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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C.

TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Through the Eyes of a Friend


*Optional lesson Objective: Students will be able to introduce themselves and each other. Essential Question: Who are we as a classroom community, as individuals, and group members? Activities: 1. As a homework assignment, each Cadet will write a one-to-two-page reflection in which he/she will address this question: How would my best friend describe me? Students she might even want to select a friend to interview before writing the paper. Explain that these papers will be shared in class the next day. 2. To share in class, form small groups and give the following instructions: Each of you will read your paper to the members of your group. Then each group member will introduce the person on his or her left to the entire class, relating three to five important facts about him/her. 3. At the end of the lesson, have Cadets summarize what they learned about themselves and others as a result of this activity. Possible discussion questions may include the following: a) What are some of things you learned about yourself through this activity? b) What are some things you learned about others? c) How might this knowledge affect your work as an individual, small group member, or classroom community? Assessment: The reflective paper may be evaluated as a minor writing assignment or portfolio entry. Time: 45 minutes

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Standard: I.1.3: Students will examine and appreciate others diversity.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Me from All Angles


Objective: Students will be able to select and explain visuals, both literal and symbolic, that represent themselves. Essential Question: Who am I? Who am I not? Note: The instructor may choose the poster/picture display or the tri-fold mobile product. *Optional lesson

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Standards: I.1.2: Students will evaluate themselves as diverse individuals, learners, and community members. I.1.3: Students will examine and appreciate others diversity.

Time:

Assessment: Students may write a reflection based on their choices and attach that reflection to the Me from All Angles Picture Display handout or Me from All Angles Mobile handout. These can be graded as minor assignments or portfolio entries. 45 minutes

Materials: Variety of posters or pictures (10-15), each numbered Handout: Me from All Angles Picture Display or Handout: Me from All Angles Mobile

Tri-Fold Mobile An alternative to this activity is to ask students to create a tri-fold mobile as a homework assignment. They will follow the instructions on the handout to create a three-sided mobile that illustrates the three facets of themselves: (a) real self, (b) secret self, and (c) never self. Then have each student share his tri-fold mobile and rationale for his choices of photos.

4. If time permits, students can use the same posters/pictures and questions in relation to a favorite teacher.

3. Ask each student to explain his/her choices (either some or all) to the class.

2. Tell the students to examine and interpret the pictures to identify characteristics of themselves. Allow them to walk around the room to examine the visuals and complete the handout entitled Me from All Angles Picture Display. When viewing the pictures, each student will select a picture that portrays his (a) real self, (b) secret self, and (c) never self.

Activities: Poster/Picture Display 1. Display about ten or fifteen posters or pictures in your classroom. Try to include a diversity of people, places, activities, races, genders, ages, and interests. Number the visuals consecutively.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Me from All Angles Picture Display


Directions: Look at each poster or picture on display and consider what each suggests to you. You may get several impressions from each visual. Beside each choice, list a word or phrase that you associate with that poster or picture as it applies to you. 1. In the blank spaces below, underneath the heading You, list the number of the poster or picture and word/phrase that seems best to represent your real self. 2. Next, choose the poster or picture and word/phrase that represents your secret selfsomething not many others know about you. 3. Now, pick the poster or picture that suggests your never self something you could never see in yourself, something that seems totally foreign to you. 4. Below the heading An Instructor, follow the same procedure, identifying the real self, secret self, and never self for one of your previous or present teachers.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Number On Visual

YOU
Word or Phrase

Number On Visual

AN INSTRUCTOR
Word or Phrase

real self

secret self never self

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Me from All Angles Mobile


Template Enlarge for actual use Dotted lines are suggested for FOLDS

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Coat of Arms/Shield or Quilt Squares


*Mandatory lesson Objective: Students will be able to self-explore and examine personal characteristics and values. Note: The instructor may choose either the coat of arms/shield or the quilt square to address this objective and the self-reflective questions. Both formats are attractive classroom displays. Essential Question: What are my values and the values of my classmates?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students may include in their portfolios their coat of arms/shield or quilt square, along with reflective comments. 2. Students may give the coat of arms/shield or quilt square to a family member to complete or ask a family member to answer the questions. Students will compare the relatives square and answers to theirs. 3. Students may elect to write a reflective journal entry comparing and contrasting their responses to those of their relative. Standards: I.1.1: Students will analyze their strengths and areas for improvement as learners. I.1.2: Students will evaluate themselves as diverse individuals, learners, and community members. Time: 45 minutes

Materials: Handout: Coat of Arms/Shields or Quilt Squares

3. Summarize this activity by having each student share one or two insights revealed through this experience. Display the coat of arms or shields on classroom walls or bulletin boards, or put all the squares together to make a colorful quilt to display on a wall of your classroom.

2. Coat of Arms/Shields and Quilt Squares: Read the statements on the student handout. Consider possible answers and write them down on the back of the student handout. Choose those answers that best exemplify you and place them in the appropriate sections of the quilt square. You may add pictures and artwork to illustrate your answers.

Activities: 1. Coat of Arms/Shield: Discuss the meaning of a personal coat of arms/shield. (European families often designed and displayed coats of arms that signified ancestral histories and accomplishments. Likewise, African tribes created shields portraying symbolic values.) Explain that students will each develop a coat of arms or shield focusing on personal characteristics and values. Distribute the Coat of Arms (or shield) handouts. Students may add words and art on the 8 x 11 paper or create a larger shield. OR Quilt Square: Discuss the history of quilting in America. (Various patterns hold special meaning for families; special quilts were often handed down in families. In some quilts, each square represents special moments or records the history of a family.) Explain that students will each develop a quilt square focusing on personal characteristics and values. Distribute the Quilt Square handout and give the following directions:

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Coat of Arms Template

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Top left: Top right: Center left: Center right: Bottom left: Bottom right:

Two things you do well Something you would do if you were guaranteed success Your hero or heroine, real or fictional Three words that describe you Something you believe in so strongly you would never change The one thing about you that you would change if you could

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Quilt Squares Template


Directions for quilt squares: Upper left corner Something you would do if you were guaranteed success Upper right corner Two things you do well Lower left corner The one thing about you that you would change if you could Lower right corner Your hero or heroine, real or fictional Center Something you believe in so strongly you would never change Enlarge before using.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Scavenger Hunt
*Mandatory lesson

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Activities: 1. Give each Cadet a small bag (e.g. either a white or brown lunch bag). Tell students that as a homework assignment, they are to find words and pictures from magazines as well as small items that will decorate the outside of their bags and fit inside their bags to represent themselves in the following categories: as a member of a personal family as a member of the student body as a member of an ethnic group (optional) as a member of a gender (optional) as a member of a larger community (e.g. church, sports, hobbies, volunteer activities) as a Teacher Cadet as a complete person 2. Each Cadet will prepare a five-minute oral presentation about himself using the bag as a prop. Videotape the presentations. The videos are also good to use as a display for Open House and for recruitment purposes for next years class. A good follow up to this getting to know you activity is to give a little Name That Cadet quiz the next day. As the Cadets give their presentations, students and the teacher can record unique points about each Cadet to use as questions for the quiz.

Essential Question: Who am I within the context of a larger community?

Objective: Students will be able to demonstrate personal qualities through a creative product and an oral presentation.

Assessment: Have each student write a four-paragraph paper, as described on the student handout. Time: Each student will need a minimum of five minutes. Double the presentation time to know how much time will be needed for video viewing.

Materials: Bag (one for each student) Handout: Directions for Bags and Presentations Magazines for pictures and words (for Cadets who might not have these at home) Video camera/video tape

3. Show the videos in class and discuss the bag presentations afterwards.

Standard: I.1.2: Students will evaluate themselves as diverse individuals, learners, and community members.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Directions for Bags and Presentations


Bags: As a homework assignment, find words and pictures from magazines to decorate the outside of the bag and perhaps put inside the bag. Also include small items that will fit inside your bag. Select words, pictures, and items to represent you in the following categories: as a member of a personal family as a member of the student body as a member of an ethnic group (optional) as a member of a gender (optional) as a member of a larger community (e.g. church, sports, hobbies, volunteer activities) as a Teacher Cadet as a complete person Presentation: Create a five-minute presentation about your bag, explaining what is inside and outside the bag that portrays you as an individual of the various groups. Strive for the following for the presentation: clear diction audible volume appropriate pace eye contact with audience maintaining attention of audience clear explanations of what pictures and words represent about you Others Presentations: While fellow Cadets are doing their presentations, look at the presenter, and listen carefully. At the end of each Cadets presentation, write down a couple unique traits about that fellow classmate. Turn these into the teacher to use in a Name That Cadet quiz later. Writing Assignment: Write a four-paragraph paper: First paragraph: Introduction about the activity, along with a statement about why it is important to know ones self Second Paragraph: Description of the items and pictures outside and inside the bag and what each represents about you Third paragraph: Reflection on your oral presentation (e.g. gestures, facial expressions, diction, volume, pace, ability to hold the attention of the audience) Fourth paragraph: Summary about what you learned about yourself and fellow classmates

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Realizing My Powers
*Mandatory activity Objective: Students will be able to record self-reflections in an autobiographical essay examining themselves as individuals, learners, and community members.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Essential Question: What have we accomplished?

Activities: 1. Begin this activity by taking students through the following imaginary trip:

2. Distribute Realizing My Powers: List of Successes student handout.

Continue your shopping until your cart is full. As you check out, the cashier hands you a receipt with your name and says, You have a long list of successes. Now open your eyes. As you unpack your bags, record on your sheet 15 or 20 accomplishments. From your earliest memories, include those times that have powerful memories for you as an individual, a learner, and a community member.

Close your eyes. Imagine that you are entering a food store called Success Unlimited. Looking ahead, you notice that this store is different. Instead of being filled with groceries, the shelves are stocked with containers filled with successes that you have had since you were a young child. Moving from aisle to aisle, you fill the shopping cart with your accomplishments, such as learning to ride a bicycle, winning a contest in middle school, getting your drivers license, or volunteering to work in a hospital.

3. From the list, each student will select five experiences, making sure the essay includes one success as a learner, one as an individual, one as a community member, and two other successes that have been most meaningful to the student. Explain that each student will write an autobiographical essay entitled Realizing My Powers. Students should be encouraged to include in this essay information gleaned from activities in this section (Through the Eyes of a Friend, Me from All Angles, Coat of Arms/Shields or Quilt Squares, Scavenger Hunt and videotape). 4. Each student will do a mini-presentation for the class on one entry (one paragraph) in the essay.

Materials: Handout: Realizing My Powers: List of Successes

Note: When appropriate, Teacher Cadets can use or adapt this essay for college and scholarship applications.

Time:

Assessment: Teachers may use a writing rubric for evaluating this essay.

Standards: I.1.1: Students will analyze their strengths and areas for improvement as learners. I.1.2: Students will evaluate themselves as diverse individuals, learners, and community members.

Approximately three minutes per student presentation

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Realizing My Powers: List of Successes (Cadet Handout)

Directions: From your earliest memories, include times that have powerful meaning to you as an individual, a learner, and a community member. ___________________________________________s Successes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Assignment:________________________________________________________ Ranking Point Value Descriptors


Superior Competence 5 An essay or report in this category: States or clearly implies the writers position or thesis Demonstrates critical analysis of the text and/or topic Organizes and develops ideas logically Clearly explains key ideas, supporting them with well-chosen reasons, examples, or details Displays effective sentence variety Is virtually free of errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics An essay or report in this category: States or clearly implies the writers position or thesis Makes apt and specific reference to the text and/or topic Organizes and develops ideas clearly Explains key ideas, supporting them with relevant reasons, examples or details Displays some sentence variety Is generally free of errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics An essay or report in this category: States or implies the writers position or thesis Addresses the general meaning of the text or topic, perhaps presenting a simplistic view Shows control in organization and development of ideas Explains some key ideas, supporting them with adequate reasons, examples, or details Displays some sentence variety May display errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics, but these do not detract from the reading of the essay

Rubric for Analytical Reports or Essays

High Competence

Competence

Minimal Competence

Little or No Competence

An essay or report in this category demonstrates some competence but reveals one or more of the following weaknesses: Limited in stating or implying a position or thesis Analysis of text or topic is vague, mechanical, incomplete, or overly generalized Limited control in organization and development of ideas Inadequate reasons, examples, or details to explain key ideas Displays little sentence variety An accumulation of errors in grammar, usage, or mechanics An essay or report in this category is seriously flawed, revealing one or more of the following weaknesses: No clear position or thesis Little or no address of text or topic Weak organization Very little or no development of idea Few or no relevant reasons, examples, or details Little or no sentence variety Frequent serious errors in grammar, usage, or mechanics

Comments:

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Full Pot, According to Virginia Satir


*Mandatory lesson Objective: Students will be able to identify characteristics and causes of high and low self-esteem. Essential Question: How important is self-esteem? Activities: 1. As a homework assignment, have the student read Self-Worth: The Pot Nobody Watches. 2. Use the questions on the handout Points about Pot to discuss Self-Worth: The Pot Nobody Watches.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Assessment: Students may write a journal entry or prepare a portfolio entry, discussing the most important points they learned about self-esteem and reacting to their classmates comments placed in their pots. Standard: I.1.4: Students will analyze the role of self-esteem in learning and its contributing factors. Time: 30 minutes

Materials: Handout: Self-Worth: The Pot Nobody Watches Handout: Points about Pot Handout: Filling Your Pot Handout: Dr. William Purkeys Overview of Self-Concept Theory Handout: A Word Is Worth a Thousand Pictures Strips of paper (optional) Tape or glue (optional) Small clay pots, cans, jars, boxes; one per student (optional)

4. Discuss the handouts Dr. William Purkeys Overview of Self-Concept Theory and A Word Is Worth a Thousand Pictures. These statements expand on the meaning of self-concept and may need interpretations and examples.

3. Have students write on small strips of paper one positive comment about each person in the class. Students will walk around the room, taping, gluing, or writing down the compliments for everyone in the class, creating a full pot for everyone in the class. Other kinds of student pots can be decorated jars, cans, cups, boxes, or bulletin board pockets in which Cadets place their written compliments. Students may choose to personalize their pots in an artistic fashion, laminating their names on the pots or creating collages symbolic of their lives. This activity can be modified to be seasonal (e.g. Valentine Pot, Halloween Pot, etc.)

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Self-Worth: The Pot Nobody Watches, Page 1 of 2


When I was a little girl, I lived on a farm in Wisconsin. On our back porch was a huge black iron pot, which had lovely rounded sides and stood on three legs. My mother made her own soap, so, for part of the year, the pot was filled with soap. When threshing crews came through in the summer, we filled the pot with stew. At other times, my father used it to store manure for my mothers flower beds. We all came to call it the 3-S pot. Whenever we wanted to use the pot, we were faced with two questions: What is the pot now full of, and how full is it? Long afterward, when people would tell me of their feelings of self-worth whether they felt full or empty, dirty, or even cracked I would think of that old pot. One day several years ago, a family was sitting in my office and its members were trying to explain to one another how they felt about themselves. I remembered the black pot and told them the story. Soon the members of the family were talking about their own individual pots, whether they contained feelings of worth or of guilt, shame, or uselessness. I am convinced that the crucial factor in what happens both inside people and between people is the picture of the individual worth that each person carries around with him his pot. So, when I say pot, I mean self-worth or self-esteem. Virginia Satir

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

An infant coming into the world has no past, no experience in handling himself, no scale on which to judge his own worth. He must rely on the experiences he has with the people around him and the messages they give him about his worth as a person. For the first four or five years, the childs pot is formed by the family almost exclusively. After he starts school, other influences come into play, but the family remains important throughout his adolescence. Outside forces tend to reinforce the feelings of worth or worthlessness that he has learned at home: the high-pot child can weather many failures in school or among peers; the low-pot child can experience many successes, yet feel a gnawing doubt about his own value.

I am convinced that there are no genes to carry the feeling of worth. It is learned. And the family is where it is learned. You learned to feel high pot or low pot in the family your parents created. And your children will learn it in your family.

Other people, however, spend most of their lives in a low-pot condition. Because they feel they have little worth, they expect to be cheated, stepped on, and deprecated by others. Expecting the worst, they invite it and usually get it. To defend themselves, they hide behind a wall of distrust and sink into the terrible human state of loneliness and isolation. Thus separated from other people, they become apathetic, indifferent toward themselves and those around them. It is hard for them to see, hear, or think clearly, and, therefore, they are more prone to step on and deprecate others.

Integrity, honesty, responsibility, compassion, love all flow easily from the people whose pot is high. They feel that they matter, that the world is a better place because they are here. They have faith in their own competence. They are able to ask others for help, but they believe they can make their own decisions and are their own best resource. Appreciating their own worth, they are ready to see and respect the worth of others. They radiate trust and hope. They dont have rules against anything they feel. They accept all of themselves as human.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Self Worth: The Pot Nobody Watches, Page 2 of 2


Every word, facial expression, gesture, or action on the part of the parent gives the child some message about his worth. It is sad that so many parents dont realize the effect these messages have on the child and often dont even realize what messages they are sending. A mother may accept the bouquet clutched in her three-year-old childs hand and say, Where did you pick these? her voice and smile implying How sweet of you to bring me these! Where do such lovely flowers grow? This message would strengthen the childs feelings of worth. Or she might say, How pretty! but add, Did you pick these in Mrs. Randalls garden? implying that the child was bad to steal them. This message would make him feel wicked and worthless. Or she might say, How pretty! Where did you pick them? but wear a worried, accusing expression that added, Did you steal them from Mrs. Randalls garden? In this case, she is building a low pot but probably does not realize it. Feelings of worth can only flourish in an atmosphere where individual differences are appreciated, mistakes are tolerated, communications are open, and rules are flexible the kind of atmosphere found in a nurturing family. It is no accident that the children of these families usually feel good about themselves, or that the children of troubled families so often feel worthless growing up as they must amid crooked communication, inflexible rules, criticism of their differentness, and punishment for their mistakes. Happily, it is possible to raise everyones pot, no matter what his or her age. Since the feeling of worth has been learned, it can be unlearned, and something new can be learned in its place. The possibility for this learning lasts from birth to death, so it is never too late. At any point in a persons life, he/she can begin to feel better about himself/herself.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Points about Pot


1. React to Satirs statement: I am convinced that the crucial factor in what happens both inside people and between people is the picture of individual worth that each person carries around with him in his pot.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

2. List ten adjectives that describe low pot.

3. Explain how Satir describes the development of self-esteem.

4. What role do nonverbal cues (e.g. shaking index finger, nodding head, maintaining eye contact, smiling, frowning, moving closer or farther away) play in the development of self-esteem?

5. Write your Declaration of Self-Esteem beginning with I am me and ending with I am me, and I am okay.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Dr. William Purkeys Overview of Self-Concept Theory

Of all the perceptions we experience in the course of living, perhaps none has more profound significance than the perceptions we hold regarding our own personal existenceour view of who we are and how we fit into the world. This internal view of personal existence is called self-concept.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Self-concept may be defined as the totality of a complex and dynamic system of learned beliefs which each individual holds to be true about his or her personal existence and which gives consistency to his or her personality. The following propositions explain this definition.

1. Ones self-concept can be inferred from certain behaviors, but it may be different from what an individual is willing and able or can be tricked or forced into stating about himself. 2. Central to how one sees himself is his individual self-concept. Objects and situations are seen in relation to ones self-concept. 3. Self-concept is at the very heart of human personality. No two people have the same personality, and no two have the same self-concept. 4. The basic motive for behavior is to maintain, protect, and enhance ones self-concept. 5. Ones self-concept is more important than his physical body. Individuals often sacrifice physical comfort and satisfaction for psychological satisfaction. 6. Self-concept is characterized by internal organization, harmony, and orderliness; it is not a hodgepodge of mental states. 7. The self-concept is a continuous process. There is a constant assimilation of new ideas and expulsion of old ideas throughout life. Self-concepts change due to what a person learns and experiences. 8. Ones self-concept depends on how he sees himself and how others indicate that they see him. Few people can long retain self-esteem in the face of the disesteem of others. 9. The self-concept is formed as a result of experience and how one interprets that experience. Interactions with other people heavily influence self-perceptions. 10. The self-concept is a gyrocompass for living. Individuals strive to behave in ways that are in keeping with their self-concepts. 11. The self-concept works to maintain and protect itself. It requires consistency, stability, and resistance to change. If the self-concept changed too readily, the person would lack a personality. 12. The more central a particular belief is to the self-concept, the more resistant it is to change. 13. At the heart of self-concept is personal awareness, the self-as-doer, the I which is distinct from the self-as-object, the various mes. The self-concept is more than the passive sum total of the mes. It is also the ability to reflect on past events, analyze present information, and shape future experience. 14. If a new perception seems consistent with those already incorporated in the self-concept, it is accepted and internalized easily. However, if it is inconsistent, it meets resistance and is likely to be rejected. If a perception has no relationship to self-concept, it is generally ignored. 15. Perceived failure and success generalize throughout the self-concept. Failure in one area lowers a persons self-concept in other areas as well. Conversely, success in a prized area raises evaluation in other, seemingly unrelated areas. 16. The self-concept continuously guards itself against loss of self-esteem because that loss produces feelings of anxiety. Chronic feelings of anxiety are characteristic of low self-esteem. 17. If the self-concept must constantly defend itself from assault, growth opportunities are restricted. 18. The individual perceives different aspects of his or her self-concept at different times with varying degrees of clarity. Therefore inner focusing is a valuable tool of counseling.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Words...and periods of silence...play a major role in the development of self-concept. The influence is either positive or negative. We know the effects of screaming and ridiculing, of smiling and using gentle words, but what are the subtle effects of verbal behaviors on the development of self-esteem? Positive Behaviors Adults 1. Send messages that tell children you value what they say. (It sounds as though you are really happy with the drawing that you just did.) 2. Tell children that you enjoy being with them. (I havent laughed this hard in ages.) 3. Use the childs interests as the basis for conversation. (Ive seen you jump rope at recess. What are some of the chants that you use?) 4. Take advantage of the teachable moment. (I know youre feeling sad about your cat dying. Lets talk about it.) 5. Avoid making judgmental comments to children. (I can see that you are feeling really angry right now. Tell me whats important to you in the story you wrote.) 6. Accept the invitation from children. (Yes, lets do it now! It sounds like fun!) Negative Behaviors Adults. 1. Ignore children, sending the message that you have no interest in their activities. 2. Interrupt children who are speaking to you as well as children who are speaking to each other. 3. Discourage children from expressing themselves. (Tell me later. Not now; Im busy.) 4. Are sarcastic when speaking with children. (Most high school students already know this material.) 5. Pay superficial attention to what children have to say. (They look at their watches instead of listening to the child.) 6. Are judgmental when dealing with children and their issues. (You should try as hard as your sister.) 7. Put down childrens interests. (Im sick of hearing how much you enjoyed that concert.) 8. Give orders. (Sit down. Come here. Go there.)

