the

"

express

the emotions with

In my

service

the American

Neuilly,

France, during the First World War, in 1914 and 1915, a ward had suffered cross of eighty soldiers who lesions of the of each spinalcord was placed in my charge.The personality of these soldiers was bisected by a bullet that divided the were men spinalcord high up. Although these unfortunate paralyzed from the point of injury down, they remained calm, placid,and intellectual in spite of their incapacity, in spiteof their dilemmas, and in spiteof air raids. Their minds had been severed from their adrenal-sympathetic "The down." line was nervous They had lost the systems.
power
to

worry

or

to

fear. 279

INTELLIGENCE, In

POWER,

surgicaloperations
of the
in

under

spinal anesthesia
is bisected. the The mechanism
means

the

sonality per-

patient likewise
one

mechanism of the

of

intelligenceis left
in another. with the

sector,

emotions

The

brain

loses its for the

of communication

mechanism

expression of

the

emotions.

The

brain

of the the

potentialof potentialof
electric

high electric entire organism. Conversely, a high electric body is accompanied by a continuous high
man

civilized

generates

stimulation

of the

brain

and

other

organs

and

sues tis-

of the becomes stimulation

this body. When excessively high of the mechanism


even a

electric stimulation and there is


a

of the brain

of the
may

corresponding emotions, a pathologic


A successful life is the

physiology and dependent upon


the brain-adrenal When

disease balance systems.

occur.

between

brain-thyroid and
has been

civilized

man

realizes that evolution the of the

his dominance

gained through the which superseded


ancestors, the he
may,

brain-thyroidformula,
formula of his wild

brain-adrenal

that

through training and education, lessen exercise of the emotions son, by raising the exercise of reathereby protecting the survival value of the organs endow and personality. him with intelligence, power,

280

RECORD CERTAIN WEIGHTS


GEORGE The

OF

THE

BODY AND ANIMALS


P. the be

WEIGHT GLAND

AND

ORGAN OF
CRILE
AND

3,734
DANIEL in

QUIRING
table the of
are

weight
in the

data

presented
that

following
of value the
to

offered

hope

they

may

gist, biolo-

physiologist, and phenomena.


With data animal
a

particularly to
marked with taken

student

growth

few

exceptions,
fresh sacrificed. scale of 600 this

an

asterisk, our
after

own

represent
was

weights
The

immediately
were

the
on

larger animals

weighed
case

Chatillon

pounds
fit the

capacity;
scale.

in the

of the

heaviest the
were

animals into

necessitated
to
a or

quartering
The

or

cutting
animals

body

sections either
on

smaller

weighed
and for

Chatillon
an

autopsy beam

scale, a Cenoco
balance.
on

triple-beam glands
except

balance,
organs,

Ohaus
were

The scales
on
an

likewise,
small

weighed
that
were

these

the

very

glands
records
to
some

weighed complete
were

analytical

balance. that
some are more

It will be noted

than in
to
our

others; this is due


program
over
a

in part of

changes
ten

that

made in part
many

period

years

and for
arrange

the

impossibility
animals. in order No of

of

getting complete
has been made

records
to

of the
groups

attempt relative made. with


some

the

development.
the

rough

alphabetical weights,
the
to

listinghas
these of
to

been

In connection

degree

of accuracy carried have


case

of the

have, in

instances, been
we

beyond attempted

limits

error.
an

Generally, however,
of
i

hold
were

accuracy

per

cent.

In the 5 per

of animals

that

weighed body
whatever

in

pieces,we
All
was

allowed

cent

for loss of blood

and

fluids.
mass

weights
present

represent
in the

the stomach

body
and

weight

plus

intestine.
281

I NTE

LLI

GE

NCE

Under the In locale

the
or

heading "Remarks,"
country from other which the

we

have animal

given chiefly
was

obtained. been
ined exam-

certain

included.

has pertinent information Thyroid glands suspected of goiter were


cases,

by
The been Museum in

Dr.

Allan

Graham. have Arthur been B. checked

scientific

names

by

us

and

have

examined

by

Fuller, of the
any
errors

Cleveland occurred

of Natural

History. If
take

have

naming, the authors


We wish
to

for them. responsibility acknowledge in particular the excellent

assistance Mr. Paul

of Mr.

James
in

Barrett, Mr.
Division of

Owen

Reeves,
dissections

and

Bade, of The
data.

Anatomy,
of the

Cleveland
to

Clinic obtain

Foundation,
these

making

some

BIBLIOGRAPHY

SWETT,

W., C. A. MATHEWS, in the Study of Recorded


W. Cows

F. W. the

MILLER, and

R. and

R. GRAVES:

"Variations
of 593

Conformation
pp.

Anatomy
of 1937.

Dairy

Having
W.

Records of W.

of

Production,"
R. R.

1-23,

Bureau D. W. and

Dairy Industry,
and G. T.

U. S. Department

Agriculture,Washington, MILLER,
and

C.,
H.

SWETT,

W.,

FRED

GRAVES,

BLACK,

CREECH: of Cows

"Comparative
of Certain
Beef

Conformation, Anatomy

Udder

Characteristics

Research, Dairy Breeds," Journal of Agricultural


Relation between the

Vol. 55; pp.

239-287,
"On and

1937. the the

NACCARATI,

SANTE:

Weight

of

the

Internal

Secretory Glands Record, Vol.

Body Weights and


1922.

the Brain

Weight," Anatomical

24, pp.

