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Characteristics of Research 1. Empirical. Research is based on direct experience or observation by the researcher. 2. Logical.

Research is based on valid procedures and principles. 3. Cyclical. Research is a cyclical process. It starts with a problem and ends with a problem. 4. Analytical. Research utilizes proven analytic procedures in gathering the data, whether historical, descriptive, experimental, or case study. 5. Replicability. The research designs and procedures are replicated to enable the researcher to arrive at valid and conclusive results. 6. Critical. Research exhibits careful and precise judgment. Types of Research 1. Pure Research. This is also called basic research or fundamental research. It aims to discover basic truths or principles. Examples: Charles Law. Jacques Charles Law states that The volume of a dry gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature, provided the pressure remains constant. Boyles Law. Robert Boyles Law states that If the temperature remains constant, the volume of a confined gas is inversely proportional to the pressure. Hookes Law. Pure research conducted by Robert Hooke resulted in Hookes Law which states that Within the limit of perfect elasticity, strain is directly proportional to stress. 2. Applied Research. This type of research involves seeking new application of scientific knowledge to the solution of a problem, such as the development of a new system or procedure, new device, or new method in order to solve the problem. 3. Action Research. This is a decision-oriented research involving the application of the steps of the scientific method in response to an immediate need top improve existing practices. Classification of Research 1. Library Research. This is done in the library where answer to specific questions or problems of the study are available 2. Field Research. Research is conducted in a natural setting. No changes are made in the environment. Field research is both applicable to descriptive survey and experimental methods. 3. Laboratory Research. The research is conducted in artificial or controlled conditions by isolating the study in a rigorously specified and operationalized area. The purposes are (1) to test hypotheses derived from theory, (2) to control variance under research conditions, and (3) to discover the relations between the

dependent and independent variables. Laboratory research is applicable to experimental, descriptive and case study method. Example in experimental method is Cultivation of Milkfish at the Fishpond Using Fish Meal and Bread Meal as Supplemental Feeds. VARIABLE A variable is defined as a quantity or a characteristic that has two or more mutually exclusive values of properties. Example: Sex : two properties , Male, female Ages of different persons Size Weight Income Validation and effectiveness How developed Contents Profile Validity reliability item analysis Level of performance post test- profile Significant difference post test Performance of students Significant difference Level of acceptability Significant difference Performance Assessment Profile Level of performance Significant difference Problems Assessment of Agriculture Courses Respondents 4 Profile of School Course Problems encountered variables Significant difference Possible solutions Significant difference Types of Variable

1. Independent variable. This is stimulus variable which is chosen by the researcher to determine its relationship to an observed phenomenon. 2. Dependent variable. This is the response variable which is observed and measured to determine the effect of the independent variable. The focus of the investigation which behavior or status is influenced by the independent variable. 3. Moderate variable. This is a secondary or special type of independent variable chosen by the researcher to ascertain if it alters or modifies the relationships between the independent and dependent variables. 4. Control variable. This is a variable controlled by the researcher in which the effects can be neutralized by eliminating or removing the variable. 5. Intervening variable. This is a variable which interferes with the independent and dependent variables, but its effects can either strengthen or weaken the independent and dependent variable. ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY PRACTICES OF SCHOOL HEADS Effects of educational attainment of parents on the academic performance of their children STRESS COPING TECHNIQUES OF OFW SPOUSE IN SELECTED SUCS IN CALABARZON Independent Variable Sex age monthly income religion highest educational attainment number of years as ofw, present country assigned as ofw Dependent Variable Stress coping techniques FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADMINISTRATIVE AND SUPERVISORY PERFORMANCE OF SCHOOL HEADS

Illustration 1 Independent Variable Educational Qualifications Intervening Variables Age, Sex, Civil status, Experiences, Socioeconomic status, Values, Attitudes toward work, etc. Dependent Variables Performance

Senior Students Performance in terms of Percentile Rank Factors affecting the NCEE percentile rank Performance Level of senior students in NCEE Assessment of Performance Level of senior students in NCEE Factors affecting students achievement Illustration 1 Intervening NCEE Percentile Rank Age, Sex, Socio-economic background, Values, Attitude toward study, etc. Achievements

NCEE Percentile Rank of the 4th Year High School Students for the School Year 20072008: Implications to DepEds Achievements and Performance The higher the socio economic status of the students , the higher the percentile rank, the greater are the achievements Figure 1. Illustration of Independent, Intervening and Dependent variables. Other Examples: The Effect of Mass Media Exposure on Political Knowledge of the Third Year High School Students of St Martin Montessori School The Level of Mass Media Exposure and the Effect on Political Knowledge of the Third year High School Students The Level of Political knowledge achieved through mass media exposure of the Third Year High School Students of St Martin Montessori School

What is the presumed cause? (Independent) Mass Media Exposure What is presumed effect? (dependent: focus of investigation) Political Knowledge

The more mature the student is, the more he is exposed to media, therefore he is expected to have higher political knowledge Independent Intervening Dependent Mass Media Exposure sex Political Knowledge Socio economic status Residence age

