Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 24

ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1

Page 1
Question 1 (a)

Schematic:

Known:

Standard Conditions:
Temperature, T
s
= 15 C = 288 K
Pressure, P
s
= 1 atm = 101.3 kPa
Volumetric Flow Rate,
'
s
V = 600,000 m
3
/day = 6.944 m
3
/s

Actual Line Conditions:
Temperature, T = 22 C
Upstream Pressure, P
1
= 900 kPa
Pipe Diameter, D = 300 mm = 0.3 m
Pipe Length, L = 5 km
Viscosity of Propane,
p
=
6
9 10

Pa s

Properties:
Molecular Weight of Propane, M = 44 g/mol =
3
44 10

kg/mol
Assumptions:
Assume isothermal conditions, where there will be no temperature changes along the pipe.
Assume compressible flow, where density varies along the pipe.
Assume commercial steel, thus roughness, c = 0.046 mm.
Assume kinetic energy negligible.

T = 22 C (propane)
P
1
= 900kPa

D = 300 mm; L = 5 km
P
2
= ?

ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 2
Analysis:

Volumetric Flow Rate of propane, V in Actual Line Conditions,
Using Ideal Gas Law,
'
'
3 1
'
' 3 1
101.3 6.944 288
900 295
0.801
s s s
PV T
PV T
kPa m s K
kPa V K
V m s

=

Velocity of fluid,
'
3 1
2
2
1
0.801
0.3
4
11.33
V
v
A
m s
m
v ms
t

=
=

=

Density of fluid,
3 1
3 1
1
900 44 10
16.15
8.314 295
PM kPa kg mol
kgm
RT K

= = =

Reynolds Number,
3 1
6
6
16.146 11.33 0.3
Re 6.10 10
9 10
vD kgm ms m
Pa s

= = =

Thus, its a turbulent flow.
Relative roughness, (commercial steel)
4
0.046
1.53 10
300
mm
D mm
c

= =
Friction Factor,
Refer Moody Chart,
0.013 f =

ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 3
Pressure Drop,
2 2 2 2 1 1
1 2 1
1
2 2 2
2
2 11
2
2
( )
5000 900
(900 ) 0.013 16.15 11.33
0.3
4.06 10
636.97
P LP L
P P fG f v
D D
kPa
kPa P
P
P kPa

= =

=
=
=

Therefore, the Downstream Pressure, P
2
= 636.97 kPa.

To check assumption of negligible kinetic energy,
Kinetic Energy Term,
( )
3
3 2
2
2 2 1 1
1
2 2
2
636.95 44 10
11.43
8.314 295
ln( ) ( ) ln( )
16.15
16.15 11.33 ln
11.43
11.57
P M kPa
kgm
RT K
G v
kPa

= = =

=
| |
=
|
\ .
=

The Kinetic Energy Term (11.57 kPa) is relatively small compared to the Pressure Drop
Term (636.97 kPa). Therefore, assumption of neglecting it can be accepted.

ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 4
Question 1 (b)

Known:

Volumetric Flow Rate, V = 0.801 m
3
/s
Velocity of Fluid, v = 11.33 m/s
Upstream Pressure, P
1
= 900 kPa
Upstream Density,
1
= 16.15 kg/m
3

Downstream Pressure, P
2
= 750 kPa
Length of Pipe, L = 5 km = 5000 m
Temperature of Fluid, T = 25 C = 298 K
Assumptions:
Assume isothermal conditions. Assume compressible flow. Assume negligible kinetic energy.
Analysis:
Diameter of Pipe,
Using Pressure Drop equation,
2 2 2 2 1 1
1 2 1
1
2 2 2
( )
5000 900
(900 750 ) 0.013 16.15 11.33
0.49
P LP L
P P fG f v
D D
kPa
kPa kPa
D
D m

= =

=
=

Therefore, the required Diameter of Pipe, D is 0.49 m or 490 mm.
ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 5
Question 1 (c)
Known:
Standard Conditions:
Temperature, T
s
= 15 C = 288 K
Pressure, P
s
= 1 atm = 101.3 kPa
Volumetric Flow Rate,
'
s
V = 600,000 m
3
/day = 6.944 m
3
/s