255-260,

282

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330

um

DURING had book


made
to

the

summer

of 1941,
sent

after the

manuscript

of this

Fields

printer,an expedition was Landing, California,and the ling energy-controlto


were

been

the

organs

of five whales
sperm

collected
one

"

three whale.

humpback
the
no

whales,
In estimate
account

one

whale,

and

finback of whales but


we

the

literature, the
of
I

weight
linear

is based could

on

ton

per

foot,

find

of the

detailed

weight

of the

various

organs,

and

glands, skeleton,flesh,and Through


Fields dissected 71 feet We toothed
whale

blubber. of the

the

cooperation
and the
use

whaling-stationstaff
power

at
we

Landing
and

of their
a

machinery,
finback fluids and have
a

weighed
20

in sections
per
cent

female

whale blood.
or

long, allowing
were

for

body
to

fortunate, while
to

there,

sperm sperm

whale seldom it lives

study.
it
out

The

feeding

habits
or

of the
warm

take
on

of the and

temperate

seas,

where
as

large fish
the

deep-sea cephalopods,
whales found and consists in the in the

such

the The

giant squid.
food of whalebone small

largely
cold

of

krill, plankton, and


of the Arctic of drift ice.' On in the
page

sardines Oceans

fringes

and

Antarctic

neighborhood
is

297,

under

Cetacea,
is the

striking difference
and heart of the

seen

weight

of the habitat

thyroid gland
more

sperm

whale, whose
the
warmer

equitable
the whales

temperature of the that

of

seas,

compared
of the of the the

with

weights

thyroid
are

glands

and
to

hearts cold of the

whalebone

jected sub-

the brain and

polar

seas.

If the the then the with heart the

sperm

whale
as

follows
we

the

pattern
it

of

thyroid gland,
systems of that have

fully expect
lived

will,
"

energy

these

mammoth
ever
a
"

creatures

largest now
the formula and
a

living or
of
a

will conform and have 331 blood found

large brain,

large heart
we

volume,

large thyroid gland, which

INTELLIGENCE,

POWER,

for

man

and

animals
a

in the heart

north,
and
we

as

compared
volume,
for
man

with and and

a a

smaller smaller animals A

brain,

smaller

blood found

thyroid gland, which in the tropics.


comparative published later.
FINBACK

have

detailed

study

of

these

various

species

will be

WHALE,

FEMALE

(length71 feet)
California

Taken

at

Balaenoptera physalus Whaling Station, Fields Landing,

Body fat,independent

of muscle.

332

INTELLIGENCE, Amoeba,
35,
energy

POWER, aborigine, energy-controlling

pattern

of, 28,

33,

Australian

269
data

organs,

172,

201

Amphibia, weight
Animal Animal

of, 284

Azotobacter, 1 66, 167


B 5,

behavior, 28-35
energy,

15-27

Animals, adrenal-thyroid pattern,


269, 274

Bade, Paul,
of
91
energy-

282 116 131,


on

domestic, modification controlling system,


system energy-controlling

Balancing mechanism,
Barb

(horse),129,
pressure,

130,

134
energy-

(see

Barometric Energy-controlling

effect

system,

of animals)

controlling system, Barrett,James,


282

241-250,

270

master,
energy

19

Beard, Major of, 180-182


cold-blooded

L.

A., 138
mechanism

pattern and

Behavior, (see
15-35
influence blooded Warm-

animal,
of mutations
in

of,

warm-blooded

Cold-blooded

animals; animals)

on,

251-254 227 275

of man,
in

adolescence,199,
227,

animal) (See also specific Antelope (impala), 4, 88, 163


defense behavior
on,

childhood, 199,
on,

257,

effect 91-94

of adrenal-thyroid pattern
199

in young, 3

effect of shot

in infancy, 199, 257

energy-controlling system 65, 9", l63

of,

19,

result of

training, 225
241, 272 of

Benedict, Francis, 212,


Berthelpt's law
234,

Anthropoids, energy-controlling system, 162-164, 195-196, 269 exception weight


Aortic
to

nitroexplosives, 20,

276, 278
mechanism !94, 251, of animal

brain-metabolism

law,

Bianchi, Julio,9 Bipolar life, 63


29-35,

210-215 data

of, 307-3

1 1

269, 270-272

plexus,61, 203 horse, 126, 134, 138-140


of

Birds,energy-controlling organs, intelligence, 64-68 thinking brain weight Black, W.


Blood
data H.

Ape, higher (seeAnthropoids)


Arabian

in, 67

adrenal-thyroidpattern of, 199


ancestor

of, 285-291 (seeSwett, W.


effect

thoroughbred,
on

129-131

W.)

Arctic,influence
organs,

energy-controlling
of

Blair,Captain, 183
pressure,

3, 20, 170-184, 277


on

of climate

on,

limitations 234
not

evolution

man

in,
Blood

volume,

in

animals, 18,
120, 122,

19, 22, 130,

conducive

to

diseases

tion, of civiliza-

25, 35, 59,77, 154, 171,


172, 275,

125,

236 protectionfrom Arizona,


heat loss

176,

179, 183, 184,

in, 24

207,

274,

276, 277 control,3 278


of action

in,5 Arteriosclerosis, 247, 250 Ass, 126, 142 energy-controlling system, theory of
Aurora evolution 166 borealis,

field research

factor in energy in man,


Boa

235, 241, 269, 276, 277,

constrictor,execution
pattern
after

143-146

death,

81

of, 146-149

Body temperature

(seeWarm-blooded of)

state, maintenance

334

AND

PERSONALITY factor 239, in man's

Brain, thinking, prime Body weight, data, 284-330 superiority, 224, ratios energy-controlling of, to
organs, 207, 255
scope

256, 269
to

of term,

272

Brain, acoustic lobes of,96, 109

survival
234

value

related

climate,

composition of,211 development by animal


178
effect of heatstroke effect of
severance

groups,

177-

related

to

environment,

277

theory of development
on,

of,

204-

26

206 adrenal-

of

weight data, 284-330 weight ratio,207, 255 Brain-to-bodyBrain-heart-thyroid-adrenal-sympa-

sympatheticsystem
effect of
sex

from, 279
155

hormones
on,

on,

effect of shot
as

78-81
in
22,

thetic
269, 272,

system system

{see Energy-controlling law,

organ, energy-controlling

animals,

3, 17,

18, 19,

20,

Brain-metabolism
279

210-215,

235,

25, 32, 35, 49, 51, 74,

58~6l"62" 63,
95, 97,
US,

76, 82, 88,


113,

90, 114,

98,
Il8"

108, no,
120,

Oil: Brandt, Karl, "Whale Analysis," i8o".