A Word Is Worth a Thousand Pictures

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Childrens Books on Self Esteem or Little Peoples Literature about Loving Ones Self
*Mandatory lesson Objective: Students will be able to identify how self-concept is portrayed through childrens literature. Essential Question: What does childrens literature teach us about self-concepts? Activities: 1. Read a self-esteem children's book (see list), such as, I'm Gonna Like Me or Letting Off a Little Self-Esteem by Jamie Lee Curtis and Laura Cornell. In relation to the book, review what the students have learned about themselves and self-esteem thus far. AND/OR 2. Have students read a designated number of books from the list (or from other sources), and do a book report and/or presentation on each book to share with the class. AND/OR 3. Invite a media specialist to the classroom, or visit an elementary school library to explore children's books on self-esteem. Materials: Childrens books on self-esteem Handout: Childrens Self-Esteem Book List Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students will create a written or oral report on varying childrens books with the theme of self-esteem. 2. Students will write summaries based on the media specialists presentation. Time: 1 hour, 30 minutes

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Standard: I.1.4: Students will analyze the role of self-esteem in learning and its contributing factors.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Childrens Self-Esteem Book List


Author Appelt, Kathi Applegate, Katherine Armstrong, Robb Birdseye, Tom Blume, Judy Boyd, Candy Climo, Shirley Coker, Deborah Curtis, Jamie Lee Cushman, Doug Danziger, Paula Davis, Edward E. Gifaldi, David Giff, Patricia Reilly Girard, Linda Gross, Lisa Grossman, Linda Hru, Dakari Hubbard, Woodleigh Johnson, David Kennedy, Barbara LeMieux, A.C. Levy, Elizabeth Loomans, Diane Mazer, Anne Mills, Joyce Mitchell, Rhonda Parr, Todd Pa How, Edith Pedersen, Kristin Waber, Bernard Wood, Douglas Title Incredible Me! The Worlds Best Jinx McGee Large and in Charge! Just Call Me Stupid Otherwise Known as Sheila the Great A Different Beat Little Red Ant and the Great Big Crumb I Like Me! Im Gonna Like Me Mickey Takes a Bow United Tates of America Bruno the Pretzel Man Toby Scudder, Ultimate Warrior Next Year Ill Be Special Adoption Is for Always The Half and Half Dog Now I See How Great I Can Be Joshuas Masai Mask All that You Are Bens Glasses Boy Who Loved Alligators Dare to Be M.E.! Keep Ms. Sugarman in the Fourth Grade Loveables in the Kingdom of Self-Esteem Two Heads Are Better Than One Little Tree The Talking Cloth Its Okay to Be Different Mrs. Spitzers Garden The Shadow Shop Courage What Teachers Cant Do Copyright Date 2002 1992 1999 1993 1972 1996 1995 1995 2002 1986 2002 1984 1993 1993 1986 1988 2002 1993 2000 1996 1994 1997 1992 1991 2002 1992 1997 2001 2001 1994 2002 2002 Level of Reading easy childrens childrens childrens childrens childrens easy easy easy easy childrens childrens childrens easy easy childrens easy easy easy easy childrens childrens childrens easy childrens childrens easy easy easy childrens childrens childrens

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

The Self-Esteem Fraud


*Mandatory lesson Objective: Students will be able to identify ways in which self-esteem has been misinterpreted or misused in childrens lives and education. Essential Question: What is the connection between self-esteem and academic achievement? Activities: 1. As a homework assignment, the students will read The Self-Esteem Fraud: Feel-Good Education Does Not Lead to Academic Success. 2. Have each Cadet bring a snippet to class for discussion. Using a large index card, each student will record the following on one side of the card: a) a significant statement (snippet phrase, sentence, or, at most, a paragraph) b) the page where the snippet is found On the other side of the index card, he/she will record the following: his/her reaction to the snippet his/her interpretation of it, its relevance, its significance, etc. 3. In class, each student will read his/her snippet and his/her reaction to it. Ask each student to invite the comments of classmates about his/her snippet or reaction to it. This activity should produce a rich and varied discussion that is more student than teacher-led. Note: The instructor might want to assign certain pages to students to assure that snippets will be selected throughout the entire article. Materials: Handout: The Self-Esteem Fraud: Feel-Good Education Does Not Lead to Academic Success (abridged) Large index cards (one per student) Assessment: Have students create a T-chart. On the left hand side of the T-chart, record effective uses and outcomes of positive self-esteem; on the right hand side of the T-chart, record ineffective uses and negative outcomes of low or empty self-esteem. Time: 45 minutes

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Standard: I.1.4: Students will analyze the role of self-esteem in learning and its contributing factors.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Americans have lost confidence in their public schools. A 1996 Washington Post survey asked people what worries them about the future. They were given dozens of choices, from high crime rates to increasing drug usage to economic anxiety. Of all these, they considered the deterioration of public schools to be the countrys most pressing problem. The American educational system will get worse instead of better, said 62% of them.

The Self-Esteem Fraud: Feel-Good Education Does Not Lead to Academic Success (abridged) Nina H. Shokraii USA Today (Magazine), January 1998

The Self-Esteem Fraud, Page 1 of 4

There is no shortage of ways to define self-esteem. Perhaps the simplest one is found in Websters Dictionary: satisfaction with oneself. The Basic Behavioral Science Task Force of the National Advisory Mental Health Council offers a fuller explanation: Self-esteem begins to develop early in life and has been studied in children as young as seven years of age. As children learn to describe aspects of themselves, such as their physical attributes, abilities, and preferences, they also begin to evaluate them. Researchers conclude that, contrary to intuition, individuals have not one but several views of themselves, encompassing many domains of life, such as scholastic ability, physical appearance and romantic appeal, job competence, and adequacy as a provider. Psychologists generally split self-esteem into two types: earned and global. The concepts of each differ in critical ways.

This is fundamentally wrongheaded. There is little reason to believe self-esteem leads to academic achievement or is even necessary for academic success. It is therefore crucial to delegitimize the education establishments mindless glorification of self-esteem. As Richard Weissbourd has written in The Vulnerable Child: What Really Hurts Americas Children and What We Can Do about Them, schools gripped by self-esteem theory are, in essence, producing a generation of poorly educated adults who lack the habits of hard work and perseverance that have historically been necessary to achieving true success.

This is not a new concern. Frustrated by everything from a long-term decline in test scores to the rise in juvenile violence, many Americans are left scratching their heads in bewilderment. What has gone wrong? What can reverse these trends? Desperate for anything that might boost the academic achievement of their charges, many schools have turned to the self-esteem theory, which promises that teaching children to feel good about themselves will help them perform better as students. This pedagogical approach has begun to dislodge the more traditional emphasis on basic subjects such as reading, writing, and arithmetic.

Global self-esteem refers to a general sense of pride in ones self. It is not grounded in a particular skill or achievement. This means that an underachieving student still can bask in the warmth of global selfesteem, even if the door to earned self-esteem is shut. Although theorists contend that this feeling of self-worth will inspire academic success, the reality is different. At best, global self-esteem is meaningless. At worst, it is harmful. William Damon, an educational psychologist at Brown University, warns that heightened global self-esteem can lead children to have an exaggerated, though empty and ultimately fragile sense of their own powers... [or] a distrust of adult communications and self-doubt.

Earned self-esteem is attained by individuals through their own accomplishmentssatisfaction from having scored well on an exam, for instance. Psychologist Barbara Lemer indicates that earned selfesteem is based on success in meeting the tests of realitymeasuring up to standards at home and in school. Earned self-esteem possesses all of the positive character traits that ought to be encouraged and applauded, because it ultimately is based on work habits.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Other studies show that programs created to promote self-esteem among elementary school students actually produce less of it than those designed to improve academic performance. The best research in this area evaluated a Federal Head Start program to help children in grades one to three, called Project Follow-through. The researchers appointed different schools to implement the project. To judge the effectiveness of self-esteem in underwriting academic success, they selected schools with differing philosophies of education. The models then were categorized into three major types: holistically oriented classrooms prone to promote self-esteem, behaviorally oriented models emphasizing traditional basic instruction, and combination models that joined the other two. Researchers examined 9,000 students on a variety of measures, from basic to cognitive and affective skills. Those taught using the behavioral model received the highest scores not only in academics, but on self-esteem.
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Part of the problem Stevenson and Stigler found lies in American teachers priorities in the classroom. They focus much more on sensitivity to students egos, whereas Asians concentrate on their ability to explain things clearly. Indeed, roughly half of the Asian teachers surveyed stated that clarity is one of the most important attributes required to be a good teacher. Just 10% of them said that sensitivity is equally important. Given the same set of choices, American teachers reversed priorities. Moreover, American teachers avoid criticizing poor performance, fearing damage to students self-esteem. Japanese and Chinese teachers, on the other hand, regard mistakes as an index of what remains to be learned through persistence and increased effort. American schools worry more about how students view themselves than about their actual academic performance...

Scholars who focus on the connection between high global self-esteem and academic success have run into similar barriers. When psychologists Harold W. Stevenson and James W. Stigler tested the academic skills of elementary school students in Japan, Taiwan, China, and the U.S., the Asian students easily outperformed their American counterparts. That came as no surprise. However, when the same students were asked how they felt about their subject skills, the Americans exhibited a significantly higher self-evaluation of their academic prowess than their foreign peers. In other words, they combined a lousy performance with a high sense of self-esteem. As Stevenson and Stigler point out, schools teach their students to indulge in self-congratulation only after they have paid their dues, by years of learning and hard work. While educators in most countries are disdainful of prideone manifestation of a high self-esteemAmerican teachers encourage it as a positive personality trait.

In 1986, a group of California state legislators convinced themselves that low self-esteem was the root cause behind a variety of social and economic problems such as drug abuse, teen pregnancy, and poor school performance. Before taking this line of thinking too far, however, they decided they needed some research to back up their claims. So they established the California Task Force to Promote SelfEsteem and Personal and Social Responsibility, which published its findings in a book called The Social Importance of Self-Esteem. The editors might as well have titled it The Social Unimportance of Self-Esteem because they found practically no connection between self-esteem and any of the behaviors they studied. As Neil Smelser noted in the introduction, One of the disappointing aspects of every chapter in this volume....is how low the associations between self-esteem and its consequences are in research to date. Over the years, other reviewers have offered similar readings of the available research, pointing out the results are unimpressive or characterized by massive inconsistencies and contradictions. The California Task Force was not a disinterested group of scholars. They wanted to find a link. Nevertheless, when their research failed to turn one up, they had the honesty to admit it.

The fundamental difference between earned and global self-esteem rests on their relationships to academic achievement. The idea of earned self-esteem says that achievement comes first and that selfesteem follows. Global self-esteem theorywhich is more popular in schoolsmaintains that self-esteem leads the way and achievement trails behind. Earned self-esteem needs no nurturing. It will develop almost naturally when youngsters have accomplished something worthwhile. Global selfesteem, though, is artificial. It requires active intervention on the part of teachers, parents, and other authority figures. It is more than mere encouragementsomething all children need. Instead, it involves tricking kids into thinking that anything and everything they do is praiseworthy.

The Self-Esteem Fraud, Page 2 of 4

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

The Self-Esteem Fraud, Page 3 of 4

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

The researchers, therefore, could conclude safely that programs designed to provide young children with the tools for academic success tend to be more effective as they improve on both academic performance and self-esteem. This rule is not limited to young children. Thomas Moeller, a psychology professor at Mary Washington College in Fredericksburg, Va., examined students in grades six and higher. In every instance, Moeller concluded, academic achievement is more closely related to academic self-concept than to global selfconcept.

Ironically, [adolescents] living in impoverished neighborhoods are more likely to turn violent if schools bombard them with unearned praise. Baumeister, Boden, and Smart found that, when high self-esteem is challenged by others negative views, egotism is threatened. People react in one of two ways. They either lower their self-appraisal and withdraw or maintain their self-appraisal and manifest negative emotions toward the source of the ego threat. This response easily can become violent in individuals who place high emphasis on their self-appraisals.

Self-esteem theory made its first dramatic impact upon American schools in 1954, when the Supreme Court accepted that school segregation damaged the self-esteem of African-American children in its Brown v. Board of Education ruling. Low self-esteem, the Court said, affects the motivation of a child to learn, and has a tendency to retard childrens educational and mental development. According to author Barbara Lemer, this proposition makes ... questionable assumptions.

Adolescents academic performance seems not even to be a factor affecting global self-esteem. Instead, they respond to social activities. High school performance, academic ability, and socioeconomic status affect educational attainment more than global self-esteem...

Other research found that although academic achievement in one grade level predicts academic selfesteem in the next, neither academic achievement nor academic self-esteem has any identifiable effect on global self-esteem. Still other research finds that grades in a given discipline affect academic selfesteem just in that particular discipline. General academic self-concept finds its roots in a schools climate, teachers ratings, and students commitment to work.

From lower standards to a reduced emphasis on tests, minorities constantly are told that their egos somehow are more fragile and thus different from the rest of America, even though they have the most to gain from traditional ways of teaching. In fact, blacks can flourish in this type of environment, as the experiences of schools such as Booker T. Washington (Atlanta), Xavier Prep (New Orleans), P.S. 91 (Brooklyn), and Dunbar (Washington, DC) have shown. African-Americans excel in these schools because they are expected to strive high and achieve. Instead of offering a broad array of
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In The Vulnerable Child, Weissbourd vehemently attacks such efforts, asserting that, although poor children are more likely to suffer an array...of problems, the great majority of poor children are prepared to learn, at least when they begin school. Developmental delays and serious learning difficulties among children ages three to five are higher among poor than among middle- and upper-income children...But over 75 percent of poor children ages 6-11 have never experienced significant developmental delays, or emotional troubles, or a learning disability in childhood. Weissbourd highly discourages enrolling disadvantaged minority kids in remedial courses or special education classes because it makes it more difficult for them to move into the mainstream.

Every day in the name of self-esteem, schools cheat low-income children...into settling for inflated egos instead of increased knowledge. Such efforts aimed at guaranteeing minorities heightened self-esteem, coupled with lawsuits challenging minimum competency exams and proficiency tests, erroneously assume that these youngsters self-esteem cannot possibly get proper nourishment in the poor households in which they are reared. Social workers and teachers create special courses and excuses for these kids on a regular basis.

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

As schools turn against the self-esteem theory, they must go back to the basics of teaching, reinstalling high standards and expectations, and holding children accountable for their actions. However, these efforts ought not replace paying attention to childrens needs and concerns as individuals. Many educators agree on three general strategies: build the relationship between a teacher or parent and a child on respect of the childs inborn strengths; help the youngster set goals and then link sustained effort with success; and examine the values being promoted because self-esteem is grounded on what a person values. The final and probably most important remedy is reintroducing parents in the education of their offspring. Experts unanimously agree that parental involvement in a childs education remains one of the most important factors in determining his or her academic success. Furthermore, parents supersede teachers at building earned self-esteem in their children through the special caring and positive/negative reinforcement that can come only with individualized interaction at home. 1998 Society for the Advancement of Education 2000 Gale Group

After years of failed experimentation, it is time to stop touting the importance of self-esteem and start providing students with the elements real self-esteem is made of. Building self-esteem not only is a smokescreen vis-a-vis academic success; it can lead to considerable harm. After all, as Weissbourd points out, to develop effective coping strategies, children, in fact, need to learn to manage a certain amount of disappointment and conflict.

extracurricular classes or dumbing down their curriculum to increase the pupils self-esteem, the schools offer a strict diet of math and reading and expect students to get the job done. As Sister Helen Struder, principal of the mostly black Holy Angels School in Chicago, notes, After all, its by success that you build self-esteem.

The Self-Esteem Fraud, Page 4 of 4

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

The Self-Esteem Fraud: Feel-Good Education Does Not Lead to Academic Success
Points to Ponder 1. Compare and contrast global self-esteem and earned self-esteem.

2. According to the author, what are the dangers of school communities promoting unearned praise?

3. How do you feel about pride? Is it a positive or negative trait? How much impact does pride have on accomplishment?

4. Do you feel that your teachers avoid criticizing poor performance? Do you think that they treat all students the same in this area? Is it different now from when you were an elementary-aged student?

5. What should schools and families do to promote meaningful self-esteem?

6. Are there points in this article with which you disagree? If so, what are they and why?

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Culminating Activity: From Stories to Puppet Theaters


*Mandatory activity Objective: Students will be able to portray messages about self-esteem through a creative format of puppets, dramatic skits, or big books. Essential Question: What are some elements of self-esteem? How might we teach children about the importance of self-esteem?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

2. Based on student choice, you may give each student a copy of Creating a Dramatic Skit or Creating a Big Book.

Activities: 1. Give each student a copy of "Development of a Script and "Creating a Puppet Show.

Materials: A variety of materials to create puppets and stages Handout: "Development of a Script" Handout: "Creating a Puppet Show" Handout : Creating a Dramatic Skit Handout: Creating a Big Book

5. Schedule Cadets to do performances at a nearby kindergarten or elementary school. Cadets may perform in classrooms, the media center, or cafeteria. Ask teachers who accompany their students to see the Cadets work to fill out evaluations on the shows, skits, and/or books.

4. Invite students from a drama class, creative writing class, child development class, special education class, or study hall to watch the Cadets rehearse their presentations. Ask guest students for constructive feed back about strengths and ways to improve products and performances.

3. Allow students to review handouts on creating puppet shows, dramatic skits, and big books. After brainstorming possibilities, divide the students into small groups based on their choices. Different groups may choose different creative formats. (Note: You may want to make the decision to limit the choice to only one format based on time, talent, materials, and student interest.) Students will have some class times to work on their group projects, but much of the work will be done outside of class. Create a schedule to have students report on their projects step by step.

Standards: I.1.3: Students will examine and appreciate others diversity. I.1.4: Students will analyze the role of self-esteem in learning and its contributing factors.

Time:

Assessment: You may use the rubrics included in the next few pages. The time varies.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

1. Unifying Idea: Read a children's story and decide on the unifying idea. For example, the unifying idea in Where the Wild Things Are is that a young child can take control over events in his life. 2. Episodes: Decide upon the three or four major episodes in the story. For example, the episodes in Where the Wild Things Are include the following: Max talks with his mother; he falls asleep and begins to dream; wild things begin to appear in his room. 3. Conflict: Identify the conflict(s) that is (are) in the story, and decide how the conflict(s) is (are) resolved. 4. Number of characters: Decide on the characters, limiting them to a manageable number. 5. Action and narration: The show's opening is important because it creates the mood, gets the attention of the audience, presents the setting, and introduces one or more characters. Consider whether you want an emcee who will announce the story from front stage or a narrator who may narrate the story front stage or back stage. Decide on the opening action that may be a "low key" approach or a "bang" approach. 6. Simplicity: When writing the script, keep it short, simple, and rich with variety and contrast. These guidelines apply also to the dialogue, the characters, the scenery, and the prompts. 7. Conclusion: The conclusion should be obvious to the audience, present a resolution to the conflict, and portray a message about self-esteem.

Development of a Script

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

1. Number of puppets: Decide on what puppets will be needed for your story. You will probably need at least two in order to do a narrative that will hold the childrens attention and provide action. However, it is recommended that you not have more than six because too many characters become confusing to the children, and too many puppets make performing difficult for the already cramped quarters behind the curtain. No puppeteer should be responsible for handling more than two puppets. 2. Puppet characters: Brainstorm the personality traits that each of these puppets might have. Then design every aspect of the performance to develop these personalities. The script (action and dialogue) should develop the personalities. The construction should reinforce the puppets individual characteristics. The performance (puppet posture, action, and especially voices) should further develop the personality traits of each puppet.

Creating a Puppet Show

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

6. Props: Select or design the necessary props. Some of these may be held by the puppets. Others may be stapled or glued on the outside of the stage. Others may be attached to sticks (e.g., The face of a clock mounted on a one-foot stick might be moved across the stage to indicate a passage of time. A picture of a sun may indicate daytime whereas a picture of a moon may indicate nighttime.) Also consider and prepare for sounds needed for the script (e.g., taped background music, a whistle, a bell, etc.). 7. Performance guidelines: Follow these guidelines when performing: a) Practice providing your puppet with good posture by holding your hand in an upright or vertical position. Do not tilt him too far backwards; the audience will not be able to see his face. Do not tilt him too far forwards; the audience will see only the top of his head.

5. Stage: Create a stage appropriate for your puppets. Huge cardboard boxes such as those that refrigerators are shipped in make tall, free-standing stages. Stages can also be constructed out of light-weight plywood. If your skit takes place in one setting, one opening for the puppets to perform is sufficient. If your story needs two settings (e.g., home and classroom; indoors and outdoors), you might need to construct a stage with two openings, each designed to indicate the different location, or you could draw and color backdrops to change when you close the curtain for a different scene. Using paint, construction paper, cloth, symbols, etc., decorate your stage appropriately.

4. Puppet comparisons: Envision your puppets together before you actually begin construction. For the sake of logic, certain consistencies must be maintained. For example, if there is an adult puppet and a child puppet, the adult puppet must be larger in size. If you are doing puppets representing families, there should be similarities in construction; in other words, do not have a bear puppet as a mother of a dog puppet. In most cases, it is better to use puppets of similar construction (e.g., all felt puppets or all sock puppets) unless a wide variety serves a purpose. However, puppets should not be so similar that children cannot readily distinguish between them.

3. Construction of puppets: Construct your puppets, keeping in mind the wide variety of puppet designs (e.g. stuffed-sock puppets, stick puppets, finger puppets, felt puppets, tool puppets, bag puppets, foam puppets, milk carton puppets). Do not rule out any materials without first thinking of the many creative possibilities available. You might also consider transforming a stuffed animal into a puppet by creating a movable mouth for it. Doll outfits and infants clothing can make great costumes for puppets.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

k) After your performance, step out from behind your stage and introduce your puppets and yourselves.

j) Make arrangements to visit childrens groups to perform. You can take your show on the road to local day care centers, kindergarten classes, elementary schools, after-school programs, the childrens wards in hospitals, and libraries. Older audiences are also appreciativeteachers meetings, PTA, adolescent child development or psychology classes, etc.

i) Practice your puppet shows in your classroom. Invite another group of students (from study hall, drama class, or a special ed. class) for dress rehearsal and ask them to critique your performances. Try to videotape your puppet shows so that you can see yourselves perform and fine tune the performances.

h) Type out your final script in large, dark type. Make two or three copies. Mark or highlight each performers parts in different colors so that passages are easily found and followed. Post these scripts on the back of the stage. You may also want to provide each performer with a script to hold during the performance.

g) If your audience laughs, freeze your dialogue and action until the laughter subsides so that you will not inhibit their laughter or cause them to miss the next part of the dialogue.

f) Puppeteers voices must be clear, audible, appropriate, and distinct. Choose a voice appropriate for the age, personality, and situation of the puppet. Speak at a pace that is slower than what you might usually talk; remember that your audience is hearing your words for the first time, and they have a lot to absorb. Also, project your voice, keeping in mind that puppets, stage curtains, childrens clothing, carpeting, etc. all absorb sound.

e) Practice finger, hand, and wrist movements so that your puppet can be manipulated in clear, meaningful gestures and actions.

d) When a puppet is doing the talking, animate him with appropriate movements. Have the other puppets freeze (unless there is a purpose in the script for movement).

c) When a puppet is talking to the other puppets, have the listening puppets turn to face the speaker.

b) Practice so that you can get the appropriate height, not too low (not enough of the puppet will be visible) and not too high (the puppeteers hands and arms will become visible).

Note: Additional free information about puppets and puppet shows is available in library books and on Websites.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

1. Select a book that conveys a thematic focus on building self esteem. Two effective selections include Where the Wild Things Are and Rainbow Fish. 2. Using overhead transparencies and overhead markers, students should trace each character onto a transparency sheet. Using tape, attach a sheet of poster board to the wall. Place the transparency sheet, with the traced figure, onto the overhead. You will need to adjust the overhead, moving it back to enlarge the character so that it fits onto the poster board. Once the poster board and overhead are positioned, lightly trace the character onto the poster board. 3. Once the character is traced, have students color characters, using colors to authenticate the characters in the book. Students may use large markers for coloring the characters. 4. After students have completed coloring the characters, have the characters laminated. Then, attach yardsticks (that have been painted black) to the back of the characters. Attach the yardsticks with wide shipping tape. 5. If completing Where the Wild Things Are, one student can play the role of Max, and students can draw the different monsters on poster board. Max can be dressed in a white jogging suit, adding a tail and ears. Props, such as a boat, oar, plate of food, etc., can be added. Wild Thing can be played while monsters and Max dance around the children. Remind students not to scare the young children. 6. If completing Rainbow Fish, scales can be attached with Velcro so that the scales can be removed and given to the other fish. Soft ocean/surf sounds can be played during the performance. 7. In preparing the dramatic skit, have characters come alive in front of the children. The dramatic skit can be moved from one classroom to the next. It is good to have a narrator and give some narration to the different characters. Lines can be taped to the back of the characters. Practice the skit several times before actual presentation to young children. 8. Students can be dressed in black, and students should hold the characters in front of their faces during the dramatic skit.