Actual Line Conditions:
Downstream Pressure, P
2
= 750 kPa
Length of Pipe, L = 5 km = 5000 m
Diameter of Pipe, D = 0.3 m
Temperature of Fluid, T = 25 C = 298 K
Assumptions:
Assume isothermal conditions. Assume compressible flow. Assume negligible kinetic energy.
Analysis:
Volumetric Flow Rate of propane, V in Actual Line Conditions,
Using Ideal Gas Law,
'
'
3 1
'
1
3
'
1
101.3 6.944 288
295
720.52 10
s s s
PV T
PV T
kPa m s K
P V K
V
P

=

Velocity of fluid,
'
3
1
2
2
6
1
720.52 10
0.3
4
10.19 10
V
v
A
P
m
v
P
t
=

=

ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 6

Density of fluid,
3 1
5 1 1
1 1
44 10
1.79 10
8.314 295
PM P kg mol
P
RT K

= = =

Upstream Pressure,
2 2 2 2 1 1
1 2 1
1
6
2 2 5 2 1
1 1
1
2 11
1
1
( )
5000 10.19 10
( 750 ) 0.013 1.79 10 ( )
0.3
9.65 10
982.45
P LP L
P P fG f v
D D
P
P kPa P
P
P
P kPa

= =

=
=
=

Therefore, the required Upstream Pressure, P
1
is 982.45 kPa.
ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 7
Question 2

Schematic:

Known:

Mass Flow Rate of Liquid, m
L
= 20 kg/s
Mass Flow Rate of Gas, m
G
= 0.5 kg/s
Temperature, T = 100 C
Upstream Pressure, P
1
= 400 kPa
Downstream Pressure, P
2
= 130 kPa
Length of Pipe, L = 50 m
Diameter of Pipe, D = 100 mm = 0.1 m
Density of Liquid,
L
= 1220 kg/m
3

Viscosity, =
3
0.5 10

Pa s

Assumptions:
Isothermal conditions
Two-phase flow
Ideal gas (compressible)
Commercial steel pipe with roughness, = 0.046 mm.

m
L
= 20 kg/s
(carbonate solution)
m
G
= 0.5 kg/s
(carbon dioxide gas)
D = 100 mm; L = 50 m
P
1
= 400 kPa
T = 100 C
P
2
= 130 kPa
ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 8
Analysis:
At Point X = 0 m
Density of Gas,
G
,
3
3 1
400 44 10
5.68
8.314 373
G
PM kPa
kgm
RT K

= = =

Mass Flux of Liquid phase, L, and Gas phase, G,
1
1 2
2
1
1 2
2
' 20
2546.48
0.1
4
' 0.5
63.66
0.1
4
L
G
m kgs
L kgs m
A
m kgs
G kgs m
A
t
t

= = =

= = =

Reynolds Number,
1 2
3
3
1 2
3
3
Re
2546.48 0.1
Re 12.73 10
0.5 10

Re
63.66 0.1
Re 509.30 10
0.5 10
L
L
L
G
G
G
vD LD
kgs m m
Pa s
vD GD
kgs m m
Pa s

= =

= =

= =

= =

Therefore, both phases are of turbulent flow.
Relative roughness, (commercial steel)
4
0.046
4.6 10
100
mm
D mm
c

= =
Friction Factor,
Refer Moody Chart,
0.0173
0.018
L
G
f
f
=
=

Pressure Drop of Liquid phase, P
L
, and Gas phase, P
G
at X = 0 m,
ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 9
2 1 2 2
1
3
2 1 2 2
1
3
0.0173 (2546.48 )
467.43
2 2 1220 0.1
0.018 (63.66 )
64.21
2 2 5.68 0.1
L
L
G
G
P fL kgs m
Pa m
X D kgm m
P fG kgs m
Pa m
X D kgm m

A
= = =

A
= = =

467.43
2.30
64.21
L
G
P
P
_
A
= = =
A

Using the Chisholm equation to find
L
,
(TT-Flow)
2
2
2
20 1
1
20 1
1
2.30 2.30
9.88
L
_ _
u = + +
= + +
=

2
1
9.88 467.43
4.62
TP
L L
P
P
X
kPa m

A
= u A
=
=

Therefore, the two-phase pressure gradient at point X = 0 m is 4.62 kPa/m.

