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INTRODUCTION TO THE Alcatel 900/1800 GSM NETWORK

1 GSM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE

INDC Juin 2000

GSM NETWORK ARCHITECTURE CONTENTS

1.1 1.2

General specifications Interchanges over the network

INDC Juin 2000

1.1

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS GSM 900 AND DCS 1800

GSM: GLOBAL SYSTEM FOR MOBILE COMMUNICATION


- Pan-European standard for communication with mobiles, already adopted by more

than 60 countries and now the worldwide reference for mobile radio networks. Since 1995 (phase 2), this standard harmonizes the 900 MHz GSM system and the 1800 or 1900 MHz DCS system.

GSM 900:
- Mobile radio system based on the GSM standard, designed for urban and rural applications (macro-cells) and currently operating in two 25 MHz frequency bands around 900 MHz.

DCS 1800: DIGITAL CELLULAR SYSTEM


- Mobile radio system derived from the GSM 900 (same basic principles), designed for

urban applications (micro-cells) and currently operating in two 75 MHz frequency bands around 1800 MHz.

DCS 1900:
- North and South American variant of the DCS 1800, operating in two frequency bands

around 1900 MHz.

INDC Juin 2000

1.1 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS GENERAL CONCEPTS: PLMN AND MOBILES n n The PLMN is an ACCESS NETWORK The SUBSCRIBERS are MOBILES ==> RADIO RESOURCES (RR) management MOBILITY management (MM)

PSTN

PLMN
ISDN

PLMN =

Public Land Mobile Network

PSPDN

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1.1 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS GENERAL CONCEPTS: CELLULAR COVERAGE

n n

Propagation limits performance Radio resources are limited ==> multiplication of cells: limits To increase spectrum efficiency, technical fixes are introduced: - POWER MONITORING (=> interference level) - DISCONTINUOUS TRANSMISSION (=> interference level) - FREQUENCY HOPPING (to limit fading) - HANDOVER ASSISTED by mobile: systematic measurements ( => Quality of service always higher than a given threshold)

downlink GSM antenna uplink VIP

Definitions:

- UPLINK: Mobile -> Base station - DOWNLINK: Base station -> Mobile

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1.1 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS GSM ARCHITECTURE: TYPES OF MOBILE STATION (MS)

Um "plug-in" SIM MT0 SIM card

ISDN terminal TE1 S MT1 BSS

R TE2 TA ISDN

TE2

(Conventional terminal Modem interface)

MT2 (including TAF)

MT = Mobile Termination TE = Terminal Equipment TA(F) = Terminal Adaptor (Function)

ISDN concepts

GSM concepts

INDC Juin 2000

1.1 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS GSM ARCHITECTURE : PLMN ELEMENTS

MS (Mobile Station)

Base station system BSS


BTS Basic Transceiver Station Base Station Controller

BTS

BSC
BTS BTS BTS BTS

Network and switching system


MSC Mobile Switching Centre Home Location Register Visitors Location Register Authentication Centre

BTS

BTS

BSC

BSC

BSS (Base Station System)

HLR VLR AuC

PSTN,

ISDN... MSC

NSS (Network & Switching System)

Optional
EIR Equipment Identification Register

Voicemail Server

Voicemail Server SM-SC Short Message Service Centre Group Call Register

SM-SC

VLR

HLR

AuC

EIR

GCR

GCR

Operation and maintenance subsystem OSS


OMC

OSS (Operation & maint. Sub System)


NMC
GSM interfaces X.25 links

OMC

OMC [NMC

Operation and Maintenance Centre Network Management Centre]

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1.1 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS GSM ARCHITECTURE : BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS)

MAIN FUNCTIONS:

BTS
BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS

PHYSICAL CHANNEL MANAGEMENT (on Radio channel)

BSC
MANAGEMENT OF INTERFACES WITH NSS & OSS MANAGEMENT OF RADIO "LOGICAL" CHANNELS

BSC

BSC

BTS MONITORING

CBC : Cell Broadcast Centre (optional)


NSS CBC
Buffer STORAGE and Generation of CELL BROADCAST SHORT MESSAGES (phase 2)

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1.1 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS GSM ARCHITECTURE : NETWORK AND SWITCHING SYSTEM (NSS)

MSC

n n

CALL HANDLING (subscriber exchange) RADIO RESOURCE MANAGEMENT - VLR/HLR database updating - Subscriber radio paging - Handover management

BSS
n

GATEWAY FUNCTION for terminating calls Reference DATABASE STORES: Identities - Directory numbers Services subscribed + Approx. location (VLR) LOCAL DATABASE (associated with one or more MSCs) COPIES HLR data for VISITING subscribers ACCURATE LOCATION of visiting subscribers Call redirection DATA SECURITY DATABASE (authentication and encryption) GENERATION of KEYS

HLR
PSTN, ISDN... MSC

VLR

AuC
VLR HLR AuC

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1.1 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS GSM ARCHITECTURE : OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT (NSS)