Creating a Dramatic Skit

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Creating a Big Book


1. Script: Decide if your group will modify the text of a published childrens book or create your own story. The text will determine all the other items to consider in writing your big book. Remember to base the story on a message about self-esteem. Use the introduction to hook your audience, give background information, and introduce the characters and setting. Move the action along. Conclude with a resolution. The final script should be typed in large, dark, simple-font print. 2. Characters: Decide on the characters, and determine individual traits, dialogue, needs, motivation, and inter-relations. 3. Illustrations: You should have a wide variety of art, stick figures, three dimensional textures (ex. cloth), computer-generated illustrations, original drawings, etc. 4. Construction: Determine how you will put your book together. Poster board on rings? Machine-stitched art paper? Stapled and bound brown butcher paper? Decide on construction that makes the book reader friendly and durable. Also brainstorm about the size and shape of your book. 5. Cover/Title: The name of the book should identify the books topic and capture the audiences interest. Children like play on words such as alliteration. Make a positive impression, and create curiosity with an eye-catching cover. Identify the books authors on the cover. 6. Reading Book: When you read your book, you may delegate a narrator and different readers for the characters dialogue. You may choose to wear costumes to represent your characters. You may alter your voice to fit the characters speech, personalities, and situation.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Rubric for Grading Teacher Cadet Puppet Shows: Sample A


(1= very poor; 2= poor; 3= good; 4= above average; 5= outstanding) Stage (pleasing in appearance; appropriate setting for story) Props and/or Sound Effects (effective in developing characters, setting, plot, and/or theme) Script (able to hold audiences attention; clear sequence) Performance (puppet movements appropriate for action; voices audible and clear; appropriate pace; effective expression for roles of puppets) Puppet Construction (creative; designed to fit characters being portrayed) Age-Appropriateness (age-appropriate diction; age-appropriate message) Self-Concept Theme (portrays a positive message about self-esteem or self-image) Comments: 1 2 3 4 5

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Name of Puppet Show ________________________________________________ Performers: ________________________________________________________


1= poor 2= below average 3= average 4= good

Rubric for Grading Teacher Cadet Puppet Shows: Sample B

5= very effective

1. How well did the opening create immediate audience interest? 1 2 3 4 5 2. To what degree was the dialogue presented clearly? (pace, volume, expression, appropriate character development through the voice) 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 3. How well did the show keep the action moving? 4. How well did the show use appropriate vocabulary and plot for elementary-aged children? 1 2 3 4 5 5. To what extent were the puppets and stage created attractively and appropriately for the theme? 1 1 Comments: 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6. How well was the self-concept theme developed through the story?

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Rubric for Teacher Cadet Big Book


Name_____________________________________________________________ (1= very poor; 2= poor; 3= good; 4= above average; 5= outstanding) 1 2 3 4 5

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Artwork (visually appealing; appropriate for script; adequate in amount) Script (clear plot; effective characters; adequate in action and transitions)

Book Construction (sturdy construction; assembled in a way to make book easy to read)

Book Cover (title; attractive; attention-getting; appropriate for books content)

Age-Appropriateness (age-appropriate diction, plot, topic, message)

Reading of Book (read at appropriate pace; read with expression; voices audible and clear)

Comments:

Theme (evident message; inspirational; informative)

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Rubric for Teacher Cadet Live Puppet Shows or Dramatic Skits


Name____________________________________________________________ Title ____________________________________________________________ (1= very poor; 2= poor; 3= good; 4= above average; 5= outstanding) 1 2 3 4 5

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Stage and/or Props (effectively designed to enhance performance) Costumes (appropriately developed the characters) Script (clear plot; effective characters; action held audiences attention)

Age-Appropriateness (diction; plot; topic; theme)

Performance (effective pace, volume, expression, gestures, action)

Theme (positive message delivered; informative; inspirational; motivational)

Comments:

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Test on Self-Esteem
*Optional activity Objective: Students will be able to synthesize their thoughts about self-concept. Essential Question: How can we effectively apply what research says about self-esteem? Materials: Test on Self-Esteem Assessment: Test on Self Esteem (On a 100 point scale, each question could be worth twenty points.) Time: 50 minutes

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

Standard: I.1.4: Students will analyze the role of self-esteem in learning and its contributing factors.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Test on Self-Esteem
Use your own paper. 1. Many people believe they will either fail or succeed before they even begin something. This is referred to as "self-fulfilling prophecy." Describe the thought processes that a person might use if he already believes he is going to fail, in trying to learn how to do one of the following: a) hit a baseball b) factor an algebraic equation c) give an oral report

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

2. Explain Virginia Satir's meaning of "pot." Include in your explanation the possible consequences of "low-pot.

3. How can teachers use childrens literature to enhance the self-concepts of their students?

4. It is a personal tragedy and a social waste when a student spends year after year experiencing defeat and failure in school." Dr. William Purkey's prescription for dealing with this tragedy is to make schools more inviting. He speaks of such disinviting practices as fierce competition, expulsions, failure, competitive evaluations, scorn, ability grouping, and corporal punishment. List at least five strategies or policies that parents, teachers, students, and administrators can use to make their schools more inviting and thus more uplifting to students self-concepts.

5. Discuss ways in which schools and teachers might avoid the traps of fraudulent self-esteem and global self-esteem.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Notes:

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 1: Awareness and Reflection

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Preferred Processing Styles


*Mandatory lesson

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Objective: Students will be able to identify different preferred processing styles (visual, auditory, and kinesthetic/tactile) and explain their implications for lesson design.

Essential Question: How might knowledge of preferred processing styles affect lesson design? Note: No culminating activity exists for these first four lessons. Instructors may use the minor assessments or create a summary assignment for this section on learning needs, preferences, and styles.

Activities: 1. Explain to the Cadets that people learn in different ways; one way is not better than the other. Dr. Rita Dunn at the Center for the Study of Learning and Teaching Styles explained, Learning style is a biologically and developmentally imposed set of personal characteristics that make the same teaching method effective for some and ineffective for others. Every person has a learning style its as individual as a signature. (Learning to Teach by Linda Shalaway, 1998, 57). Explain that about 46% of the population favors the visual learning style; about 19%, auditory; and about 35%, kinesthetic/tactile.

2. Have Cadets complete the Learning Styles Questionnaire to determine visual, auditory, or kinesthetic/tactile learning preferences. The highest total indicates their preferred learning style. Invite discussion. 3. Give each Cadet a blank version of Learning Pyramid: Average Retention, and ask them to guess which activities cause the most retention of information. Have them complete the pyramid by placing the strategy with the least retention at the top.

4. Distribute copies of the completed version of Learning Pyramid: Average Retention, and ask them to compare their guesses with the correct answers. This is an opportunity to say that a teacher should consider how to combine lecture with another reinforcing activity. Instructional variety reaches a diverse range of students.

5. Refer Cadets to the completed handout, Learning Pyramid: Average Retention, and ask How might this information impact teaching and learning? People remember 10% of what they read, 20% of what they hear, 30% of what they see, 50% of what they hear and see, 70% of what they say, and 90% of what they say while doing something that reinforces what they say. (Source: PACE I Curriculum, SC Department of Education, 2003.) Materials: Handout: Learning Styles Questionnaire Handout: Learning Style Grid Handouts: Learning Pyramid: Average Retention (blank copy and completed copy)

Assessment: The students will write a reflective paper as a journal or portfolio entry, highlighting what they learned about themselves and others as visual, auditory, or kinesthetic/tactile learners. Time: Standard: I.2.1 Students will evaluate different learning styles. 30 minutes

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Directions: To find out the learning style or styles you prefer, respond to the following statements. Circle the number in front of the statements that are true about you. If the statement is not true of you, do not circle the number. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. I prefer to hear a book on tape rather than reading it. When I put something together, I always read the directions first. I prefer reading to hearing a lecture. When I am alone, I usually have music playing or hum or sing. I like playing sports more than reading books. I can always tell directions like north and south, no matter where I am. I love to write letters or keep a journal. When I talk, I like to say things like, I hear you, That sounds good, or That rings a bell. My room, locker, desk, and car are usually disorganized. I love working with my hands and building or making things. I know most of the words to the songs to which I listen. When others are talking, I usually am creating images in my mind of what they are saying. I like sports and think I am a pretty good athlete. It is easy to talk for long periods of time on the phone with my friends. Without music, life is not any fun. I am very comfortable in social groups and can usually strike up a conversation with almost anyone. When looking at objects on paper, I can easily tell whether they are the same, no matter which way they are turned. I usually say things like, I feel, I need to get a handle on it, or Get a grip. When I recall an experience, I mostly see a picture of it in my mind. When I recall an experience, I mostly hear the sounds and talk to myself about it. When I recall an experience, I mostly remember how I felt about it. I like music more than art. I often doodle when I am on the phone, in a meeting, or in class. I prefer to act things out rather than write a report on them. I like reading stories more than listening to stories. I usually speak slowly. I like talking more than I like writing. My handwriting is not usually neat. I generally use my finger to point when I read. I can multiply and add quickly in my head. I like spelling and think I am a good speller. I get very distracted if someone talks to me when the TV is on. I like to write down instructions that people give me. I can easily remember what people say. I learn best by doing. It is hard for me to sit still for very long.

Learning Styles Questionnaire

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

9. 10. 11. 12.

21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.

19. 20.

Source: Learning Styles Inventory developed by Pat Whyman, M.A. The Center for New Discoveries in Learning, P.O. Box 101, Windsor, CA 95492-1019. (Web sites: http://www.howtolearn.com and http://www.discoveries.org)

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Use the following key to know which column to record the circles that you circled. Visual Questions: 2, 3, 6, 7, 12, 17, 19, 23, 25, 30, 31, 33 Auditory Questions: 1, 4, 8, 11, 14, 15, 16, 20, 22, 27, 32, 34 Kinesthetic Questions: 5, 9, 10, 13, 18, 21, 24, 26, 28, 29, 35, 36

Learning Style Grid

Record your scores on the Learning Styles Grid, which has a scoring guide at the top. For example, if you circled #1, you will place a check for #1, auditory column. If you circled #2, you will place a check for #2 under visual. Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Visual Auditory Kinesthetic/ Tactile

Total:

Total:

Total:

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Learning Pyramid: Average Retention


People remember:

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

In alphabetical order: 1. hearing 2. hearing and seeing 3. reading 4. saying 5. saying while doing something that reinforces what they say 6. seeing

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Learning Pyramid: Average Retention


People remember:

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Source: PACE I Curriculum, SC Department of Education, 2003

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Gardners Multiple Intelligences


*Mandatory lesson Objective: Students will be able to identify and explain multiple intelligences. Essential Question: What are some key elements of each multiple intelligence?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Activities: 1. The students will complete the Multiple Intelligences Inventory. Next, discuss with the students their findings based on the MI Inventory. Remind students that these are categories worthy for people to assess within themselves and develop. Note: When instructors present material in ways that facilitate students accessing content information through multiple intelligences, it may appeal to students and serve as a motivation factor. When instructors allow students to show what they have learned through their primary intelligences, it may enhance student learning and performance. Some multiple intelligences correlate to preferred processing styles, but it is the difference between internal processing and internal aptitude. In other words, they are similar, but not interchangeable.

3. You might also want to show the video Multiple Intelligences: Other Styles of Learning. See the video list in the Resources section. Materials: Handout: Multiple Intelligences Inventory Handout: Activity Chart for Multiple Intelligences Video (optional): Multiple Intelligences: Other Styles of Learning

2. The students will complete the Activity Chart for Multiple Intelligences by filling in the left-hand column with the nine intelligences, with each intelligence being most suited by the kinds of assignments a teacher can give. The answer key is as follows: 1. interpersonal intelligence 2. verbal/linguistic intelligence 3. musical/rhythmic intelligence 4. logical/mathematical intelligence 5. bodily/kinesthetic intelligence 6. existential/spiritual intelligence 7. intrapersonal intelligence 8. visual/spatial intelligence 9. natural intelligence

Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students may write a journal or portfolio entry about what they learned regarding their most and least prevalent Multiple Intelligences. 2. Students may analyze other students or family members using the MI Inventory, then compile the data. Which intelligences seem to dominate? Why might this be true? 3. Students may write an essay addressing MI, such as: Do schools cater to a specific intelligence? Time: 45 minutes

Standard: I.2.1: Students will evaluate different learning styles.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Multiple Intelligences Inventory, Page 1 of 3

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Verbal/Linguistic _ You enjoy word play puns, tongue-twisters, limericks, rhymes. _ You read a wide variety of printed materials books, magazines, newspapers, even product labels. _ You can easily express yourself either when speaking or in writing; you are a good story-teller and/or writer. _ You make frequent allusions to things you have read or heard. _ You like to do crosswords, play Scrabble, and compete in word games. _ You have an extensive vocabulary. _ You prefer subjects such as English, history, and social studies. _ You can effectively defend your ideas and are good at debate. _ You like to talk through problems, explain solutions, and ask questions. _ You can easily absorb information from the radio or audio cassettes. Logical/Mathematical _ You enjoy working with numbers and can do mental calculations. _ You are interested in new scientific advances. _ You can easily balance your check book and adhere to a budget. _ You like to put together a detailed itinerary for vacations or business trips. _ You enjoy the challenge of brain teasers or other puzzles that require logical thinking. _ You tend to find the logical flaws in things people say and do. _ Math and science are among your favorite subjects. _ You can find specific examples to support a general point of view. _ You take a systematic, step-by-step approach to problem-solving. _ You like to categorize groups or quantify things for relevance.

Musical/Rhythmic _ You can play a musical instrument. _ You can sing on key. _ You usually remember a tune after hearing it just a few times. _ You often listen to music at home and in your car. _ You find yourself tapping in time to music. _ You can identify different musical instruments. _ Theme music or commercial jingles often pop into your head. _ You cannot imagine life without music. _ You often whistle or hum a tune. _ You like a musical background when you are working.

Visual/Spatial _ You have an appreciation of the arts. _ You often make a visual record of events with a camera or camcorder. _ You find yourself doodling when taking notes or thinking through something. _ You have no problem reading maps and navigating. _ You enjoy visual games such as jigsaw puzzles and mazes. _ You are adept at taking things apart and putting them back together. _ You like lessons in art and prefer geometry to algebra. _ You often make your point by providing a diagram or drawing. _ You can visualize how things look from a different perspective. _ You prefer reading material that is heavily illustrated.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Bodily/Kinesthetic _ You take part in a sport or regularly perform some kind of physical exercise. _ You have do-it-yourself skills. _ You like to think through problems while engaged in a physical pursuit such as walking or running. _ You do not mind getting on the dance floor. _ You like the most thrilling rides at the fair or theme park. _ You need to touch and handle something to fully understand it. _ Your most enjoyable class is Physical Education, and you enjoy craft lessons. _ You use hand gestures or other kinds of body language to express yourself. _ You like rough and tumble play with children and/or pets. _ You need to tackle a new learning experience hands on rather than reading a manual or watching a video. Interpersonal _ You enjoy working with other people as part of a group or committee. _ You take great pride in being a mentor to someone else. _ People tend to come to you for advice. _ You prefer team sports such as basketball, softball, soccer, football to individual sports such as swimming and running. _ You like games involving other people card games, Monopoly, Trivial Pursuit. _ You have an active social life. You prefer to be at a party rather than home alone. _ You have several very close personal friends. _ You communicate well with people and can help resolve disputes. _ You have no hesitation in taking the lead and showing other people how to get things done. _ You talk over problems with others rather than trying to resolve them by yourself.

Multiple Intelligences Inventory, Page 2 of 3

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Intrapersonal _ You keep a personal diary or log to record your innermost thoughts. _ You often spend quiet time reflecting on the important issues in your life. _ You have set your own goals; you know where you are going. _ You are an independent thinker; you know your own mind and make up your own mind. _ You have a private hobby or interest which you do not really share with anyone else. _ You like to go fishing by yourself or take a solitary hike. You are happy with your own company. _ Your idea of a good vacation is an isolated hilltop cabin rather than a crowded five-star resort. _ You have a realistic idea of your own strengths and weaknesses. _ You have attended self-improvement workshops or been through some kind of counseling to learn more about yourself. _ You work for yourselfor have seriously contemplated doing your own thing.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Multiple Intelligences Inventory, Page 3 of 3

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Naturalist _ You keep or like pets. _ You can recognize and name many different types of trees, flowers, and plants. _ You have an interest in, and good knowledge of, how the body works, and you keep abreast of health issues. _ You are conscious of animal tracks, nests, and wildlife while on a walk and can identify weather signs. _ You can envision yourself as a farmer, fisherman, or outdoorsman. _ You are a keen gardener. You do not mind working in the yard. _ You have an understanding of, and interest in, the main global environmental issues. _ You keep reasonably informed about developments in astronomy, the origins of the universe, and the evolution of life. _ You are interested in biology, social issues, psychology, and human motivations. _ You consider that conservation of resources and achieving sustainable growth are two of the biggest issues of our times. Existential/Spiritualist _ You ponder frequently about philosophical life and death issues. _ You enjoy practicing meditation and/or prayer. _ You have an interest in studying different faiths and religions. _ You are curious about topics such as intuition, myths, ghosts, spirits, and life after death. _ You envision yourself as a reader of spiritually-focused literature (works by Emerson, Thoreau, Whitman, C.S. Lewis, Mitch Albom). _ You have a strong inner conviction and therefore organize service projects and social reform. _ You have an understanding of, and interest in, issues pertaining to church and worship. _ You have a sense of well-being, mastery, and/or confidence. _ You ask broad questions like, Why are we here on earth? and What is the role of human beings in the world? _ You consider big issues of our times such as Is there life on other planets? Source: Excerpted and adapted from "Accelerated Learning for the 21st Century" by Colin Rose and Malcolm J. Nicholl

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Activity Chart for Multiple Intelligences


Directions: In the left-hand column, write the multiple intelligence that will be most demonstrated in these possible classroom lessons and assignments. 1. Multiple Intelligence Activities that Address Multiple Intelligences Conduct a meeting to address ... Use social skills to learn about ... Participate in a service project to ... Teach someone about ... Practice giving and receiving feedback on ... Use storytelling to explain ... Conduct a debate on ... Write a poem, myth, legend, play, news about... Create a talk show radio program about ... Conduct an interview on ... Give a presentation using musical accompaniment Sing a rap or song that explains ... Indicate the rhythmical patterns in ... Explain how the music of a song is similar to ... Make an instrument and use it to demonstrate ... Translate into a mathematical formula... Design and conduct an experiment keeping data ... Make up syllogisms to demonstrate ... Make up analogies to explain ... Describe the patterns or symmetry in ... Create sequence of movements to explain ... Make task or puzzle cards for ... Build or construct a ... Plan and attend a field trip that will ... Bring hands-on materials to demonstrate ... Research how religion has ... Explain why human beings exist on the earth to... Philosophize about life and life after death... Brainstorm about the human spirits... Record your meditations on ... Describe your qualities that will enable you to ... Set and pursue a goal to ... Describe one of your personal values about ... Write a journal entry on ... Assess your own work in ... Chart, map, cluster or graph ... Create a slide show, videotape, or photo album on... Create a piece of art that demonstrates ... Invent a board or card game to demonstrate ... Illustrate, draw, paint, sketch ... Draw or photograph natural objects Use binoculars, telescopes, microscopes, or magnifiers to ... Care for pets, wildlife, gardens, parks Create observation notebooks on ... Describe changes in the global environment

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Source: Adapted from http://www.casacanada.com/chart.html, 2004 PAGE I 2 - 10

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Analytical and Global Learning Preferences


*Mandatory lesson

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Activities: 1. Introduce the topic by having students write their names first using their preferred hand and next using their non-preferred hand. Explain that most people develop a preference for using one hand over the other. Generally speaking, the two regions of the brain -- the left and right -- have different functions, and, just as most of us develop a preference for using one hand over the other, many individuals develop a preference for using one side of the brain over the other. The left region of the brain is associated with more logical, analytical, and verbal areas. The right region is associated more with creativity, intuition, and imagination. 2. Distribute the Analytical/Global Inventory and ask students to select whether they are more like the items in Column A or Column B. If they cannot determine which they are, have them place a check in the middle. Some people use both sides of their brains fairly equally.) Column A represents the left (analytical) side of the brain while Column B represents the right (global) side. After students tally their scores, distribute the Analytical/Global Inventory Analysis.

Essential Question: How much does hemispheric preference affect learning style?

Objective: Students will determine if they have analytical or global learning preferences and will be able to recognize advantages and disadvantages of each.

4. Have students make a list of ways that teachers can accommodate all students in class such as providing alternative assignments. For example, a geography assignment could be to prepare a travel brochure instead of writing a research paper. Materials: Handout: "Analytical/Global Inventory" Handout: Analytical/Global Inventory Analysis

3. Once students have determined if they are more analytical or global in their learning preferences, divide the class into the two groups. Allow them time to discuss what they like and dislike in school. For example, analytical students generally prefer sequential lectures and objective tests; global learners enjoy role-play and open-ended discussions. Students should not infer that they use only one side of the brain.

Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students may include in their portfolios their Analytical/Global Inventory along with a written explanation of how their brains dominance has affected their education. 2. Each student may administer the Analytical/Global Inventory to a different class and compile the results. Students may share results in a newspaper article or at a faculty meeting. Standard: I.2.1: Students will evaluate different learning styles. Time: 30 minutes

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Dunn, Rita and Dunn, Kenneth. Teaching Secondary Students Through Their Individual Learning Styles: Practical Approaches for Grades 7 12. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1993. Ch. 4. Forward Can Be Backward for Many Students Have you ever analyzed your own teaching style? Not through an observation form, your supervisors evaluation, or even a peer conference but, rather, by focusing on how you begin a lesson? Most of us initially consider the content objectives, what was taught during the previous period, which items need reinforcement, or what might constitute a motivating opening. Sometimes the introduction is humorous, or interestingly related to a recent event, or it may seize students attention because it reflects something that happened at the school or in their lives. Even when we have planned well, however, some students do not respond to what we believe should be motivating, and others soon drift off into their own thoughts as the lesson sinks into a relatively dull, fact-by-fact development of a concept. Often the problem is that some of us are teaching in a way that is the reverse of the way in which many students learn. Do you introduce new concepts with one fact after another until, gradually, your students begin to understand the idea? If you do, you are engaged in analytic teaching. This requires analytic processing, which means that a youngsters mind must be able to absorb many small pieces of information and then synthesize them into an overall understanding. Thats the way many people learn, but it is not the way most people learn. In fact, the younger the children, the more likely they are to be global processors. At the secondary level, between 50 to 60 percent of all students tend to be global. An even higher percentage of those students who achieve slowly or of those having difficulty in school --- as many as 85 percent --- cannot learn successfully in an analytic mode. As you are probably aware, analytic students are concerned with details, rules, procedures, and directions; they like specific, step-by-step instructions. Global students, on the other hand, are concerned with end results; they need overviews and the big picture; they like general guidelines, variety, alternatives, and different approaches. Does the inability to remember facts mean that globals are less intelligent than analytics? Not at all. Several studies have verified that globals and analytics are equally able academically, but that, each group achieves best when taught with instructional approaches that match its individual members learning styles. Unfortunately, of the thousands of teachers we have tested, fully 65 percent are analytic. Thus, a serious mismatch between analytic teaching styles and global learning preferences occurs far too often, resulting in disaffected students with low scores, poor self-discipline, and damaged self-image. But what about you? How do you begin a lesson? If you dont know, just listen to yourself as you introduce each new topic. Do you begin with one detail followed by another? If you do,

GLOBAL AND ANALYTIC APPROACHES TO TEACHING

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

you are teaching analytically. Or, instead, do you tell a story that gives your students the major focus of the lesson and then fill in the gaps with the pertinent details? That is a global approach. Neither approach is better than the other, but matching the instructional strategy to the appropriate student is crucial. Many teachers, either intuitively or by design, use both global and analytic approaches when introducing lessons. If you do not, you would do well to examine the results in your classroom. Here is how you go about it: First, test your students to determine which are global and which are analyticNext, analyze your teaching style to see which approach you tend to use most often. Then examine the grades of the students who match your style and the grades of those who do not. You will find that the children who learn the same way you teach will achieve higher test scores than those who do not. Guidelines for Teaching Global Students If you are analytic and wish to teach your global students in ways that make it easier for them to understand and remember, try the following: 1. Introducing material: Begin the lesson with either a story, an anecdote, a humorous incident, or a joke that is directly related to the content you are teaching. If possible, relate the introduction to the students experiences. If that is not feasible, relate the introduction to something that is realistic to them. 2. Discovery through group learning: Avoid telling the students too many facts directly; instead, get them to unravel the information by themselves. To do this, suggest that they divide into small groups rather than work as individuals, unless specific students find it less threatening and more fun to solve problems with other others. 3. Written and tactual involvement: In addition to encouraging global students to think through by themselves or in a small group those details related to what they must learn (rather than telling them the answers), have them graph or map their new information and, if they can, illustrate it. Globals tend to draw meaning from pictures, photographs, symbols, and other visual representations; they respond less well to words and numbers. Thus, have them demonstrate their mastery of specific objectives by developing dioramas, graphs, charts, games, and so on. Since it helps for globals to dramatize what they are learning, you might also suggest creating pantomimes or plays and making puppets to demonstrate what they have learned. In addition, encourage students to develop their own teaching devices to share with classmates, so that others can learn through alternative strategies.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Guidelines for Teaching Analytic Students If you are global and wish to reach your analytic students, try the following: 1. Explanations and visual reinforcement: Explain the procedures and approaches to be used in reaching specific objectives. Write key words on the chalkboard as you speak. (Analytics respond to words and numbers.) Answer questions about details directly, and use printed visuals on either an overhead projector, slides, or the chalkboard. 2. Directions: List all assignments, directions, test dates, and specific objectives on ditto sheets, and provide one for each student. If paper is in short supply, list the directions on a chart, and have the students copy them. 3. Learning through direct teaching or related resources: Proceed step-by-step through the details that need to be assimilated to reach understandings or to acquire skills. Put key words on the chalkboard; distribute duplicated materials and fact sheets; underline important sections; check homework and notebooks daily. Teach students how to use the library independently and how to find and use reinforcing material directly related to the specific objectives of the sequence. 4. Testing and feedback: Test frequently; provide instant feedback on details in the sequence; respond to questions as soon as possible; itemize your expectations and requirements; if you give an assignment, check it; when you say you will test, do so.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

GLOBAL AND ANALYTIC APPROACHES TO TEACHING


Points to Ponder

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

1. According to this writer, why do teachers sometimes lose students when the lesson involves a fact-by-fact development of a concept? 2. What is an example of analytic teaching? 3. What is meant by, or what goes on in analytic processing? 4. At the secondary level, what percentage of students is global instead of analytic processors? 5. What are analytic students more concerned with, and what type of instructions do they like? 6. What are global students more concerned with, and what type of instructions do they like? 7. Why would a global student tend to appear less intelligent than analytical students in some classrooms?

