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(gusan geh)

I
, ,
, , --
, .
: gusan (gowsan, kowsan) , , , ,
, , gusanakan (gowsanakan, k-) , ,
gusanamut , gusanutiun ,
( . . , ), gusanamol
, gusan-erg [NB I, 582; , 1838, 294;
Bedrossian, 1875-79, 128]. mgosani ,
. .
gusan .-. *gsn [HAB I, 597-598].

: (*gsn-i
navgar, . . k-) - ( ,
).
, , : uniygar ( .-. huniygar)
rmigar. gsn [gwsn] .
Gyn wifrs [Boyce, 1957, 11; Durkin-Meisterernst, 2004,
168] 1. gsn
usin / awsena ( -, ).
,

- (1920-2006).
The Parthian gsn and Iranian Minstrel Tradition (1957 .)
Encyclopdia Iranica (2002 .). , .
gsn,
(a Parthian word of unknown derivation) [Boyce, 2002, 167].
,
, ,
.
,
, (), 2:8,
, : ()
(
) ( :


, ).
( , 19:35). ()

. ,
: Aydgr Zarrn (
) - Draxt Asrg ( ) [Boyce,
1957, 18, 31; Boyce, 1983, 1157, 1160].
1

: () (kam te
lsicem takawin z-jayn gusanac ew varjakac).
(I. 14)
, ,
(i pokunc
omanc ew yannanic aranc i gusanakann ays gtani ooveal i diwani arkuneac) [
, 1981, 58; , 1990, 28].
V , ,
. III, XIX (
, ,
). C ,
, (),
, , -,
(ew mpin and gini bozok ew varjakok ew gusanok ew katakok)
[ , 1987, 76; , 1953, 40].
V, VII ( , , ,
, , ).

(), .
, , ,
, , ,
, (stapeac z-na ew
mxitareac, ew urax anr z-na gusanok) [ , 1987, 318; , 1953,
160]. , , V, XXXII (
, , ).

-,
,
(ew min der tagaworn Pap z-uraxutean ginin unr i matuns iwr,
ew nayr nd psps ambox gusanacn) , ,
(ew minc der berann i
baakin r y-mpeln, ew aokn y-araj koys puceal hayr nd psps amboxs gusanacn)
[ , 1987, 354; , 1953, 178].
(V ) ( 17:
, )
, . :

. ,
, ,
(
,
),
.

, , ,
. ,
, ,

[, 1952 (2), 33-34].
. .
,
... (

,
,

, .
, )
[, 1952 (2), 72]. () (),
( ). ,

- , ,
( ,
,
) [, 1952 (2), 75-76] 2.
, ( ).
648 ( )
, . ,
-, - , ,
, ,
, [, 1952 (2), 77].
(VII .) I, XXVI
( , , ,
, 12)
, , , :
(), .
(ew aynk, or koc dnen, z-tanutern ew z-gusansn,
kapescen ew i durn arkuni tarcin ew patuhas i veray dicen, ew ntanikn z-het artasowel mi
ixescen) [ , 1983, 92]. . . ,
, [ , 1984, 58, 192].

(IX-X .)
(dass gusanac :
, ) (. 8: )
[ , 1985, 458; , 2001, 214, 467].

. (.
, XIII .)
( 45) , ,
(
. )
[ , 1958, 51].
, . 2000
. , .
.
entirely speculative [Boyce, 1957, 14, . 6], , -
, . .
,
, (
), ,
,
. . (, , , , ,
, ) [, 1952].
2

(XII-XIII .)
( 350) ( , ()
, ? ,
, ) [, 1956, 140] ( 282),
, (
. ).

. (ark
Xratakank, XIII) ()
, [Boyce, 1957, 14, . 4].