Examples of Variables: 1. To establish profile of student 2. to establish profile of respondents: teachers, supervisors, superintendents, parents Type of Dwelling : Housing type depending on materials Home lot ownership: owned, not owned Road Condition: dirt, asphalt, cemented Education: Highest level completed Sources of Income: Employment categories Sex: Female, Male Civil Status: Single, married, Age: Specified age bracket These variables are being presented through a schematic diagram : Such pictorial illustration or representation makes the relations under study more vivid, providing the researcher direction as well as the basis for data analysis Research Problem 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Is the problem a current and timely one? Is it pervasive or wide spread? Does it affect a special group of people such as mothers or children? Does it relate to on going programs such as land reform, family planning,? Does it relate to broad social, economic and health issues such as unemployment, income misdistributions? 6. Who else is concerned about the problem? 7. What are its direct and indirect, short and long ranged distributions, to the welfare of a group or to the whole society? The researcher should review his answers to these questions and arrange them into paragraphs that justify the importance of the research problem. Components of the Research Process Problem/ Objectives

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework Data Summary, Review Processing Analysis Research Conclusions Assumptions of Data Hypotheses Related and Collection Interpretation Design Statistical Literature and Recommendations Treatment

The Research Problem An investigator knows that a problem is really researchable when (1) there is no known solution to the problem (2) the solution can be answered by using statistical methods and techniques; (3) there are probable solutions but they are not yet tested; or (4) the occurrence of phenomena requires scientific investigation to arrive at precise solution. The research problem should be stated vividly and explicitly expressed in interrogative form for questions have the virtue of posing a problem directly. Characteristics of a Research Problem The characteristics of a good problem possesses the acronym SMART. This means that a research should be: Specific. The problem should be specifically stated;

Measurable. It is easy to measure by using research instruments (i.e.., questionnaire, tests. etc.) in collecting data; Achievable. The data are achievable using correct statistical techniques to arrive at precise results. Realistic. Real results are not manipulated; and Time-bound. Time frame is required in every activity because the shorter completion of the activity the better. Criteria of a Good Research Problem 1. Interesting. An interesting research problem attracts the attention of the investigator to study the problem further. It also makes him determined to work on it until its completion. 2. Relevant to the needs of the people. Researcher must keep in mind that they work not for themselves but for the people. 3. Innovative. A good research problem may not be necessarily new. It may be a restatement and a restructuring of an old problem to make it new. In this manner, results will be more relevant and useful to a greater number of people. 4. Cost effective. The 4Ms Man, Money, Materials, and Machinery are needed in conducting research. A research problem should be economical and effective in solving the problems of the society; it should also augment social, economical and health conditions of the people and many others. 5. Measurable and time-bound. A good research problem is measurable by using research instruments, like tests, questionnaire, rating scales, observations schedules or interviews, and statistical treatment to arrive at scientific and meaningful result. A good research can be completed within a time frame stated. The shorter completion of the project, the better. The Research Objectives The researcher should bear in mind that research objectives are different from instructional objectives. While the characteristic (SMART) of the former is similar in stating instructional objectives, the latter requires objectives expressed in three domains of behavior, namely, cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (skills), and affective (values). A research objective is defined as statement of purpose for which the investigation is to be conducted. Similarly, the research objectives are stated specifically in simple language in order that the researcher finds them easy to measure by using research instruments in collecting data and these data are achieved when correct statistical techniques are used to arrive at real results (not manufactured), but for every activity to be done, time frame is required because the shorter completion of the activity, the better.

Statement of Research Problem/Objectives Research problem and research objectives have the same characteristics (SMART) but they differ in form because the former is stated in interrogative or question form and the latter, in declarative form. EXAMPLE Let us have a study entitled PROBLEMS MET BY SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS INSTRUCTORS AND PROFESORS IN STATE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES (SUC) IN REGION 6 (WESTERN VISAYAS) IN SCHOOL YEAR 1994-1995.Based on this major problem, the specific problems are stated as follows: 1.JULIET BELANDRES THE USE OF TAGALOG IN TEACHING SCIENCE IN ELEMENTARY LEVEL IN DISTRICT I (PASIG I) IN SCHOOL YEAR 2007-2008. THE USE OF FILIPINO LANGUAGE IN TEACHING - FACTORS AFFECTING THE LEVEL OF COMPREHENSION OF ELEMENTARY LEVEL IN DISTRICT I (PASIG) IN SCHOOL YEAR 2007-2008.








PROBLEMS MET BY SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS INSTRUCTORS AND PROFESORS IN STATE UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES (SUC) IN REGION 6 (WESTERN VISAYAS) IN SCHOOL YEAR 1994-1995. The study aims to _________________ Problem. The main problem of this study is to determine the problem met by Science and Mathematics instructors and professors at the SUC in Region 6 (western Visayas) in school year 1994-1995. Specifically, it Attempts to answer the following question: 1. What are problems met by Science and Mathematics instructors and professors at the SUC in Region 6 (Western Visayas) in school year 19941995 in relation to (a) administration and supervision, (b) instructional materials, (c) teacher factor, and (d) student factor? 2. What is the most pressing problem met by Science and Mathematics instructors and professors at the SUC in Region 6 (Western Visayas) in school year 1994-1995 in relation to administration and supervision, instructional materials, teacher factor, and student factor?