MAIN FUNCTIONS:
BSS

EIR

Mobile EQUIPMENT DATABASE CONCEPT of "white", "grey" and "black" mobiles

VoiceMail Server

MSC

Voice Mail Server


(not specified in GSM standard)

SM-SC
EIR

SHORT MESSAGE Service Center message storage during subscriber unavailability

GCR : Group Call Register (optional)


SM-SC GCR

VOICE CALL GROUP SERVER (new services in phase 2+, PMR type)

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1.1 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS GSM ARCHITECTURE : OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE SUBSYSTEM (OSS)

OMC
BSS NSS
OMC-R --> Radio OMC-NSS --> Mobile n n n n n BSS management NSS management

OMC-R

OMC-M or S

CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT FAULT HANDLING PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SECURITY MANAGEMENT BILLING

NMC

NMC

(optional)
n Higher level NETWORK MANAGEMENT (TMN network)

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1.1 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS GSM INTERFACES AND PROTOCOLS


Interfaces Protocols

Um
BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS

Radio

GSM-specific

LAPDm

Abis
BTS BTS

BTS - BSC (ISDN type)

LAPD

BSC

BSC

A
E
MSC MSC

BSC-MSC

(SS7 basic) | | | | (SS7 basic) | | | | (SS7 basic)

+ BSSAP

B G
VLR VLR

C D H
HLR

AuC

EIR

GCR

B C D E F G H I PSTN ISDN

MSC-VLR (SM-G)MSC-HLR HLR-VLR (SM-G)MSC-MSC MSC-EIR VLR-VLR HLR-AuC MSC-GCR MSC-PSTN MSC-ISDN

+ MAP

+ TUP or ISUP

PSTN,

ISDN...

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1.1 GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS GSM ARCHITECTURE : POSITION OF TRANSCODER (TRAU)

BTS

BSC TRAU

MSC

VLR

BTS

BSC TRAU

MSC

VLR

BTS

BSC TRAU

MSC

VLR

Abis interface KEY :

A interface 16 kbit/s transmission 64 kbit/s transmission

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1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK GSM/DCS SUBSCRIBERS : MAIN TYPES OF IDENTIFICATION

IMSI
( International Mobile Subscriber Identity ) Nature

MS - ISDN
( Mobile Station - Integrated Service Digital Network n )

International Identity

E212 compliant

Directory Number

ISDN type, E.164/E.213 compliant

Format

MCC

MNC

H1 H2

MSIN x x x ........ x x x

CC

NDC
(ZAB)

M1 M2
(PQ)

SN xx xx xx xx

Meaning

Mobile Country Code


3

Mobile Mobile Subscriber Identity Number National including H1 H2 = HLR Number Code
NMSI 2 ( national identity ) max 10

Country National Code Destination Code*


1 to 3 2 to 4

Subscriber Number
( national identity ) including M1 M2 identifying the HLR total up to 15

N of digits

* instead of identifying a geographic area, the NDC identifies an OPERATOR: Examples

234 U.K. 208 France

44 44 44 44 69 xx xx xx xx LYON 94 xx xx xx xx MASSENA 33 33

802 385 956 973 607/8 609

Cellnet GSM Vodafone GSM Mercury DCS Hutchinson DCS 61 MC DU to 69 MC DU 01 MC DU to 09 MC DU 11 xxx to 3x xxx LYON MASSENA LA FOURCHE

01 France Tlcom 10 SFR

Characteristics

Stored in SIM module and AuC

Allocated to an IMSI (by MMC) in the HLR


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1.2

INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK MOBILE EQUIPMENT IDENTIFICATION

IMEI
( International Mobile Equipment Identity )

TAC

FAC

SNR

SP

Type Approval Code Final Assembly Code


n n

Serial NumbeR

(SPare)

Stored in the Equipment (TERMINAL) Used to replace the IMSI or TMSI if they cannot be used (example : emergency calls with no SIM card) or at the networks request (maintenance) Can be used to update the EIR database (if there is one)
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n INDC Juin 2000

1.2

INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK GEOGRAPHIC IDENTIFICATION

MCC

MNC

LAC

CI

LAI CGI
LAI
Location Area Identification n

Identifies a LOCATION AREA (LA)* : - MCC, MNC : Country + Network Codes (as IMSI) [eg.: 208.01 for France Tlcom] - LAC : Location Area Code : N of the "LA" in the network (up to 2 octets, at the operator's discretion - values 1 to 65 536)

CGI
Cell Global Identification

Identifies a CELL (BTS) unambiguously - CI : Cell Identifier (2 octets) : unique in a LA An LA can contain more than one cell, which can be managed by more than one BSC, but are dependent on the same MSC

* Notes Uses

for "PAGING" (in which cells is a subscriber to be paged?) n for Location Updating (Change of LA Location update) n for SECURITY (complete TMSI, unambiguous = TIC + LAI)