At Point X = 50 m
Density of Gas,
G
,
3
3 1
130 44 10
1.84
8.314 373
G
PM kPa
kgm
RT K

= = =

Pressure Drop of Liquid phase, P
L
, and Gas phase, P
G
at X = 0 m,
2 1 2 2
1
3
2 1 2 2
1
3
0.0173 (2546.48 )
467.43
2 2 1220 0.1
0.018 (63.66 )
198.22
2 2 1.84 0.1
L
L
G
G
P fL kgs m
Pa m
X D kgm m
P fG kgs m
Pa m
X D kgm m

A
= = =

A
= = =

ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 10

467.43
1.54
198.22
L
G
P
P
_
A
= = =
A

Using the Chisholm equation to find
L
,
(TT-Flow)
2
2
2
20 1
1
20 1
1
1.54 1.54
14.41
L
_ _
u = + +
= + +
=

2
1
14.41 467.43
6.74
TP
L L
P
P
X
kPa m

A
= u A
=
=

Therefore, the two-phase pressure gradient at point X = 50 m is 6.74 kPa/m.

1
4.62 6.74
5.68
2
TP
avg
P
kPa m
X

A + | |
= =
|
\ .

Actual Pressure Drop,
400 130 270 P kPa kPa kPa A = =

Overall Pressure Drop calculated from the Average Pressure Gradient,
1
5.68 50
284
TP
avg
P
P X
X
kPa m m
kPa

A | |
A =
|
\ .
=
=

The value of the Overall Pressure Drop (284 kPa) calculated from the Average Pressure
Gradient is considered quite accurate compared to the Actual Pressure Drop (270 kPa). Thus,
it is acceptable to use the Average Pressure Gradient to estimate the Overall Pressure Drop
along the pipe.
ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 11
Question 3

Schematic:

Known:

Mass Flow Rate of Liquid, m
L
= 20 kg/s
Mass Flow Rate of Gas, m
G
= 0.5 kg/s
Temperature, T = 100 C
Downstream Pressure, P
2
= 130 kPa
Length of Pipe, L = 50 m
Diameter of Pipe, D = 100 mm = 0.1 m
Density of Liquid,
L
= 1220 kg/m
3

Viscosity, =
3
0.5 10

Pa s

Assumptions:

Assume isothermal conditions
Assume two-phase flow
Assume commercial steel pipe with roughness, = 0.046 mm.

Analysis:

Mass Flux of Liquid phase, L, and Gas phase, G,
2 1
2 2
2 1
2 2
48 . 2546
4
1 . 0
/ 20
4
66 . 63
4
1 . 0
/ 5 . 0
4

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
m kgs
m
s kg
D
m
A
m
L
m kgs
m
s kg
D
m
A
m
G
L L
G G
t t
t t

m
L
= 20 kg/s
(carbonate solution)
m
G
= 0.5 kg/s
(carbon dioxide gas)

D = 100 mm; L = 50 m

T = 100 C
P
2
= 130 kPa
ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 12

Reynolds Number,
3
3
2 1
3
3
2 1
10 30 . 509
10 5 . 0
1 . 0 48 . 2546
Re
10 73 . 12
10 5 . 0
1 . 0 66 . 63
Re
=

= =
=

= =

s Pa
m m kgs GD
s Pa
m m kgs GD
L
G

Therefore, both phases are of turbulent flow.

Relative roughness, (commercial steel)
4
10 6 . 4
100
046 . 0

= =
mm
mm
D
c

Friction Factor,
Refer Moody Chart,
0173 . 0
018 . 0
=
=
L
G
f
f

Density of gas,
To calculate the pressure drop for gas, we first have to find the density of gas.