3. Is there a significant difference in the mean rank levels of the problems met by Science and Mathematics instructors and professors at the SUC in Region 6 (Western V isayas) in school year 1994-1995 in relation to (a) administration and supervision, (b) instructional materials, (c) teacher factor, and (d) student factor? Objectives. The main purpose of this study is to determine the problem met by Science and Mathematics instructor and professors t the SUC in Region 6 (Western Visayas) in school year 1994-1995. Specifically, it attempts to answer the following objectives: 1. To identify the problem met by Science and Mathematics instructor and professors at the SUC region 6 (Westen Visayas) in school year 1994-1995 in relation to (a) administration and supervision, (b) instructional materials, (c) teacher factor, and (d) student factor. 2. To find out the most pressing problem met by Science and Mathematics instructors and professors at the SUC in Region 6 (Western Visayas) in school year 1994-1995 in relation to (a) administration and supervision, (b) instructional materials, (c) teacher factor, and (d) student factor. 3. To determine the significant difference in the mean rank levels of the problems met by Science and Mathematics instructors and professors at the SUC in Region 6 (Western Visayas) in school year 1994-1995 in relation to (a) administration and supervision, (b) instructional materials, (c) teacher factor, and (d) student factor. DEVELOPMENT, VALIDATION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF TECHNOLOGY INTERVENTION INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL (TIIM) IN SELECTED TOPICS IN BIOLOGY

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Institute of Graduate Studies University of Rizal System Antipolo City

In Partial Fulfillment of The Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts in Teaching Science

Corina Arias Sumang March 2010

Imperative to economic development is quality education. With the belief that science and technology is a twin vehicle towards the attainment of a countrys economic development, science education has always been the object of reform. Article XIV, Section 10 of the Philippine Constitution states: Science and Technology are essential for national development and progress. The state shall give priority to research and development, invention, innovation and their utilization, and to science and technology education, training and services. It shall support indigenous, appropriate and self-reliant, scientific and

technological capabilities and their application to the countrys productive system and national life The Philippines in its quest to alleviate the quality of life of its people, has done much effort to improve Science instruction and learning in the country. The significant role which science education plays in the progress and development of a nation is stressed out in the Philippine Constitution Article XIV Section 3 entitled: Education, Science and Technology, which states that: All educational institutions shall encourage critical and creative thinking; broaden scientific and technological knowledge and promote vocational efficiency. Science aims to help every Filipino learner to gain a functional understanding of scientific concepts and principles linked with real-life situations, and acquire scientific skills, attitudes, and values necessary to analyze and solve day-to-day problems. Present day education is feeling tremendous pressures from different quarters brought about by the rapid changes in the educational trends, and the advancement of knowledge and technology. Traditional methods and techniques can no longer suffice the need for quality education, and technology can facilitate a more effective and experiential learning. The above mentioned idea was supported by the experts in the field of education who have given their opinion in one of the trends of change in school curricula, which is the great reliance on technology n the leaning process, computer-aided libraries and multimedia systems (Student News Journal, 1998).

Quality education starts with quality teaching aids like slide projectors, overhead projectors, TV and VHS player, EZ-pro and LCD project or for computers and other audio-visual materials (FELTA Newsletter, 1999). The schools audio-visual program should serve not merely to supply materials and resources for instruction, but should form as an integral part of the teaching-learning process. There should be direct involvement of media professionals with the teachers and students in carrying out such programs. Technology as a mode of instruction increases the students learning efficiency through computer-aided instructional materials combine visual and motor activities with audio/visual inputs to develop his skills and concepts. Materials that teachers utilize to teach and materials that students use to learn are designed to reflect the goals of the Philippine educational system. The success of the curriculum depends to a great extend on the teaching, learning materials and training methods. Today, the teachers are challenged to upgrade the educational standard of transmitting the knowledge of their students to the best they can because of the rapid changes brought by media and technology since it produced a great influence on education. Through multimedia a constant flow of facts make learners well informed, socially aware of events and skilled in receiving and interpreting visual messages.

Background of the Study

The National Achievement Test (NAT) results for SY 2005-2006 reflected a declining education performance of the students in the country. Scores in all subject areas in both elementary and secondary level went down by about one to six percentage points, an alarming situation that should be seriously addressed by the educators of the country. Science was the least of the competencies of both elementary and secondary students at 46.7% and 38.0%, respectively. (National Statistical Coordination Board, 2007). With this, the need for better science instruction is important to the students in the attainment of higher competencies, which calls for quality and excellence, relevance and responsiveness, efficiency and effectiveness, and access equity. In this connection, the task of teaching these subjects are really difficult and that calls for different approaches, strategies and methodologies so as the right message is imparted to the students. Teachers must be qualified to motivate students to facilitate learning competence, and to provide effective teaching as well as affective training. There will always be a teacher who will break all rules and yet be profoundly successful. In other words, it is the good teacher that counts. Content is delivered using a variety of media and resources. From a textbook driven coverage of content, schools are encouraged to use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and community resources to widen access to knowledge and to enrich learning.