8. List two guidelines for teaching global students. Explain why each is effective.

9. List two guidelines for teaching analytic students. Explain why each is effective.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Clues to Recognizing Analytic and Global Students: What They Are Likely to Say
Eight of the following comments are typical of global students, and ten are typical of analytics. Place each comment in the appropriate column below.
Why are we doing this? Does spelling count? Should I use a pen or a pencil? Should I skip lines? Not now! Ill do it later! What comes first? Second? When is it due? I need a break! Why does it really matter? Will this be on the test? Can I have some more time? Ill come back to this later. What are you really looking for? Please check my work before I submit it. Dont touch the piles on my desk. Why cant we do one thing at a time? Why cant I skip around in the book? Lets start this project --- and that one too!

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

ANALYTICS

GLOBALS

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Analytical/Global Inventory

Directions: For each item, check the one that best describes you. COLUMN A COLUMN B

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

decisions based on facts organized structure

______ ______ ______

decisions based on feelings open-ended setting

______

values logic neat

careful - deliberate

______ ______ ______ ______ ______ ______

carefree/spontaneous values hunches sloppy recalls facts

recalls names objective rational concrete

______ ______ ______ ______ ______

likes words/numbers

______

subjective abstract

likes space/form

realistic

______ ______ ______ ______

emotional idealistic timeless led by the heart

led by the mind time-bound

TOTAL _________

TOTAL ________

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Analytical/Global Inventory Analysis


ANALYTICAL (Left Brain) ___ is verbal ___ responds to word meaning ___ recalls facts, dates ___ is sequential ___ processes information linearly ___ responds to logical appeal ___ trusts logical appeal ___ looks tidy, organized ___ plans ahead ___ is punctual ___ is reflective ___ recalls peoples names ___ speaks with few gestures ___ uses step-by-step presentation in explanations ___ is quiet ___ prefers bright light ___ likes formal design ___ has strong need to finish task ___ needs no mobility ___ needs structure ___ is a visual, auditory learner ___ is highly motivated ___ is highly persistent ___ often works at desk and in a chair ___ eats when finished with task ___ likes lists, outlines, and summaries ___ can work well alone ___ less interested in personal experiences of teacher/presenter Source: Dr. Rita Dunn and Dr. Kenneth Dunn

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

GLOBAL (Right Brain) ___ is visual, tactile, kinesthetic ___ responds to word pitch, feeling ___ recalls images, patterns ___ is random ___ processes information in chunks ___ responds to emotional appeal ___ trusts intuition ___ looks disorganized ___ is spontaneous ___ is less punctual ___ is impulsive ___ recalls peoples faces ___ uses gestures when speaking ___ uses big picture first, then concentrates on details ___ finds music or noise appealing ___ likes soft light ___ prefers informal design ___ takes breaks during task ___ needs mobility ___ needs little structure ___ is a tactile, kinesthetic learner ___ may appear to lack motivation ___ may appear to lack persistence ___ often works on bed or on sofa ___ eats while working ___ likes overviews and whole ideas ___ likes peer-oriented work and small group activities ___ more interested in hearing others personal experiences

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


*Mandatory lesson

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Essential Question: How do human needs influence learners and learning?

Objective: The students will be able to describe the levels of Maslows Hierarchy of Needs and explain its implication for learners.

Activities: 1. Ask students to recall classes in which they felt that the teacher genuinely cared about the students and did a good job of creating a positive environment. Have them brainstorm responses to the following questions: What do you remember about the physical environment? (e.g. room arrangement? wall decorations?) What was the teachers attitude toward the students? How was it conveyed? To what extent did the students know each other and work together? What role did the teacher have in building those relationships? List the responses on a flip chart, chalkboard, or overhead.

3. Discuss with the students the key differences between the two kinds of classroom environments. How did these differences affect the students and their learning?

2. Next, the students to answer the same questions while recalling a class in which they felt uncomfortable or threatened, particularly one in which the teacher did not have a positive relationship with many of the students. List these responses as well. Tell the students not to name or identify these teachers.

Assessment: Students may write a journal or portfolio entry in which they discuss some practical means in which teachers can create classrooms to meet their students needs as described in Maslows Hierarchy of Needs. Standard: I.2.2: Students will identify the special needs and exceptionalities of learners and determine how these needs affect the learning process. Time: 20 minutes

Materials: Handout: Understanding Maslows Hierarchy of Needs

4. Distribute the handout titled Understanding Maslows Hierarchy of Needs. Discuss each level, beginning with physiological needs and moving to self-actualization. Note that if ones needs at the lower levels go unfulfilled, the person might be unable to fulfill his needs at higher levels.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Understanding Maslows Hierarchy of Needs


5 Self-Actualization An ongoing process; the development of a sense of commitment to something larger than ones self (e.g. a vocation, a cause) 4 Self-Esteem Need for self-respect that comes from feeling self-confident and valued by others 3 Love, Affection, and Sense of Belonging Social needs; need to feel connected to a larger group and to give and receive love or affection 2 Safety and Security Need to feel protected from danger, threat, and harm 1 Physiological Biological needs, including basic need for oxygen, water, food and constant body temperature; the person dies if these needs are not met

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

The Acorn People or A Wickets Wad


*Mandatory lesson

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Objective: The student will identify the challenges and rewards of working with special needs students. Essential Question: How might diversity contribute to a groups functioning? Activities: 1. Obtain copies of the book The Acorn People by Ron Jones. Assign the book to the students. (It is a short book and can easily be read in two sittings.) Distribute copies of the activity titled A Wickets Wad. Fold the copy as indicated. As the students attempt to answer the questions in the top section, encourage them to speak aloud. As they do, write their comments on an overhead transparency. After they see the activity at the bottom of the page (A Beavers Home), display the transparency. (Their comments may mirror those of learning disabled students.) AND/OR

2. Distribute a 3x5 index card to each student. On one side of the card, have him/her complete the following statement: If I were the parent of a special needs child, I would On the other side of the card, ask him or her to write a one word response to describe their reaction to the book and/or activity. Have the students share their responses with the class, and then use all the cards to create a mobile. Materials: The Acorn People books for the class 3 x 5 index cards for the class Hanger and string to make mobile 3. Explain to the students that the class will begin the study of special education.

Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students may have their index cards for their mobile assessed. 2. Students may write a reflective journal or portfolio entry about their response to The Acorn People or A Wickets Wad. 3. Students may do a five-entry double entry journal on the book. 4. Instructors may use the rubric for grading discussions. Time: (Allow the students at least two days to read the book outside of class.) Lesson: 50 minutes

Standards: I.2.2: Students will identify the special needs and exceptionalities of learners and determine how these needs affect the learning process. I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that can impede successful learning. I.1.3: Students will examine and appreciate others diversity.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

ubric for Teacher Cadet Discussions


Name of Cadet: ______________________________________________________________ Never 0 Participates actively in the discussion; makes multiple, relevant, and worthy comments Uses details and examples from assignments (e.g. texts, videos, lectures) to support assertions Makes connections to other knowledge and experiences Listens attentively and respectfully Paraphrases others for clarity; asks relevant questions; builds on the comments of others without being redundant Comments: Seldom 1 Sometimes 2 Often 3

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

A Wickets Wad

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Battered lucky chew whiff, sweat hard setter bloat wickets wad. Gap inner flesh, disk abdominal woof lipped honor get, paunches honor pore oil worming in wickets wad garbled erupt. 1. Wants pawn term dare wickets wad? 2. Wan moaning ladle rat rotten hut?

A wickets wad, woof tucker shirt court, as a shinny retched a cordage offer. Inner ladle wile, ladle rat rotten hut a raft in attar cordage, an ranker dough ball. A nervous sore raft suture bag mouse bet lest a few warts. Yonder not sorghum stenches shut ladle gulls stopper torque wet strainers. This wickets wad ugh a rotten end to a please. A hardy, retched cordage sieves tow: torrent arena are for a sacrifice merge in a seismic please.

3. Watt do the wad sorghum mandate?

4. Watt hearing on a wicket fir no retched a cordage offer? 5. Hum goes a loaded level boom hurt a wicket?

FOLD ----------------------------------------------------- FOLD ---------------------------------------------- FOLD A Beavers Home

A beavers home, called a lodge, always has a flooded lower room. These homes are built in large ponds or streams. Mud and sticks are the main building materials. One room is built above the water level and another room is located under water. The only way a beaver can get into the house is to submerge and enter through an opening in the flooded room. This room serves two purposes: a storage area and a sanctuary from enemies.

1. 2. 3. 5. 4.

Occasionally the lower room becomes dry because the beavers dam has been destroyed. This energetic animal has to repair the dam quickly or begin building a new home in another place. What is the name of a beavers home? Where do beavers build their homes?

What does the word submerge mean?

How does a flooded lower room help a beaver?

What would happen to a beaver if there wasnt water in a stream?

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Walking in Somebody Elses Shoes


*Mandatory lesson Objective: The students will identify the need for greater understanding and sensitivity for disabled students. Essential Question: How might special needs and exceptionalities affect a person? Activities: 1. Ask students the following questions: How would you define disability? How do disabilities affect learning? Recall and share your first contact with a disabled person. Would you describe this encounter as a positive or negative experience for you? For the disabled person? How did that experience affect your attitude and feelings toward people who are disabled?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

2. You may introduce the unit on special education by playing Mad Gab. You may purchase the game or use samples from the web site: www.millionminute.com/madgabclassroom.asp. Begin class with the game; do not explain to the students what is happening. The point is for them to feel the frustration of not understanding what is going on. This will help the students to be able to empathize with the learning disabled student. Or, you may play the game Im Goin to Jerusalem, and You May Go, Too. Explain to the students that there is a rule about what one can take on a trip to Jerusalem, but they have to figure it out. (Caution those who figure out the rule before others not to reveal the rule before others figure it out; give their classmates time to determine what it is as the class proceeds with the game.) The teacher will say, Im going to Jerusalem, and I am going to take _____. (The teacher selects an item that begins with the first letter of his first name (e.g. Barbara could take a banana. Vince could take vitamins.) As you go around the room, students will also say, Im going to Jerusalem, and I am going to take ___. The student cannot go unless he states an item that begins with the same letter as his first name. Once everyone in the room has had a chance to name an item, go around again. Each person will name a different item to pack. Be prepared for students to become frustrated as they try to figure out this very simple rule. Eventually, have a student who has discovered the rule to explain it to the class. Help students to empathize with the learning disabled student by discussing their feelings and observations in these activities.

3. Conduct ten-minute role plays for students to experience the challenges and frustrations of disabilities. Consider doing the following: Use sports tape to secure a students first three fingers together, or tape the thumb to the hand. Have a student wear a sling to prohibit the use of one arm. Have students use walking aids such as crutches or a walker. Seat a student in a wheelchair. Tape folded wax paper over the students eyeglasses. Have a student wear very dark sunglasses or welders glasses. Have a student wear foam ear plugs. (Use the type recommended for industrial workers or hunters.) Have a student wear a radio head phone that is set on a low constant static. Have a student fill his/her mouth with marshmallows before he/she is supposed to speak.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Tell one student that he/she just cannot stand still. He/she cannot wait his turn. He/she interrupts others. Place two or more thimbles on a students fingers. Dress a student in thick, oversized shirt, pants, and shoes (the bigger, the better). Place oversized gloves or mittens on a students hands. Ask students to form a circle and pass a hula-hoop around as fast as they can. 4. Follow the activity with these discussion questions: How did you feel? How eager were your peers to make accommodations? What was the most difficult? 5. Move to a broader discussion of working with students with disabilities. Ask the following: What are the pros and cons of integrating children with special needs into the classroom? What potential problems and benefits does inclusion raise? Do you think that disabled children have a right to be part of an integrated classroom, or is it a privilege? Should disabled children have separate, self-contained programs? Why or why not? Materials: Ace bandage, crutches, ear plugs, sling, portable radio with small headphones, sports tape, very dark sunglasses or welders glasses, wax paper, wheel chair, crutches, marshmallows, walker, thimble, gloves or mittens, Hula Hoop Assessment: Students may write a reflective journal or portfolio entry to answer the following question: What did you learn about coping with physical disabilities? Time: 1 hour

Standards: I.2.2: Students will identify the special needs and exceptionalities of learners and determine how these needs affect the learning process. I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that can impede successful learning.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Categories of Special Education


*Mandatory lesson Objective: Students will be able to define terms in dealing with students in special education. Essential Question: How are terms helpful in dealing with special needs students? Activities: 1. Present a brief lecture using the handouts titled Special Education: Policies, Procedures, and Laws and Special Education: Categories.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

2. Place the students in small groups and select cards. (The number of cards per group will depend on the size groups you form and the number of students in your classroom.) Have the students determine what special education category is indicated for each student and then share their responses with the rest of the class. Instructors Note: Make copies of the three card pages and cut them into sections for distribution to small groups. You may want to glue the card sections onto card stock and/or laminate them so that the cards can be used repeatedly. TravisHearing Impaired JimMentally Disabled RobertoGifted JulieADD/ ADHD

3. You may also wish to have your special education teacher(s) speak with the class. Materials: Handout: Special Education: Policies, Procedures, and Laws Handout: Special Education: Categories Handout: Special Education Cards

JoseVisually Impaired MelissaEmotionally Disabled GregLearning Disabled ChristaOrthopedically Handicapped LakeishaSpeech Impaired

The following is the answer key for the cards:

Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students may design a research project or presentation on special education programs. 2. Students may demonstrate their knowledge of special education categories and terms through test questions. 3. Students may write a journal or portfolio entry reacting to what they have learned about special needs students, including how it will affect the way they treat them in and out of school. Time: 1 hour

Standards: I.2.2: Students will identify the special needs and exceptionalities of learners and determine how these needs affect the learning process. I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that can impede successful learning. I.1.3: Students will examine and appreciate others diversity.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Special Education: Policies, Procedures, and Laws


Terminology Section 504 Definition

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

A federal law that prohibits discrimination against otherwise qualified individuals with disabilities. This is not an education law, but a civil rights law. Individuals who have a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits a major life activity or who is regarded as disabled by others may have a 504 plan. 504 students are eligible for the same due process as students with an IEP. However, 504 students are not part of the "special education" program. They are in regular education classes throughout the day. Their 504 plan is overseen by a school or district coordinator who monitors their performance and behavior. LRE assures that a student with a disability will be placed in an education program to the full extent that can be accommodated in the regular education program. It is based on the presumption that children with disabilities are most appropriately educated with their non-disabled peers and that special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the regular educational environment occurs only when the nature of severity of the disability of a child is such that education in regular classes (with the use of supplementary aids and services) cannot be achieved satisfactorily. MDM is a meeting to determine if a student's disability is associated with his misbehavior. 504 students with an IEP cannot be expelled or suspended for more than 10 days without an MDM. IEP is the plan for accommodating a student's disability. It is a written document for each child with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised periodically. The IEP contains an explanation of the extent, if any, to which the student will not participate with non-disabled students in regular class and in extracurricular and nonacademic activities. This act governs special education programs and practices. IDEA 97 emphasizes student involvement in general curriculum, involvement of the regular education teacher, special factors to be considered, a statement of transition services needs at age 14, reports on student progress, and parent involvement in placement decisions. A BIP is required of all special education and 504 students who have misbehaviors that may cause a student to be suspended or expelled. The FBA must be filled out before a BIP is written. Teachers or other school personnel observe the student and determine reasons for the childs behaviors. One of the six principles of law that states students are entitled to free appropriate public education, regardless of their special needs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. free appropriate public education appropriate evaluation individualized education program least restrictive environment parent and student participation in decision making procedural due process

Least Restrictive Environment: LRE

Meeting to Determine Manifestation: MDM Individual Education Plan: IEP

Individuals with Disability Education Act: IDEA

Behavior Intervention Plan: BIP Functional Behavior Assessment: FBA Free Appropriate Public Education: FAPE Six Principles of the Law

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Special Education: Categories


Preschool Child with a Disability: PCD Category Definition PCD a child aged three, four, or five whose developmental progress is delayed to the extent that a program of special education is required to ensure his adequate preparation for school-age experiences. MD mental retardation is defined as significantly sub-average IQ with deficits in adaptive behavior that adversely affects a student's educational performance. Mild---IQ between 48 and 70 Moderate---IQ between 25 and 48 Severe---IQ between 0 and 25

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Mentally Disabled: MD

Learning Disability: LD

Characteristics might include the following: Delayed development in cognitive, language, motor skills Need for simply stated objectives and repeated practice Difficulty in generalized skills Poor social skills such as impulsivity, low frustration tolerance, aggression, low self-esteem Health problems such as seizures; visual, auditory, and cardiovascular problems

Emotional Disability: ED

Specific Learning Disability a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language (spoken or written) that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, recall information, do abstract thinking, or perform mathematical calculations. Writing disorders may include excessive misspellings, grammatical errors, and poor organization of thought. Handwriting disorders may include oddly crowded or spaced lettering, letters of varying sizes, reversed letters. Reading problems may include slow pace, frequent omissions, loss of place on page, skipping lines. Language-based disorders may include poor listening comprehension, poor memory of sequential information, difficulty separating words into phonetic segments. Thinking disorders may include impaired ability to make decisions and choices, difficulty with abstract reasoning, lack of focus and motivation, and poor test performance.

Emotional Disability an emotional disturbance defined as a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects the student's educational performance: Inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors Inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances (ex. withdrawal, aggression, defiance) A general pervasive mood of immaturity, negativity, unhappiness, anxiousness, frustration, or depression Tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems This term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have a serious emotional disturbance.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION Category Hearing Impairment: HI Definition A hearing impairment a hearing disability, whether permanent or fluctuating, that may adversely affect a student's educational performance, but is not included under the definition of deafness. Deafness labels a hearing impairment so severe that the child has great difficulty in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, thus affecting the student's educational performance. Characteristics might include the following: Misidentification of letters, words, phrases Defective speech, minimal expressive vocabulary, weak or loud voice, and inadequate language skills

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Inability to identify source of sounds and environmental sounds

Visual Impairment: VI

Deaf-Blindness: D-B

Vision Impairment an impairment (including blindness) in vision that, even with correction, may adversely affect a student's educational performance. Characteristics may include the following: Pain such as headaches, swollen or red-rimmed eyelids Out-of-the-ordinary reading behaviorsfrowning, excessive blinking, covering an eye, holding body tense Delays and limitations in motor, cognitive, and social development Dysfunction of eye muscles (crossed eyes, rapid eye movement, bulging eyes) Need for special seating arrangements, large print, adjustments with lighting, Braille, Zoom Text software

Slower processing of oral presentations and questions; over attentiveness to others lips, facial expressions, and gestures Possible need for help of audiologist, speech pathologist, more visual cues, hearing aid devices, special seating

Orthopedic Impairment: OI

Deaf-Blindness concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational problems that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for students with deafness or students with blindness.

Other Health Impairment: OHI

Traumatic Brain Injury: TBI

Traumatic Brain Injury an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, (or both) which may adversely affect a student's educational performance. Not included are brain dysfunctions that are degenerative or brain injuries by birth trauma. This condition may be due to something like a car wreck, fall, or blow to the head. PAGE I 2 -29

Other Health Impairment limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli. OHI may result in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, due to chronic or acute health problems that adversely affect educational performance. These students may suffer from asthma, diabetes, seizures, leukemia, AIDS or similar health issues.