3
1 1
3
/ 8445 . 1
373 314 . 8
1000
1 44
10 130
m kg
K K Pamol
g
kg
mol
g
Pa
RT
PM
=

= =

Pressure Drop of Liquid phase, P
L
, and Gas phase, P
G

Pa
D
X f G
D
X f
P
g
g
G
09 . 9887
8445 . 1 1 . 0 2
50 66 . 63 018 . 0
2 2
2 2
2
=

= = = A

v

Pa
D
X fG
D
X f
P
l
l
L
298 . 22988
1220 1 . 0 2
50 48 . 2546 0173 . 0
2 2
2 2 2
=

= = = A

v

ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 13

5248 . 1
06 . 9887
298 . 22988
= =
A
A
=
G
L
P
P
_

Using the Chisholm equation to find
L
, (TT-Flow)

kPa
P P
P
kPa P
P
P P P
kPa
P P
avg
gl
l l gl
l
l
198 . 297
2
396 . 434 130
2
396 . 434
130 396 . 334

396 . 334
298 . 22988 5466 . 14
5464 . 14
5248 . 1
1
5248 . 1
20
1
1 20
1
2 1
1
1
2 1
2
2
2
2
2
=
+
=
+
=
=
=
= A
=
=
A u = A
= + + = u
+ + = u
_ _

Therefore, by using the calculated P
avg
, we will recalculate the density and continue these
steps till it meets the convergent point and the error less than 5%.
Iteration 2

3
1 1
3
/ 2168 . 4
373 314 . 8
1000
1 44
10 198 . 297
m kg
K K Pamol
g
kg
mol
g
Pa
RT
PM
=

= =

Pressure Drop of Liquid phase, P
L
, and Gas phase, P
G

Pa
D
X f G
D
X f
P
g
g
G
80 . 4324
2168 . 4 1 . 0 2
50 66 . 63 018 . 0
2 2
2 2
2
=

= = = A

v

ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 14
Pa
D
X fG
D
X f
P
l
l
L
298 . 22988
1220 1 . 0 2
50 48 . 2546 0173 . 0
2 2
2 2 2
=

= = = A

v

3055 . 2
80 . 4324
298 . 22988
= =
A
A
=
G
L
P
P
_

Using the Chisholm equation to find
L
, (TT-Flow)

kPa P
P
P P P
kPa
P P
gl
l l gl
l
l
732 . 356
130 732 . 226

732 . 226
298 . 22988 8629 . 9
8629 . 9
3055 . 2
1
3055 . 2
20
1
1 20
1
1
1
2 1
2
2
2
2
2
=
=
= A
=
=
A u = A
= + + = u
+ + = u
_ _

kPa
P P
P
avg
366 . 178
2
732 . 356 130
2
2 1
=
+
=
+
=

Iteration 3

3
1 1
3
/ 5307 . 2
373 314 . 8
1000
1 44
10 366 . 178
m kg
K K Pamol
g
kg
mol
g
Pa
RT
PM
=

= =

Pressure Drop of Liquid phase, P
L
, and Gas phase, P
G

ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 15
Pa
D
X f G
D
X f
P
g
g
G
09 . 7206
5307 . 2 1 . 0 2
50 66 . 63 018 . 0
2 2
2 2
2
=

= = = A

v

Pa
D
X fG
D
X f
P
l
l
L
298 . 22988
1220 1 . 0 2
50 48 . 2546 0173 . 0
2 2
2 2 2
=

= = = A

v

7861 . 1
09 . 7206
298 . 22988
= =
A
A
=
G
L
P
P
_

Using the Chisholm equation to find
L
, (TT-Flow)

kPa P
P
P P P
kPa
P P
gl
l l gl
l
l
609 . 417
130 609 . 287

609 . 287
298 . 22988 5111 . 12
5111 . 12
7861 . 1
1
7861 . 1
20
1
1 20
1
1
1
2 1
2
2
2
2
2
=
=
= A
=
=
A u = A
= + + = u
+ + = u
_ _

kPa
P P
P
avg
805 . 208
2
609 . 417 130
2
2 1
=
+
=
+
=
Iteration 4

3
1 1
3
/ 9626 . 2
373 314 . 8
1000
1 44
10 805 . 208
m kg
K K Pamol
g
kg
mol
g
Pa
RT
PM
=