The teaching- learning process is interactive where learners, the teachers, instructional materials and information technology interact with one another. Learning is assessed using a variety of measures. The purpose is to gather information about the learners progress in holistic terms. The restructured curriculum involves innovative, interdisciplinary and integrative modes of institutional delivery. It is stated in Article XIV, Section 12 of the Philippine Constitution that the state shall regulate and transfer and promote the adoption of technology in all sources for the national benefit. In addition, Presidential Decree No.6A, Section 5 states: One of the educational objectives is to design utilize and improve instructional technology and develop or produce textbooks and other instructional materials leading to quality education Technology is an increasingly influential factor in education. Computers and mobile phones are being widely used in developed countries both to complement established education practices. Technology is being used more not only in administrative duties in education but also in the instruction of students. The use of technologies such as PowerPoint and interactive whiteboard is capturing the attention of students in the classroom. Technology is also being used in the assessment of students ( ) Technologies such as the Internet and the World Wide Web are the revolutionizing ones attitude toward education information systems. The education sector was not exempted from these communication changes. The

open-ended system is conceived to act as a tool for information technology continues to expand in a variety of levels. Access to it and creation of information is not an activity available to anyone, any place and anytime. Bringing this information system to the classroom is a major accomplishment, for it can open the door for new ways of thinking and learning. Teaching and learning through the traditional lecture method is now considered not very effective. What is more recent is the utilization of interactive learning materials and techniques. This is to create a breakthrough that leads to a mental excitement by actively discovering relationship for oneself, rather than passive waiting specific information to be transmitted Thus, the use of technology intervention instructional material is very important to help students cope with their difficulties and enrich their understanding of the different concepts in Biology. It can also give enough opportunity for the teachers to impart the lesson in a comprehensive manner wherein lessons are now translated into computer to facilitate the teachinglearning process and would increase his effectiveness. It is therefore the purpose of this study to assess the effectiveness of technology intervention instructional material in teaching Biology. Whatever the results of the study will be the basis for producing an innovative instructional materials in the different fields of Science and Technology. The study will help Biology teachers in their daily classroom discussion. It is not a tool to lecture the students but to enhance teacher-student interaction. This material can help improve further quality of instruction at Manggahan High

School . A student who was absent for whatever reasons can borrow the cd and study the lessons he missed. It can also be utilized by a substitute teacher during Biology period.

Scope and Limitation of the Study The study primarily aims to assess the effectiveness of technology intervention instructional material in teaching Biology. This will be conducted on the first grading period, school year 2009-2010 at Manggahan High School in Pasig City . The researcher employs the descriptive method of research for the assessment of the effectiveness of technology intervention instructional material in teaching Biology. The result of the first departmental examination in Biology administered the previous school year was used as the basis of the learning tasks for the two groups of respondents students and Biology teachers. This material focuses on three chapters during the first grading period of the school year 2009 2010 that have least mastered skills.

Statement of the Problem. This study attempts to assess the effectiveness of technology intervention Instructional material in Biology during the first grading period of the school year 2009 2010.

Specifically, the study seeks to answer the following sub-problems: 1. How did the students, Biology teacher and Computer teacher-respondents assess the Effectiveness of Technology Intervention Instructional Material in Biology in terms of the following variables? 1.1 Instructional adequacy 1.2 Cosmetic adequacy 1..3 Curriculum adequacy 2. How significant was the difference in the assessment of the student, Biology teacher and Computer teacher-respondent as to the above mentioned variables Null Hypothesis: There is no significant difference between the assessments of the student, Biology teacher and Computer teacher-respondents in the effectiveness of technology intervention instructional material in teaching Biology as regards to instructional, cosmetic, and curriculum adequacies. 3. How significant is the difference between the pretest and posttest scores of the sample student respondents? Null Hypothesis: There is no significant difference in the pretest and posttest scores of the sample student respondent.

The Hypothesis A hypothesis is defined as a wise guess that is formulated and temporarily adopted to explain the observed facts covered by the study. A hypothesis guides the investigator in that it describes the procedure to follow in conducting the study. Hypothesis is important for it tells the investigator what to do and how to go about solving a research problem. The researcher is in a much better position if there are hypotheses to guide him on the kind of data to collect. Types of Hypothesis The null hypothesis (Ho) is a denial of an existence of attribute, a relationship or a difference of an effect. It is always stated in a negative form. In contrast, the alternative hypothesis (H1) is the opposite extreme of the null hypothesis because this is always stated in a positive form. Alternative hypothesis is an affirmation of the existence of an observed phenomenon. EXAMPLE Problem: Is there a significant difference in the mean rank levels of the problem met by Science and Mathematics instructors and professors at the SUC Region 6 (Western Visayas) in school year 2007-2008 in relation to (a) administration and supervision, (b) instructional materials, (c) teacher factor, and (d) student factor? Null Hypothesis (Ho): There is no significant difference in the mean rank levels of the problems met by Science and Mathematics instructors and professors (Ho): X1 = Where: Ho = null hypothesis mean value of the problems met by Science instructors and X1 = professors X1 = 0

X2s = mean value of the problems met by Mathematics instructors and professors Since there is no difference in the mean rank levels of the problems met by Science () and Mathematics () instructors and professors, hence, the difference is equal (=) or zero (0). EXAMPLE

Alternative hypothesis (H1): There is a significant difference in the mean rank levels of the problems met by Science and Mathematics instructors and professors H1: X1 X2 ; either, X1 > X2 or X1 < X2 Since there is a difference in the mean rank levels of the problems met by Science (X1) and Mathematics (X2) instructors and professors, hence, the difference is not equal (=); either X1 is greater than (>) X1 or X2 is lesser than (<)X1 In practice, the null hypothesis is commonly used because it is easy to reject and accept it. For instance, if the result is significant, reject Ho: if insignificant, accept it. In practice , the null hypothesis is popular since, with its use, errors in accepting or rejecting the hypothesis can be easily avoided. Good Hypothesis 1. It should be reasonable. They have been formulated with valid reason. 2. It should be testable. 3. It should conform with the findings of the previous studies. Uses 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. They provide guide and direction to the research They indicate the major independent and dependent variables being considered They suggest the type of data that must be collected They suggest the type of analysis that must be made They indicate the type of statistical masures appropriate to various tests to be conducted.