An

nomic Eco-

121, 122, 123, 125, 129, 130, 143,

Breeding,
organs,

effect

on

energy-controlling

132, 133, !34, 135, !39, HI, 144, 171,

154-161

146, 156,157, 158, 160, 163, 176, 181, 183, 184, 172,
204, 207, 251, 252,

from
line

fitness, 82, 89

(sffLine breeding)
domestic

185-201,
254, in
man,

274,

276, 277
237, 254, 261,

purposive, for 156-161


selective, effect

animals,
of

234,

263,

on

development

265, 274, 276, 280


function
194, gray in metabolic

horse, I27/.
system, 33-34,

Brehm, Alfred Edmund, Brown, W.


Brown

142

269-271 matter of, as


evolution

E.,

source

of energy,

186, 211-215
of man, from animal

level,

energyEyes (thoroughbred), controllingsystem, I35-I38, 251-

254 212-215

evolution parallel

of

thyroidgland
patterns

Buffalo, African, energy-controlling


organs,

and,
matrix
on,

157

273 action

of, record of 186, 211,


116

226, 256, 272 of,


50,

olfactory lobes
109,

53,

65, 66,

effect Captivity, organs


on

on

energy-controlling

of

ophthalmic lobes of, 50, 65, 66, 96,


109
constants physical
1

animals, 150-154

lions, 84, 86 disease, 86, 242, 244, 247, 248

of, variations in,


in

Cardiac

Cardiorenal 66 reptiles,

syndrome, 236, 250, 257


disease, 247, 250

88

thinking, absence of birds,67


of elephant, 109 factor in and moral

Cardiovascular

system Caribou, energy-controlling


19,
man,

of,

85,

171

of superiority

179

Carnegie, Morrison, 6
organs Carnivores, energy-controlling

code, 216-220

of, 212-215 operation

of arctic and

tropic,177-178

335

"INTELLIGENCE,
Carnivores, maintenance
25 of

POWER, Indians, metabolism


data

of

body

perature, tem-

Chippewyan
9, 179

of,

pattern

competition with
57, 82, 89, 127

vores, herbi-

Chiroptera, weight Churchill,Hudson


at, 8,

of, 298
field research

Bay,

weight
Carr, W.

data

of,291-296
action

165-175 C., 6 Foundation,


6 and

Harrison, 6
on

Cipriani,Col.,9
patterns,

Castration, effect
ISS Cat

Clark, Herbert
Cleveland

Clinic of

82 fitness, of, 19, energy-controlling system

family,breeding from
82-88,
100

Museum

Intelligence, Power,
275
man,

Personality, 7, Climate,
270, influence 277
on

234-250,

hunting technique of,99-101 Catalysts,28,


Celiac 34, 35

Cockerel, energy-controlling organs,


158

ganglia, as energy-controlling in animals, 3, 6, 34, 49, organ,


61, 62, 83,
193-203,
100,

Cohen, Alvin, 8 Cold,


devices

153,

185,

191,

for protection against,

204,

274,

276

24, 170

in

man,

202,

236, 262, 263, 265,


279
energy,

factor in thyroid development, 159


influence
on gans, energy-controllingor-

274, relation Celiac

276, 278,
to

outburst

275

3, 19,

170-184, 234-236,
effect

plexus, in animals,
loo,

32, 61, 62,

83,
in man,

153,

185, 203, 274, 276

Cold-blooded
on,

238-240 animals,
4

of shot

236, 263, 265, 274, 276, 278, organism, 28$". of, \86/.
nucleus 30 43 of of unicellular

279 basis of animal Cells,

energy-controlling system,
little affected low
vs.

by captivity, 154

brain,mechanism
relation
to

energy

level,56-59

warm-blooded, 56-63

organism,
constancy
energy

Collaboration, of animals, herbivores,


47

of structure,

pattern,

28-35, 27"
35

vultures,52
R.

muscle, 29

Cook,
pattern

H.,

nucleated,28,
red

Cooling mechanism, of animals, 22-25, of,


of
29,
no

blood,
30-35,

energy

relation

269, 270-271 to cytoplasm organism,


31 animals

relation cellular uniof man,

to

size, 75
6

239

Cooper, Bryan,
180-

Cetacea,
182

master

of sea,

Cooperation,
man,

action 232

pattern

ized for civil-

weight data of, 297, Chambers, Charge


of Mrs.

331-332

Coronary disease, 3, 263 Cougar, 87

204,

236, 250,

257,

mechanism lion,

Henning, 150 of,82-85 Bay, field

Cheetah, 87
Chesterfield
research Child

ratio,75 Cow, Jersey, adrenal-thyroid Inlet,Hudson


at, 8, 175-179 259 effect of domestication
on

energy-

controlling system,
159

156-158,

prodigy, 257, Childhood, behavior


275

in, 199, 227, 257,

Crane, crested,54 Cree Indians,9

336

AND

PERSONALITY T.

Creech, G.

