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Design and Simulation of a Optical communication system with dispersion managed RZ pulse

Ratheesh kumar M, V P Mahadevan Pillai and K G Gopchandran


Department of Optoelectronics, University of Kerala Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram-695581, Kerala, India ratheeshkumar.m@gmail.com

AbstractThis paper reports the design and simulation of a 10Gbps optical communication system with dispersion managed RZ pulse. The return-to-zero (RZ) format is very efficient for long haul, high bit rate, low power and wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) optical communication system. In RZ format, the power is transmitted only for a fraction of bit length. The effect of altering dispersion parameter of a single mode fiber on the optical communication link has been reported. The analysis has been performed in terms of bit error rate, Q-factor, optical spectrum analysis and average eye opening. It is observed that as the value of dispersion parameter is increases, the Qfactor and the average eye opening also increases. It is also observed that the timing jitters decreases with the increase in dispersion parameter. It is also shown that by reducing the duty cycle, performance of the system is enhanced. Keywords- Bit rate; disperion managed fiber; eye diagram; optical spectrum analysis; Q-factor

greatly influence the performance of the system [9]. So it is also important to calculate the optimum value of duty cycle to enhance the performance of the communication system. Dispersion and attenuation are the two factors which degrade the performance of the system. Several techniques are developed for compensating the dispersion. Some of the techniques make use of are dispersion shifted fibers and dispersion compensated fibers [10]. Fiber attenuation can be compensated using optical amplifiers. The communication system mentioned in this paper makes use of dispersion compensated fiber for dispersion management and Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) as optical amplifier for compensating fiber dispersion. Simulation work has been carried out in Rsoft OptSim software.

II. BLOCK SCEMATIC OF THE SYSTEM I. INTRODUCTION The aim of the optical communication is to transmit the maximum number of bits per seconds over the maximum possible distance with the lowest errors [1]. There are many types of modulation schemes employed for long haul optical communication. The simplest and the most widely used modulation scheme is non -return-to-zero (NRZ) format, where the pulse is on for the entire bit period [2]. Alternatively, a return-to-zero (RZ) format can be used where the pulse is on only for a portion of the bit period. Optical return-to-zero (RZ) signals are becoming increasingly important in optical communication systems. They have proven to be superior to the non return- to-zero (NRZ) format both in terms of receiver sensitivity and fiber transmission performance [3-6]. The RZ format has the better receiver sensitivity and nonlinearity tolerance due to which this modulation format is of great interest for research scholars these days. The work is going on achieving high bit rates which is above 40 Gb/s. Due to its relatively broad optical spectrum which results is results in reduced dispersion tolerance and a reduced spectral efficiency [7-8]. RZ pulse is less susceptible to inter symbol interference and better nonlinear robustness. RZ modulation scheme has became a popular solution for 10 Gb/s systems because it has higher peak power, higher signal-to-noise ratio, and lower bit error rate than NRZ encoding. Duty cycle of the RZ pulses are also

Fig.1. Block schematic for dispersion managed RZ pulse

The figure 1 shows the block diagram for the optical communication system for simulation setup. The transmitter section consist of data source, laser source, adjustable duty cycle RZ pulse, electrical filter and amplitude modulator. The transmission medium consist of standard single mode fiber, dispersion compensation fiber, in line amplifier and pre amplifiers. The receiver section consists of electrical and optical filters, photodiodes and measurement device.

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TABLE 3: PARAMETRS OF SMF AND DCF

III.SIMULATION SETUP

Fig.2. Simulation setup for the communication system for dispersion managed RZ pulse

As shown in figure 2, the transmitter section consists of data source (pnseq1), modulator driver (rectdr1), electrical filter (filbes2), laser source (laslor1) and modulator (loamod1). Data source produces a pseudo-random sequence of bits at a rate of 10 Gbps. The output of data source is given to modulator driver which produces a RZ format pulse with duty cycle of 0.5. From this the signal goes to the electrical Bessel filter having low pass type characteristics and -3dB bandwidth equal to 10 GHz. The output of laser source which is CW Lorentizan type having properties shown in table 1 and electrical filter is given to the modulator. The line-width was set to 10 MHz full width half maximum. The modulator is f amplitude modulator type which has sin 2 shaped input-output characteristics.
TABLE 1: PROPERTIES OF LASER SOURCE

At the receiver side, PIN photodiode (photod_pn1) is used as the receiver light energy to electric form. The pin photodiode simulated had 70% quantum efficiency. Responsivity at 1550 nm was .875104401174 A/W. The dark current was simulated at 0.1 nA. The output from the transmission medium is given to band pass Lorentizan filter having -3 dB two sided bandwidth of 52 GHz. The output of pin photodiode is passed through a band pass Bessel filter (filbes1) with center frequency at 20 GHz. It is simulated to have 3 poles with -3 dB bandwidth of 10 GHz. The output from the filter is given to the measurement devices which are electrical scope (scope1), Q estimator (qesbm1), BER estimator (pesbm1) and optical probe (probe1) to get the results IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Performance analysis of the proposed system is evaluated in terms of bit error rate, eye diagram, Q-factor and optical spectrum analysis. These performance criteria are evaluated for the different values of dispersion parameter.