Orthopedic Impairment a severe physical disability that may adversely affect a student's educational performance. The disability limits normal functioning of bones, muscles, or joints due to congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease, accidents, or birth defects. Some possible conditions may include the following: Diseases such as cerebral palsy, hemophilia, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, cystic fibrosis Accidents resulting in limb deficiency, traumatic brain injury, etc. Difficulty in walking, sitting, standing, using hands Lack of coordination and muscle strength Possible need of braces, special shoes, crutches, wheelchair

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION Category Definition Autism a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction; generally evident before age three that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Characteristics may include the following: Marked impairment in reciprocal social interaction Resistance to change Need for visual representations instead of verbal directions Need for consistent and specific behavior intervention plans Giftedness (without specialized instruction in certain areas math, art, music) Speech or Language Impairment a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment or a voice impairment that may adversely affect a student's educational performance. Expressive language disorder may be caused by environmental deprivation, emotional factors, structural abnormalities, or retardation. Possible characteristics may include the following: Quality, volume, or pitch of voice is inappropriate or abnormal. Interruptions of natural, smooth flow of speech with inappropriate pauses, hesitations, or repetitions Abnormal hoarseness, breathiness, or nasality Omission of certain sounds, word endings consistently dropped, substitution of one sound for another Student may need more positive reinforcement, help of a speech therapist, more wait time, reduced anxiety. ADD/ADHD extreme inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. However, because a child has a high energy level, it does not necessarily mean that he is ADD/ADHD. Possible characteristics may include the following: Fails to finish tasks, does not seem to listen, is easily distracted, has difficulty concentrating, is disorganized Forgetfulness (loses or misplaces objects often) Acts before thinking, shifts excessively from one activity to another, needs a lot of supervision, calls out in class Runs and climbs excessively; has difficulty sitting still, fidgets excessively, has difficulty staying seated May require behavior modification, medication, diet restrictions, more structure, social contracts

Autism

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Speech Impairment

Attention Deficit (ADD) /Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Gifted

Giftedness an exceptionality, not disability. Different indicative measures may be based on tests, academic achievement, creative thinking, and parent and teacher recommendations. Possible characteristics may include the following: Original, elaborative thinking; intellectual curiosity; active imagination; skills for complex problem solving Large vocabulary; interest in reading; wide range of experiences and information Need for freedom of movement, action, versatility, independence; possible impatience with others Demeanor described as being alert, eager, persistent, creative, motivated, observant May need enrichment programs, advanced placement classes, independent study programs, expanded projects

Source: Adapted from: PACE I Curriculum, SC Department of Education, 2003. PAGE I 2 - 30

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Special Education Cards, Page 1 of 3

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Jose Holds work very close Thrusts head forward Blinks continuously Holds body tense when reading Rubs eyes often Has frequent headaches Frowns when looking at printed material

Melissa Exhibits inability to relate effectively with peers Uses aggressive, confrontational, defiant behavior towards teachers Is anxious, worried, fearful, hopeless Interferes with others rights but shows no concern or remorse Demonstrates inconsistent, impulsive behavior Does not complete tasks Seems inattentive, distracted, hyperactive, restless

Greg Has difficulty remembering Reads slowly, distorts words, omits words, loses place Lacks motivation; becomes frustrated easily Writes with excessive spelling and grammar errors Writes using oddly spaced, varied size, and reversed letters Has language deficits in listening, speaking, vocabulary Lacks comprehension of math rules; confuses number columns

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Special Education Cards, Page 2 of 3


Christa Has difficulty walking and standing Lacks coordination and muscle strength Wears special shoes and leg braces Uses elevator, not the stairs, at school Has peers assigned to carry her book bag Is uncomfortable sitting in a regular desk Moves awkwardly and slowly

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Lakeisha Speaks with inappropriate pauses and hesitations Has unnecessary repetitions in speech Adds unnecessary and inappropriate sounds Drops word endings Substitutes one sound for another when talking Speaks with inappropriate loudness and pitch Has hoarseness, breathiness, and nasality in speech

Travis Misidentifies letters and sounds Repeats requests for oral directions Rolls head to one side Has defective speech and minimal vocabulary Is over-attentive to others lips, facial expressions, and gestures Processes oral presentations and spoken questions more slowly Hesitates to participate in class discussions and to read aloud

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Special Education Cards, Page 3 of 3 Jimmy Exhibits delayed development in cognitive and language development Has poor social skills (impulsivity, aggression, low self-esteem) Has great difficulty in generalized skills Lacks ability to concentrate extended periods of time on a task Needs skills to relate to daily life activities that are nonacademic in nature Needs simply stated objectives and repeated practice Placed in a self-contained classroom

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Roberto Exhibits intellectual curiosity and inquisitive nature Observes his environment with intentness Enjoys reading and has an extensive vocabulary Is persistent, goal-directed, motivated Is self-reliant and independent in work and study Has wide range of experiences and information Has ability to solve complex problems and design sophisticated projects

Julie Is easily distracted; has difficulty focusing extended periods Makes careless mistakes; does not follow through on instructions Fidgets excessively; has difficulty staying seated; squirms in desk Loses and misplaces materials often; has difficulty with organization Acts impulsively; gives impulsive responses to questions; calls out in class Avoids responsibilities that require sustained mental effort Has social contract set up by counselor to state goals clearly

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

*Mandatory activity

Gathering Information about Special Education through Observations

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Objective: Students will be able, through observations in special education classes, to identify special needs and adapted teaching strategies. Essential Question: What are some components that make for appropriate learning environments for special needs students? Activities: 1. You may make arrangements with a number of agencies to observe the full range of children with special needs. Some live in residential treatment facilities; others are in special classes within the school; others are enrolled in programs where they meet only at certain times. Still, others cannot be observed at all due to the sensitivity of their conditions. The coordinator of special education for your school district should be able to help you facilitate these observations. This person may also speak to your class. 2. Provide the students with the observation and inference forms, and review the procedures for observation. 3. Upon completion of your classroom observation, you may want to discuss the following questions: What are the characteristics that these children have in common? How are they like children who are not confronted with special education needs at this point in their lives? What types of environments seem to stimulate these children? What are the skills of the childrens teachers? What role do they play? Materials: Handout: "Special Education Observation Form" Assessment: Students may complete the observation form. Time: One class day (traditional or block schedule)

Standards: I.2.2: Students will identify the special needs and exceptionalities of the learner and determine how these needs affect the learning process. I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that can impede successful learning.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Special Education Observation Form Observer (Cadet): Site: Approximate Age (or Age Range) of Children: Teacher and Environment Date: Teachers Name:

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Students Cognitive reasoning Interactions Student to Student

Physical development

Teacher to Student Inferences:

The BIG Question: What made this an appropriate or inappropriate atmosphere for learning?

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Learning Disabilities Portrayed in Video: F.A.T. City


*Optional lesson

Objective: Students will be able to identify characteristics of learning disabilities and the best teaching strategies to use in addressing special needs. Essential Question: What are some components that make for appropriate learning environments for special needs students? Activities: 1. Show the video F.A.T. City: Frustration, Anxiety, and Tension: How Difficult Can This Be? (distributed by PBS Video) Dr. Richard D. Lavoie, a specialist in special education, enables the viewer to look at the world through the eyes of a learning disabled child. It features a unique workshop attended by parents, educators, psychologists, and social workers participating in a series of classroom activities that cause frustration, anxiety, and tension. Following the workshop, the participants discuss topics ranging from school/home communication, sibling relationships, and social skills. 2. Have the students take notes on the handout provided for this video. Instructors may want to show the video in segments, stopping the video and discussing demonstrations and points before moving on. After seeing the video, each participant will exchange his/her handout Lessons Learned about Learning Disabilities with another student so everyone can read and discuss another persons notes. This initial discussion will be done in pairs. Then have the students return the handouts to their original owners. Save the last five minutes. for whole class discussion and questions about the video. Materials: F.A.T. City video (See video information in the Resources section.) TV and DVD player Handout: Lessons Learned about Learning Disabilities Assessment: Students may write a reflection as a journal or portfolio entry and attach notes taken during the video. Time: 1 hours Standard: I.2.2: Students will identify the special needs and exceptionalities of learners and determine how these needs affect the learning process. Source: (Lesson adapted from PACE I Curriculum, SC Department of Education, 2003.)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Lessons Learned about Learning Disabilities


As you watch the video, fill in the following three boxes with your notes: Characteristics of Learning Disabilities Portrayed in the Video

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Ways to Address Special Needs of Learning Disabled Students

Methods to Avoid When Working with Special Needs Students

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Special Attractions: Videos about Special Education and Barriers to Learning


*Optional lesson Objective: Students will be able to identify characteristics of students with special needs and barriers to learning to determine resources available to help them as learners. Essential Question: What are some components that make for appropriate learning environments for special needs students?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Activities: 1. Students will view videotapes or DVDs to access professionals and settings they may not have access to in person. The videos and DVDs will enhance the viewers knowledge of special education and barriers to learning. Please refer to the video section included and contact CERRA to borrow videos. You may also contact the public library, mental health center, college libraries, video brochures, and other resources for additional videos. Preview the video before showing it to the class. You may deem it appropriate to show portions of videos rather than the videos in their entirety. The following videos address special needs and barriers to learning; however, many of these videos would be appropriate to show with other units of the curriculum as well. Cipher in the Snow Classroom of the Heart: Guy Doud Teacher of the Year Considering a Career in Special Education Frontline: A Class Divided Last One Picked...First One Picked On Learning Disabilities Learning Disabled Mays Miracle: A Retarded Youth with a Gift for Music Seans Story: A Lesson in Life Violence and Young Children: Reducing the Risks What Tadoo: Better Safe than SorryParts 1, 2, 3 Without Pity: A Film about Abilities

2. Assignment: Points to Ponder Ask the students to write down three significant points to ponder as they watch the video. Then lead a discussion on these points in a round-robin format, moving from student to student, each sharing with the rest of the class one of the points he/she recorded. If two students recorded the same information, then encourage them to elaborate on that same point. Go around the room two or three times, allowing everyone to have input in the discussion. Conclude the discussion by asking, What additional insights do you get from others comments? How do your classmates comments affect your thinking about his/her topic?

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

3. Web: An alternative writing assignment would be to have each student create a web during the video. In the center of his paper, each Cadet can write the main topic. For example, for Frontline: A Class Divided, the student may write prejudice in a centrally located circle and then record in attached smaller circles the points that the video makes about prejudice affecting learning. If the class watched Seans Story: A Lesson in Life, the center circle may include downs syndrome or inclusion, and the adjoining circles may hold the notes that the Cadets wrote about the topic based on the video. Materials: Selected DVDs Assessment: Students may write a reflective journal entry or portfolio entry about the video and attach their Points to Ponder or Web. Time: 1 hours

Standards: I.2.2: Students will identify the special needs and exceptionalities of learners and determine how these needs affect the learning process. I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that can impede successful learning. I.1.3: Students will examine and appreciate others diversity.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Fishbowl Labels
*Mandatory lesson Objective: Students will be able to state how ostracism and labeling have negative impacts on the learner. Essential Question: How might labels affect a learner? Activities: 1. Place a label with one of following phrases on each of the Cadets foreheads. (Some instructors prefer to pin the label on a piece of paper or a paper plate on the back of each students shirt.) The students are not allowed to see their own labels. They are to discuss in small groups a serious topic such as If the salaries of teachers were increased substantially, would that ensure that we would attract more qualified people into the profession? Each will be treated by the other students in the group according to the label on his/her forehead or back. Caution students not to get too extreme with their role plays. Stop the role play if you note that someone is getting too uncomfortable with the scenario. Labels may include the following: Laugh at my ideas. Praise me. Ignore me. Ridicule my ideas. Im brilliant. Value my ideas. I am a slow learner.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Materials: Labels Time:

2. After a few minutes of role-play in the discussion, stop the groups and process with each label wearer this question: How did it feel to be treated that way? Probably even those with the labels of Praise me, Im brilliant, and Value my ideas started to feel a little aggravated due to empty flattery or pressure to live up to the lofty labels. Ask the students, How a pupil may feel if all his ideas are laughed at? Perhaps the class clown wants to make a serious comment, but the class is in the routine of laughing at him in all circumstances. Even the smartest of students have at one time felt like a slow learner, especially when they were trying to learn something very new to them. For example, an A+ student may not have the mechanical skills of a student who makes average grades. Perhaps the most cruel of the labels is the Ignore me. Ask the students, What happens when a student feels ignored in class for days or months or years?

Standards: I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that can impede successful learning. I.1.3: Students will examine and appreciate others diversity.

30 minutes

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

A Focus on the Eleven Major Barriers


*Mandatory lesson

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Objective: The student will identify causes, preventions, and treatments of some major common barriers to learning. Essential Question: How might barriers to learning be overcome? Activity: 1. Depending on the size of the class, an option is to use the Jigsaw Method of Instruction, or you may assign pairs or small groups to become experts on one of the seven topics. Then, they will teach a mini-lesson on a barrier to learning to the rest of the class. Use the following topics: abuse and neglect bullying death, dying, and grief depression and suicidal tendencies eating disorders ESL, ESOL, and ELL latchkey children poverty sleep deprivation substance abuse teen pregnancy Materials: Teacher Cadets can use the handouts made available in this curriculum; they are also encouraged to use other sources that they find through their own research. Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students may be assessed according to the rubric for presentations on the following page. 2. Students may respond to test questions based on the content presented on the seven barriers. Time: 2 hours

Standards: I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that impede successful learning. I.1.3: Students will examine and appreciate others diversity.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

(Note: Some elements count more than others, as the score column indicates. A student can get up to 50 points. To convert that score to a 100 point scale, multiply the total score by 2.) 1 Very Poor 2 Poor 3 Average 4 Excellent Score
__x 2=__ __ x 3 =___

Rubric for Teacher Cadet Presentation

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Organization

Presentation has no Presentation has some ideas out of clear sequence. logical order. Content has some problems with clarity,information, analysis, and synthesis; presenter can answer only basic questions. Presenter uses a visual, object, handout, or graphic, but it is ineffective. Presentation includes some written and/or spoken errors.

Content is sequential.

Information is in a clear, logical, coherent sequence. Content is superb in clarity, information, analysis, and synthesis; presenter can explain and elaborate when answering questions. Presenter uses at least one visual, object, handout, or graphic that enhances the presentation. Presentation is clear of any written and/or spoken errors. Presenter effectively uses eye contact to communicate with and engage the audience. Speech is superb, especially regarding: ___________ ____________ Presentation meets the designated time length. Sources are superb in: ___________ ___________

Content Knowledge: Content severely lacks clarity, (Explanations,Deinformation,analysis, tails, and synthesis; Interpretations, presenter cannot Support) answer questions on the subject. Visuals Presenter uses no visuals.

Content is adequate in clarity, information, analysis, and synthesis; presenter can answer questions (but usually fails to elaborate). Presenter uses a visual, object, handout, or graphic that is somewhat effective. Presentation has a few written and/or spoken errors. Presenter maintains adequate eye contact with the audience. Speech is adequate, especially regarding: ___________ ___________ Presentation almost meets the designated time length. Sources are adequate in: __________ __________

__ x 1 =___

Mechanics

Eye Contact

Presenter maintains Presenter no eye contact with occasionally makes eye the audience. contact with the audience. Speech is poor in the following areas: ___________ ___________ (see list to left) Presentation is considerably too short or too long, based on assignment. Sources lack: __________ __________ __________ Speech portrays some weaknesses: __________ __________ Presentation is somewhat short or long, regarding instructions for assignment. Sources are weak in: __________ __________

Presentation includes several written and/or spoken errors.

__ x 1 =___

__ x 1 =__

Speech Techniques: (volume, tone, enunciation, pitch, rate, no fillers (e.g. uh, umm) Length

__ x 2 =___

__ x 1 =___

Sources: (Number, Appropriateness, Citations)

__ x 1.5 =________

Comments:
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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

CHALLENGES THAT CAN IMPEDE LEARNING: SUGGESTED READING/VIEWING LIST


ABUSE A Child Called It by Dave Pelzer Dave Pelzer gives a horrifying personal account of the abuse he suffered as a child who was starved, stabbed, and burned by his alcoholic mom.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Ghost Girl by Torey Hayden Haydens classroom of emotionally disturbed children consists of Reuben, a boy suffering from autism; Philip, born to an addict mother and now in foster care; Jeremiah, a foul-mouthed fighter; and Jadie, a girl who never speaks (School Library Journal)

A Man Named Dave by Dave Pelzer Dave Pelzer offers compassion and forgiveness as solutions, not for abuse, but for victims of abuse. One Child by Torey Hayden Abandoned by her mother on a highway at age four and abused by her drug-addict father between his prison stints, autistic electively mute Sheila Renstad, at age six, broke through her silent rage to communicate, aided by her five-month relationship with special education teacher Hayden. (Publishers Weekly)

The Lost Boy by Dave Pelzer Dave Pelzer continues his story from leaving an abusive mom and alcoholic dad, through five foster homes and juvenile detention, to the Air Force.

The Tigers Child by Torey Hayden Sheila is a sullen thirteen-year-old bouncing between juvenile facilities and her fathers care. As Hayden renews her ties with Sheila, the girls outbursts and foul-mouthed sexual preoccupations betray a desperate craving for a sense of belonging. (Publishers Weekly) ADDICTIONS

My Dad Loves Me, My Dad Has a Disease: A Childs View: Living With Addiction by Claudia Black The books premise is that chemical dependency is a disease --- the alcoholic/ addict is a sick person, not a bad person. This book was written as a result of Claudia Blacks work with young people who had parents in treatment for alcoholism. (Amazon) AUTISM

Dear Kids of Alcoholics by Lindsey Hall This is an honest, hopeful book about alcoholism and recovery. Readers will identify with Jasons feelings as he explains facts about alcoholism with touching stories about his dads sensitivity to alcohol, destructive behavior, and recovery process.

The Autism Acceptance Book: Being a Friend to Someone with Autism by Ellen Sabin This is an interactive, educational, and character-building book that introduces children to the challenges faced by people with autism. This book offers educational information, conversation-starters, and engaging activities (Amazon)
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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

The China Doll by D. M. Rosner This picture book teaches children about some of the more common behaviors they may encounter among their peers with autism. This story of a little girl whose new doll is not what she expect is one any child can relate to, making the subject of autism more approachable. (D. M. Rosner)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Cup of Comfort for Parents of Children With Autism: Stories of Hope and Everyday Success by Doug Flutie this is BY FAR the most honest, gritty, inspiring, and joy provoking book of its kind. The stories are REAL, and there are SO MANY that the many facets of autism are shown. If you have a child on the autism spectrum, this book has strategies for coping. Everybody is Different: A Book for Young People Who Have Brothers or Sisters with Autism by Fiona Bleach This book answers questions and explains about Autism or Aspergers in a kid-friendly way.

Since Were Friends: An Autism Picture Book by Celeste Shally This is a picture book about how a friendship can work between two friends who are different from each other. It teaches children how they can be helpful, thoughtful, and caring to a child with autism (Nancy A. Ullmann) Ten Things Your Student With Autism Wishes You Knew by Ellen Notbohm The unique perspective of a childs voicehelps us understand the thinking patterns that guide their actions, shape an environment conducive to their learning style, and communicate with them in meaningful ways. (Amazon) BULLIES

Just Kidding by Trudy Ludwig D.J. is tired of Vinces mean-spirited comments at school. Vince knows which buttons to push, using the I was just kidding defense when he goes too far. Unsure of how to handle the situation, D.J. talks with his father and his teacher and learns a few strategies to help him deal with putdowns. A forewardOutlines four points to impart to victims of this behavior. (Carol L. MacKay)

I Wish I Knew What to Do?! Teens Tell it Like it is on What to Say to Get Bullies to Leave You Alone by Beth Carls This book challenges notions that bullying is a natural rite of passage about which kids and adults can do nothing. Theessays written by children ages 11 17 who had been bullied, been a bully, or seen bullying suggest ways to alleviate, if not eliminate, this childhood burden. (Amazon)

Nobody Knew What To Do: A Story About Bullying by Becky Ray McCain This story tells how one child found the courage to tell a teacher about Ray, who was being picked on and bullied by other kids at school. Faced with the fact that nobody knows what to do while Ray is bullied, the children sympathetic to him feel fear and confusion and can only hope that Ray will fit in some day. (Amazon)

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Safe School Ambassadors: Harnessing Student Power to Stop Bullying and Violence by Rick Phillips This is an essential guide for school administrators, counselors, teachers, parents, and youth organization leaders. It makes the case for a complementary insideout approach that taps the power of students to change the social norms of a school culture in order to stop bullying and violence.
Say Something by Peggy Moss Can one person make a difference? Mosss book, which seems designed for group discussion about bullying, focuses on the role of the bystander, a girl who sees the sadness of the victim, but does nothing...she looks away --- until one day, when she is alone and the bullies make her cry and her friends do nothing. (Booklist)

Shooter by Walter Dean Myers Walter Dean Myers brings a compelling twistin his version of outsider-shoots-tokill-school bully. Through a variety of official documents filed months after the event, as authorities seek to assess whether the violence had been an occasion their intervention could have prevented, the narrative places the perpetrators best friend Cameron, an upper-class African-American teen, at the center of the investigation. (Francissa Goldsmith) DEATH OF A LOVED ONE

Chicken Soup for the Grieving Soul by Jack Canfield This collection of inspirational stories will undoubtedly touch many hearts. Written by authors who have lost loved ones, these stories offer comfort, peace, and understanding to those going through the grieving process. (Amazon) The Memory String by Eve Bunting Within hearing of her new stepmother, Laura meanly recounts to her disinterested cat what each button on her memory string means. Theres onefrom her mothers wedding dress, and one from the nightgown the woman was wearing when she died three years agothe buttons fly everywhere. Lauras father and Jane help find all but one of them, but the girl is inconsolablein the morning the child has a change of heart and asks Janes help in restringing the beads (Susan Hepler)

On Grief and Grieving: Finding the Meaning of Grief Through the Five Stages of Loss by Elisabeth Kuber-Ross Just as On Death and Dying taught us the five stages of death --- denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance --- On Grief and Grieving applies these stages to the grieving process and weaves together theory, inspiration, and practical advice, including sections on sadness, hauntings, dreams, isolation, and healing. (Amazon) Shattered: Stories of Children and War by Jennifer Armstrong For children who live in war times, whether they understand the issues or not, the future is precariouseditor Jennifer Armstrong gathers twelve stories that explore the ways young people are affected by war. (Emile Coulter)

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Tear Soup by Pat Schweibert This picture book tells of Grandy who loses someone close. Especially helpful is that it doesnt specify who the someone is, so it can fit into any situation. The book tells how people are afraid to approach someone whos grieving and how people who try to be helpful sometimes are not. It follows the stages of grief and how you have to allow yourself all the time you need. Grandy and Grampy are making tear soup. In the end, the hardest day comes and Grandy puts the tear soup away in the freezer to taste now and then. (Joyel Love)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

DEPRESSION

Misery Moo by Jeanne Willis Misery Moo has a dour disposition. A little lamb tries valiantly to raise the cows spiritswithout success. Finally, the lamb gives up and leaves the cow to her negativity. But Misery Moo finds that she misses the cheerful creature and goes searching for him. (Rachel G. Payne) My Kind of Sad: What its Like to be Young and Depressed by Kate Scowen Sympathetic without being preachy or condescending, Scowen, a youth counselor, offers a chatty, informative, up-to-date resource on a disturbing subjectIndividual chapters explore gender differences and treatment optionsas well as types of depressionFrank quotesreflect the experiences of teens, and there are extensive check-it-out references. (Hazel Rochman)

Understanding Teenage Depression: A Guide to Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management by Maureen Empfield Empfield draws on her experience as director of psychiatry at a Mount Kisco, New York hospital in this resource for both adults and teens. Empfieldoffers current information on diagnosis and treatment of the disease, including advice on how to differentiate between depression and less severe adolescent ups and downs. Case studies, some written in teens voicesshow how teenage depression can have a lifelong impact (Laurie Halse Anderson) DIVORCE

Sad Days, Glad Days: A Story About Depression by Dewitt Hamilton A foreward by a medical professional introduces this sensitive biblio-therapeutic picture book about a child whose mother suffers from depression. Amanda Martha explains about the sad days, glad days, and in-between days at her house, which are determined by how her mother feels. (Stephanie Zuirin)

My Familys Changing by Pat Thomas While encouraging children to talk about their feelings and reassuring them that their parents will continue to love them, the text does not minimize the changes, difficulties, and pain that come with the territory. Bordered boxes labeled What About You? carry questions for parents to ask their children so kids can relate their own feelings and experiences to those mentioned in the text. (Carolyn Phelan)

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

The Divorce Helpbook for Teens by Cynthia MacGregor This is a straightforward guide for teenagers dealing with their parents divorce Examples flesh out the all-too-real dilemmas contemplated, and question-andanswer sessions spell out difficult issues in this highly recommended book for any young adult who must deal with the difficulty of their parents separation. (Midwest Book Review) DOWN SYNDROME Dakotas Pride (DVD) This is a heartwarming documentary about a fathers search for the truth about Down Syndrome. Tough questions are posed to and answered by a noted Harvard Physician and parents of children with Down Syndrome. The answers are surprising and inspiring. (Amazon)

Surviving Divorce: Teens Talk About What Hurts and What Helps by Trudi Strain Trueit This title in the Scholastic Choices series is an inviting guide to the facts and feelings of parental divorce. Personal stories and photos of kids begin each chapter, and frequent statistics and quizzes will help readers assess their feelings and put them into context. The solid advice is well presented, as are the messages that readers are not alone and that there are many ways to seek help. (Gillian Engberg)

Helping Your Kids Cope With Divorce the Sandcastles Way by M. Gary Neuman This thorough book covers every topic imaginable that is associated with divorce and family transition. The focus is from the childs perspective on matters such as validating your childrens feelings, protecting your children from conflict, separating adult issues from childrens issues, custody and visitation, uncooperative parents and parent bashing, etc. (Amazon)

Jewel by Bret Lott With five healthy children and a war which allowed for Lestons steady work, a twisted sort of blessing, as Jewel noted, the Hilburns were happy and believed life would continue in a slow-paced Mississippi way. But when Jewel and Lestons sixth is born a Mongolian idiot, as the New Orleans doctor declared, their life changes and Jewel leads her family on a journey to California (Oprahs Book Club)

Emmas Gifts (DVD) Emma was born with Down Syndrome, which makes her different from her twin sister Abigale. Our expectations are automatically lowered. Yet, in telling Emmas story through the eyes of her parents, the film challenges our perception of difference. (Amazon)

Road Map to Holland: How I Found My Way Through My Sons First Two Years with Down Syndrome by Jennifer Graf Groneberg Montana wife and mother, Groneberg, traces, in her tenderly moving account, the life-changing realization after the premature birth of her twin boys, that one of them, Avery, has Down Syndrome. (Amazon) HEARING IMPAIRMENTS Dad and Me in the Morning by Patricia Lakin Jacob is hearing impaired, but that doesnt keep him from enjoying one of the most precious moments in his life - watching the sunrise with his dad.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Im Deaf and Its Okay by Lorraine Aseltine A deaf elementary school age boy tells his feelings about deafness. He expresses his fear of the dark with its vast silence, his jealousy of his sister who can talk on the phone, and his anger that outsiders dont understand him. He is particularly angry to learn he will always have to wear hearing aids. When he meets Brian, a deaf seventeen-year-old who leads a normal life, he decides that it is okay to wear hearing aids (Nancy Gilford) LANGUAGE/CULTURAL DIFFERENCES First Crossing: Stories About Teen Immigrants by Donald R. Gallo The contemporary teen immigrants in Gallos newest story collection hail from a mix of countries --- Cambodia, Haiti, Kazakhstan, Mexico, South Korea --- reflective of current immigration trends. Among the ten stories, readers will encounter teens who have left homelands behind for reasons not so different from those of earlier generations; others circumstances are more distinctly modern, such as the Korean-born girl adopted by white parents and the Swedish teen uprooted from his home by his fathers globetrotting career. (Jennifer Mattson American Library Association) SERIOUS ILLNESSES What About Me?: When Brothers and Sisters Get Sick by Allan Peterkin, M.D. This question, usually unspoken, lies at the heart of this poignant story, as a young girl attempts to cope with her brothers being ill. Beautifully written and illustrated, this story deals with the many complicated feelings the well child experiences in such a situation. (Amazon) When Molly Was in the Hospital: A Book for Brothers or Sisters of Hospitalized Children by Debbie Duncan Annas little sister, Molly, has been very ill and had to have an operation. Anna tells us all about the experience from her point of view. This sensitive, insightful, heartwarming story is a support and comfort for siblings and those who love them (Martha Gordan) When Mommy is Sick by Ferne Sherkin Langer This book describes a little girls feelings after her mother is hospitalized for her chronic health conditions. It points out the impact that a health condition can have on family members.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

SPECIAL NEEDS Chicken Soup for the Soul: Children With Special Needs: Stories of Love and Understanding for Those Who Care for Children with Disabilities by Jack Canfield These powerful heart-warming stories are filled with honesty, humor, hope, and other inspiration to parents, teachers, and anyone else who cares for children with special needs. (Gerald Jampolsky) The Elephant in the Playroom: Ordinary Parents Write Intimately and Honestly about the Extraordinary Highs and Heartbreaking Lows of Raising Kids with Special Needs by Denise Brodey Eloquent and honest, the voices in this collection will provide solace and support for the millions of parents whose kids struggle with ADD, ADHD, sensory disorders, childhood depression, Aspergers Syndrome, and autism, etc. (Amazon) Bodola Loves Chips and Pop: Understanding the Mind of Parents and Children who Exist with Autism, ADHD, Down Syndrome, and Other Neurological Disorders by Christopher Chaplin Bodola is a cheerful, adventurous story that shows the difficult decision parents with ADHD are forced to make as their busy and spontaneous mid-graders begin to manifest their desires for independence. While on his way to the store, Bodola embarks on an adventure(Christopher A. Chaplin)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

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Barrier to Learning: Abuse and Neglect

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

In South Carolina, thousands of children are reported to be abused or neglected each year. The Department of Social Services (DSS), working with law enforcement officials and community organizations, is dedicated to helping these children and their families. Child abuse and neglect are complex, multidimensional problems that interact and reinforce each other. However, the existence of any risk factor in a childs life does not necessarily signify child abuse.