Assumptions Assumptions are statements of facts related to the research problem which are presumed to be true on the basis of observations and experience although not actually verified. They are stated so as to provide foundation from which the study will proceed, and an additional basis for validation of variables of interest to the study. Assumptions do not require testing nor confirmation. Not all investigations have a section for assumptions. This is so because assumptions are integrated in the introductory portion of the report where the researcher discusses the background of the problem being investigated. Examples:

1. People have certain attitudes toward anything. 2. The subjects under study belong to a certain socio-economic stratification. 3. Administrators or mangers experience job-related tension. 4. Rural families have lesser income than their counterparts in urban areas. Assumptions Assumptions are presumed to be true statements of facts to the related to the research problem. They are clearly stated to give readers of research papers, theses and dissertations a foundation to form conclusions resulting from assumptions. Some researchers may state their assumption outright, but it is advisable that evidences or arguments in support of these assumptions are presented first. Not all studies have a section on assumptions in their study because some of these are included in the background of study. The following are examples of assumptions: 1. The work-oriented curriculum provides the youth rich and varied opportunities to apply classroom learning in real life-situations and to be involved in community development, thereby offering experiences for selfrealization as well as infusing their lives with greater meaning. 2. The work-oriented curriculum has profound implication for home and school cooperation in the development of desirable work habits and practical skillsIn-school experiences must be followed up and encourage at home. 3. Value-oriented, work oriented, and production-oriented curricula are needed to develop socially and economically productive individuals. Scope and Limitations Scope The scope defines the coverage or boundaries of the study in terms of the and for the research issues or concerns to which the investigation is focused area or locality and subjects or population covered, the duration or period of the study, and the research issues or concerns to which the investigation is focused. Limitations are statements which alert the reader of the research report to certain constraints over which the researcher has no control . Such factors or constraints have direct bearing on the result of the study such that, without them, the study would be more encompassing, definitive or conclusive Stating the study limitations not only provides extra credence to the study but provides the reader caution not to expect beyond what the study can and promises to deliver, notwithstanding certain constraints. Examples

The study covers all of the women of reproductive ages of Pasig City. To last for seven months, the study is focused on the knowledge of, attitude towards, and practice of family planning techniques, natural or otherwise. (scope) The study would be more comprehensive if it covers more areas. This will entail more money, man power which the researcher does not have. ( limitations) Definition of terms Serves two essential functions: 1. It establishes the rules and procedures the investigator will use to measure variables 2. It provides unambiguous meaning to terms that otherwise can be interpreted in different ways Two types of Definitions: Conceptual- universal, in that it is the meaning understood by people. It is abstract and more general in nature. The most usual source is dictionary. Operational definition is the meaning of the concept or the term as used in a particular study. Unlike the conceptual definition, it is concrete in that it is subject to measurement. The usual practice when using both type of definition is to state first the conceptual before the operational. Theoretical Framework Some thesis/ dissertation writers use both the theoretical and the conceptual framework; however, it is advisable to use only one, either the theoretical or the conceptual framework. Both theoretical and conceptual frameworks provide clear explanations regarding the relationships of variables. The fact that variables can be shown to be associated but does not guarantee that the relationship of variables has significance. Hence, research study must have theoretic framework as legal basis to describe properly the process of the study. Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework shapes the justification of the research problem/research objectives in order to provide the legal basis for defining its parameters. It is desirable for an investigator to identify key concepts that are used in the study for better understanding of the role of the theory in research. Theoretical framework is a symbolic construction which uses abstract concepts, facts or laws, variables and their relations that explains and predicts how an observed phenomenon exists and operates. An investigator is required to formulate existing

theories which link his study because theories are useful devise for interpreting, criticizing, and unifying established scientific laws or facts that guide in discovering new generalizations. Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework presents specific and well defined concepts which are called constructs. It function is similar with theoretical framework because the constructs used are derived from abstract concepts of the theoretical framework. EXAMPLE
Theoretical Conceptual

Independent Variable
Educational Qualifications B.S. MS/MA, Ph D/Ed. D.

Intervening Variable
Values Age, Sex, C. Status Social and economic status Attitudes toward work Etc.

Dependent Variable
Performance Outstanding Very Satisfactory Satisfactory Fair Unsatisfactory

Scope and Limitation of the Study Scope and limitation of the study is an important section of a thesis, dissertation, and research paper. This includes the coverage of the study area, the subjects, the research instruments, the research issues or concerns, the duration of the study, and the constraints that have direct bearing on the result of the study. This is the last section of a thesis, dissertation, and research paper in chapter 1. Theses and dissertation do not include this section of the study if there are more than fifteen terms defined because this portion is for the glossary. In this section, the key terms are clearly defined. There are two ways to define the key terms used in the study:] 1. Conceptual Definition. The definitions of terms are based on concepts or hypothetic ones which are usually taken from the dictionary. 2. Operational definition. The definitions of terms are based on observable characteristics and how it is used in the study. It is advisable that the researcher should use two ways in defining the terms to make the meaning clear. The operational definition is preferable when defining technical terms.