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1.2 INTERFACES AND SIGNALLING PROTOCOLS BSS / NSS PROTOCOLS and SOFTWARE MODULES : GENERAL

(SMS) SS CC (Relays) (Relays)

SS (SMS)

SS (SMS)

CC

MM MM DTAP BSS MAP SCCP DTAP BSS MAP SCCP MAP MAP

RR

TCAP

TCAP

RR 3 RR BTSM BTSM

SCCP

SCCP

MTP 3

MTP 3

MTP 3

MTP 3

LAPDm

LAPDm

LAPD

LAPD

MTP 2 S.C.1 A BSC

MTP 2 S.C.1

MTP 2 S.C.1 (D)

MTP 2 S.C.1

S.C.1 Um MS

S.C.1

S.C.1 A bis BTS

S.C.1

MSC / VLR

(eg. : HLR)
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NSS

INDC Juin 2000

1.2 INTERFACES AND SIGNALLING PROTOCOLS RADIO INTERFACE (Um) : LAYER 3 : "RIL3" PROTOCOL n n "RIL 3" protocol (Radio Interface Layer 3) : incorporates three software subassemblies which can be distinguished by the value of a Protocol Discriminator (PD) field : RR, MM, CC/SS/SMS : In addition, in "RR" messages, a Transaction Identifier (TI) field is used to manage a number of simultaneous transactions
PD RR Meaning Radio Resource Management Resource/Dest. MS - BSC (and BTS) n
n n n n n

Functions Paging management Ciphering mode management Frequency redefinition Dedicated channel assignment Handover management Measurements and power monitoring Authentication/Identification procedures Location update Attach/detach IMSI Connection management Call handling and routing DTMF facilities Access to Supplementary Services Short Message Service

MM

Mobility Management

MS - MSC / VLR

n n n n n n

CC /

Call Control

MS - MSC

SS / SMS

Supplementary Services Short Message Service

(+ HLR) (+ SMS server)

n n

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1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK TYPICAL SEQUENCE for an ORIGINATING CALL ("MO")

MOBILE

GSM NETWORK

PSTN or ISDN

CHANNEL REQUEST IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT CM SERVICE REQUEST

SET-UP of an RR CONNECTION (MO) SERVICE INDICATION

AUTHENTICATION REQUEST AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE CIPHERING MODE CMD CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE

AUTHENTICATION

TRANSITION to CIPHERING MODE

SET UP CALL PROCESSING

START of CALL

ASSIGNMENT CMD ASSIGNMENT COM

TRAFFIC CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT

ALERTING

CALL CONFIRMATION

CONNECT CONNECT ACK

CALL ACCEPTED
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1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK RADIO CONNECTION (RR) SET-UP PROCEDURE

Um

A bis BTS BSC


BTSM CHANNEL REQUIRED ASSIGNMENT of an SDCCH Channel BTSM CHANNEL ACTIV. SDCCH N ACTIVATION of Channel indicated BTSM CHANNEL ACTIV. ACK RR IMM. ASSIGN. CMD

A MSC

MS
RACH

RR CHANNEL REQUEST

RR
AGCH

IMMEDIATE ASSIGN. SDCCH N T3101 MM CM_SERVICE REQUEST ESTABLISH INDIC. MM CM_SERVICE REQUEST SCCP CONNECT REQUEST MM CM_SERVICE REQUEST

CONNECTION to the SDCCH Channel


SDCCH

SABM

UA
SDCCH

MM CM_SERVICE REQUEST

T9105 SCCP CONNECT CONFIRM

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1.2

INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK SECURITY PROCEDURES : GENERAL

AUTHENTICATION CHECKS that the MOBILE STATION is the required station and not an intruder

CIPHERING ALL INFORMATION (Signalling, Speech and Data) is SENT in cipher mode, to avoid monitoring and intruders (who could analyze signalling data)

TEMPORARY IDENTIFICATION Each time the network is accessed for whatever reason, a DIFFERENT NUMBER is used to identify a SUBSCRIBER, so that the subscriber identity cannot be used by an intruder: On each access operation a new temporary n is sent in cipher mode, and provides identification for the next access operation.

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(continued)

1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK SECURITY PROCEDURES : MECHANISMS and VARIABLES

Random number selection SIM card Ki


Identification key (128 bits) RAND

Radio Channel

RAND (128 bits)

AuC Ki

A3

A3 Signed ref. (32 bits) SRES

A3 SRES

A3

=?
OK A8 A8 Kc : Cipher key for the call (64 bits) A5 Speech - Data - Signalling Cipher command Kc A8 A8 BTS

A5

Ciphered data

A5

A5 Speech - Data - Signalling

Ciphering/Deciphering
INDC Juin 2000

Ciphering/Deciphering
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(continued)

1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK SECURITY PROCEDURES : IMPLEMENTATION

SIM card IMSI TMSI Ki A5 A3 A8 Kc

RAND SRES

RAND SRES =? RAND

IMSI Ki
(ciphered)