Background Information: Identifying Abused and Neglected Children

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Physical abuse of a child can include burns, bruises, malnutrition, bleeding within the skull, soft tissue swelling, failure to thrive, broken bones or cuts, non-accidental injuries, as well as excessive corporal punishment. Neglect of a child includes not providing the child with necessary food, clothing, shelter, education, health care, or supervision appropriate to the childs age and development. Mental injury of a child means an injury to the childs intellectual or psychological capacity as evidenced by a discernible and substantial impairment to the childs ability to function. Characteristics of abusive parents and caregivers might include: Insecure attachment with their own parents Abused as children Lack of parenting knowledge Unrealistic expectations about child development ocial or geographic isolation Mental illness or disorder Substance abuse issues Marital conflict and/or domestic violence Teen parenthood Heavy childcare responsibility due to several pre-school aged children Poor impulse control, low tolerance for frustration, high stress levels Feelings of insecurity, lack of trust, unmet emotional needs Low socioeconomic status, unemployment, homelessness Lack of access to medical care, health insurance, adequate child care, social services, emotional support Sexual abuse of a child includes adults engaging in sexual acts, such as fondling, rape, molestation, and incest, with children or involving children in pornography or prostitution.

Risk factors of children who might be more likely to be abused:

Children who are physically abused might:

Difficult or unaffectionate temperament Physical, cognitive or emotional disability Less than five years old (Children under four years of age account for over 75% of child abuse and neglect deaths.) Aggressiveness, misbehavior, attention deficit disorder Be watchful, as though preparing for something bad to happen. Be nervous around adults. Have difficulty playing. Act aggressively towards adults and other children.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Children who are sexually abused might:

Be unable to concentrate at school. Have cognitive/intellectual impairment. Suddenly underachieve, or overachieve, at school. Find it difficult to trust other people and make friends. Arrive at school too early or leave after the other children. Exhibit excessive cruelty to animals. Develop criminal behavior. Behave differently when the abuse starts. Care less about their appearance or their health. Talk or act sexually at too early of an age. Be secretive and stop talking about home-life. Start soiling themselves. Be unable to sleep (have nightmares). Suddenly find physical contact frightening. Run away from home.

Children who are neglected or emotionally abused might: Have difficultly learning to talk. Find it hard to develop close relationships. Be overly friendly with strangers. Be unable to play imaginatively. Think badly of themselves. Underachieve at school.

South Carolina Statistics:

46th in the overall well-being of children in the 2008 Kids Count State Profiles of Child Well-Being Neglect and medical neglect (71.2%), physical abuse (32.3%), sexual abuse (8.5%), psychological and other maltreatment (1.5%). Almost 17,000 reports of abuse or neglect annually (This number is estimated to be three times higher, making the actual number closer to 51,000 per year.) Almost 5,000 children are in foster care and 54,000 children are being raised by their grandparents in any given year. Thirty-three abuse and neglect child fatalities in 2004

In South Carolina, the following individuals are required to report, when in the persons professional capacity, he or she has reason to believe that a childs physical or mental health or welfare has been or may be adversely affected by abuse or neglect: medical providers (physicians, nurses, emergency medical technicians) coroners and funeral home employees mental health and allied health fields workers religious leaders educators (teachers, counselors, principals, employees of preschool and foster care facilities) police and law enforcement personnel film processors and computer technicians

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

A person mandated by state law to report cannot delegate that responsibility to anyone else; the individual who suspects that a child is being abused must make the report. While these persons are mandated reporters, other persons, such as neighbors, relatives or friends, may report when they suspect that a child is being abused or neglected. Children often tell a person to whom they are close or with whom they feel comfortable about what happens in their homes. Suspected child abuse or neglect should be reported to DSS or to local law enforcement. Intervention is critical for the safety and recovery of the child victim. The catastrophic effects of victimization affect not only the injured child, but the entire community. According to Dr. Roland C. Summit, M.D, in an article entitled The Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, the vast majority of investigated accusations [by children] prove valid and... most of the young people were less than eight years old at the time of the initiation [of sexual abuse]. If a respectable, reasonable adult is accused of perverse, assaultive behavior by an uncertain, emotionally distraught child, most adults who hear the accusation will fault the child. Disbelief and rejection by potential adult caretakers increase the helplessness, hopelessness, isolation, and self-blame that make up the most damaging aspects of the child sexual victimization. Victims looking back are usually more embittered toward those who rejected their pleas than toward the one who initiated the sexual experiences.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

If someone learns that a child has been assaulted, he/she should adhere to the following guidelines: 1. Believe what he/she has told you. 2. Know that it is not his/her fault. 3. Tell him/her you are glad that he/she has told you about it. 4. Let the child know that you are sorry about what happened and tell the child he/she did the right thing by telling you. 5. Do your best to protect and support the child and let the child know it. 6. Seek professional counseling for the child. Treatment of Child Victims of Child Abuse and Neglect:

Because every child is an individual, a treatment plan should be developed that is specific to that childs needs. Strategies of treatment and goals might include any of the following: Remove the child from potential harm (the offender or unsupportive family members). Encourage the child to talk about the abuse/neglect without embarrassment or significant anxiety. Help the child to express his/her feelings about abuse. Reduce the intensity and frequency of negative behavioral and emotional symptoms. Change unhealthy thinking patterns that might negatively affect the childs self view. Help the child develop healthier attachments. Educate the child regarding self-protective strategies, and establish a safety plan. Provide relaxation training. Seek therapy and training for the childs parents and siblings. Sources: http://dss.sc.gov (2008) http://nccanch.acf.hhs.gov/index.cfm (2008) http://www.childrenstrustfundsc.org/aboutchildabuse.shtml (2008) Julie Lipovsky, Associate Professor of The Citadel, Treatment of Child Victims of Child Abuse and Neglect, 2008.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Barrier to Learning: Bullying


Bullying is when someone says or does something hurtful to a person who has difficulty defending himself. Boys tend to become involved in direct bullying, which is more physical and can include hitting, kicking, and making insults and threats. Girls, on the other hand, often participate in various forms of indirect bullying such as excluding one another from groups, backstabbing, and manipulating friendships. Bullying includes all three of the following conditions: Negative or malicious behavior Behavior repeated over a period of time An imbalance in strength or power between the parties involved Background Information:

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

According to the National Institute of Health (2000), more than five million students in grades six through eleven are affected by bullying. This report indicated that one out of seven students reported being victimized. Most bullying occurs at school, and forty to seventy-five percent of bullying occurs during school breaks on the school grounds or playground, in bathrooms, and in hallways. Bullying can also take place in classrooms, if teachers are not attentive.

Although bullying may have been ignored in the past and considered as a part of growing up, recent school shootings have resulted in schools recognizing every students right to feel safe and adopting anti-bullying policies or rules. Although most passive victims do not intentionally provoke bullies, their insecure behaviors can make them targets. If they are bullied over a period of time, these insecure behaviors may increase. These students are usually quiet and sensitive, and may cry easily. They have insecurities and low self-esteem. They do not like to fight and may be physically weaker than their peers. They have few friends, if any. Passive or submissive victims:

Only about ten to twenty percent fit into this category. Because of their sometimes irritating behaviors, these students may be victimized by the entire class. They may be bullies. They may have quick tempers and often retaliate unsuccessfully. They may be restless, clumsy, and/or immature. They may be hyperactive and have difficulty with academics. They may be disliked by adults as well as other students.

Provocative victims:

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Characteristics of bullies:

Bullies themselves sometimes exhibit feelings of insecurity. Some have friends; others do not. Although bullying behaviors may be supported by friends, this support tends to decrease as students get older. A bully may have one or more of the following traits. They favor violence more than other students do. They may show aggression toward parents, teachers, and other adults. They have a need to dominate others and to have their own way. Boys tend to be stronger than their peers. They may be impulsive and have hot tempers. They do not easily follow rules. They often talk their way out of difficult situations.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Group bullying: Sometimes, students who do not ordinarily participate in bullying behaviors may be tempted to do so in a group situation. While the main bullies are the initiators, the bystanders and passive bullies offer their support as part of a group. Some situations may increase instances of group bullying. Social contagion Students who are somewhat insecure may follow a bully whom they admire. Weakening of normal controls When teachers and other students do not stop bullies, they become successful and their aggressive behaviors increase. Decreased sense of individual responsibility Individuals may have fewer feelings of remorse when they participate in bullying as a part of a group. Gradual changes in the perception of the victim of bullying As a victim begins to view himself as a worthless individual, others may tend to share the same feelings and show little sympathy. Warning signs: Often victims show one or more of the following signs, indicating that bullying is taking place. Comes home with damaged books or clothes Comes home with unexplained injuries Loses interest in school Makes lower grades Does not invite friends to come visit Takes a different route to school Seems unhappy or depressed Has mysterious stomach and headaches Has nightmares

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Barrier to Learning: Death, Dying, and Grief


Most often, when someone is involved in suffering, death, and grief, the pain is happening mostly to someone else. A person can sympathize, but he might not fully understand. Then the day comes when it is his mother or father, his sister or brother, his relative or friend. He might ask, Why didnt my family or society, my church or my school help prepare me for such an hour as this? What is it like to go through a profound experience of grief? How do I handle grief? What actually helps? Do family, friends, and faith make any real difference? Based on the research of recent years, people now better understand the process of grief. For many years, society treated death with silence. Most did not understand this emotional process. Now, through the study and research of persons like Dr. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross, human beings understand grief as a common process in response to loss and death. Background Information:

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

People can expect the process of grief to begin with any significant loss in their lives. For instance, grief might come when one loses a job, a loving friend, or a boyfriend or girl friend. It might come with a move to a new community, struggle through a divorce, failure in school, or rejection by peers. Grief might occur if someone loses his health, eyesight, or hearing. It can also come through events such as losing ones home through fire or hurricane or financial ruin. For some people, grief might come with the loss of a pet or the failure to achieve a long-desired goal.

Stage One: Denial No one lives forever; however, people simply prefer to deny it. Most humans react initially to the awareness of a terminal illness or death by saying, No, not me or my friend! It cannot be true! Denial blots out the thought that death could take anyone at any time. Youth and living are almost synonymous, and death seems to be a distant event, especially to the young. This denial or shock stage might last from a few minutes to a few hours to a few days. It is important to be near a person experiencing denial and to be available to help. If this stage goes on for some weeks, it probably is unhealthy grief, and professional help ought to be sought. Stage Two: Anger When the first stage of denial cannot be maintained any longer, it is often replaced by feelings of anger. A person experiencing anger might state, Why me? Why my family? This isnt fair. Anger is a natural part of the grief experience and is felt by the dying person, regardless of his age, as well as by his loved ones. The grieving person usually feels some kind of hostility that might be directed to family, friends, bystanders, the deceased, or to God. It might be strong and overt, or it might be subtle and inward. The feeling of being powerless in the face of loss generates anger. This anger is a natural response to grief and should be accepted. Stage Three: Bargaining The third stage, the stage of bargaining, is less well known but equally important. Bargaining is a way to postpone the inevitable, whether the inevitable is ones own death or someone elses. In this stage, a person might say, If God will only heal me or If I can live long enough to.... Statements such as these show the hope that death might be avoided.

Grief is a natural part of human experience. The five stages of grief outlined by Dr. KublerRoss must be understood to be the normal process through which most people go as they face up to their losses. The following stages are not neatly defined; they may overlap with mixed emotions, one or more may be skipped, or one or more may reappear.

Stage Four: Depression When a person can no longer deny his terminal illness or the death of a loved one, he might begin to feel depressed. Depression, to be expected, is the sadness that one turns inward, and might last for a few days or for several months. If the depression interferes with normal living after an extended period of time, then one should seek professional help.
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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

The process of grief lasts different lengths of time for different people. Grief often extends throughout a year. In that time period, significant events like birthdays and anniversaries might be especially difficult. Normal grief often moves through the stages toward acceptance within one year. If ones grief remains in place beyond that, it would be wise to seek professional help. Grief is like a stream that flows on and out unless it is blocked. Grief is a process that hopefully eventually leads to healing, wholeness, and growth. Reacting to the Grief of Others What can people say or do at such a time that will be helpful and hopeful for a grief-stricken family or friend? McLeod Counseling Services of McLeod Regional Medical Center, Florence, South Carolina, has the following suggestions: Be rather than flee: When telling a family member that a loved one is dead, use the word dead to clearly and precisely communicate exactly what has happened. It is important to be with the family to listen to them and offer support. Allow their pain rather than explain: Their reaction might be yelling and crying accompanied by such questions as Why, God? Why did this happen to me? Their questions are cries of pain rather than literal questions. All have a right to their own feelings and freedom to express those feelings. Hold rather than scold: Scolding persons for their feelings denies their right to experience those feelings. Holding the persons hand or putting an arm around a shoulder communicates that it is okay to experience these feelings. Give hugs, not drugs: Drugs suppress feelings; they do not make them go away. To move from despair to hope, a grieving person must express his feelings. A simple hug might be much more effective than a drug. (However, it is necessary in some cases for doctors to prescribe anti-depressants or other appropriate medications.) Empathize rather than sympathize. Sympathy does little to help one move toward the future in hope because it invites one to stay where he is or remain in the past. Empathy makes the effort to see things as others do, to feel as they feel, and to communicate that understanding back to them. This requires active and concerned listening and feelings.

Stage Five: Acceptance In the first four stages of grief, a person might appear to be leaning away from the grief. Later, as one faces the grief and deals with it, he might begin to lean toward it. When the reality of death and loss is faced and integrated into ones living, then he has moved into the final stage of grief. That stage is acceptance.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

The following are strategies to help one cope with grief: journaling, exercising, eating well, allowing emotions, getting enough rest, attending support groups, reading and learning about death-related responses, seeking solace in the faith community, avoiding immediate major changes (in residence, jobs, etc.), and getting therapy with a physician or counselor or other qualified mental health professional. Sources: http://www.elisabethkublerross.com/pages/About Grief.html (2008) http://www.recover-from-grief.com/7-states-of-grief.html (2008)

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Barrier to Learning: Depression and Suicidal Tendencies


Background Information

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Feeling sad or depressed is a normal part of a childs or teens life, especially when a traumatic event triggers these emotions. Coping techniques might include sharing sad feelings, looking on the bright side, solving problems, and getting better with time. However, specific signs exist regarding depression and suicide thoughts. Some possible causes can be chronic illness, a difficult home life, difficult social situation, school and/or learning problems, fears and worries (real and imagined), poor self-image, and sleep deprivation. At least 30,000 to 35,000 suicides occur each year in the United States. Among teenagers and young people, it is the second most frequent cause of death the first being car accidents, many of which could be deliberate. The suicide rate among young people has more than tripled in the last thirty years. Fifty to seventy percent of suicides may be prevented. Symptoms of Depression 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Seems distracted and often has trouble concentrating Is emotionally unstable (easy to anger and cry) Looks sad and talks about sad memories much of the time Has difficulty finding activities that make him/her happy Has loss of appetite or overeats compulsively Exhibits attention-getting behaviors, especially at bedtime Awakens frequently during the night; has nightmares; has difficulty getting up in the morning Sleeps during the day without apparent need for extra sleep Avoids or seems uninterested in being with friends Fights over trivial matters Exhibits school phobias or disinterest in school Shows little, if any, interest in home life and conversations with parents and/or siblings Decides suddenly to get his house in order (in a flurry wants to organize all his possessions and even gives treasured items away) Provides verbal clues (e.g. Life is not worth living anymore. I hate living. Youll appreciate me when I am gone.)

13.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

14.

Mistaken Ideas about Suicide

1. People who talk about suicide never do it. Studies show that sixty to eighty percent of those who talk about suicide go on to carry out their plans. A person who speaks of suicide should certainly be taken seriously. 2. Suicide occurs without any warning. Most people who commit suicide have given definite warnings of their intent beforehand. 3. Suicidal people are always suicidal. Suicidal feelings fluctuate within the space of days or even hours but usually occur in relative brief peaks. A speedy, firm intervention with an acutely suicidal person may be very effective. The intervention does not have to solve all the individuals problems. If the intervention helps the person get through that difficult period of time, the suicidal feeling may pass, and the person may be able to cope with his problems. 4. Suicidal people are fully intent on dying. Suicide involves a strong attempt and intent to die, but there is usually still some ambivalence and hope of rescue. The suicide attempt is a cry for help. 5. Suicide occurs only among the rich and the poor. Suicide is represented in all socioeconomic levels and in every social class.
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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

6. Suicidal people have severe mental illness and are usually untreatable. Suicidal people are unhappy and in great emotional conflict, but most do not have chronic, severe mental illnesses. The most common psychiatric condition associated with suicide is depression, which can be treated with a high degree of success. Some Reasons Why Young People May Contemplate or Commit Suicide 1. Anger or revenge; desire to punish someone (Sometimes a person who attempts suicide is so angry at another person that he wants to kill him, but because he is unable to kill another, he kills himself. An example is a boyfriend who is getting back at a girlfriend he feels has wronged him.) 2. Escape from overwhelming stress 3. Bid for attention (An attempt to get others to listen to them, to take them seriously, to help them address the problems) 4. Manipulation (Suicide threats can be used to get others to act in a certain manner.) 5. Avoid punishment 6. Avoid being a burden (e.g. a chronically ill person) 7. Martyrdom 8. An event that diminishes ones sense of self-worth or self-esteem; a continual self-defeating striver of perfection 9. Significant loss (e.g. death of a loved one, divorce, a geographical move, a home fire) Some possible treatments Talking things out with parents and/or counselors Changing the persons outlook on the future Helping him to gain a better understanding of the past Alleviating unjustified guilt Seeking professional help from a school counselor, minister, therapist, and/or doctor

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Source: Is Your Child Depressed? MSN Family website, Jeffrey L. Brown, MD, FAAP

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Cutting: Another Sign of Depression Background Information on Cutting Depression is sometimes exhibited through a self-inflicted act called cutting, which is injuring ones self on purpose by making scratches or cuts on the body with a sharp object to break the skin and make it bleed. More girls than boys cut themselves, usually starting in their young teens and sometimes continuing into adulthood. They often cut their wrists, arms, legs, or stomachs. These teens might also burn their skin with cigarettes or matches. The healed cuts or burns often leave scars, which cutters usually try to hide with clothing. Cutting, which usually starts as an impulse, is a way that some adolescents use to cope with painful emotions, intense pressure, upsetting relationships, and a desperate means to be in control. They usually lack ways to handle depression, rage, sorrow, rejection, desperation, longing, shame, frustration, alienation, or emptiness. Teens who cut themselves might also be dealing with bipolar disorders, eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and /or substance abuse. Some have experienced a traumatic experience, such as abuse, violence, or a disaster. All sorts of negative outcomes can emerge, including infections from dirty cutting instruments, a habit-forming addiction, and even suicide. However, most adolescents who resort to cutting are trying to feel better, not end their lives. If the situation is not extreme, common sources of help can include exercise, conversations with parents, and other self-help sources. On the other hand, most cutters need a mental health professional to help them develop skills to address major life troubles and overwhelming emotions. Getting mad at a person who cuts, rejecting that person, lecturing him, or begging him to stop are not effective ways to address cutting. It is important to let that person know that others truly care about him and that he deserves to be healthy and happy. The first step for a cutter to get help is admitting the problem to a trusted parent, counselor, teacher, coach, doctor, or minister. Then the problem triggering the cutting needs to be addressed. An adult should not down-play the seriousness of this behavior. Source: http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_mind/feeling_sad/cutting.html (2008)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Barrier to Learning: Eating Disorders


Eating disorders, which are often long-term illnesses needing long-term treatment, frequently occur with other problems such as depression, substance abuse, and extreme anxiety. Anorexia, bulimia, and obesity can be life-threatening disorders. Eating disorders seem to develop from a mix of related causes that are biological, psychological and social. A perfectionist personality, low self-esteem, or unresolved sexual identity issues can be among the many reasons why some young people develop eating disorders. Social factors regarding excessive value put on thinness can make some adolescents believe their self-worth depends on their body size. Those suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa wrongly equate thinness to attractiveness, achievement, intelligence, popularity, and success. Background Information on Eating Disorders