Sampling is the procedure a researcher uses to gather people, places, or things to study. Research conclusions and generalizations are only as good as the sample they are based on. Samples are always subsets or small parts of the total number that could be studied. If you were to sample everybody and everything, that would be called a quota sample. Most research, however, involves non-quota samples. For example, if you were interested in state prison systems, you might sample 15 or so state prison systems. There are formulas for determining sample size, but the main thing is to be practical. For a small population of interest, you would most likely need to sample about 10-30% of that population; for a large population of interest (over 150,000), you could get by with a sample as low as 1%. Before gathering your sample, it's important to find out as much as possible about your population. Population refers to the larger group from which the sample is taken. You should at least know some of the overall demographics; age, sex, class, etc., about your population. This information will be needed later after you get to the data analysis part of your research, but it's also important in helping you decide sample size. The greater the diversity and differences that exist in your population, the larger your sample size should be. Capturing the variability in your population allows for more variation in

your sample, and since many statistical tests operate on the principles of variation, you'll be making sure the statistics used later can do their powerful stuff. After you've learned all the theoretically important things about your population, you then have to obtain a list or contact information on those who are accessible or can be contacted. This procedure for listing all the accessible members of your population is called the sampling frame. If you were planning on doing a phone survey, for example, the phone book would be your sampling frame. Make sure your sampling frame is appropriate for the population you want to study. In this case, the Census Dept. says that 93% of us have a phone, so that's not too bad, but you have to decide if any of the unique characteristics of people you're interested in studying are lost by selecting a restrictive sampling frame. The term refers to the procedure rather than the list. It's important for researchers to discuss their sampling frame because that's what ensures that systematic error, or bias, hasn't entered into your study. Then, you are ready to draw your sample. There are two basic approaches to sampling: probabilistic and nonprobabilistic. If the purpose of your research is to draw conclusions or make predictions affecting the population as a whole (as most research usually is), then you must a use probabilistic sampling approach. On the other hand, if you're only interested in seeing how a small group, perhaps even a representative group, is doing for purposes of illustration or explanation, then you can use a nonprobabilistic sampling approach. The key component behind all probabilistic sampling approaches is randomization, or random selection. Don't confuse random selection with random assignment. Random

selection is how you draw the sample. Random assignment is how you assign people in your sample to different groups for experimental or control group purposes. People, places, or things are randomly selected when each unit in the population has an equal chance of being selected. Various methods have been established to accomplish probabilistic sampling:

Simple random sampling -- All you need is a relatively small, selfcontained, or clearly defined population to use this method. The population of the U.S. might be too big, but a city of say 60,000 or so would be appropriate. You simply obtain a list of all residents, and then using a sequence of numbers from a random numbers table (or draws of a hat, flips of a coin), select, say 10%, 20%, or some portion of names on that list, making sure you aren't drawing from any letter of the alphabet more heavily than others. Stratified random sampling -- This method is appropriate when you're interested in correcting for gender, race, or age disparities in your population. Say you're planning to study the impact of police training on mid-level career cynicism, and you know that gender is going to be an important factor because female police officers rarely take this kind of training and/or quit before making it to their mid-level career stage. You therefore need to stratify your sample by the gender strata, making sure that you oversample females (draw more of random number of females) as opposed to males (which you would undersample). For example, if the department has 1000 employees consisting of 900 males and 100 females, and you intend on sampling 10% of the total, then you proceed randomly as usual, drawing 90 males at random and 10 females at random. If you had used the employee list of names, regardless of gender, you might not have obtained 10 females at random because there's so few of them.

Systematic random sampling -- Suppose you had a huge list of people,

places, or things to select from, like 100,000 people or more. The appropriate method to use is to select every 10th, 20th, or 30th person from that list. Your decision to use every 10th, 20th, or 30th person is called your sampling interval, and as long as you do it systematically and use the entire list, you're accomplishing the same thing as random sampling.

Cluster (area) random sampling -- Suppose you have a population that is

dispersed across a wide geographic region. This method allows you to divide this population into clusters (usually counties, census tracts, or other boundaries) and then randomly sample everyone in those clusters. For example, you could randomly select 5 of North Carolina's 100 counties, but you would have to make sure that almost every person in those 5 counties participated in your study. As an alternative, you could systematically

sample within your clusters, and this is called multi-stage sampling, which refers generally to any mixing of sampling methods. Various methods have also been established to accomplish nonprobabilistic sampling:

Quota sampling -- As discussed earlier, sampling everybody and

everything is quota sampling. The problem with it is that bias intrudes on the sampling frame. One the researcher identifies the people to be studied, they have to resort to haphazard or accidental sampling because no effort is usually made to contact people who are difficult to reach in the quota. Convenience sampling -- Also called haphazard or accidental, this method is based on using people who are a captive audience, just happen to be walking by, or show a special interest in your research. The use of volunteers is an example of convenience sampling.

Purposive sampling -- This is where the researcher targets a group of

people believed to be typical or average, or a group of people specially picked for some unique purpose. The researcher never knows if the sample is representative of the population, and this method is largely limited to exploratory research.