A4

A4 IMSI Ki

Kc A5

Kc

Triplets

Triplet Generation A2 Ki A3 A8

Ciphering Function

Speech Data Sign


(ciphered)

Ki IMSI

Ciphering Function RAND SRES Kc


Speech Data Sign

RAND SRES Kc IMSI IMSI Ki A3 A8 AuC OMC

A5 Kc

IMSI TMSI

MS

BTS

MSC / VLR

HLR

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1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK ORIGINATING CALL (M.O.) : "EARLY ASSIGNMENT" and "OFF-AIR CALL SET-UP"

MOBILE

GSM NETWORK
CHANNEL REQUEST IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT CM SERVICE REQUEST

PSTN or ISDN

or SET UP if VEA AUTHENTICATION

VEA : Very Early Assignment :


Immediate assignment of a TCH : No authentication or ciphering (Signalling carried on FACCH)

CIPHERING SET UP ASSIGNMENT CMD ASSIGNMENT COM ALERTING ASSIGNMENT CMD ASSIGNMENT COM CONNECT CONNECT ACK ASSIGNMENT CMD "Queuing" ASSIGNMENT COM

omitted if VEA

EA : Early Assignment :
TCH allocated BEFORE call confirmation
CALL CONFIRMATION

1/2 OACSU :
TCH allocated after called party ringing
CALL ACCEPTED

OACSU complete
TCH allocated after called party answer
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(continued)

1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK ORIGINATING CALL SET-UP PROCEDURE (Mobile Originating) [1/2]

Um MS
RACH

A bis BTS
RR CHANNEL REQUEST SDCCH N

A BSC MSC/VLR PSTN

RR
AGCH

IMMEDIATE ASSIGN.

SABM
SDCCH

UA

MM

CM Serv. Req. MM

ESTABLISH INDIC. CM Serv. Req.

SCCP CONNECT REQUEST MM CM Serv. Req.

SCCP CONNECT CONFIRM AUTHENTICATION

CIPHERING
Ciphered SDCCH

CC SET - UP

DATA INDICATION

CC

Set - Up

SCCP DATA SCCP DATA


CC Call Proceeding.

CC Set - Up

CC

CALL PROCEEDING

DATA REQUEST Call Proceeding. CC BTSM BTSM PHYS. CTX REQ. PHYS. CTX CONF.
TCH

SCCP DATA
BSSMAP

CIC selection
Assignment Request

TCH allocation

ISUP

IAM MIF)

BTSM CHANNEL ACTIV. BTSM RR ASSIGNMENT CMD


TCH

( or SSUTR2

CHANNEL ACTIV. ACK

DATA REQUEST
RR Assignment Cmd Local End

T3107 * if no answer from MS

RELEASE REQ *

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(continued)

1.2 INTERCHANGES WITHIN THE NETWORK MOBILE ORIGINATING CALL SET UP PROCEDURE [2/2]

Um A bis MS
FACCH

A BSC MSC/VLR PSTN

BTS
SABM UA ASSIGNMENT COMPL. DATA INDICATION
Assign. compl.

ESTABLISH INDIC.

SSCS DATA
Assign. compl.

MIF

RF CHANNEL REL. RF CHANNEL REL. ACK DATA REQUEST


Alerting

SSCS DATA

Alerting

ACF

Called P. ringing

ALERTING

CONNECT CONNECT ACK

DATA REQUEST

Connect

SSCS DATA

Connect

RIU

Off-hooking

DATA IND.

Connect Ack

SSCS DATA
Connect Ack

CONVERSATION PHASE
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1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK TERMINATING CALL (M.T.) : ROUTING and Use of MSRN

VMSC 5 VLR 4

Visited PLMN 7 Origin PLMN 3 PSTN 2 GMSC 1 6 HLR

TUP messages

MAP messages


INDC Juin 2000

Called party MS-ISDN number Detection of a mobile n call directed to PLMN concerned HLR interrogation : transmission of mobile MS-ISDN VLR interrogation : transmission of mobile MS-ISDN and IMSI Temporary routing N allocation by VLR : MSRN (roaming number) Return of MSRN to the GMSC Call rerouted to the visited MSC After VMSC-VLR dialogue, TMSI-based subscriber paging
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(continued)

1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK TERMINATING CALL SET-UP (M.T.) ("EARLY ASSIGNMENT")

MOBILE

GSM NETWORK
PAGING REQUEST CHANNEL REQUEST IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT PAGING RESULT

PSTN or ISDN

SET-UP of an RR CONNECTION (MT)

SERVICE INDICATION

AUTHENTICATION REQUEST AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE CIPHERING MODE CMD CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE

AUTHENTICATION

TRANSITION to CIPHERING mode

SET UP CALL CONFIRMED

START OF CALL

ASSIGNMENT CMD ASSIGNMENT COM

TRAFFIC CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT CALL CONFIRMATION CALL ACCEPTED

ALERTING CONNECT CONNECT ACK

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1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK TERMINATING CALL (M.T.) : INTERNATIONAL CALL

VMSC Visited PLMN

VLR International SCCP Gateways

COUNTRY 3 Incoming C.I. Called party origin PLMN


interrogation

Outgoing C.I. Incoming C.I. Outgoing C.I. PSTN COUNTRY 1

HLR

GMSC

COUNTRY 2

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1.2

INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK LOCATION UPDATE PROCEDURES

GENERAL This procedure is always initiated by the MOBILE station and involves providing the VLR (and HLR if required) with its current position, The HLR determines the ADDRESS of the visited VLR, The visited VLR stores the Location Area (LA), The LA n (LAI) received is updated dynamically in SIM non-volatile memory.