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

More than ninety percent of those who have eating disorders are females between the ages of twelve and twenty-five. Five to ten percent of adolescent girls and young women may be troubled by an eating disorder. Various Kinds of Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa having a dangerously low body weight, exhibiting an irrational fear of being fat, having a distorted body image, excessively limiting of ones food intake; eating very small non-fattening portions; avoiding meals; weighing the few kinds of food they will eat; and if female, losing menstrual periods. Bingeing and purging may or may not be present. Bulimia Nervosa eating to excess (binge) in a single episode and then almost immediately attempting to get rid of or purge the calories by vomiting; using laxatives, diuretics, diet pills; and/or exercising excessively; having an intense fear of gaining weight Binge Eating Disorder bingeing but not purging (often overweight); compulsively overeating; often eating alone and very quickly, regardless of whether they feel hungry or full; often feeling shame or guilt over their actions (Unlike anorexia and bulimia, binge-eating disorder occurs almost as often in men as in women.) Obesitybeing overweight (having 20% higher weight than what is considered the ideal weight for that youth of his/her age and height), often due to overeating high caloric food and not counterbalancing poor diet with adequate exercise (Genetics and other factors can also increase the likelihood of obesity.) A sexually abused girl might starve herself, subconsciously thinking that she is limiting her sexual development. A person with a fragile self-concept might associate extreme thinness with appearing attractive or being popular. Overprotective, rigid parents might control their childrens lives to the point that they do not develop individuality, autonomy, or a self-identity, thus contributing to eating disorders. Parents who lean on their children for emotional support may set their child up for being high risk to develop an eating disorder. Some parents pass on their poor eating habits. A high-fat and/or high-sugar diet, accompanied by large portions, can lead to obesity if a child also spends too much time in sedentary activities rather than being engaged in vigorous physical activity. Experiences unexplained weight loss Refuses to eat most foods

Some Possible Causes of Eating Disorders:

Warning Signs of Anorexia Nervosa or Bulimia Nervosa:

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Warning signs of (or problems associated with) obesity:

Binge eats, particularly in secret Purges immediately after eating Exercises excessively Feels fat when really thin or normal weight Is depressed, irritable, and/or tired Withdraws or isolates him/herself Is preoccupied with food and weight Has no or irregular menstrual periods Uses drugs to lose weight Has swollen salivary glands Weighs self very frequently Has distorted eating patterns (ex. skipping meals) Makes quick disappearance after a meal, perhaps to induce vomiting Has slower heart rate and lower blood pressure, increasing chance of heart failure (Has high blood pressure with binge-eating) Has brittle hair and nails and bones Has dry, yellow skin with lanugo (covering of soft hair) Is anemic Suffers from swollen joints and joint pain Has reduction of muscle mass Is light-headed Has inflamed esophagus, swollen cheeks, damaged stomach, gallbladder disease Suffers from peptic ulcers and/or inflammation of the pancreas

Treatments:

Pre-diabetes and diabetes High blood pressure (hypertension) Hyperlipidemia (too much fat in the blood), high cholesterol Sleep apnea and breathing problems Hip problems Gastro-intestinal diseases Poor self-esteem, depression, and psychosocial problems Difficulty engaging in physical activity (walking, biking, stair climbing) Seeking comfort foods when emotionally upset Lacking knowledge of healthy vs. unhealthy foods and snacks Skipping breakfast

Sources: http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications (2008) http://kidshealth.org/parent/nutrition (2008) http://www.medicinenet.com (2008)


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Ongoing as well as time-limited groups focusing on behavioral, cognitive, dynamic, and pharmacologic modes of treatment for eating disorders Nutrition Counseling: Education about the myths and realities of nutrition; meal planning guidance to help individuals and families establish new and healthy eating habits. Family Therapy: Establish or re-establish communication, support, and better family functioning. Individual Therapy: Support and direction in dealing with the underlying emotional issues contributing to the eating disorder. Therapy in anger management, body image, and self-esteem Training with time management, grocery shopping, label reading on foods, and cooking Hospitalization: Treatment by nutritionists, psychotherapists; group therapy

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Barriers to Learning: ESL (English as a Second Language) ESOL (English Students of Other Languages) ELL (English Language Learners)
Background Information: Federal government, through the Office of Multicultural Student Language Education, legislates that additional instruction be provided to limited English proficient (LEP) students. ESOL instruction has three goals: (1) Help language minority students become proficient in English, (2) Help them with their core curricula, and (3) Help them develop positive self-images and cross-cultural understandings. ESOL students develop Basic Interpersonal Communications Skills (BICS) more easily than they develop Cognitive/Academic Language Proficiency (CALP). Language development differs from student to student and often depends on factors such as prior knowledge of English and backgrounds in academic subjects. Learning to speak, read, and write in the English language is vital for more than one million immigrants coming into the United States annually so that these new citizens can thrive in their schools, communities, and work forces. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) have a career innate with challenges and enriched with potential and positive outcomes. Factors that Influence Variations in the Rate of Language Fluency: Prior academic experience, including study of English, in their native country Family literacy levels Family expectations regarding academics and employment Factors requiring special ed or other special services Emotional factors

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Many lack the background reference points of English-speaking students to literature (fairy tales, famous American authors), United States social studies (events, figures, time-lines, government policies), geography (names, terrain), and current events. Many are not familiar with the idioms, dialects, figurative language, literary terms,symbolism, homonyms, specialized vocabulary, and connotations and denotations of words; they often lack knowledge of Latin derivatives, meanings of common prefixes and suffixes, and word families. Some are unfamiliar with the complexities of grammar rules, sentence structure, and text structure (thesis, topic sentences, etc.). Some are inexperienced in expressing opinions about texts, character analysis, and themes. Many are unfamiliar with the differences in the following aspects of math and science classes: processes to get answers, number formations, use of the decimal points, a varied measurement system, use of manipulatives, rate at which material is taught, and unfamiliar terms. Some are challenged as members of migratory families who frequently move, often in search of work. They might have to cope with the plights of homelessness and poverty. Some have non-English speaking parents who often have difficulty communicating with school officials on behalf of their children and do not understand many of the schools policies and procedures. Many schools lack bilingual staff, translators or interpreters to help parents with limited English skills. Unfamiliarity with the English language can hamper other child-support activities such as seeking medical care, improving financial affairs, and addressing legal issues. Many come with a different set of values, believing that work that will earn an immediate pay check is more meaningful than schooling that delays earning an income for the time being. Thus, ESL students might have jobs that limit their independent study time, increase school absences, and decrease graduation rates.

Some Common Challenges for Many (not all) ESL Students:

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Cultural values differ regarding such matters as dress, gestures, speech, music, gifts, diet, dating, dance, religion, hygiene, intonations, discipline, eye contact, proximity and body contact. What might be unacceptable or offensive in one county might be desired and respected in another. Such differences might lead to misunderstandings and discipline problems if teachers, ESL students, and non-immigrant students lack an awareness of and respect for cultural differences. ESL Programs: ESL Pull-out: Students (usually in elementary school) spend part of the school day in a mainstream classroom but are pulled out for a portion of each day to receive instruction in English as a second language. ESL Class PeriodStudents receive ESL instruction during a regular class period and usually receive course credit. They may be grouped for instruction according to their level of English proficiency. ESL Resource CenterStudents are brought together from several classrooms or schools and at various times of the day. The resource center is supplied with ESL materials and ESL staff in one location. Structured Immersion ProgramsTeachers use only English with no explicit ELL instruction. Sheltered Academic Instruction The following strategies enable students to learn English, while achieving in other academic areas, through teacher strategies such as the following: Slower-paced speech, spoken with natural speech rhythms and intonations Clear enunciation Short, simple sentences Controlled vocabulary (ex. avoiding use of idioms and slang) Visual reinforcement (gestures, props, pictures, films, demonstrations, hands-on activities) Frequent comprehension checks Multiple Help Sources and Strategies: Recognize how different individual students and cultural groups are both alike and different. Identify and examine cultural stereotypes in relation to LEP and non-LEP students. Create a positive classroom environment that promotes various learning styles and cultural backgrounds. Use alternative methods of assessment (ex. portfolio assessment). Use school, neighborhood, and home resources in ESOL instruction. Recognize indicators of learning disabilities and impairments (ex. hearing problems, dyslexia). Keep ESOL students a part of the class, not isolated. Give students opportunities to use their life experiences for class assignments. Assign less homework, allow students to use bilingual dictionaries, provide more time for completion of work, and use peer tutoring and cooperative learning.

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Provide videos, laptops with software, translated classics, textbook resources in students native languages, journals of vocabulary words, etc. Use role playing, multi-sensory approaches, sequential steps for new information, frequent review, written and oral instructions, and modified difficult assignments. Provide evening English classes for parents to bridge the communication gap and remove obstacles to parents involvement in their childrens education. Encourage discouraged ESOL students by reassuring them that they are learning more than they might realizethat mastery of a new language takes years, but the payoff is personally and financially rewarding. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) take six months to two or more years to achieve, whereas Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) takes seven to nine years to achieve. Persistence is so important. Scaffold - an instructional strategy in which teachers begin at a level that encourages student success and provides support to move the students to a higher level of understanding and accomplishment. Scaffolding includes verbal prompting (ex. asking students to elaborate on a response), and instructional tools (ex. outline of major topics in a chapter). Teachers highlight study skills and learning strategies for students to help them meet increasingly more challenging, higher-order lessons. Sources: Challenges for ELLs in Content Area Learning (http://www.everythingesl.net) (2009) ESOL: Investing in the Next Generation www.miracolation.org/esol/eng (2009) Language-Minority Students (http://www.sullivan.leon.k12fl.us/LTT/ESOL.html (2009)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Barrier to Learning: Latchkey Children


Background Information With more parents working, many children come home to an empty house after school. These children are called latchkey children. It is important to consider what children do between the time they get home from school and the time parents get home from work. Parents must decide if their child is capable of being left alone. Is the child old enough? Is he mature enough? Is he trustworthy and responsible? Will he let other kids into the house? There is no specific legal age that allows a parent to leave a child alone; for example, some twelve year olds may be capable. Today about one-third of all school-age children (an estimated five million between ages five and thirteen) are latchkey children. In some school districts, fifty percent of third and fourth graders are latchkey kids. One third of all complaints to child welfare agencies involve latchkey children. 1. Hire a babysitter who will nurture the children when they get home from school, can help them with their homework, enforce family rules, and follow through on the parents directions about discipline. 2. Make arrangements for the child to go to a trustworthy neighbors or relatives house. 3. Establish rules and insist that the children adhere to them. Rules can pertain to after-school snacks, homework, television, computer-use, and places where they can go (e.g. yard, neighbors house, nearby playground). 4. Check into after-school programs that offer tutors and observe the children while they play. 5. Utilize the phone. Have the children call their parents or a family member to check in, or you call them when they are scheduled to get home to make sure that everything is okay. 6. Go over safety rules regarding the fire extinguisher, emergency contacts, first aid kits, locked windows and doors, medicines, etc. 7. Make sure children have their own keys to the house. Do not hide keys outside or leave doors open for them. 8. Teach children to look for signs of forced entry; if it looks as though someone has entered the house, tell them not to go in; instead go to a neighbors house to call the police. 9. Teach children how to properly answer the door and telephone. They should not open doors to strangers; nor should they tell people on the phone that they are alone. 10. Investigate flex-time schedules offered by many employers, assigning work hours that coincide with school hours and enabling parents to be home when the children arrive home from school. 11. Make sure children know contact information (e.g. parents work addresses, work numbers, cell phone numbers). 12. Teach children reasons and procedures for dialing 9-1-1. Sources: Parenting Article for Parents of Latchkey Children, http://mn.essortment.com/parentingaricl_rdzl.htm, 2004 Latchkey Children. http://www.fremontppolice.org/CrPrevent/clmn05.htm, 2004 Latchkey Children. http://phoenix.gov/FIRE/keykids.html, 2004 Suggestions for Parents of Latchkey Children

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Barrier to Learning: Poverty

Poverty is caused by many interrelated factors, such as the parents education level, employment, and income as well as family structure. In actuality, many students of poverty do not believe they are poor, even when they are on welfare. Poverty in the United States tends to be cyclical, with about 14% living below the federal poverty line at any given point in time, and roughly 40% falling below the poverty line some time within a given decade.

Background Information: Identifying Children Living in Poverty:

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

There is a growing concern about the large numbers of youth being reared in disadvantaged circumstances that seriously impede their chances of growing into healthy, responsible, productive, financially secure members of adult society. Technological developments, globalization, and changes in the work force and economy make it harder for parents who have only a high school education or less to earn enough to support themselves and their children. Dr. Ruby Paynes Points about Poverty (as listed in her book A Framework for Understanding Poverty): Poverty is relative. Being labeled rich or poor is based on comparing ones economic status to that of others. Poverty is present in all races and nations. Economic class is not a clear-cut distinction. Individuals/families are located all along the continuum of income. Generational poverty is defined as being in poverty for two generations or longer; situational poverty extends over a shorter time and is caused by circumstances (death, illness, divorce, loss of a job, etc.) A person knows the hidden rules of the socioeconomic class in which he grew up. Financial situations might eventually change for a person, but learned patterns of thought and social interaction remain with the individual. Schools and businesses operate from middle-class norms; students from poverty must learn the hidden rules of middle class to be successful at school and work. To move from poverty to middle class or from middle class to wealth, a person usually has to give up relationships for achievement at least for a little while. Education and relationships are the two main factors that enable a person to move out of poverty. A person leaves poverty because its too painful to stay, he has a vision or goal, he experiences a positive key relationship, or he has a special talent or skill. In poverty, parental roles and relationships, male and female identities, changing allegiances, and a matriarchal structure create family patterns that often differ from ones typical of middle class.

Children living in poverty are more likely to suffer from developmental delay, to drop out of high school, and to become teen parents. Many students living in poverty are not performing on grade level; without literacy skills, a child has a much more difficult time breaking out of intergenerational cycles of poverty.

Dr. Ruby Paynes List of Resources:

Poverty is defined as the extent to which a child does not have the following resources: financialmoney to buy goods and pay for services emotionalinternal resources for stamina, perseverance, and choices, particularly in difficult situations mentalreading, writing, computing mental abilities and other academic skills to use in daily life

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Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Statistics Pertaining to Children Living in Poverty:

spiritualbelief in divine purpose and core values; purpose for living physicalhealth and self-sufficiency resulting from good health support systemfriends, family, organizations (school, church, neighborhood, businesses, charities) relationships/role modelsadults who can nurture and direct a child knowledge of hidden rulesknowing the unspoken cues, habits, and values of a group The federal government has set the poverty level at $20,000 per family of four. However, families receiving almost two times the federal poverty level still cannot meet their basic needs and are considered low-income. The poverty rate for all Americans is about 12.5%, but for children under the age of six, the rate is almost 20%. Over twelve million American children live in poverty, and this number is rising. 21% of children in low-income families5.9 millionmoved in the last year. With a poverty rate of 15%, South Carolina has the ninth highest poverty rate in the United States. 45% or 461,115 of South Carolinas children are living in low income households. Poor inner-city children are seven times more likely to suffer from abuse or neglect. The United States has a rate two or three times higher of poverty-stricken children than most other major Western industrialized nations. There are 73 million children in the United States. 39% (28.4 million) live in low-income families, and 18% (12.8 million) live in poverty. The child poverty rate among rural states is consistently higher than it is in other parts of the country. More rural children live in Southern states than anywhere else in the United States. Rural children more often have younger, less educated parents than other children; thus, these parents are more likely to lack the financial means to provide health care, education, and basic necessities for their sons and daughters. Young children disproportionately live in low income households. Children under the age of six are particularly vulnerable to poverty. Although Latino and African-American children are disproportionately reared in low income circumstances, whites comprise the largest group of low-income children. Children living in single-parent families are more likely to experience poverty. Immigrant children are twice as likely to be poor as native-born children. Children who are reared in situations involving substance abuse, domestic violence, poor housing, low levels of parental aspiration, high levels of mental distress, neighborhood endangerment, and gangs are often living in poverty.

Children who are most likely to be poor:

Ways and facts that ease the plight of the poor:

Raising the minimum wage makes it easier for low and poverty income families to sustain themselves. Charitable organizations such as Red Cross, Big Brothers Big Sisters, Poverty USA, and Second Harvest assist the poor. Children of poverty need the best schools, teachers, and role models; unfortunately, the poor living in rural and inner-city areas more often have inferior educational opportunities. However, educators and politicians alike are striving to improve inferior schools, especially those that serve high percentages of poor children. Youth and adults living in poverty need money management strategies taught to

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Sources: http://www.savethechildren.org/countries/usa (2008) http://www.nccp.org/publichations (2008) http://www.childrenstrustfundsc.org/aboutchildabuse.shtml (2008) http://poverty.suite101.com/article, cfm/poverty_in _ south_carolina (2008) Dr. Ruby Payne, A Framework for Understanding Poverty. Highlands, TX: aah! Process, Inc., 2005.

them. Many organizations are in place to promote such skills. Habitat for Humanity has built more than 250,000 homes, providing more than one million people in more than 3,000 communities safe, decent shelter. Schools are doing a better job providing students living in poverty with early intervention education (ex. Head Start), identifying academically strong students in spite of poverty to enroll them in more challenging courses, and college scholarships are being offered on a financial need basis. Many schools in poverty areas are offering additional support systems, such as the following: providing schoolwide homework support with tutors, using supplemental schoolwide reading programs (ex. Accelerated Reader Program), keeping students with the same teacher(s) for two or more years to establish long-term relationships, teaching coping strategies, providing parent training and contact through video, requiring daily goal-setting and procedures for students, employing more intervention discipline strategies, and using team interventions. Parents who model characteristics that employees value (ex. skills, diligence, honesty, reliability) improve their childrens life chances, regardless of limited parental income. Free resources (ex. parks, libraries, shelters, soup kitchens, health departments, government subsidized housing) are usually available in areas where there are high levels of poverty. Several organizations are now established to work with mothers to provide literacy enrichment beginning at birth. Mothers are taught early language stimulation, brain development activities, and daily reading habits.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Barrier to Learning: Sleep Deprivation among Adolescents


Teens are biologically driven to sleep longer and later than adults do, making the effects of insufficient sleep more dramatic on adolescents. Twenty-six percent of high school students routinely sleep less than 6.5 hours on school nights, and only 15% sleep 8.5 hours or more. The same study indicated that to make up for lost sleep, most teens sleep an extra couple of hours on weekend mornings, creating a habit that can lead to poorer-quality sleep. Research shows that teenagers need considerable more sleep to perform optimally than do younger children or adults. Starting around the onset of puberty and continuing into their early twenties, adolescents need about 9.2 hours of sleep each night, compared with the 7.5 or 8 hours that adults need. The adolescents brains circadian timing systemcontrolled mainly by melatoninswitches on later at night as pubertal development progresses. The brains sensitivity to light changes during adolescence. Almost half of the students who begin school at 7:20 are pathologically sleepy at 8:30, falling directly in REM sleep in an average of only 3.4 minutesa behavior that resembles that of patients with narcolepsy. 1. The temporal lobe (the part of the brain involved in language processing) is activated during verbal learning in rested students but not in sleep-deprived students. 2. Sleep deprivation has a negative affect on the brain because certain patterns of electrical and chemical activity that occur during sleep are interrupted, interfering with the brains ability to function normally. 3. Researchers found that an area of the brain experiences activity in rested students as they work through math exercises; however, no equivalent activity occurs in the brains of sleep-deprived subjects. The sleep deprived pupil uses a much less efficient region of the brain already in use when solving the math exercises. 4. James B. Maas, PhD, one of the nations leading sleep experts, says, [A teacher] can be giving the most stimulating, interesting lectures to sleep-deprived kids early in the morning or right after lunch, when theyre at their sleepiest, and the overwhelming drive to sleep replaces any chance of alertness, cognition, memory or understanding. 5. Research has revealed an association between sleep deprivation and poor grades. In a 1998 survey of more than 3,000 high school students, psychologists found that students who reported that they were getting Cs, Ds and Fs in school obtained about twenty-five minutes less sleep and went to bed about forty minutes later than students who reported they were getting As and Bs. 1. According to the national Highway Traffic Safety Administration, drowsiness and fatigue cause more than 100,000 traffic accidents each year, and young drivers are at the wheel in more than half of these crashes. 2. Northwestern University studied 729 people ages 12 to 17 at a juvenile detention center and found that nearly half of the children there experienced the effects of a sleep disorder. 3. The University of Chicago conducted studies revealing that sleep deprivation decreases the metabolism of glucose, creates impaired glucose tolerance, takes forty percent longer to adjust blood sugar levels, and decreases insulin production by 30 percent. 4. In sleep-deprived individuals, impaired glucose tolerance can eventually lead to diabetes, obesity, and hypertension. Background Knowledge on Teen Sleep Deprivation

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Possible Learning Problems Resulting from Teen Sleep Deprivation

Possible Safety, Social, and Health Problems Due to Sleep Deprivation

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Possible Symptoms/Consequences of Teen Sleep Deprivation

Slow reflexes Task completion done with less speed and accuracy Diminished ability to perform basic cognitive tasks Difficulty in constructing a complex sentence without repeating the same words Difficultly in learning new skills Decreased memory and retention Wide mood swings Chronic tiredness Desire to nap in the day Increased pessimism, sadness, stress, and anger Outbursts and even violence Weakened immune system Psychopathologies such as depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Poor decision making and risky behavior

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Possible Preventive Measures, Treatments, and Solutions to Teen Sleep Deprivation: 1. Many schools that have delayed their morning start times noted these positive outcomes: higher test scores, decreased depression, less irritability, and fewer fights. 2. Parents, teens, teachers, and community members need to be informed about the need for adolescents to get adequate sleep so that steps can be taken to provide that sleep. 3. Several states have introduced legislation to require high schools to start later and to fund schools to make these changes. 4. The childrens book Remmy and Brain Train discusses why the brain requires a good nights sleep. Sources: Increase in School Performance, http://www.ncusd203.org/central/html/what/torsberg/2003/2NDSEM/WEW-6/kolar_Paruch, 2004. Sleep Deprivation May Be Undermining Teen Health by Siri Carpenter, http://www.apa.org/monitor/oct01/sleepteen.html, 2004.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Barrier to Learning: Substance Abuse


Background Information Underage drinking costs more than $58 billion annually (traffic accidents, violent crime, suicide attempts, treatment, etc.) One in three high school seniors reported being drunk in the preceding month (an increase over previous years). Many teens begin drinking at early ages, putting themselves at risk for alcohol problems later in life. Almost one-third of teenagers report having had their first drink before their thirteenth birthday. Young people who drink before age fifteen are four times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than those who begin drinking at the legal age. The more youth drink, the more likely they are to drink and drive. Alcohol can impair adolescents judgments about sex and contraception, placing them at increased risk for HIV infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unplanned pregnancies.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Young drinkers use tobacco and other drugs more often than non-drinkers. One in three youth aged twelve to seventeen who used alcohol in the preceding month also used illicit drugs, compared to only one in 34 non-drinkers. Youth are not well informed about alcohols effects. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one-third of high school students have binged on alcohol in the last month. Alcohol does more brain damage in younger drinkers than adult drinkers. The limbic system (inner rim of the brain responsible for learning, memory, and goal-directed behavior) is particularly vulnerable to the effects of alcohol during adolescence. Alcohol can also damage the central nervous system. Adolescents from families with multigenerational alcohol dependence have morphological changes in their brains, making them more susceptible to alcohol abuse. Children of alcoholics have reductions in the size of the right amygdala, a structure in the brain that helps control basic emotions. Alcohol is one of the leading substances found in arrests, emergency room admissions, autopsies, and treatment admissions. Possible Symptoms of Young Drinkers: Depression Erratic behaviors; excessive moodiness; uncontrolled anger Sudden changes in friends Neglecting school work (e.g. missing assignments, being tardy to class, skipping school, wanting to quit school, being suspended) Trouble with part-time job (e.g. getting fired, missing work) Rebellious behavior (e.g. staying out past curfew, arguing with authority figures) Mental slowness and sedated-like responses Disorientation Sleeping excessively Excessive laughing over very silly things Smelling like alcohol Stealing or seldom having any money Changes in eating habits and grooming habits Social withdrawal Excessive feelings of isolation, being alone and rejection Being a victim of violence Feelings of persecutions

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Possible Treatments and Preventions:

Expression of violence in writings and drawings Patterns of impulsive and chronic hitting, intimidating, and bullying Establish alcohol drug prevention programs. Strengthen relationships and communication between parents and their children. Help students recognize internal pressures (anxiety and stress) and external pressures (peer attitudes, advertising) so they can make better decisions about alcohol. Help students develop personal, social, and refusal skills to resist the pressure to engage in underage drinking. Inform youth about the short-term and long-term consequences of alcohol. For example, adolescents can become addicted to alcohol in only 6-8 months. For adults, it often takes several years. Work to eliminate the myth that alcohol is the lesser evil of substance abuse. Eliminate the easy sources for alcohol (e.g. family liquor cabinets, alcohol establishments that sell to minors). Restrict the availability of alcohol in public places where youth are known to drink (e.g. beaches, parks, parking lots). Model healthy coping skills with depression, frustration, rejection, and failure; model self-discipline, individual responsibility, and moderation.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Sources: Millennium Hangover: Keeping Score on Alcohol (Teenage Alcohol Use) http://www.drugstrategies.org/keeping score1999/teen.html, 2004 Adolescents and Alcohol Abuse: New Knowledge, New Challenges. http://www.psychologicalscience.org/observer/1201/niaaa.html, 2004 National Association of School Psychologists www.naspweb.org

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Background Information:

Barrier to Learning: Teen Pregnancy

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

In spite of abstinence programs and access to birth control, teenage girls in the United States are having more babies than teenage girls in most other industrialized countries. Teen pregnancies ultimately place financial burdens on social, state, and national programs. Adolescent pregnancies cross all racial and geographical spectrums. Although sex education courses fall short in preventing teen pregnancies, schools still must provide supportive services to help mothers of young children to earn diplomas. The problem, certainly not blamed on any one factor, is very complex and is not declining. Adolescents who feel connected to caring, supportive parents are more likely to delay sexual activity and thus decrease chances of teen pregnancies. Statistics on Teen Pregnancies 34% of young women get pregnant before the age of twenty. Nearly 1,000,000 teenagers in the United States give birth every year. 48% of teens say they never considered changes in their lives if they get pregnant or father a child. 40% of teens say that being a parent in their adolescence would delay them from reaching goals. 60%-70% of pregnant teens drop out of school. South Carolina has the 13th highest teen birth rate in the United States. Two-thirds of teen pregnancies occur among eighteen and nineteen year olds. Most teen pregnancies come about in a relationship consisting of a younger female dating an older male, often one that is an adult. A large number of teen mothers have histories of rape, sexual abuse, and physical abuse. Poverty is a major predictor of early pregnancy; high rates of poverty in youth precede high rates of teen pregnancies. Teens are exposed annually to thousands of sexual messagesmany that can lead to negative consequences--via television, movies, song lyrics, magazines, and other media. Many parents do not know how to communicate about sex to their sons and daughters. Many adolescents have erroneous or inadequate knowledge about reproductive functions. Some females use motherhood to create bonds with males and to demonstrate their femininity. Some teen mothers have low self concepts and want to love and have someone love them back, whether it is the father of the child or the child himself. Teens who engage with risky behavior, such as alcohol and substance abuse, make themselves more vulnerable to sexual activity and thus pregnancies.