(seeSwett, W.
African

W.)

Dickinson, J. M., 150

Crile,George,
"A

diary (unpublished),
of Living

Dimock,
Diseases

Dr.

W.

W., 138, 157


in

78w.

of civilized man,
259

cence, adoles-

Bipolar

Mechanism
2n.

Processes," 21 body,
"A
organ,

relation of relation

to to

climate,245-250 energy-controllingsystem, 254-265 fear,101

and

gland weights
View

animals, statistics, 281-330


Mechanistic

3, 135,

of War

and

relation

to

Peace,"
"The and

3971.

(See also specific disease)


of Life," 2$Sn.
gans, orDog, domestic, energy-controlling

Phenomena

Quiring, Daniel
Eskimo

P., "Indian
gn. Metabolism

and heat

159 elimination

Metabolisms,"
the

by,

23

"A

Study of
the

of

Dog family,energy-controlling system,


100

Maya-Quiche
and

Indian," gn. Quiring,


iel Danof the Potential Blood and

Glasser, Otto,
P.,
"

hunting technique of,99-101


Domestication,
effect
on

Study
of

trolling energy-con-

Gradients

the

organs,

154-161

Organs
3
in.

of Certain

Mammals,"

Draft

horse, energy-controlling system,


140-142, 147

Crile-Bole-Fuller

expedition, 5
6, 7, 8, 9,
a

Crile, Grace,
"

3,
to

n,

91, 183

Skyways
io2n.

Jungle Laboratory," Eagle, action


"The

Crile, Robert,

Comparative Thyroid
and

pattern, 52-54
53,

energy-controlling organs, Eclipse (thoroughbred), 130,


135

158
134,

Anatomy
Adrenal 5*.

of Glands

the

in Wild

Animals,"

131,

Crocodile,56-59
effect of shot
on,

Edentates, weight data of, 297 and Education training (seeTraining


4 and

energy-controlling organs, Crustacean, sympathetic

65-66 Edwards,
tem sys-

education)
Mrs.

nervous

Ogden M., Jr.,150

of, 189 Cumberland Island, Georgia,


research
on,

field

54 Egret, energy-controlling organs, of Eimer's principle orthogenesis,128 Electric


arc

between

brain

and

blood

5 33

Cytoplasm, of amoeba, 28,

(seeMetabolic cells,
Electric energy
Electric
ray,

arc)

of cell pattern, 43, 269, 270

(seeEnergy, electric)

energy-controlling organs,

119-120

Electrons,

in

Darling, Harry C. R., 172 Charles Robert, Darwin,

Elephant,
law

anatomy,
on,

105-108
4

of

effect of shot

struggleand survival,278 Dawn man (seeMan) horse (seeArabian Desert horse)


DeVries' 270, law 275,

106-110 energy-controlling organs, of body temperature, maintenance

25 251,

of mutation, 131,

thinking brain, 109 Elephant hunt, Ely, Prof.,157


102-104

278
243, 250,

Diabetes, 3,

242,

264

337

INTELLIGENCE, Energy, animal, 15-35


constant,

POWER

pattern

for,19,

34,

58, 61,

Energy-controllingorgans, of animals, of gorilla, 154, 162-164


of of

185 electric,in animals, z8/., I2O


as

greyhound, arctic, 171

99,

100

hare, African, 171 hartebeest,171 hen, 158 herbivores,88,


90

source

of brain

power,

187, 194
domestic
of of of of 100,

outburst, animals, 156, 159


out

bred

of

of of

greyhound,

100

lion,4, 82, 153, 185 mechanism of, 34, 82,


252, 271

185,

of of of

hippopotamus, 74-77 horse family, 126-149 impala, 88, 163 jackal,100

of

primates, 164
of
celiac 275 127, 140, 252

relation

ganglia

and

of jaguar, 88 of jewfish,112 of

plexuses to,
of

thoroughbred, of, 16 plant, source solar,15, Energy


22

lion, 60-61, 82-86,


191, 203, 274

150-154,

of manatee,
in

183-184
no

control

animals,

16-20

of mouse,

organs, Energy-controlling 3, 7, 17 in adolescence,258 of animals, alligator, 58-62, 65, 114,

of ostrich, 65, 85
of of of of

porpoise,122-125, 17I~I73" primates, 162-164 python, 62-63, 56-63, reptiles,


114 113

274

191, of

193, 275

antelope, 19, 65, 90, 163


157

of ass,

143-146 of buffalo, African, 50-51, caribou, 19, 85, 171 carnivores,177-178 family, 19, 82-88,
178, 274
of