NORMAL LOCATION UPDATE When the mobile is switched on without having stored the LAI (eg.: initial use of SIM), When the mobile is switched on in a different LA from the LA stored in the SIM, When the pre-synchronized mobile moves from one LA to another (same or different VLR).

PERIODIC LOCATION UPDATE When the SIM internal counter overflows and is incremented automatically when the mobile is switched on.

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(continued)

1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK LOCATION UPDATE PROCEDURE : PRINCIPLE

MOBILE

GSM NETWORK

CHANNEL REQUEST IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT

SET-UP of an RR CONNECTION (MO)

LOCATION UPDATE REQUEST

SERVICE INDICATION

AUTHENTICATION REQUEST AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE

AUTHENTICATION

CIPHERING MODE CMD CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE

TRANSITION to CIPHERING MODE

LOCATION UPDATE ACCEPTED TMSI TMSI REALLOCATION COMPLETE

ALLOCATION of a NEW TEMPORARY N

CHANNEL RELEASE

RR CONNECTION RELEASE

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(continued)

1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK INTRA MSC/VLR LOCATION UPDATE PROCEDURE

Um

A bis BTS

MS
RACH

BSC
CHANNEL REQUIRED CHANNEL ACTIV. CHANNEL ACTIV. ACK IMM. ASSIGN. CMD

MSC

VLR

HLR

RR

CHANNEL REQUEST BTSM BTSM BTSM RR

RR
AGCH SDCCH

IMMEDIATE ASSIGN.
MM Loc. Upd. Req.

SABM UA

ESTABLISH INDIC.
MM Loc. Upd. Req.

SCCP CONNECT REQUEST


MM Loc. Upd. Req.

MAP

UPDATE LOCATION AREA MAP MAP MAP


TMSI Alloc.

MM

Loc. Upd. Req.

UPDATE LOCATION

SCCP CONNECT CONFIRM

UPDATE LOCATION ACC INSERT SUBSCR. DATA

MAP MM LOCATION UPDATE ACC.


TMSI

LOC. AREA UPD. ACC.

DATA REQUEST
MM Loc. Upd. Acc.

SCCP DATA
MM Loc. Upd. Acc.

MAP

INSERT SUB. DATA ACK

MM

TMSI REALLOC COMPLETE


MM

DATA INDICATION
TMSI Realloc. compl. MM

SCCP DATA
TMSI Realloc. compl.

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1.2

INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK

"HANDOVER" (CHANGE OF CELL DURING THE CALL) IN THE GSM SYSTEM

3 PHASES : a) Identification of requirement b) c) Selection of new cell Handover execution

MOBILE : Continuous Quality and Received power monitoring Continuous adjacent cell monitoring (power) Transmission of measurement reports on the SACCH channel to the BTS connected (every 0.5 s)

NETWORK : The BTS measures the Quality and received power from the mobile The BSC runs the power monitoring and handover central algorithm The BSC controls the handover operation

HANDOVER TYPES : Internal (within the same BTS) if there is uplink or downlink interference Synchronized / non-synchronized Intra-BSC / Inter - BSC, Intra - MSC / Inter - MSC (first and subsequent)

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(continued)

1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK CASE 1 : INTRA - MSC, INTRA - BSC HANDOVER

BTS 1

BSC
BTS 2

MSC / VLR BSC

PSTN

MSC / VLR BSC

BSC

MSC / VLR

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1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK (continued) CASE 1 : INTRA - BSC HANDOVER

Um

A bis

MS
SACCH

BTS 1
RR RR MEASUREMENT REPORT

BTS 2
MEASUREMENT REPORT

BSC

MSC

PSTN

SACCH

MEASUREMENT REPORT MEASUREMENT REPORT

Internal Handover decision

BTSM BTSM DATA REQUEST RR


FACCH RR

CHANNEL ACTIV. CHANNEL ACTIV. ACK

Handover Cmd Local End

HANDOVER COMMAND (RELEASE REQUEST) T8

Access burst on TCH

RR RR PHYSICAL INFO

HANDOVER ACCESS HANDOVER DETECTION


Changeover to new channel

FACCH

SABM ESTABLISH INDIC. UA RR HANDOVER COMPLETE DATA INDICATION


RR Handover. compl. BSSMAP

SCCP DATA
H.O. Performed

BTSM BTSM

RF CHANNEL RELEASE RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK

Release of old channel

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(continued)