: (gusanutiwn),
[Boyce, 1957, 14, . 5].
(Vasn arbecoac ew gusanac) , ,
,
[Russell, 1987, 442, 467].
. ,
.
, . , ,
- (gusan ergecik diwakan) [Boyce,
1957, 14].
,
. , ,
(XVII .) :
,
( I, . 31), --
( I, . 40), -, ,
( II, . 24) [ , 1969, 79, 90, 140]
(XVII .)
( , )
(, 9) , 1660 :
. .
.
. .
.
, -
-, -,
(
, -, vobergak jaynarku ,
, . , ). ,
-,
. , . . ,
/ . . ( ,
, kusank gusank
g k ) ( ,
, II.60) [, 1952, 282-283, 499-501].
,

, .
,
. . ( ) 3,
,
, ,
. 4

. () 5,
,
, ,
.
,
.
, , ,
. 15 ,
, () ,
.
, .

. ,
[Avdoyan, 1993, 34-37, 75-79, 87-88].

[Kennedy, 1904, 309-314; Avdall, 1836, 331-339] 6.

. (9:23)
.
. , , , .
, . ()
( mgosnebi < mgosan+ . . . ebi) [Blake, 1933, 50].
(I. )
(XI .): mgosanni glovisani , -,
( , I, 53) (mgosnebi, Q40,1. 25)
II (), [Thomson,
1996, 63].

.
- (XII .) ,
, ,
[Amiran-Darejaniani,1958, xiv]. ()
,
(, XII .) (mushaithi ) (
, , , 2.119),
-, .-. *kra-pati- .
gisawor , ,
; , -,
.
5
; , , ,
.
6
. ,
, , ,

(, III.II. 27-28) [, 1993, 70].
3
4

,
[The Man in the Panthers Skin, 1912, 20].
,
( ) .
( XII ),
. .
( ) (XIII
.) .
(XVII .)
(2.12) ,
( mgosnebi) ,
[, 1988, 229]. XVII .
( ), I (1589-1663),
, I ,
13 (26 . .) 1624
, , ,
:
, (13).
.
*gsn [gwsn, N^>8{] g-,
,

Gyn wifrs ( , 4, 80) [Boyce, 1957, 11;
Durkin-Meisterernst, 2004, 168].
: ,
, (awgn gsn k hasnagn
ahrdrn ud kawn hunar wifrsd ud xwad wi n kard . ,
. ).
. 1988 () 1997 ().
, , *gsn
: wd byd (m)nhg hynd (g)[w](s)n * ky hsyngn hrdrn (w)[d q]wn
hwnr wyfrs(y)d * wd [wxd]ywyc ny kryd * ( M5561+M5562 v 7:
(g)[w](s)n, M847 v 9: [gw](s)n, M4350 v 7: [gws](n) ) [Sundermann, 1997].

7 M5561+M5562 verso
( ,
). : Digitales Turfan-Archiv
(Die Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften).
gsn gsn.
.
, ( ) (--, . 40-41)
[Lidzbarski, 1915, 164-166].

. ,
, .
, , (-,

),
. , ,
, , , ,
, , .
Asfar Malw (
), (gsn),
( , ,
, ) [Lidzbarski, 1915, 164].
- -
gsn al-jsan wa al-jawsina ( . . .)
[Lidzbarski, 1915, 165; Hoffmann, 1874; Thesaurus syriacus, 1879, 685],

. ( -
, X .) sin
. ./awya (*awsina) , *jsn/*jawsina.
*jsn - gsn
1968
( . - ) [Tafazzoli,
1968, 410-411].
, , (
V, 421-439), gregis ludiorum //, cum ludiis et
parasitis [Hamza Isfahani, 1864, 54-55; 1868, 40]. ,
, III, (632-651), mille spadones
) [Hamza Isfahani, 1864, 63; 1868, 47].
-
:
,
, , .
. (...)
,
. : ,
? :
- , 100
, .
7 .
12000 , .
, .
8 [Gilsenbach, 1993, 23].
6F

7F

, ( V .), (
).
8
, ()
, , ,
(omba, om . .) (: , , ) - ,
. ama
.
, . amara, amaru , ,
, , amarin , am- ( ), (
). :
amra , amaama , -.
() [Goeje, 1913,
2].
7

ksn ksn,
, .
: 9 (XI .) (ksn-i
navgar, . k-) - ( ,
).