of rhinoceros, 49-51,

176-177

of rodents, 19, 177-178 of salmon,


of
121-122

of

shark, sand, tiger, 114,

112-113 125 129-130, 132-

of cat

274

123, pony,

of cetaceans, of of

of Shetland
134

chimpanzee, 163, 201 cockerel,158 Jersey, 156-158


100

of sloth,1 of sparrow,

21-122

of cow,

63
115, Il6-I2l

of coyote,
of crane, of

of sting ray, of stork,54 of Thomson's of

54

65 crocodile, of dog, domestic, 159 husky, wild, 19


of dog family, 87-88 of eagle,53, 158
of egret,
100

gazelle, 115,
129-141,

121

thoroughbred,
174, 274

146,

of tiger, 82-85, 153


of

turtle, 113-114

of ungulates,177-178 of vulture,53 of walrus,76, 176-177 of whales, 297, 331,332

54

of electric ray, 119-120 of elephant, 106-110


of

Eskimo, 179 of fish, 111-126


of of

blue, 180-182
white, 58, 171-175,
of wildebeest,85, 90 of wolf, 19, 88, 100, 159

178, 183-184

fox, 115 giraffe, 71-72

338

AND

PERSONALITY

Energy-controllingorgans,
of

of

animals,
132-134,

Eskimo,

brain

of, 234
179 277

zebra, 32,

90,

130,

energy-controlling system, thinking


Essential
242,

I43-I4S
in of

brain, need
257,

for,235,
3, 204,

childhood, 255-258 Chippewayan Indian, 179


150-154

hypertension,
250,

236,

263 236,

effect of

captivityon,
on,
1

effect of climate evolution formula

234^"., 270,

277

Estevez, Dr. Carlos, 9 Exophthalmic goiter, 3,


237, 242,

191, 250,

204,

of, 1 1
for

246, 247,
53,

258, 260-

protectingsurvival

value

263, 264 Eye,


of

of, 280
in

animals, 49,
mechanism

65, 66, 76, 95-

infancy, 197, 254-256,


to

275 in
man,

98, 213
of man,

limit

development by
heatstroke

of,

of, 213

278-280
limited 75 of man,

weight data, 284-330 level,22-25,

36, 164, i8s/., 26o./. aborigine,172,


253, 254
201,
201

Australian gangster, Scotch

Fat, functions of, 107, Fear, as


basis of action manifestations relation
man,

170

patterns,

216

laborer,

253,

254

of, 100
to,
101

plan

of

study of, ^ff.


to

of diseases

relation

diseases

of civilized

Fetus, human,

adrenal-thyroidpattern
204 of

to

254-265 intelligence, power,


125, 224,

of, 197,
and
sonality, per-

development
ratio

adrenal-thyroid adrenal-thyroid
116

126, 201,

207, 215,

in, 254, of, 200


data

275

269, 275
among

of

thoroughbred,
pattern

variations

animals, 18-20
of ratios
to

weight,
trend

trend

body

Fish, balancing mechanism, bony, weight


effect of in
water

weight, 207
of
ratios
to

of, 299-304
on,

metabolism,

oxygen

115,

208-209

120, 241

weight data, 284-330 Energy diseases, sources, Energy


pattern,
amoeba and 6

elasmobranch, weight
evolution
source

data

of, 299
111-126

energy-controlling systems,
for

similarity between higher animals,

positivity, 114
in, 117
54

of adrenalin

28-33 (See also Adrenal-thyroid pattern) English


law of, 207-215 Energy release, breeding to mares, desert

Flash

Flamingo, adrenal-thyroid pattern, (seeOutburst energy) energy

Fox, energy-controlling 115 organs, Freezing,protectionagainst (seeCold) Fricke,Hugo,


Arthur Fuller, 31

stallions, 129-131 Enzymes, 28, 35 Equipoise (thoroughbred),energy-controlling


system, 129-139, 141, 145,

B.,6, 8, 48,

102,

163,282

146, 174, 182, 252, 253, 254 Errington, Dr. Escape, Eskimo,
241 basal B.

J., 138
for, 85

Galvez, Ramiro, Gangster, of, 9,


179, Gastric ulcer

mechanism

behavior

of, 253,
8

254

metabolism

(seePeptic ulcer) K.,

Ceiling,E. M.

339

INTELLIGENCE,
Giraffe, 69-72, 74-76
action

POWER,
animal groups,

Heart, development by
177-178
71-72 effect of
as

pattern, 70

energy-controlling organs,
Glasser, Otto,
10

captivityon,
3,

152
organ, 22,

energy-controlling
animals, 18, 19,
20,

in

(See also Crile,George) Goat,


147 among animals in

25, 35,

49,5i5S8,59,6o,6i,62,7i,75, captivity, 76, 82, 85, 86, 88,


113, 115, 121, 122, 139, 141, 143, 144,
90,

Goiter,
in man,

106, 109,

84, 150
237,

123, 125, 130,

258

(See also Exophthalmic goiter)


Good
and 217

146, 154, 156, 157,158,160,163,171, 175,176,


179, 182,

evil,evolution

of ideas

of,

183, 185,

194, 201,

204,

207, 242, 251, 252, 274, 275, 277 in 55


man,

276, 265,

Goose, Egyptian, adrenal-thyroid pattern,

237,

239,

241,

254,

Gorgas

Memorial 6

ama, Laboratories, Pan-

factor

269, 276, 277, 278 in negative charge


in metabolism

of

blood

Gorilla, energy-controlling
154,

cells, 31
organs,

function

162-164, 195-196
35, 271 9

system,

34-

Goubaud, Antonio, Graham, Graves, Allan, 282


R. R.

Heart W.

weight data, 284-330 disease (see Cardiac shot, effect of, 80


effect
on

disease)

(seeSwett,
factor 15 in

W.)

Heart

Gravitation, Gregory,
and

trolling energy-con-

Heat,

gans, energy-controllingor-

system, William

King,

153

(See also Tropics)


Quest
of Heat

Raven,

Henry C., "In

elimination, 22-25
to

Gorillas,"15471.