1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK CASE 2 : INTRA - MSC , INTER - BSC HANDOVER

BSC 1
BTS 1

BTS 2

MSC / VLR BSC 2

PSTN

MSC / VLR BSC

BSC

MSC / VLR

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1.2 (continued)

INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK CASE 3 : FIRST INTER - MSC HANDOVER

BSC

MSC / VLR 1 BSC 1


BTS 1

PSTN

BTS 2

MSC / VLR 2 BSC 2

BSC

MSC / VLR

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(continued)

1.2 INTERCHANGES OVER THE NETWORK CASE 4 : SUBSEQUENT INTER - MSC HANDOVER

BSC

MSC / VLR 1 BSC

PSTN

MSC / VLR 2
BTS 1

BSC 1

BTS 2

BSC 2

MSC / VLR 3

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INTRODUCTION TO THE Alcatel 900/1800 GSM NETWORK

2 Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION CONTENTS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

OVERALL INFRASTRUCTURE BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS) NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM (NSS) FUNCTIONS PROVIDED OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE (OMC) VALUE-ADDED SERVICES INTELLIGENT NETWORK SERVICES

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION OVERALL INFRASTRUCTURE

Base Station System


BSCs and BTSs with different configurations (chained sectored, star), OMC-R.

Network and Switching Subsystem


MSC, VLR, HLR, AUC, EIR, IWF, OMC-NSS, Value-added services: voice messaging, SM-SC, Sales management.

Transmission Part

Echo canceller, code converters, sub-multiplexers.

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 1 (continued) TOTAL INFRASTRUCTURE


Air Interface A-bis Interface MS BTS BSC

IWF "A" Interface TC S/Mux


Call processing

Alcatel 1000 E10 SSP Echo canceller PSTN/ ISDN

Voice Mailbox SMS EIR SS7 Network HLR AUC

Mobile radio functions

OMC-R

OMC-NSS

VLR

RCP

Terminals

Billing centre

Sales Management

Subscriber administration system Operator terminals

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS)

FUNCTIONS
n n n n n n

Relay between the NSS and mobile stations Cells varying from 350 m to 35 km in size BTSs colocated or remote from the BSC Location areas consisting of sets of cells Manages physical and logical channels Manages interfaces with the NSS and the operation and maintenance centre (OMC-R)

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 2 (continued) BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS)

ADAPTATION TO TRAFFIC

BTS NSS BSC


70 km

Light traffic area

350 m

BTS Heavy traffic area

BTS

35 km

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 2 (continued) BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS)

BASE STATION CONTROLLER (BSC)

Role of the BSC : Manages radio resources, Supervises BTSs (Operation and maintenance), Decides on and executes Handovers, Manages SS7 applications (BSSAP), Concentrates traffic to the NSS.

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 2 (continued) BASE STATION SYSTEM

BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION (BTS)

Role of the BTS Manages radio transmission (TDMA multiplexing, frequency hopping, ciphering), Manages the data link layer for communication with mobile stations and the BSC, Handles operation and maintenance of these equipments in conjunction with the BSC, Provides transmission and multiplexing facilities at the Abis interface.

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM

CONCEPT OF INTELLIGENT NETWORKS

The introduction of new services and access to the GSM service via the Alcatel 1000 E10 are both based on the concept of Intelligent Network (IN). This is because of the independence between:
n n

Conventional call processing handled by the exchange Mobile radio functions handled by a dedicated server.

Dialogue between these two is managed by an IN interface.

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3 (continued)

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM (NSS)

NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM

The service switching point (SSP) is based on the Alcatel 1000 E10

Mobile radio functions are implemented in IN servers: the "Radio Control Point" (RCP), integrated into the MSC handles mobility functions The HLR and AUC databases store subscriber characteristics and confidential data.

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3 (continued)

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM (NSS)

SSP Alcatel 1000 E10

GSM Server

Switching Matrix

New block for mobile radio functions in the MSC


Control

GSM Function

SS7

SSP / Server interface based on SS7 protocol

Op. / Maint.

MSC

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3 (continued)

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM (NSS)

Air Interface BTS BTS BTS BSC

MSC
A

Alcatel 1000 E10 SSP IN

PSTN/ SS7

BTS

RCF/VLR RCP

HLR/AUC

BTS

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3 (continued)

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM (NSS)

BSS
Mobile subscriber units Y MS BTS BSC
Call processing

NSS

SSP

TUP/ISUP

PSTN

"A" interface

"IN" interface

MAP

SS7 Network

Radio control functions

HLR RCP AUC

VLR

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3 (continued)

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM (NSS)

Advantages of this architecture : Separation between applications switching functions handled by the SSP, radio control functions handled by GSM servers.

Functions can be developed independently.