Snowball sampling -- Also called network, chain, or reputational, this

method begins with a few people or cases and then gradually increases the sample size as new contacts are mentioned by the people you started out with. THE SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION

The sampling distribution is a hypothetical device that figuratively represents the distribution of a statistic (some number you've obtained from your sample) across an infinite number of samples. You have to remember than your sample is just one of a potentially infinite number of samples that could have been drawn. While it's very likely that any statistics you generate from your sample would be near the center of the sampling distribution, just by luck of the draw, the researcher normally wants to find out exactly where the center of this sampling distribution is. That's because the center of the sampling distribution represents the best estimate of the population average, and the population is what you want to make inferences to. The average of the sampling distribution is the population parameter, and inference is all about making generalizations from statistics (sample) to parameters (population). You can use some of the information you've collected thus far to calculate the sampling distribution, or more accurately, the sampling error. In statistics, any standard deviation of a sampling distribution is referred to as the standard error

(to keep it separate in our minds from standard deviation). In sampling, the standard error is referred to as sampling error. Definitions are as follows:

Standard deviation -- the spread of scores around the average in a single


Standard error -- the spread of averages around the average of averages in

a hypothetical sampling distribution

You never actually see the sampling distribution. All you have to work with is the standard deviation of your sample. The greater your standard deviation, the greater the standard error (and your sampling error). Standard error is also related to sample size. The larger your sample, the smaller the standard error. You're not reducing bias or anything by increasing sample size, only coming closer to the total number in the population. Validity and sampling error are somewhat similar. However, you can estimate population parameters from even small samples. The best way to estimate population parameters is to use a confidence interval approach. Take the mean score on some variable in your sample and calculate the standard deviation for it. Then, assuming a bell-shaped curve (or normal distribution which is OK to assume), add your standard deviation to the mean (going one direction on the x-axis under the curve), and then subtract your standard deviation from the mean (going the other direction). The standard rule is that 65% of cases in real life (the population) will be between these extremes. If you add and subtract two standard deviations from the mean, another rule states that approximately 95% of scores in real life will fall between these two extremes. If you go out three standard deviations, you include 99% of the cases. With the 65, 95, and 99 percent rules, you are actually predicting population characteristics, and all this from just your sample. You've made the first application of your research study to the wider population of interest. All you need to know is how to calculate a standard deviation, and the formula appears below:

SOURCE: Trochim, William M. The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 2nd Edition. Internet WWW page, at URL: <> (version current as of 06/29/00).

REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1. How do researchers decide how large a sample to use? 2. What is a sampling frame and why is it important? 3. When should a researcher use nonprobabilistic sampling? 4. How is the logic of validity and sampling error related? PRACTICUM: For each of the following, determine whether the sampling method used is SR (Simple random), ST (Stratified random), SY (Systematic random), or NP (nonprobabilistic): A. Drawing names out of a hat B. Picking out typical criminals from a prison lineup C. Going into a room and asking for volunteers D. Randomly selecting within variable subgroups E. Selecting every name on the first page of a phone book F. Putting a survey on the Internet for people to respond by computer G. Dialing random telephone numbers H. Flipping a coin while going down a list one-by-one Significance of the Study The significance of the study in a thesis/dissertation or in a research paper is a must. For research projects seeking for financial assistance by other agencies, significance of the study should be presented comprehensively in order to convince the screening committee of the importance of the study.

It is in this section where the researcher expresses his persuasions about the value of the study so as to get the approval of the screening and approving committee and the support of the funding institution. The discussion of the significance of the study is presented either in the inductive or deductive perspective. In an inductive perspective, the researcher moves from the particular to the general, and presents the importance of the study from the target beneficiaries, to the researcher himself, to the people in the community, to the people in the province, region and nation. Likewise in a deductive perspective, general to particular, discussion of the importance of the study starts first from the national level to the researcher himself and to the target beneficiaries. The investigator should prove that the study has important contributions in relation to (a) solving the problem and need, (b) bridging a knowledge gap, (c) improving social, economic and health conditions, (d) enriching research instruments and methods, and (e) supporting government thrusts. The significance of the study may be presented from different perspectives. For example if the study is on social concerns, its contributions may be viewed from the point of view of the planners and decision makers, the implementers, the funding institution, and the target beneficiaries. Activity: Submit the first part of your research. Review of Related Literature: Literature: all the writings of a particular time, countryvalued for excellence Any written materialpoetry, a novel, a book or an article.. which meets the required character, form and expression Reports on studies or investigations is one form of literature Why the Review 1. Provide researchers knowledge and background on the subject under study 2. Enable the researcher to avoid duplicating or doing the same study that was already done before. Unless the researchers aim is to find out the change over time on the same issue. 3. The review provides the researcher information about the aspects of the problem which have not been investigated or explored before. 4. By reviewing related literature, the researcher will be helped in developing various parts of his study such as definition of problems and terms, research

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

design, data gathering techniques and instrument, level and statistical tools for analysis and form of report and style presentation. The review provides the researcher insight on the weakness and problems of previous studies. It will give him ideas on how to handle or avoid the same problems which he may encounter in his own study. It also provides the researcher ideas how to proceed with his investigation. It will give him guidance on how and where to start. In relational study, review provides the researcher basis in determining what variables are related with each other, the types of their relationship, and how to analyze and measure these relationships. The review provides findings and conclusions of the past studies which the researcher may relate to his own findings and conclusions. Studies reviewed will provide the researcher motivation and impetus that will ensure a good progress toward the goal of completing his study. Some requirements for the review: 1. Involves systematic identification, location and critical analysis of documents which contain information related to the research topic. 2. Requires good knowledge of techniques and tools as well as the skill in knowing library resources. 3. There is a need for the researcher to carry 3x5-inch index cards and a pen Guides in Doing the Review 1. Examine what is already on hand 2. List all the titles of relevant resources- working bibliography Bibliography: refers to the editions, dates, authorship, publisher, etc. of books and other writings 3. With his working bibliography as a guide, he proceeds to examine each material. a. His first reading maybe done superficially without paying attention to details since the goal here is identify paragraphs which are related to his research. b. Examine carefully those parts of the article which have bearing or connection to his particular study. 4. In note taking, the researcher must start with bibliographical information which he will write on the top most left hand corner of the index card. 5. Enclose with quotation marks direct quotations Example: Kendall, M.G. Rank Correlation Methods .Fourth Edition. London: Charles Griffin and Company, Ltd., 1970.