= =

Pressure Drop of Liquid phase, P
L
, and Gas phase, P
G

Pa
D
X f G
D
X f
P
g
g
G
62 . 6155
9626 . 2 1 . 0 2
50 66 . 63 018 . 0
2 2
2 2
2
=

= = = A

v

ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 16
Pa
D
X fG
D
X f
P
l
l
L
298 . 22988
1220 1 . 0 2
50 48 . 2546 0173 . 0
2 2
2 2 2
=

= = = A

v

9325 . 1
62 . 6155
298 . 22988
= =
A
A
=
G
L
P
P
_

Using the Chisholm equation to find
L
, (TT-Flow)
kPa P
P
P P P
kPa
P P
gl
l l gl
l
l
058 . 397
130 058 . 267

058 . 267
298 . 22988 6171 . 11
6171 . 11
9325 . 1
1
9325 . 1
20
1
1 20
1
1
1
2 1
2
2
2
2
2
=
=
= A
=
=
A u = A
= + + = u
+ + = u
_ _

kPa
P P
P
avg
529 . 198
2
058 . 397 130
2
2 1
=
+
=
+
=
Iteration 5

3
1 1
3
/ 8168 . 2
373 314 . 8
1000
1 44
10 529 . 198
m kg
K K Pamol
g
kg
mol
g
Pa
RT
PM
=

= =

Pressure Drop of Liquid phase, P
L
, and Gas phase, P
G

Pa
D
X f G
D
X f
P
g
g
G
23 . 6474
8168 . 2 1 . 0 2
50 66 . 63 018 . 0
2 2
2 2
2
=

= = = A

v

Pa
D
X fG
D
X f
P
l
l
L
298 . 22988
1220 1 . 0 2
50 48 . 2546 0173 . 0
2 2
2 2 2
=

= = = A

v

8843 . 1
23 . 6474
298 . 22988
= =
A
A
=
G
L
P
P
_
ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 17

Using the Chisholm equation to find
L
, (TT-Flow)

kPa P
P
P P P
kPa
P P
gl
l l gl
l
l
456 . 403
130 456 . 273

456 . 273
298 . 22988 8954 . 11
8954 . 11
8843 . 1
1
8843 . 1
20
1
1 20
1
1
1
2 1
2
2
2
2
2
=
=
= A
=
=
A u = A
= + + = u
+ + = u
_ _

kPa
P P
P
avg
728 . 201
2
456 . 403 130
2
2 1
=
+
=
+
=

Since there has been five iterations done, the approximated error value could be checked
using the results.

% 611 . 1 % 100
397.058
397.058 - 403.456
= = Error

The difference of P
1
between the last 2 iterations is less than 5%, the acceptable value for P1
is 404kPa.

ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 18
Question 4

Schematic:

Known:

Density of particles,
P
= 1500 kg/m
3

Density of gas,
g
= 0.7 kg/m
3

Viscosity, = 1.9x10
-5
Pa s

Assumptions:
Uniform fluid velocity
Negligible selective velocity between particle of gas
Particles do not interact

Question 4 (a)
Analysis:
Derive
HU
L g d
f p
d

q
18
) (
2

= ,
Given,
t
L
t
s
v = =

Residence time,
U
L
t =

Velocity in vertical direction,
t
H
V
t
=

2
1
Gas inlet Gas outlet H
L
ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 19
2
s
1
Combining and ,
L
HU
V
t
=

For a single particle, use Stokes Law,

18
) (
p
2
0
g d
V
f
t

=

Efficiency of particles is given as,
t
t
d
V
V
0
= q

t
f
d
V
g d

q
18
) (
p
2

=

) ( 18
) (
p
2
L
HU
g d
f

=

) ( 18
) (
p
2
L
HU
g d
f

=

HU
gL d
f

18
) (
p
2

=

HU
L g d
f
d

q
18
) (
p
2

=

Question 4 (b)
Analysis:
Stokes Law Region Re
p
= 0.3 or 0.3
vD
C
p
D

24
Re
24
= =

2
3
2
) (
Re
4
3

g D
C Ar
p
p D

= =

Assume Re = 0.3,
( ) 4 . 5 3 . 0
3 . 0
24
4
3
2
=
|
.
|

\
|
= Ar

ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 20
2
s
m
2
3
) (

g D
Ar
p

=

( )( )( )
( ) ( ) 4 . 5 . 10 9 . 1
81 . 9 7 . 0 7 . 0 1500
) (
1
2
5
2 3 3 3
2 3
s Pa x
s m kgm kgm kgm
Ar
g
D
p

3 3 13
10 8934 . 1 m x D

=

m x D
5
10 74 . 5

=

m D 4 . 57 =

The value of D is the upper limit of particle size for which Stokes law applies. The upper
limit occurs when Re = 0.3.