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3 (continued)

SOLUTION Alcatel 900/1800 NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM (NSS)

n n n

RCP and SSP are the two functional blocks of the MSC The Alcatel 1000 E10 handles all mobile radio network access functions The RCP handles all mobile radio functions mobility management and radio frequencies incorporates the VLR function (Visitor Location Register)

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3 (continued)

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM (NSS)

Alcatel 1000 E10 GSM 900/1800 ACCESS

MSC BSS GSM 900 SSP PSTN/ ISDN BSS GSM 1800 Alcatel 1000 E10 SS7 GSM 900 RCP GSM 1800

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3 (continued)

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM

RCP RADIO CONTROL POINT (Alcatel 1421)

n
n n n n

Server handling GSM 900/1800 functions

Security Roaming Hand-over

Connected to the Alcatel 1000 E10 via the IN interface Modularity : n RCPs in the same Alcatel 1000 E10 Based on the Alcatel 8360 : duplex architecture, real time application, ... Incorporates the VLR function

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3 (continued)

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM

HLR HOME LOCATION REGISTER (Alcatel 1422)

Dialogue with the MSC via the SS7 network and MAP protocol

Based on the Alcatel 8360 : duplex architecture, real time application

Incorporates the AUC function

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3 (continued)

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION NETWORK AND SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM

HLR :

Home location register

Stores subscriber rights (or entitlements) The subscriber location is always known Converts MS-ISDN into IMSI numbers Redirects terminating calls to the visited MSC (or ISDN number if call transfer has been activated)

Incorporates the AUC function Handles security functions (IMSI, Ki key and algorithms) Provides authentication triplets and ciphering for the VLR

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 4 FUNCTIONS PROVIDED

Security Authentication : for each call and on each location update Ciphering : for each call and during location updating IMEI check on each call

Roaming restricted to One area in the PLMN (list of cells) Entire PLMN PLMN + list of PLMNs All PLMNs

Handover Intra-BSC Inter-BSC Inter-MSC

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 4 (continued) FUNCTIONS PROVIDED

DISTRIBUTION OF GSM FUNCTIONS BETWEEN NETWORK ELEMENTS

Function Authentication Paging Registration Handover : - checking - connection Call processing : - switching - charging

SSP

RCP/VLR X X X X X X

HLR/AUC X

X X

X X

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 4 (continued) BSS-NSS PROTOCOLS

SSP/RTC RCP/SSP

TUP/ISUP (Telephone/ISDN User Parts) Network Signalling IN PROCEDURES Network Actions BSSMAP (Base Station Management Application) Resource Management - channel assignment - paging - handover

SSP

RCP/BSS

RCP/MS

DTAP (Direct Transfer Application Part) Call processing set-up, alert authentication connection, disconnection location, registration Mobile radio functions

RCP/RCP RCP/HLR

MAP (Mobile Application Part) RCP/RCP - handover RCP/HLR - roaming - authentication

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 4 (continued) BSS-NSS PROTOCOLS

SSP : RCP : VLR : HLR : MS : BSS : MSC : MAP : DTAP : BSSMAP:

Service Switching Point Radio Control Point Visitor Location Register Home Location Register Mobile Station Base Station Subsystem Mobile-Service Switching Centre Mobile Application Part Direct Transfer Application Part BSS Mobile Application Part

MSC/VLR RCP

MAP

MSC (others)

air interface Channel and data PCM

VLR IN Procedures

HLR MAP

"A" Interface DTAP BSSMAP BSS

TUP/ISUP MS SSP

PSTN/ ISDN

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE CENTRE (OMC)


Administers and manages the mobile radio network : - OMC-NSS for the NSS part (SSP, RCP, HLR), based on Alcatel 8360 architecture, - OMC-R for the BSS part (BSC, BTS, transmission equipment), based on a SUN server. X.25 link to billing centre OMC - NSS

OMC - R

Magnetic tape

SSP E10 OCB283

RCP NSS

HLR

BSC BSS

BTS

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 6 VALUE-ADDED SERVICES

n n n n

Voice messaging service (VM) Short message service (SM-SC) Equipment identity register (EIR) Sales administration centre Billing SIM card management Subscriber administration

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 6 (continued) VALUE-ADDED SERVICES

"Air" Interface

"A" Interface

MSC SSP
TUP/ISUP TUP/ISUP
Call processing

PSTN/ ISDN Voice Mailbox

BSS

SS7 SMS-C

RCP
RCF VLR HLR/AUC MAP EIR

Sales Administration Centre

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 6 (continued) VALUE-ADDED SERVICES

MESSAGE NOTIFICATION SCENARIO

1.

When the mobile subscriber cannot be reached (no answer, busy), the call can be routed to the voice messaging server (VM) on which the caller can record a message for the called subscriber. The VM notifies the SM-SC of the recorded message. The SM-SC sends a short message to the mobile station notifying the subscriber, even if busy on a call. The SM-SC cannot notify the mobile station if it is not in idle mode or is located outside the PLMN. In this case, the SM-SC sends an MAP message to the HLR asking it to send a notification when the mobile station can be reached. When the mobile station is once again reachable, the HLR alerts the SM-SC which sends the message again to the mobile station.