relation
to

humidity,

240

Greyhound, energy-controlling organs,


99, 100,

size,75

159-160
H

Heat

therapy, 26
239, 277

Heatstroke, 20-27,

of temperature ceiling

for,21,

26

relation coolingfacilities,

to, 22-25

Habitat, factor
73, 75, 112, Haeckel's

in energy
120,

level, 57, 62, 269, 275, 278

explanation,20
factor in

170-184
199,

intelligence, power
on

and

law,

197,

personality, 25
as

Hair, as temperature stabilizer, 24, 239 Hancock, A. B., 150 gans, Hare, African, energy-controllingor171

limitation
organs,

energy-controlling
179

114,

Hen, energy-controlling organs, of, 88-90


maintenance 24 pattern of

158

Herbivores, energy-controlling system


organs,

arctic, energy-controlling
171

body

temperature,

Hartebeest, energy-controllingorgans of, 171


Hawaiian

of competition with
57, 82, 89, 127

vores, carni-

Islands,field
mechanism William

research 214

in, 10 Herd,
line effect

Hearing Hearst,

of man,

of

natural

selection

in,

Randolph,

84, 150,

89-94

breeding in, 82,

90

340

INTELLIGENCE,
Lion, effect of shots
on,

POWER,
of action terns pat-

3, 78-81

Man,

survival civilized, of wild


man

energy-controlling organs 62, 82-84,


outburst
energy

of, 60-61,
274

in, 206
of

191, 203,

training and dawn, 84-86,


86

education, 223-233
trolling energy-con-

of, 4, 82, 185


basis of term,

adaptation
organs,

"Lion-hearted," Lions,
effect

164, 205
based
on

of captivity on,

early,action
216

patterns

fear,

I50-IS4

goiteramong,

150-151

energy-controllingorgans,
172,

36, 164,
254,

Liver, weight data, 284-330

i85/.,
to

201

224,

26o/. law,

Lopez-Herrarte, Mariano,

exception
mals Ani-

brain-metabolism

Lungs, weight data, 284-330 Game Lydekker, Richard, "The


of Africa,6gn.

210-215

native,sense
way

development of,94
scale,185-206
308-311
organs,

of

life, 230

place in
M

energy on,

weight Manatee,
129,

data

energy-controlling
factor
master

McKay,
"

W.

J. Stewart,
of the

130,

134

Evolution and

Endurance of the

Speed
Race

183-184 Manipulative hand,


of survival
man as

in

ment develop-

Staying
13
in.

Power

animal, 179
224, 239

Horse," Maji
Moto

value

of, 213,
42, 47

Camp,

Tanganyika, 42-46
200, 227

Manyara, Masai, 46
Matchem
134, Mathews

Lake,

Man, adolescence, 199,


197, 204

Marsupials, weight data, in,

304

adrenal-thyroid ratio, change civilized, 223-265 adaptation to climate,234-250 biologicalprinciplescovering


processes

(thoroughbred), 130,
135

131,

C. A. (seeSwett, W.

W.)
Game

ing liv-

Maxwell, Marius, "Stalking Big


with
a

of,269-278

Camera,"

7on.

to development of,278-280 ceiling

Maya-Quiche Memory, Mind)


Mental

Indians, 9
8, 9, 175, 179, 241
and

climate,influence

on,

234-250

Melling, Thomas,
reason

diseases of, 3, 101,


243-250 evolution

135, 236-238,

imagination (see

factors

brain, 212-215 of superiority,224,


for

of

diseases,prevalence of,
252, 271

205,

239,

236, 250,
Mental

256, 269
formula hazards

processes,

physical

forces

survival,279-280 of adolescence,258-260 life, 260-265

governing, 228 Mercy shot, 78-81


arc

of adult

Metabolic

of

energy-controlling
194,

of childhood, 257
of

system,

33-34,

269-271

infancy, 254
as

Metabolism, adaptive, 35 in, 251-254


value, 213,
of

mutation
organs

factor

animals, 23, law,


272

59,

63,

no,

171

having

survival

basal, expressed of, 35


in

in

brain-oxidation

224, 269, 277

out-crossbreeding in,
270,

251,

265,
mals, ani-

scope

276 physical inferiority among


223

of man,

tropics, 234 by evolution,


with 214

unaffected variation

climate, 241

342

AND

PERSONALITY

Metabolism, basal, of
brain
1

man,

weight

of

Natural

needed 18

to

maintain, 215

selection, operation between carnivores and herbivores,57, 82, 89,


127

basic, 6,
effect of 191

effect of oxygen

tension hormone

on,

241^".
on,

thyroid

188-

operation of,through mutation, 251 differentiation under, 154 sex studies of, 179 Negroes, metabolism
to susceptibility

of Eskimos, 9, 179 of human fetus,254 of Indians, 9, 179


mechanism of

climatic

changes,

243-247

Nervous

diseases,prevalence of, 205,


252, 271

of, 270-272
179
to

236, 250,
law

Negroes,
210-215

asthenia,3, 236, 250, Neurocirculatory weight, of,


258, 261
Neuroendocrine of energy-controlling in arctic, 182

ratio of,

brain

formula,

for

animals

ratios

of, to weights
organs,

208-209

for civilized man,

279

Miller,Fred Mills,
Disease

W.

(seeSwett, W. A.,
Influenced 242-244 "Health

W.)
and Climatic

Ngorongoro,

crater

of, 42-44
law

Clarence
as

Berthelot's Nitroexplosives, 234,

of,20,
20-22

by

276, 278
in

Environment,"
"Medical

Nitrogen, effect
237^., 249

protoplasm,
166 arctic,

Climatology,"
to

Nitrogen
sources

in fixation,

Mind,

relation 192,

adrenal-thyroid

of, 15
of

pattern, relation
to

196

in

tropics,ill amoeba, 28,


33

size of

(See also

brain,179, 211-215 Brain, thinking)

Nucleus,
of

Mirage (Arabian stallion), 138 Missing link,196-206


Moral

livingcell, 43, 269, 270 Nureddin (Arabian stallion), energycontrollingorgans,


130, 132-134,

code, evolution
correlation

of, 216-220
with 91 ing breedenergy-

138, 139

Muscles,

controlling system, Mutations, danger of from,


DeVries' law 161

intensive

of, 131,

251,

270,

275,

Haeckel's Ontogenetic recapitulation, law of, 197, 199, 269, 275, 278

278
diseases

Originalsin,231
incident to, 260-265
man,

Orthogenesis,Eimer's
135

principle of,128,

effect in adult effect effect


on

233

behavior, 251-254 thoroughbred,


134 262

Ostrich,action
Outburst
energy

pattern, 64

on

(see Energy,

burst) out-

level derivingfrom, intelligence Murray, S. C, 183 Museum of Power Intelligence, 275

Out-crossbreeding,251, 265, 270, 276


and

Oxidation, in brain, by,


211

processes

induced

Personality, 7,
N

mechanism

of

operation of
226 in

brain

through, 187-194, Naccarati, Sante,


between the "On the Relation nal Inter. . .

minimum
211

of

use

thinking brain,

Weight

of the

Secretory
282W.

