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# YEAR 10 SCIENCE

Term 3, 2013 Unit Going Downhill Physics EEI (Extended Experimental Investigation)
STUDENT: FORM CLASS: SCIENCE TEACHER: CONTENT DESCRIPTIONS
Students will: Investigate the movement of objects by describing and predicting motion using the laws of physics

Extended Experimental Investigation of objects moving down an inclined plane.

CONDITIONS
Time allowed: 3 lessons to prepare EEI. 2 weeks to collect data. 2 weeks to analyse and write up report.

Due Dates: Draft EEI: 18th October, 2013 Final Report of EEI: 25th October, 2013

Overall RESULTS

Understanding

Skills

Context Scientists have established significant understandings of laws of motion and energy. They have done this using observations and fair testing to test hypotheses and establish the scientific body of knowledge. Science is how we establish knowledge using fair testing and observations. You have investigated some laws of motion experimentally and you have discussed justified conclusions. Purpose To inform the audience about your investigation. To demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of your investigation To demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of a formal scientific report.

## Audience Student and teacher

TASK DESCRIPTION You are to conduct an extended experimental investigation You will be asked to complete an extended experimental investigation of an object moving down an inclined plane using a range of methods to collect your data in order to calculate the acceleration due to gravity. A detailed description of the task is found on the following pages. You will also be asked to investigate how Galileo was able to measure time without a clock.

## Going Downhill EEI Using an Inclined Plane Purpose:

To find the acceleration of an object going down an inclined plane and calculate the acceleration due to gravity using a variety of measuring techniques.

Equipment:
Planes wooden ramps metre ruler stopwatch photo gates motion sensor laptop bricks to prop up the incline dynamics cart

Introduction:
Around 1600, the amazing Galileo Galilei was able to show, experimentally, not only that the acceleration of objects in free fall was constant, but was able to determine a pretty good value for this acceleration. Galileo performed this feat by rolling wooden balls down long inclined planes, and he didn't even have the luxury of a clock!

Today, we can recreate Galileo's triumph with very little effort using a wooden ramp and modern measuring equipment.

## How do you measure time with 17th century clocks?

Stopwatches as we know them did not exist in Galileos time. It was not until the 1700s that craftsmen began to make small reliable mechanical clocks. In his book Two New Sciences, Galileo describes the clock he uses: For the measurement of time, we employed a large vessel of water placed in an elevated position; to the bottom of this vessel was soldered a pipe of small diameter giving a thin jet of water, which we collected in a small glass during the time of each descent the water this collected was weighed, after each descent, on a very accurate balance; the difference and ratios of these weights gave us the differences and the ratios of the times The basic principle behind this clock seems sound, but what guarantee is there that this clock doesnt gain or lose time? Since you want to make a special mathematical claim involving time measurements, it is critical that your time measurements be accurate.

HUMAN ENDEAVOUR QUESTIONS; (Include this as part of your Introduction clearly identified) In this passage, Galileo seems to be assuming that there is a specific mathematical relationship between the amount of water collected and the amount of elapsed time. 1. What assumption does Galileo seem to be making about the mathematical relationship between the amount of water and the amount of time? 2. Would you expect this clock to run steadily? Why or why not? (Hint: Suppose the tank were nearly full and you let it run for 1 second and collected the water; then you did the same thing, this time starting with the water level much lower than before. Would you collect the same amount of water in both cases? What might you expect?)

In this EEI you will use three methods to calculate acceleration of an object down an incline. Firstly by using a stopwatch, speed at point on the incline can be determined and compared to find acceleration. Next you will choose two modern methods of collecting data. These can be either the motion sensor, photo gates and video along with computer software, the computer can plot real-time graphs of displacement vs. time, velocity vs. time and then calculate the acceleration. This means that it will be easy to collect accelerations for a wide range of ramp angles - but how do you convert this data into an estimate of "g"? If a is the cart's acceleration down the track, and is the angle that the ramp makes with the horizontal (see the diagram above), then from the diagram:

So graphing a vers h gives a straight line with the slope of g/L This isn't the way Galileo did it, but it's pretty slick!

Procedure:
1. Set up the incline plane at an angle, measure and record the height and length of the plane. You will need to do the Stopwatch plus two other methods.

2. A: Stopwatch
Place the trolley at a mark at the top of the incline. Measure the length to a fixed mark at the bottom. (before the trolley rolls onto the table)

Use a stopwatch to record the time taken to travel between these marks by simultaneously releasing the trolley and starting the timing. Tabulate the data and calculate an average.

## Repeat the procedure until 3 useful results are obtained.

Analysis of results
Using the formula a = 2s/t2, calculate the acceleration.

B: Motion Detector Place the motion detector on the upper end of the incline so that it is 20cm 30cm from the release
point of the trolley. Connect the Motion Detector to DIG 1 port of LabQuest and choose New from the File menu. Start data collection; release the cart after the Motion Detector starts to click. Get your hand out of the Motion Detector path quickly.