,
.
,
(Mh) . ,
, , , .
,

Akaft-i Dvn ( ) ,
([ ) , 1983, 317-321; Ws
o Rmn, 1865, 218-220]. , ,
: () * . :
*
*
(),
() ():
*

k- kf, g- gf. g-
gf ( g-
k-), ,
10.
, , ,
, , , .
, , [Bailey, 1934, 514],
, -, , (a minstrel) [Minorsky, 1946,
750].
,
mgosani [Visramiani, 1914, 205]. 38-
, .
, , , , (mutribi , : the court singing girls). ( mgosani ) 11 12.
, () [, 1968, 151].
9F

10F

1F

, : .
g- (),
gsn gusan.
11
. mgosantha
mutribtha [Visramiani, 1914, 23].
12
: : ,
, . . ,
. , .
9

10

, gsn
.
(1972 .) ,
,
[Avery, 1973, 86, 87],
,

[Rougemont, 1983, 65]. (Mankn, ,
), ,
.
, - ( , 1126 ., XII
.) ,
[Mohl, 1841 (II), 515-516, 534]:
, ,
(), ,
(ksn), 13 ()
( - ). 12
(), , (, , )
, ,
.





.


,
( ),
[, 1984, 340-341].
( ) , ,
- (Ksn al-Arman), - (, ),
(199.8) (IX .) -
[Justi, 1895, 169; Baldhuri, 1916, 312]. ,
.
ksn gusan
XIX

, ,

[Stackelberg, 1894, 495].
gusan

, 1927 1932 .
.
, , , !
, , [, 1968, 151].
13
, .

. , ,
gusan .-. *gsn [HAB I, 597-598].
. gusan (. gowsan)
. govasan , ,
( w v, . gov , govel ,
govaban , govi , govasanakan ) [HAB IV, 630].
.
, ,
, (
),
,
( ), (), ,
v v ,
gvsn gsn [,
1989, 160-161]
.
, ,
, ,
.

gusan. .-.
*gheu- , .
, ,
gusan , ga , ga
, (
) [Boetticher, 1850, 352]. . . gha , ; ;
, ; , gho- , ghoana ; , ,
ghoavant ; . , ghati ,
, gha , *gheu () [KEWA, 363-364; EWAia I, 518-519].
, , , Gosche , , . gov,
govest (govem ) , . .

*gau , [Cheung, 2007, 115]
( . gao-, g- , . .-. g , .-. niy(x)idan
, gsrd , . ni- , niag , ,
ab , , ) .-. *g(u)eus- (ghous-) ;
, [LIV, 200; IEW, 454]. ,
*gaub [Cheung, 2007, 113-114] ( .-.
gaub- , .-. gw- , . guftan; ) 14.

. , ,
-. *gheu c bh (*gheu-bh) *gheu-s
[Kent, 1950, 182].
. , *gheu- *gheu-bh- .-. gaub, *gheu-s-, , [KEWA, 364].

, w- , . wxtan
[Ghilain, 1939, 68], . *ua [Cheung, 2007, 402-404] .-.
*ueku- [LIV, 673; IEW, 1135].
14

gsn 15 *gheu-s- ,
.
,
, (. . gea ,
, , ; gaya ,
, . . - , , r- , , AirWb 591-521),
, , (
16 : ii-
, , ; ,
13.105, AirWb 521) 17.
, ,
gusan .-. *keh2u- (ku-, ku-) ,
.
1934 . . gsn, . gusan .
ksn / ksn, . g-
, , ,
gsn ( ) [Bailey, 1934, 514-515].
gsn . gs .
, , . mgosani . gos
-- [, 1840, 278].
, grat military
cloak, d- g-
-ast -at, gos ,
, ksa-
ks , grat *gurat- (.
gurat shirt) . kurat.
, , . ,
, *godsli .
[, 1986, 477], , -
g(i), g(i), g , , [IEW, 355].
16
( ) .