Glands

,"

rate
as

of,for
reaction

arctic of

animals, 171

fear,100 343

INTELLIGENCE, Oxidation,
relation
as

POWER,
aurora

relation

to

body

ture, tempera-

Protoplasm, of, 1 66

borealis

as

source

20/.
to

heat

elimination,22-27
energy,

effect of cold

on,

24, 239 of nitro


group

source

of animal blood

i6/.,269

explosion point
20-27,
nature

in,

in red

cells, 30-35 organisms, 28


and
warm

234

in unicellular

and 24

properties, 15, 16, 20-21,


as source

Oxygen,

in cold
to

water,

115

relation

energy

in fish,112-116

solar energy

of, 15

Oxygen-controllingmechanisms, Oxygen deficit, 25

28-35

Protoplasmic bridge,226-228 Psychoses, 236 Puma,


87
effect of shot
on, 4

Python, Pack, hunting technique of,99 Parent,


action Pennant

energy-controlling organs, responsibility for


patterns, 227, 231 139 250,

62-63

creating Quiring, Daniel 263


102,

(thoroughbred), 138,

P.,6, 7, 8, 9, 163,
255 177, 179,

10, 37, 74,

Peptic ulcer, 3, 236, 245-247, Percheron, 126,


to, 225 140-142 of action relation Personality,

153, 254,
organ

183, 238,
of

241,

patterns,

body,
"A

and

gland weights
of Certain

animals, statistics, 281-330 Comparison Organ,


. . .

Petersen,G. W., 183 Patient F., "The Petersen, William and the Weather," 237*1., 244248, 250

Gland, Weights

and

Body

," I33n.

(See also Crile, George W.)


R

Pflueger,Al, 183 Haeckel's Phylogenetic recapitulation,


law

of, 197,

199, 205,
on

269, 275, 278


patterns of

Phylogeny,
of

effect

action

Radcliffe, Lewis,
Rankin, Raven,

168

civilized man,
source

227-228, 230-233

Fred, 138
William

energy-controlpattern, 257 Pinnepedia, weight data of, 296-297 Pituitarygland, 49, Plants,analogy
122-125, Power with 124

Henry C., 153 (See also Gregory,


282

King)

Raynaud's disease, 3, 236, 250


Reeves, Owen,

animals, 16

Porpoise, energy-controlling organs,


i7i-J73" values 274 for arctic and

Relative-growth equation (see Power formula) Reptiles, energy-controlling 56-63,


113-114 toward evolution

formula,
of

organs,

tropicanimals, 177, 238


values 157 values
cow

and

African

buffalo,

negativity, 57,
66

1.14

intelligence, 65-68
lack of

for horse family, 133, 134, 141

thinking brain,
data
on,

Primates, energy-controlling system, 162-164, 195-196, 269 goiteramong, weight


Protection data 151

weight

311-313 pattern,
organs,

Rhinoceros, action

47-51 49-51,

energy-controlling 176-177
cold-blooded
maintenance 25 of of

of, 305-307

devices

body

temperature,

animals, 56 344

AND

PERSONALITY

Rift

Valley,Tanganyika,
in, 6, 42-46, 69
Lewis

field research

Spleen, weight data, 284-330


Static

Robbins,

L.,

particlesfloating in air,principle of, 31


ray,

charge

of

Rodents, energy-controlling system


19 in arctic and

of,

Sting

energy-controllingorgans,
273

115,

117-121,

tropics,177-178
313-319
trolling energy-con-

neuromuscular Stomach and

mechanism,

117

weight
Roxana

data

on,

intestines, weight data,

(thoroughbred),
system,

135-138

284-330 Stork, energy-controlling organs,


Storm effect variables, system,
on

54

trolling energy-con-

241-250,

270

Subarctic, energy-controlling organs Salmon, energy-controlling 121 organs, of elements of life, Sea, source 167
Sea water, of animals Subarctic

in,

10,

173-184 passim
research
on,

expedition,field

composition of, in
1

Seal, energy-controlling organs,

75-1

76

165-184 Superintellect, 259


Survival

Selby, Roger A., 138


Senses,special, 16, 17 compensation
correlation
system, in

value, determinant
19

in evolution,

development of, 66 energy-controlling


survival

in

development 66, 94-98


useful

of

special

senses,

with 90 for

of organs

to

man,

213,

224,

development
94-98, 213
Serval Sex cat, 87

value,

269, 277 Sweating, Swett, W.


22, 23, 140, 170

W., 150

differentiation under 154

natural

tion, selec-

C.

A. R.

Mathews,
R.

F.

W.

Miller, and
"Variations 593

Graves,
...

Sex

hormones,

155

Recorded Cows Fred 114 147W.


. . .

of
282n.

Dairy
W. H.