Analysis of Results
Examine the graph of velocity vs. time. You may have to adjust the position and aim of the Motion Detector several times before you get a useful run. Adjust and repeat the process until you get a good run showing approximately constant slope on the velocity vs. time graph during the rolling of the cart. To collect more data, start data collection when you are prepared to release the cart. Repeat Steps 5 and 6 until you get a useful run. Fit a straight line to a portion of your data. First you must indicate which portion of the graph is to be used. 1. 2. 3. 4. Tap and drag your stylus across all data points in the linear region of the graph. Choose Curve Fit Velocity from the Analyze menu. Select Linear as the Fit Equation. Record the slope of the fitted line (the acceleration) in a data table. Select OK.

## Repeat the procedure until 3 useful results are obtained.

C: Photo gates
Set up two photo gates down the incline. Daisy chain gate 2 to gate 1 and Plug gate one into DIG1 the LabQuest. Measure the distance between the gates Tap mode on the LabQuest screen and change photo gate mode to pulse. Hit collect on the LabQuest as you release the cart from just above the first gate. This makes the initial speed 0. Record the pulse time from gate one to gate two in a data table

Repeat the procedure until 3 useful results are obtained. Move the second gate further down the incline, measure the new distance between them and repeat three trails. Repeat for three distances.

D: Video analysis
Set up the incline plane. Position a laptop so that the camera can record the motion of the trolley down the incline. Using Windows movie maker, record the motion down the incline. Open logger pro and import movie. Save each trial. Repeat the procedure until 3 useful results are obtained.

## 3 Repeat each method for three angles/ heights of the ramp.

Results:
Draw the graphs for a versus h using Excel. Ensure you have error bars, trendlines and equations. You can calculate "g" from the slope of this line, right? Also, be sure to determine the uncertainty in your value of "g". What is the percent of difference between your calculated value and an "accepted value" of "g"

Discussion:
So, what do you think? In particular,

How does your value of "g" compare to an "accepted value"? What was the measurement that contributed the most uncertainty to your results? How could this be improved if you were to do this experiment again? Explain the reasons why different methods provided a more acceptable results.

CRITERIA
Section of report Introduction Understanding A Provide detailed explanations and comparisons of acceleration of an object down an incline plane Provide detailed explanations and comparisons of acceleration of an object down an incline plane Develop researchable questions and testable hypotheses that display direct links to theory Independently evaluate and implement and alternative designs and improvements to appropriate methods of investigation, in laboratory experimentation Critically evaluate how reliability, safety, fairness and ethical actions in experimental methods have been considered Results Tables and graphs Skills Systematically and accurately use digital technologies to enhance the quality of data Systematically and accurately analyse data and quantify and explain errors Critically evaluate the validity and reliability of data analysed with reference to currently held scientific views, the quality of the methodology and the evidence cited Identify alternative explanations for findings, and fully explain any sources of uncertainty Select valid evidence, develop and fully justify conclusions Select a range of appropriate representations and text types to communicate science ideas for specific purposes Systematically analyse how advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries B C D The sample of work has the following characteristics: Compare and explain Explain how acceleration Describe how the the acceleration of an of an object occurs down acceleration of an object object down an incline an incline plane down an incline occurs plane plane Compare and explain the acceleration of an object down an incline plane Develop researchable questions and testable hypotheses Independently evaluate designs and improvements to appropriate methods of investigation, in laboratory experimentation Evaluate how reliability, safety, fairness and ethical actions in experimental methods have been considered Use and identify where digital technologies can be used to enhance the quality of data Systematically analyse data, and quantify and /or errors Evaluate the validity and reliability of data analysed with reference to currently held scientific views, the quality of the methodology and the evidence cited Identify alternative explanations for findings, explain any sources of uncertainty Select valid evidence, develop and justify conclusions Select a range of appropriate representations and text types to communicate science ideas for specific purposes Analyse how advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries Explain how acceleration of an object occurs down an incline plane Describe how the acceleration of an object down an incline occurs plane Propose questions and aims E Describe the acceleration of an object down an incline plane Describe the acceleration of an object down an incline plane Identify the aim or purpose

Discussion

## Independently design and improve appropriate methods of investigation, in laboratory experimentation

Use designs and improvements to appropriate methods of investigation, in laboratory experimentation Identify how reliability, safety, fairness and ethical actions in experimental methods have been considered Recognise where digital technologies can be used to enhance the quality of data Collect data

## Carry out guided investigations in laboratory experimentation

Explain how reliability, safety, fairness and ethical actions in experimental methods have been considered Identify where digital technologies can be used to enhance the quality of data Analyse data and explain any sources of uncertainty Evaluate the validity and reliability data analysed with reference to currently held scientific views, the quality of the methodology and the evidence cited Identify alternative explanations for findings and explain any sources of uncertainty Select evidence, develop and justify conclusions Select appropriate representations and text types to communicate science ideas for specific purposes Examine how advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries

Recognise where reliability, safety, fairness and ethical actions in experimental methods have been considered Recognise digital technologies can be used to enhance the quality of data Tabulate given data

Discussion

Describe the validity and reliability of data with reference to currently held scientific views, and methodology

Identify data based on currently held scientific views, and methods used

Explain findings

State findings

Conclusion

Develop conclusions

State a conclusion

Entire report

Select representations and text types to communicate science ideas for specific purposes Discuss how some advances in scientific understanding rely on developments in technology and technological advances are linked to scientific discoveries

## Select representations and text types to communicate science ideas

Human Endeavour

Galileo Questions

Identify how some advances in scientific understanding often rely on developments in technology and technological advances are often linked to scientific discoveries