, ( -) ( 10.89).
17
( , 105) , ,
, , ,
. . . . garhayim/*garhayem
[, 1993, 44-52]
[Prikhanian, 1988-1989, 29-36]. . . garhayim,
, .
: .
(. .: garhayicis , . III, IV)
(. .: garhayeloy iwr yui yararacsn , II,
3). ,
gahry-, .
, ,
, ,
, , .
gahrdanft ; (.
gahrdanft pride, vanity, gahry- to boast, exult, be proud, .-. gahriyngar
boaster [Durkin-Meisterernst, 2004, 162]). gahry-,
. , . ii-, *ry, ; (, . ryati
..), a- . *(y)-,
*g()-, *g()-, *g- , , , . .-. gajati , . giedti , . gayati , . .-. glgy (*gza- + gy-) ,
. . niy- , , -. ggha- , . gyatr- , , .
afn , , (<*abi-gna-) [, 1993, 50-51].
15

, gusan
, . kwsn gsn,
ksn, . mgosan-i
[Bailey, 1955, 11, . 6].
gos ( : koz) 18 [NB I, 573],
( ) 19 ( . . goser
), (XII .), . .
. ks , (. . kws) [HAB I, 582;
Hbschmann, 1897, 264; Hbschmann, 1881, 663]. ,
*gs.
ks, kstan , (.
. ks-) [MacKenzie, 1971, 51] .
g- , gs
*ks ks, .
kosi [Visramiani, 1914, 28, 44, 47, 389].
gos . . gosk, goser gosner,
gosaharel [, 1838, 288, 292],
tmbowk
, . . . tmbowkner , : tmbakahar .
tumbag
(tumbak) .
. ks ( ) , ,
20, . . ks-i subh ( ) , ksdr ( )
. -t, . .
kst ( ), , [Steingass, 1963, 1061-1062]
kstan , . kstan
, 21 . *ka(H)us
[Cheung, 2007, 228], .-. *keh2u- (ku-, ku-)
, [LIV, 345; IEW, 535].
gos ,
*gs, . ks, , ,
. . gsn. gsn
,
. , -,
, -, - ks ,
(, kstan , )
[Durkin-Meisterernst, 2004, 215] 22. ,
-
( . ama),
19F

20F

21F


*ksag , , , ,
ksa kawsaj.
: gosak, kosak g k [Asatrian M., 2006, 101].
19
, 900.
20
. ks , . ku , ,
al ( kugugal) , . (AssDict,
1971, vol. 8).
21
ksa, ksaj ( ), , , , ks (( ))
, , ksa , . .
22
, : - ( ), . qws (ks)
[Henning, 1940, 57].
18

, . . amara , . am- (
), ( ). , , ,
() , ,
.-. *ks . , -

.

.
. -
XI , XV - (.
, k , au q )
[Albright, 1976, 221; 1987, 741] 23. , ,
.
, , , ozan
gsn (ozan < gsn) [Bagz, 2001, 229-236; Piras, 2009, 113; , 1977, 3].
, , , ,
[Perry,
2011, 90]. ()
,
, , (. :
) -
(, ),
- ,
,
[Russell, 2009].
, ,
. , . .
, . .
, , , .
, . .
,
, - .
( , -, ),
, ,
( ( ) ,
), bdguz(r) narrator rerum
gestarum, ,
[, 1909, 8; 1909 (II), 8, 12; Goeje, 1879, 182-183; Vullers, 1855, 164; Steingass,
1963, 140]. (S. M. Stern) , bd gurt
, tellers of windy stories,
aykrt . ., .. aykr / aydgr [Stern, 1970, 412; Asatrian, 2006, 97],
.
1845 Denkschriften - ,
[Isztachri, 1845, 65].
, ,
. *buzand
V (
, ),
[buzandaran
2F

23

, .

patmutcyunkc]. 1947 .
, : bhu-, bhav- ,
, , , , ,
. zand , (. . zantay- /zantav- , ,
), , (banastec).