Question 4 (c)
Known:
Volumetric flow rate of gas, Q = 0.9
s
m
3

m x m D
6
10 30 30 particles, spherical of Diameter

= =

Height of chamber, H = 3m
Length of chamber, L = 10m
Width of chamber, W = 2m
Density of particles,
P
= 1500 kg/m
3

Density of gas,
g
= 0.7 kg/m
3

Viscosity, = 1.9x10
-5
Pa s
Gravity, G = 9.81

Analysis:
Area of flow,
A = H x W
= 3 x 2
= 6m
2

Velocity of flow from volumetric flow,
A
Q
V =

ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 21
m 30

2
3
6
9 . 0
m
s
m
=

s
m
15 . 0 =

Determine the collection efficiency for spherical particles of diameter ,
Collection efficiency,
HU
L g d
f
d

q
18
) (
p
2

=

( )
( )( )
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
=

s
m
m s Pa x
m
m
kg
m
kg
s
m
m x
d
15 . 0 3 . 10 90 . 1 18
10 ) 7 . 0 1500 ( 81 . 9 10 30
5
3 3
2
2
6
q

% 100 8601 . 0 =
d
q

% 01 . 86 =
d
q

The collection efficiency for the settling chamber is 86.01%.
ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 22
Question 5 (a)
Schematic:

Known:
Density of particles,
P
= 2500 kg/m
3

Depth of vessel, X = 1m
Cross-sectional area, A = 0.04m
2
Diameter of particles, D
P
= 1mm = 1x10
-3
m
Density of liquid,
l
= 800 kg/m
3

Viscosity, = 0.002 Pa s
Volume flow rate, Q = 1.44m
3
/h
Mass of solids, m
a
= 50kg

Assumptions:
Solid particle is spherical

Analysis:
Calculate volumetric flow rate per second,
( ) s
m
x
s
h
m
Q
3
4
3
10 4
3600
44 . 1

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

From volumetric flow rate calculate velocity,
VA Q =

X=1m
D
ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 23
2
3
4
04 . 0
10 4
m
s
m
x
A
Q
V

= =

s
m
V 01 . 0 =

Voidage of bed,
p
V
v
c =

Volume of the solid,
3
3
02 . 0
2500
50
m
m
kg
kg m
V
p
a
p
= = =

Volume of bed,
AX V =

( )( ) m m 1 04 . 0
2
=

3
04 . 0 m =

Solids volume traction,
( )AX V
p
c = 1

( )
AX
V
p
= c 1

( )
3
3
04 . 0
02 . 0
1
m
m
= c

( ) 5 . 0 1 = c

5 . 0 1 = c

5 . 0 = c

The voidage of the bed is 0.5.

Question 5 (b)
Analysis:
Average velocity of fluid in pore,
c
V
V
p
=

s
m
V
p
02 . 0 =

ChE 324 Fluid and Particle Processes Assignment 1
Page 24
Pressure drop across the bed, Ergun Equation (laminar and turbulent flow),
3
2
3 2
2
) 1 (
75 . 1
) 1 (
150
c
c
c
c
p p
D
V
D
V
X
P
+

=
c
c

( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
3 2 3
3
2
3
2
3
2
5 . 0 10 1
5 . 0 1 800 01 . 0
75 . 1
5 . 0 10 1
5 . 0 1 ( . 002 . 0 01 . 0
150
m x
m
kg
s
m
m x
s Pa
s
m

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

|
.
|

\
|
=

560 6000+ =

Pa 6560 =

kPa 56 . 6 =

The pressure drop across the bed is 6.56kPa.