2. 3.

4.

5.

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 6 (continued) VALUE-ADDED SERVICES

SHORT MESSAGE SERVICE (SMS)


n

A method of interchanging alphanumeric messages (of up to 140 characters) with mobile stations

Two types of service SMS-MT/PP (Short Message Service Mobile Terminated point-to-point) SMS-MO/PP (Short Message Service Mobile Originated point-to-point)

SM-SC (Short Message Service Centre) saves and sends short messages

SM-SC dialogues with the MSC and the HLR using SS7 and MAP protocol

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 6 (continued) VALUE-ADDED SERVICES

MSC

TUP/ISUP

SSP
TUP/ISUP

PSTN/ ISDN

Voice Mailbox

BTS

BSC RCP MAP SMSC X.25

HLR

MAP

SS7

MAP

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Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 6 (continued) VALUE-ADDED SERVICES

EIR EQUIPMENT IDENTITY REGISTER

The EIR can bar access to the GSM network for unauthorized terminals Stolen terminals Terminals with technical problems or unapproved terminals

The EIR is the terminal database Each terminal is assigned an IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) Each IMEI is associated with a list: white list grey list black list = = = authorized terminal suspect terminal unauthorized terminal

n
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The EIR dialogues with the MSC using SS7 and MAP protocol
68

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION 6 (continued) VALUE-ADDED SERVICES

Terminal BTS IMEI BSC MSC

SS7 Network IMEI check

EIR White list Grey list Black list

1. 2. 3. 4.

At the start of the conversation, the MSC asks the terminal to send its IMEI Using MAP protocol, the MSC asks the EIR to check the IMEI The EIR sends a response to the MSC White list Grey list Black list the conversation continues the conversation continues and additional investigations are undertaken the conversation is suspended
69

INDC Juin 2000

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION INTELLIGENT NETWORK SERVICES

INTELLIGENT NETWORK SERVICES FOR THE GSM/DCS


Originating Call Screening (OCS) Lets a subscriber to the service screen originating calls based on various criteria (date, time).

Terminating Call Screening (TCS) Lets a subscriber to the service screen terminating calls based on various criteria (date, time, entry of a confidential code).

Mobile Universal Access Number (MUAN) Used to route a call based on various criteria such as the date, time and location of the mobile subscriber when the special numbers are dialled.

Prepaid SIM Card (PPS) A user can access one operator network without any subscription. A credit and a validity date is associated to the SIM card. At t(he end of each call, the credit is updated. This credit can be reload by the user.

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7 (continued)

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION INTELLIGENT NETWORK SERVICES

IN SERVICES GENERAL ARCHITECTURE


SSP INAP RCP HLR MSC SCP SMP OSNM : : : : : : : : Service Switching Point Intelligent Network Application Part Radio Control Point Home Location Register Mobile Switching Centre Service Control Point Service Management Point Operation System for Network Management Operation System WorkStation

Alcatel 1000 E10 SSP RCP RCP MSC

PSTN/ ISDN

INAP

OSWS :

HLR
OSWS

INAP SCP
Server for IN services

OSNM

SMP

IN services management

Service provider Service subscriber


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7 (continued)

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION INTELLIGENT NETWORK SERVICES

IN SERVICES "NETWORK CONNECTION" ARCHITECTURE


Alcatel 1000 E10 SSP INAP (IN-ER1) RCP RCP MSC HLR
OSWS PSTN/ ISDN

INAP - IN-ER1 - CS1

SCP 8 OSNM

Server for IN services

TCP/IP SMP
IN services management

Service provider Service subscriber


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7 (continued)

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION INTELLIGENT NETWORK SERVICES

IN SERVICES CAMEL PHASE 1 ARCHITECTURE

Net Sig

GMSC
CAP V1

MAP V3

HLR
MAP V3

Net Sig

SCP
CAP V1

MAP V3

MSC

VLR

MAP CAP

: MOBILE APPLICATION PART : CAMEL APPLICATION PART

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7 (continued)

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION INTELLIGENT NETWORK SERVICES

IN SERVICES CAMEL PHASE 2 ARCHITECTURE


Net Sig M AP V3

G M SC
CAP V2 CAP V2 Net Sig

HLR
M AP V3

Net Sig

SRP

SCP
M AP V3 CAP V2

M AP V3

Net Sig

M SC

VLR

SRP: SPECIALISED RESSOURCE POINT


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7 (continued)

Alcatel GSM 900/1800 SOLUTION INTELLIGENT NETWORK SERVICES

IN SERVICES CAMEL PHASE 2 ALCATEL ARCHITECTURE


ISUP S S P INAP R C P CAP V2 CAP V2 MAP V3

HLR
MAP V3

ISUP

SRP

SCP
ISUP MAP V3 ISUP S S P INAP R C P CAP V2 MAP V3

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