,
bav-, bu- (AirWb, 927) [ , 1987, 418-419].
. ,
-
buzand (bouzand) Biwzand (Biuzand),
*bzand
*bava(t)-zanti- , / [Prikhanian, 19881989, 37; Prikhanian, 1986, 653-658; Prikhanian, 1986 (II), 279] 24. C . zandvf,
zandbf ; ; , ; ,
. *zntw , song-sayer, . zand (znt, zntyh,
znth <. -zanti-) ; ;
zntwh mr , singing
bird [Henning, 1939, 104-105] 25. (Pawstos Biuzand),
, .
,
, (hoom) .
*bava- (, , ),
, , . bhva
bhvana , , .
II
geh () (: gih, goh, gex) , ,
, [NB I, 582]
.
( 17:43), ,
(
. ).
, gehik () ( . ,
; ), gehkanal , ( .
, ), gehoren . .
[HAB I, 600],
( . glexi ,

[Garsoan, 1989, 14; Mah, 1992, 414; Russell, 1996, 30; Russell, 1999, 449; Traina, 2001, 412; Lint van, 2012,
185]. . : It is regrettable that Prof.
Anahit Prikhanians explanation of Arm. buzand, generally considered to mean Byzantine, from an unattested
Iranian compound *bavat-zanta-, hence epic history, supposition unsupported by solid evidence, has gained
uncritical acceptance [Russell, 2005, 189].
25
, . zant
(. zanda-, AirWb 1662, ; ) (
18.55; 61.3). / ;
.-. zandk/zandg , , (. , ),
zand , ; , (<. zantay-/zanti/zantav-, AirWb 1660) , , zan- (AirWb 1659) [Nyberg,
1974, 229]. . zanda- ; . [Bailey,
1943, 171; Mollayi, 2001, 79-80].
24

26, . gurh , . qara , ). gurh (


.-. grh , , ), ,
( groh c kroh, grox
[HAB I, 606]).
*greh, .-. grehag
[*gryhcg] , ( , ) [DurkinMeisterernst, 2004, 164] 27. .-. , ,
: grh , gristag (
).
. - , , ,
, ( nmna- ) ,
( ) , 15.47 (AirWb 522-523):



( ),
(),
().
-
, 3.10),
( ),
( ) ( ),

(
, 3.7).
, ,
, , ,
(
, 7.23-24).
. - , , : gh , , , grta- , ,
.-. *gard, .-. gl ,
, ; , , gl-kan . : ggal
( *garduv-<gard-) (DKS, 81), ga ye *garganta- (DKS, 78).
. .
(Glmn Dumbwandi), KZ 24 (
.-. ), () () [, 2010,

. , , ,
. , gehik
glexi [, 1971, 436].
27
,
. ,
. grhcg gryhcg
: Ernst Waldschmidt, Wolfgang Lentz, Die Stellung Jesu im Manichismus (p. 112),
. gur, gara (=h-i zindn , )
gristag [Henning, 1937, 83]. .
, [Sundermann, 2003, 220],
.-. graag , [Durkin-Meisterernst, 2004, 163]. grih
(knot),
, (mud) [Durkin-Meisterernst, 2004, 164]. ,
. grih/greh .
26

90], (Garddtak) 11
/ [, 2010, 87].
. . -
*gard , . . gardh , , (gardha ,
, gardhin , ) [Cheung, 2007, 106], .-. *g(w)eldh(gheldh-) , , ,
, , [LIV, 185; IEW, 434]. ,
, , , , , -,
*gart to turn (, ) [Cheung,
2007, 110], .-. ger- drehen, winden (, )
[IEW, 385]. grih .
*graH [Cheung, 2007, 122] .
granth , granth .-. ger- [IEW,
386]. .-. ger- [IEW, 383]
zusammenfassen, sammeln (, ) . grma ,
, , grma, grmy , , ,
, grmka , . grmulas , , .
.-. grh , , .-. .
gra- , [Brandestein, Mayrhofer, 1964, 122].
*gravava- [Nyberg, 1931, 84].

AirWb Bartholomae Chr., Altiranisches Wrterbuch, Strassburg, 1904.


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220-247.
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Morrison. The Persian Heritage Series. New York and London: Columbia University Press,
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Uppsala, 1955, pp. 1-18 ( : Donum Natalicium H. S. Nyberg
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