TABLE 2: PROPERTIES OF AMPLITUDE MODULATOR

The transmission medium used is a combination of standard single mode fiber (fiber1), dispersion compensation fiber (DCP), in line amplifier and pre-amplifier. The properties of standard single mode fiber and DCP (fiber2) is shown in table 3.

Fig.3. Eye diagram of the optical communication system for dispersion parameter (a) 8 (b) 10 (c) 12 (d) 14.

Figure 3 shows the eye diagrams of the dispersion managed system with single mode fiber of length 120 Km and dispersion compensated fiber (DCF) of length 20 Km. From the figure it is clear that as the value of the dispersion parameter increases, the eye opening also increases. Hence the performance of the system is improved with the increase in dispersion parameter.

Fig.6. Q-factor versus length of single mode fiber for different values of dispersion parameter.

Figure 6 shows the variation of the Q-factor with the fiber length of single mode fiber for different values of dispersion parameters. It is oblivious from the figure that the Q-factor value remains constant for a certain length and it is independent on the dispersion parameter. For the length greater than this value, Q-factor increases.
Fig.4. Optical spectrum of the dispersion compensated system for dispersion parameter (a) 8 (b) 10 (c) 12 (d) 14

The variation of the optical spectrum of the received signal with the value of dispersion parameter is shown in figure 4.

Fig.7. Average eye opening versus the length of the single mode fiber for different values of dispersion parameter. Fig.5. BER versus length of the single mode fiber for different values of dispersion parameter.

Figure 5 shows the bit error rate variation with the fiber length of single mode fiber for different values of dispersion parameters.Upto certain length of the fiber, the value of BER is constant and independent on the dispersion parameter. But as the length increases above this level, BER value changes. It is clear that value of BER is minimum for the higher dispersion value 14.

Figure 7 shows the variation of the eye opening with the fiber length of single mode fiber for different values of dispersion parameters. It is observed that fiber length upto 40 Km , the average value of the eye opening for low dispersion parameter dominate than that of high dispersion parameter values. After this length eye opening is high for higher dispersion parameters. It seems that the performance of the system is improved with the increase in value of dispersion parameters.

has been evaluated in terms of the bit error rate(BER), Qfactor, optical spectrum analysis and the eye diagram. It can be concluded from the analysis, that the performance of the system seems to be enhanced for higher values of dispersion parameters. REFERENCES

[1] P.J.Winzer and A. Kalmar, Sensitivity enhancement of optical receivers by impulsive coding, J. Light wave Technol., vol. 17, pp.171 177, Feb. 1999. [2] K. Yonenaga and S. Kuwano, Dispersion -tolerant optical transmission system using duo binary transmitter and binary receiver, Journal of Light wave Technology, 15(8):15301537, August 1997. Fig.8. Timing Jitter versus the length of the single mode fiber for different values of dispersion parameter. [3] G. Castanon and T. Hoshida, Impact of dispersion slope in NRZ, CSRZ, IMDPSK and RZ formats on ultra high bit-rate systems, European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), 4(9.6.1), September 2002. [4] H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, A comparison between NRZ and RZ data formats with respect to PMD-induced system degradations, IEEE Photonics Technol ogy Letters, 13(5):448 450, May 2001. [5] A. Lender, Correlative level coding for binary -data transmission, IEEE Spectrum, 3:104115, February 1966. [6] M.I.Hayee and A.E.Willner, NRZ versus RZ in 10 -40-Gb/s dispersionmanaged WDM transmission systems,IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 2003. [7] B.Wedding, B. Franz, and B. Junginger, 10 -Gb/s optical transmission up to 253 km via standard singlemode fiber using the method of dispersionsupported transmission, Journal of Lightwave Technology, 2(10):17201727, October 1994. [8] P. Hofmann, E. E. Basch, S. Gringeri, R. Egorov, D. A. Fishman, and W. A. Thompson, DWDM Long Haul Network Deployment for the Verizon GNI Nationwide Network, Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (OFC 05), Vol. 2, (2005). [9] G. Mohs, C. Furst, H. Geiger, and G . Fischer, Advantages of nonlinear RZ and NRZ on 10 Gb/s single-span links, Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), 4(FC2):3537, March 2000. [10] S. G. Park, A. H. Gnauck, J. M. Wiesenfeld, and L. D. Garrett, 40 -Gb/s transmission over multiple 120- km spans of conventional single-mode fiber using highly dispersed pulses, IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 12(8):10851087, August 2000.

Figure 7 shows the variation of the timing jitter with the fiber length of single mode fiber for different values of dispersion parameters.Upto the 65Km of the fiber length, there is a random fluctuation in the timing jitter .After this length value of the timing jitter decreases gradually with the fiber length. It is observed that, for higher values of dispersion parameters, the timing jitter getting less value.

Fig.9. Optical spectrum of the output signal for the duty cycles (a) 0.2 (b) 0.4 (c) 0.6 (d) 0.8

Figure 9. shows the optical spectrum analysis of the output signal for different duty cycle of the pulse. It is observed that the performance of the system is enhanced with reduction of the duty cycle. V. CONCLUSIONS This paper reports the design and simulation analysis of the 10Gbps optical communication system for dispersion managed RZ pulse. RZ format has gained attention of the researchers since it is proven to be superior to the non returnto-zero (NRZ) format both in terms of receiver sensitivity and fiber transmission performance The performance of the system