Parel, Crisitina P. et al. Introduction to Statistical Methods. Manila: Macaraig Publishing Company, Inc., 1966. Presidential Decree No. 146. National College Entrance Examination March 9, 1973. Ferguson, George A. Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. Fourth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1976. Sims, Verner M. The Objectivity, Reliability and Validity of an Essay Examination Graded by Rating Journal of Educational Research.24:216223. De Guzman, Anita G. Educational Tests and Measurements Mimeographed.1974. Darley, John G. and Theda Hagenah. Vocational Interest Measurement. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press, 1984. Youde, Sheryl R. Sociological Analysis of the Acceptance and Rejection of Modern Medical Practice in the Philippine Barrio, Masters Thesis, University of the Philippines, 1960. Paz de Leon, Reneecilia B. Graduate Education in CABARZON, Dissertation, University of Rizal System, 2001. Activity: Submit a review of literature related to the topic of your research. Exploration of Descriptive Design: Descriptive: Descriptive research is a design which aims to describe the nature of the situation as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the causes of particular phenomena. (Travers, 1978) Most common means of obtaining information Descriptive research Forms: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. survey case study content analyses trend analyses feasibility study

6. correlational study

This can be determined with: Objectives of the study Research design Operational feasibility Availability of resources that includes money, time and personnel Types of research Data Data refers to research results from which inferences are drawn.(Kerlinger, 1986) They can be classified according to source and form By source data can be classified as primary and secondary Primary data are those which are directly gathered from informants of the study.

Secondary data are those which have been previously gathered, compiled
and are made available for the researcher for examination and analysis. By form, data can be quantitative or qualitative. Quantitative when data are numerical in nature and have the property or measurability Qualitative when data are descriptions of the basic nature of characteristics of the object under investigation. Data Collection Methods Observation is one of the earliest methods for collecting data.(Ardales,1987). The observer watches closely the overt behaviors of the subjects under investigation in various natural settings Participant Observation when the researcher actually participates to a certain extent in the activities of the group. Non participant Observation is when the group is not aware they are being observed.

Observation may be classified into two other categories: 1. Structured and 2. Unstructured Structured- the researcher knows what aspects of the group activity are relevant to his or her purposes and is therefore in the position to develop a specific plan for the making and recording of observations before the collection of data. The researcher uses an observation guide. Unstructured observation is open and flexible. The researcher is not restricted to his observation guide. The researcher is even free to change the objectives of the study. In doing a study of a social institution, the researchers observation should be focused on these common elements: 1. Participants- who are they, how many, how they are related with one another 2. The setting- location, appearance, kinds of behavior it encourages, permits or discourages or prevents 3. The purpose-what purpose brought the participants together, how the participants react to it, rejection 4. The social behavior- what participants do, how they do it and with whom and with what do they do it 5. Frequency and duration- when the situation occurred, how long it lasted, how frequently it occurred and what occasions gave rise to it. Interviews Mans oldest device for obtaining observation Two types of Interview: Structured Unstructured Questionnaire Set of carefully prepared AND LOGICALLY ORDERED QUESTIONS Guide: 1. On Content

Is the question necessary? Are the several questions needed on the subject matter of the questions? Do respondents have the information necessary to answer the questions? Does the question need to be specific, concrete and closely related to the respondents personal experience? Is the question so specific such that it elicits inaccurate or misleading responses? Do the replies express general attitudes and only seem to be as specific as they sound? Is the question content biased or loaded in one direction, without accompanying questions to balance the emphasis? Will the respondents give information that is asked for?

2. On Question Wording Can the question be misunderstood? Does it contain difficult or unclear phraseology? Does the question adequately express the alternatives with respect to the points? Is the question misleading because of unstated assumptions or unseen implications? Is the frame of reference clear and uniform for all respondents? Is the question wording biased? Is it emotionally loaded or slanted toward a particular kind of answer? Is the question wording likely to be objectionable to the respondent in any way? Would a more personalized or less personalized wording of the question produce better results? Can the question be better asked in a more direct or a more indirect form? 3. On the Form of response Can the question be best asked in a form calling for check answer (or, short answer of a word or two, or a number), free answer, or check answer with follow-up free answer? If a check list is used, which is the best type for this question dichotomous, multiple choice or scale? Is a check list is used, does it cover adequately all the significant alternatives without overlapping and in a defensible order? Is the form of response easy, definite, uniform, and adequate for the purpose? 4. On the Place of the Question in the sequence Is the answer to the question likely to be influenced by the content of preceding question?

Is the question led up to in a natural way? Is it in correct psychological order? Does the question come too early or too late from the point of view of arousing interest and receiving sufficient attention, avoiding resistance, etc?