Shark, sand, energy-controlling organs,


112-113

," Miller,R. R. Graves,

tiger, energy-controlling organs, Sheep, effect of domestication on,


149 Shetland
pony,

Black, and
and

G. T. Creech, "Comparative omy Conformation, AnatUdder


Characteristics

126, 148, 149

of Cows

," 282^.
on,

(See also English mares) energy-controlling system,


132-134, 143, 144 129-130,

Swine,

effect of domestication
nervous 1

147

Sympathetic
32, 34, illustrations

system,

3,

18,

08 of

Skin, as preservativeof body temperature,


25,
122 121-

alligator, 193

of amphibian, 192 of bird, 194 of carnivore,197, 198

Sloth,energy-controlling organs,
122

Soldier's heart

(see Neurocirculatory
"

of cetacean, of

198, 199
200

asthenia) Soza, Ezequiel,9 Sparrow, brain,63 Speech mechanism,


214 218

chimpanzee,

of crustacean,

of duck

189 bill, 195

of fish,191
of insect, 190 of

Spirit, conception of, by early man, Splanchnic nerves, 49, 107, 203

lion,203

345

INTELLIGENCE,
Sympathetic 264
of of
nervous

POWER, energy-controlling
235, 237, 239,

system,
202,

tions illustra237,

Thyroid glands, as
organs, 254, 277, in
man,

of

man,

261,

258, 262, 264, 265, 274, 276,


279, 280

reptile, 193 ungulate, 196


to

factor in
factor and in

constant

of whale, 173
relation

energy, 34, 185 maintaining warm-blooded

intelligence, power

state, 33

201-206 personality, Sympathin, 34

function

in metabolic

system,

188-

191, 271

in

man,

parallel evolution
factor in

with

brain, 273 prime


80 Tarlton, Leslie,

superiority, 224,

Teacher,
action

responsibilityfor
patterns,
zone,

creating ment develop-

239, 256, 269 weight data, 284-330

227,

231
to

Thyroid

hormone,
effect

as

adaptation
190

Temperate

conducive

against cold, 10 Thyroidectomy, Thyroxin,


effect
on

thinking brain, 278 Temperature (seeCold; Heat) Temperature, body,


to, relation of oxidation

of

of, 188,

function oxidation

of, 34
in

brain, 188-191
82-85

20^. Tiger,energy-controlling organs,


272

Thinking, abstract,212,
mechanism

outburst

of, 211-215 Thinking brain (seeBrain, thinking)


Thomson's

energy

of, 153
field
search re-

Totonicapan, Training
in and

Guatemala,

gazelle,defense

behavior

at, 9

of,91-94 energy-controlling organs, Thoroughbred, 126, 149


274 115,
121

education, 33,
to

223-233

adolescence,258
deterrents time

as

disease, 265

adrenal-thyroid pattern of, 139,


energy-controlling organs,
influence of mutations
on

199,

length of Tropics,

requiredfor,225
on

influence
organs,

trolling energy-con20

130-141 behavior limitations 234


not

3, 10,

on

evolution

of

man

in,

of, 251-254 (See also Equipoise) Thyroid glands, development by


groups,

conducive

to

diseases

of civilization,

mal ani-

236 protectionfrom
heatstroke

177-178
151

in, 24
134

effect of captivityon,
as

in energy-controlling organs, animals, 3, 18, 19, 20, 21, 25, 35, 58, 59,60,61,62,65, 50, 5i,53, 72,

(horse),129, 130, 131, Turtle, effect of shot on, 4


Turk

energy-controlling organs,
U

113-114

74-76, 82, 88,

90,

100,

107, 121,

109, no,

113, 115, 119, 120,

122, 123-125,129,130,132,133, 139, 141, 143, 144, '57,

development of, Ultramicroscopic life,


in

146, 154, 156,

158, 159,160, 163, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 179, 181, 183, 184, 1 86, 187, 192, 201, 204, 207,
254,

Ultraviolet

light,1

1 1

Ungulates, energy-controlling organs of arctic and tropic,177-178 weight data


on,

276, 277

319-330

346

AND

PERSONALITY

Unicellular

organism,

energy

pattern,

Warm-blooded
19, 23-27, 240

state, 33,

maintenance
121,

of, 238,

28, 29, 30, 269, 270


United
of

65,

149,

States,prevalence of diseases civilized man in, 245-250


223, 224

Water,

as

temperature

stabilizer, 23,
to

24

Upright posture, 164, 213,

Weight-surface ratio,relation elimination, 22-25 Whale,


in 168 arctic,

heat

blue, energy-controlling system


Van't
Hoff's

of,

law,

20,

21,

56, 121,

239,

180-182

276, 279
Vulture, action
pattern, 52-53
53

energy-controlling organs, finback, 297,


331, 332

274

energy-controlling organs,
W

humpback,
sperm, 297

297

white,

energy-controlling system,
Disease tality Mor-

Walrus, energy-controlling organs,


176-177
Warm-blooded

76,

58, I7I-I7S, Ig2 Whitney, J. S., "Heart


Wild

animals,

in

arctic,

Statistics," 248 dog, energy-controlling system of, 19 Wolf, energy-controlling system


88, 159
heat elimination

energy-controlling formula
182, 184
vs.

for,

cold-blooded,56-63
on,

of, 19,

effect of shot effect

4
on

of

temperature

energy-

by,

23

controlling organs,

238
7,

World

War, First,39, 261, 279 J.,9

energy-controlling system,

18,

Worship, outgrowth of fear,217 Wunderlich, Mario

39-184 passim toward evolution positivity, 57 function of thyroid gland in,33 (See also Thyroid gland)
heatstroke
a

factor in development
H4

of,20-27, high
energy

Zebra, 127
effect of shot
on,

level of, 57-59

4 32, 130,

protection of
24, 172

body

temperature

energy-controlling system,
132-134, I43-HS

347