Some Common Causes of Teen Pregnancies

Common Problems that Come with Teen Pregnancies:

Emotional and psychological troubles might accompany feelings of anxiety and guilt about abortion, pregnancies, adoptions, and childrearing. Teens of children are more likely to face economical woes because they are burdened with childrearing expenses, face limitations getting a job, and often do not receive child support. Teens trying to cope with pregnancies and childrearing might deal more with substance abuse, conduct disorder, post-traumatic stress, suicide ideation, and mental illness.

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Pregnant teens have varied emotional reactions to their pregnancies. Some might

Teen mothers have a higher drop out rate from school. Teen pregnancies are often accompanied with limited educational and occupational opportunities (ex. graduating, job training). Parents of teen parents often lack skills in knowing how to guide and support their adolescent daughters coping with motherhood at such a young age, ranging from wanting to take away all responsibility of childrearing to punishing or banishing the teen mother from their home. Teen mothers are often limited in participation of extracurricular activities and social events that enrich adolescent years designed for personal growth and maturity. Many teen mothers feel driven into unwanted or unstable marriages. Teen mothers and their babies face a higher risk of health problems. Many pregnant teens do not seek medical care during their pregnancy, leading to an increased risk for complications. Those who do not get adequate medical care are at higher risk for fetal death, high blood pressure, anemia, premature labor, stillbirths, and low-weight infants who might suffer from respiratory problems and delayed mental development. Folic acid is vital for the development of the neural tube, the structure that develops into the brain and spinal cord. STDs and AIDS can be problems. Pregnant teens need more education about nutrition, infections, substance abuse, and possible complications of pregnancy. Many need to learn the importance of eliminating tobacco, alcohol, and certain drugs to prevent damaging the fetus. Smoking increases the chances of sudden infant death syndrome; alcohol can cause mental defects; excessive caffeine is linked to an increased risk of miscarriage; poor diets, dehydration, and stress can harm the fetus. Children born to very young parents are more likely to suffer from poverty, neglect, and abuse. In every state, the father is legally responsible for child support. Teen fathers often need emotional and financial counseling. Adolescent fathers also need to determine their own level of involvement and commitment in the life of the child.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Suggestions to decrease and address teen pregnancy:

not want their babies want them for idealized or unrealistic reasons view the baby as an accomplishment and not realize the extensive responsibilities not put the baby up for adoption to please a relative want a baby to love but not be aware of the amount of care a baby needs become overwhelmed with depression, guilt, anxiety, and fears

The involvement and support of community clinics, churches, and schools (consistent with individual values and needs) are vital. Sometimes a mental health professional is needed to work with teens in decision making and for emotional well being. Prenatal classes are vital for preparing teens for delivery and parenthood. Government agencies must address issues that impact teen pregnancies (ex. family-planning education and other services). Parents must talk with their sons and daughters about all aspects of sexuality, conveying values, recognizing their teens sexuality, discussing the sexual messages teens view in the media, inviting teens to ask questions, and informing teens about local health resources. Parents need to begin early in their childrens lives talking to them about choices, responsibilities, and emotional and social

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Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

factors of teenage sexuality. Talking about teen pregnancy (or its possibility of occurring) needs to be addressed gradually over time in various situations rather than in one extensive conversation. Preaching and lecturing are not effective. Parents need to create healthy, safe environments by reinforcing age-appropriate rules and limits. Schools must play an active role in providing comprehensive sex education, either as separate courses or as embedded lessons in health, physical education, and biology classes. Television industry leaders should seek ways to create programming that does not saturate youth with sexual content that often leads to premature sexual activity on the part of the viewers. Media literacy instruction in schools can help teens think more critically about the negative consequences of television and movie portrayals of unhealthy and unrealistic male-female relationships. Caring adults can use television programming to create teachable moments for two-way conversations with teens. Parents of teenage mothers and fathers often need professional guidance in helping them cope with their own emotions of shock, disappointment, grief, worry, embarrassment, guilt, or anger. On the other hand, some parents rejoice over the birth of the child, especially if they feel that the young parents are more mature and in a more stable relationship, and want to be supportive grandparents. Sources: South Carolina Teen Pregnancy Data http://www.teenpregnancysc.org/page/factsheets (2009) Teens, Sexual Activity, and Parental Influence http://pleasestoptherollercoaster.com (2009) www.kidscount.com (2009) When Children Have Children www.aacap.org (2009) When Your Teen Is Having a Baby http://kidshealth.org (2009)

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English Language Learners


*Mandatory lesson

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Objective: Students will be able to identify characteristics of, needs of, and strategies for working with students learning English in addition to their other language. Essential Question: What are some factors in teaching English Language Learners? Activities: 1. Before this lesson, make a copy of the handout titled Topic Strips for ELL Information (with the bolded subtopics). Cut those subtopics into strips so that each student can draw a subtopic at a later point in this lesson. 2. Distribute the handout titled ELL Basics: Questions and have students take notes on it as you give information and lead a discussion. An additional sheet titled ELL Basics: Questions and Answers is available for teachers to use for the note taking and discussion. 3. Distribute the handout titled ELL Information with bolded subtopics. Then have each student draw a topic strip. Give each student time to find his/her subtopic (note the alphabetical order) on the handout. (Note: If there are more students than topics, have some work in pairs. If there are more topics than students, have some do more than one topic.)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Materials: Teacher Resource: Topic Strips for ELL Information (to be copied and cut into strips) Handout: ELL Basics: Questions Teacher Source: ELL Basics: Questions and Answers Handout: ELL Information Handout (or Teacher Resource): Making a Classroom Multiculturally Sensitive

4. Each student will then give a sixty- to ninety-second oral mini-report on that topic. He/she is to paraphrase the information rather than reading verbatim. Some students may want to refer to the handout during others mini-reports to get visual and auditory feedback on each ELL subtopic. The purpose of this lesson format is to get the students more involved in the presentation of the information.

Assessment: Using the knowledge shared in the discussions and mini-reports, students may write a one-page reflection as a journal or portfolio entry explaining how they can make a classroom more sensitive to and productive for ELL students. Time: 50 minutes

Standards: I.2.2 Students will identify the special needs and exceptionalities of learners and determine how these needs affect the learning process. I.1.3 Students will examine and appreciate others diversity

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Topic Strips for ELL Topics


Remember to make a copy of this page before cutting into strips. ATTITUDE TOWARD EDUCATION BUILDING BACKGROUND CLASSROOM CULTURE

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

BRAIN RESEARCH REGARDING SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING

CONTEXTUALIZING NEW IDEAS AND TASKS DICTIONARIES FOR ELL STUDENTS ESL PROGRAM MODELS HOMEWORK ADVICE MULTINTELLENCIA LAU DECISION FAMILY DIMENSIONS CULTURAL DIFFERENCES

CONTENT AREA DIARY (CAD)

NATIVE LANGUAGE FLUENCY OFFICE OF CIVIL RIGHTS PLYLER V. DOE SCAFFOLDING

RATE OF ENGLISH ACQUISITION SHELTERED INSTRUCTION

SPANISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES, TERRITORIES, AND REGIONS STRUCTURED IMMERSION PROGRAMS TESOL

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ELL Basics: Questions


1. How long does it take to become socially fluent in a language?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

4. List factors that would cause variations in the rate of fluency.

3. Which of the four language components (reading, writing, listening, speaking) usually comes first?

2. How long does it take to become academically fluent in a language?

5. Does the ELL teacher speak all the languages of the students he/she instructs? 6. What constitutes eligibility for ELL instruction?

7. Why is it important for all teachers to receive some preparation for how to instruct ELL students? 8. What are some modifications that teachers can make in their speech to enhance the learning of ELL students? 9. What are some adaptations with assignments and materials that can be used

Source: Pat Majors, ELL Itinerant Teacher, Charleston (S.C.) County School District
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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

ELL Basics: Questions / Answers


1. How long does it take to become socially fluent in a language?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) take six months to two or more years to achieve.

2. How long does it take to Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) become academically fluent in takes seven to nine years to achieve. a language? 3. Which of the four language components (reading, writing, listening, speaking) usually comes first?

4. List factors that would cause Some are: variations in the rate of fluency. Prior academic experience Family literacy level Family expectations Factors requiring special ed or other special services Study of English in first (native) country Emotional factors 5. Does the ELL teacher speak all No the languages of the students he/she instructs? 6. What constitutes eligibility for ELL instruction?

Listening (receptive) There is normally a silent period that lasts six months to two years in which the learner takes the language in and lacks skill or confidence to produce language.

7. Why is it important for all There is an increase in immigration to the US. teachers to receive some ELL (English Language Learners) are mainstreamed preparation for how to instruct into subject and grade level classes. ELL students? Teachers of ELL students are challenged to teach both English and content. 8. What are some modifications that teachers can make in their speech to enhance the learning of ELL students? Some strategies include: Speak at a slower rate Enunciate clearly Avoid idioms unless they are explained

Two main eligibility requirements: The students primary or home language is not English The student scores below fluent on placement assessment.

Source: Pat Majors, ELL Itinerant Teacher, Charleston (S.C.) County School District
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9. What are some adaptations with assignments and materials that can be used by ELL students to enhance their academic performance yet not lessen the academic challenge?

Some examples include: Assigning less homework Modifying tests and quizzes Allowing students to use bilingual dictionaries Using portfolio assessment Using peer tutoring and cooperative learning

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

ELL Information

Classroom Culture: Immigrant teenagers bring a variety of experiences to the classroom that can serve as a springboard for new explorations that enrich everyones experience. In effective classrooms, teachers and students together construct a culture that values the strengths of all participants and respects their interests, abilities, languages, and dialects. Students and teachers shift among the roles of expert, researcher, learner, and teacher, supporting themselves and each other. (Aida Walqui, Strategies for Success: Engaging Immigrant Students in Secondary Schools, ERIC Digest Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, June 2000.) Content Area Diary (CAD, Learning Log): Students are encouraged to keep a learning log in which they write a sentence or two to remind them of what they have learned. Students put into their own words what they learn in a teachers lesson. They may make a list of important, new words. The CAD can also let the ELL teacher know what the student is studying in his regular classes. The CAD can be kept in a three-ring binder or a small spiral notebook. It should include dates, subject labels, and vocabulary. (Pat Majors, ELL Itinerant Teacher, Charleston County S.C. School District)

Building Background: Immigrant students often have gaps in their knowledge base, even if they are well schooled because other countries may emphasize different topics in the curriculum. ELL teachers must make connections between new concepts and students past learning and personal experiences. These connections help students organize new information as part of their cognitive processing. Teachers should emphasize key academic vocabulary in meaningful ways. (Deborah Short, What Principals Should Know about Sheltered Instruction for English Language Learners.)

Brain Research Regarding Second Language Learning: Vocabulary acquisition can be enhanced when it is embedded in real-world contexts familiar to the ELL student. Students need time and experience (practice) to consolidate new skills and knowledge to become fluent and articulate. To understand a new word, children have to integrate information from different sources, such as acoustic input, visual information, tactile information, and memories. Educators must provide for individual differences in learning styles with alternative grouping arrangements, instructional materials, time frames, and context-rich, meaningful environments. (Fred Genesee, Brain Research: Implications for Second Language Learning, ERIC Digest Clearinghouse of Languages and Linguistics, Dec. 2000.)

Attitude toward Education: Regard for education varies from country to country. Some cultures revere educators, with teachers enjoying a high social status. A call from a school that a child has behaved inappropriately might be cause for family humiliation and punishment for the culprit. Likewise, parents may have unrealistic expectations for children who are unable to make high grades because of the language barrier. Even though children might have other learning barriers such as learning disabilities, parents from other countries might simply attribute substandard performance to laziness. Other cultures may not see much value in formal education and the parents lack such training. (Pat Majors, ELL Itinerant Teacher, Charleston County S.C. School District)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Contextualizing New Ideas and Tasks: English language learners often have problems trying to make sense of decontextualized language (language used in isolation from familiar topics), especially when using textbooks. Using textbooks along with manipulatives, pictures, films, and other types of realia can make language comprehensible to students. Teachers may also provide context by creating analogies based on students experiences. (Aida Walqui, Strategies for Success: Engaging Immigrant Students in Secondary Schools, ERIC Digest Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, June 2000.)

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Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Dictionaries for ELL Students: Dictionaries of American English designed especially for ELL students are quite helpful. Non-ELL students also like these. Oxford and Longman are publishers who have recently formulated dictionaries. The Longman Dictionary of American English (1997) has many features to help ELL learners such as discussions of common errors in usage. Vocabulary is used in sentences so students can see it in context. Picture dictionaries are also useful, even for more advanced students. (Pat Majors, ELL Itinerant Teacher, Charleston County S.C. School District) ESL Program Models: (1) ESL Pull-out: Students (usually in elementary school) spend part of the school day in a mainstream classroom, but are pulled out for a portion of each day to receive instruction in English as a second language. (2) ESL Class Period: Students receive ESL instruction during a regular class period and usually receive course credit. They may be grouped for instruction according to their level of English proficiency. (3) ESL Resource Center: Students are brought together from several classrooms or schools. The resource center concentrates ESL materials and staff in one location and is usually staffed by at least one full-time ESL teacher. (Jeanne Rennie, ESL and Bilingual Program Models, ERIC Digest Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, Sept. 1993)

Cultural Differences: Cultural differences may be minor or extreme; however, they can lead to misunderstandings. For example, American students might think teaching inappropriate English or gestures to non-English speakers is a funny prank. Such behavior then may lead to disciplinary actions. Students may need advice on appropriate attire and grooming. (Pat Majors, ELL Itinerant Teacher, Charleston County S.C. School District)

Homework Advice: ESOL students often do not have anyone at home to help with homework. Also, they may not understand it well enough to perform independently. Strive to convey to them how important homework is for their success and try to provide support to enable them to complete these assignments. Also, some of the ELL students may be working long hours after school to help with income. (Pat Majors, ELL Itinerant Teacher, Charleston County S.C. School District) Lau Decision (1974): The US Supreme Court ruled that the failure of the San Francisco school system to provide specialized English language instruction to approximately 1,800 students of Chinese ancestry who did not speak English denied them a meaningful opportunity to participate in the public educational program and thus violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which bans discrimination based on the grounds of race, color, or national origin in any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. Multintelligencia: These activities can appeal to various intelligence types:

Family Dimensions: Do not discourage use of the first language at home. To rob a family of its primary means of discourse can erode family relationships and create discipline and other problems later. Long years of separation between parents and children or of older children and younger siblings may have occurred due to stages of immigration. Often the parents themselves are learning English. Some parents will not feel comfortable in the school setting and may not feel confident about their communication skills with school correspondence. (Pat Majors, ELL Itinerant Teacher, Charleston County S.C. School District)

Linguistic lectures, worksheets, word games, journals, debates Logical puzzles, problem solving Spatial charts, diagrams, graphic organizers, drawing, films Bodily hands-on, mime, craft, demonstrations Musical singing, poetry, chants, mood music Interpersonal group work, peer tutoring, class projects Naturalist field trips, show and tell, plant and animal projects (T. Rodgers, Language Teaching Methodology, ERIC Digest Ed. Resources Info. Center, 9/01)
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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Sheltered Instruction (SI): This is a kind of content-based program that groups language minority students from different language backgrounds together in classes where teachers use English as a medium for providing content area instruction, adapting their language to the proficiency level of the students. Teachers may also use gestures and visual aids to help students understand. Although the acquisition of English is one of the goals of sheltered English and content-based programs, instruction focuses on content rather than language. Content-based instruction assumes that language learning is a by-product of focus on meaning. (Jeanne Rennie, ESL and Bilingual Program Models, ERIC Digest Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, Sept. 1993.)

Scaffolding: Scaffolding is an instructional strategy in which teachers begin at a level that encourages student success and provides support to move the students to a higher level of understanding and accomplishment. Scaffolding includes verbal prompting (ex. asking students to elaborate on a response) and instructional tools (ex. outline of major topics in a chapter). Teachers highlight study skills and learning strategies for students and create tasks and ask higher-order questions. (Deborah Short, What Principals Should Know about Sheltered Instruction for English Language Learners.)

Rate of English Acquisition: Young children who have not developed basic concepts have a disadvantage over older students whose concepts are more fully developed. While academic demands for young children are less rigorous than those of a student in the upper grades, they may struggle with basic concepts and fall behind without special help. Older students may have advantages of literacy, learning strategies, and experience, but face rigorous challenges with middle and high school textbooks. (Pat Majors, ELL Itinerant Teacher, Charleston County S.C. School District)

Plyler v. Doe (1982): The right of undocumented children entering school is guaranteed under this Supreme Court decision. Schools should avoid asking about a students immigration status or requesting documentation at any time.

Office of Civil Rights: This organization ensures that new immigrant students are evaluated for possible ELL or bilingual instruction. Thus parents are asked questions such as these when they enroll their children in school: What was the first language learned by the student? What is the primary language spoken at home? Is at least one parent able to read and write English? (Pat Majors, ELL Itinerant Teacher, Charleston County S.C. School District)

Native Language Fluency: Literacy levels in the first language are important. Literacy skills are transferred to a new language system when second or more languages are learned. It is very difficult for students to gain literacy for the first time in a second language. A bilingual instructor or parent can provide instruction in the first language to beginners who do not speak English. ELL students benefit from being read aloud to and listening to tapes and CDs in their first language. Native language fluency supports second language acquisition. (Pat Majors, ELL Itinerant Teacher, Charleston County S.C. School District)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Spanish-speaking Countries, Territories, and Regions: Spain, Mexico, Argentina, Peru, Chile, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Paraguay, Uruguay, Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Puerto Rico, parts of what used to be Spanish Morocco, areas of the Philippines, southwestern USA, southern Florida, barrios in large US cities.

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Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Structured Immersion Programs: This instruction uses only English, but there is no explicit ELL instruction. As in sheltered English and content-based programs, English is taught through the content areas. Structured immersion teachers have strong receptive skills in their students first language and have a bilingual education or ELL teaching credential. The teachers use of the childrens first language is limited primarily to clarification of English instruction. Most students are mainstreamed after two or three years. TESOL: Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages; ELL instructors - teachers of English Language Learners

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Making a Classroom Multiculturally Sensitive

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Demonstrate genuine respect and concern for all students, regardless of racial, cultural, ethnic, or linguistic background. Place a positive value on students cultural differences. Promote cultural diversity. Honor human rights, social justice, a democratic society, and equality for all people. Facilitate learning by writing major concepts on the chalkboard in simple, legible handwriting. Dont erase them until all students have copied down the information. Distribute handouts to help students follow what is being presented during a lecture and to provide them with study materials at home. Use audiovisual materials such as videos, films, and other aids to reinforce information visually and aurally; allow ELL students to use tape recorders during lectures. Provide written instructions with major assignments. Use several examples to illustrate the main ideas or main concepts. Explain concepts step-by-step. Avoid idioms, jokes, and slang in class that could confuse ELL students. Involve parents and families as much as possible. Provide sufficient time for students to write frequently and for varied purposes. Give students opportunities to select their own topics so that they become personally invested in their writing. Encourage students to share their writing with their classmates as well as to respond to each others work in constructive ways. Give students opportunities to publish their work so that their writing is treated as literature. Model the writing process and share their product with the class. Make connections between the content being taught and the students real-life experiences. Treat the students as resources of information about their native countries. Provide hands-on and performance-based activities. Stress critical thinking and study skills development. Make accommodations that will help students represent information and identify relationships. Incorporate cooperative learning activities. Seek peer tutors among classmates; allow ELL students to work with a buddy. Discuss different perspectives of history; use multicultural literature. Use paraphrasing and summarizing when instructing ELL students. Make use of text material that is appropriate for students language level. Identify key vocabulary words which students will need to know in order to develop content concepts. Use graphic organizers to help students organize ideas for reports. Supply authentic materials such as newspaper and magazine articles, catalogs, maps, and application forms.

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Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Incorporate student role plays, science experiments, pantomimes, construction activities, total physical response routines, and hands-on activities. Fill the classroom with visual cues that the ELL student can use. Use the same format for assignments and worksheets until the ELL student becomes accustomed to them. Help the ELL student by telling all students, Take note of this or This is important. Have the ELL student keep an assignment book, and ask to see it often. Ask low level thinking skills (ex. factual questions) first; then move to abstract questions as the student increases his proficiency. Assign vocabulary/spelling words to the ELL student. Source: (Carrasquillo, Angela and Vivian Rodriguez. Language Minority Students in the Mainstream Classroom. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters Ltd., 1995).

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Resource: 20 Reasons Why We Need Multicultural Literature


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Source: From: "Promoting a Global Community through Multicultural Children's Literature" by Stanley F. Steiner (Libraries Unlimited) Resource: Thoughts about Multicultural Literature "What makes a book 'multicultural' depends largely on how it is used with children and perceived by children - two conditions that teachers are in a position to influence." Rebecca L. Perinini / "The Reading Teacher" Feb. 2002 Global Education vs Multicultural Education "Global education deals with cultures outside the United States in countries around the world. Multicultural education, on the other hand, concentrates on parallel cultures within the United States." Evelyn Freeman and Barbara Lehman / "Global Perspectives in Children's Literature"

It provides an opportunity for all children to see themselves in the literature. It fosters development and positive self-esteem. It strengthens the significance of personal heritage. It helps raise personal aspirations. It provides a means for everyone to learn about people from all over the world. It recognizes and values the contributions of all people. It broadens understanding of history and geography. It cultivates respect, empathy, and acceptance of all people. It helps build a global community. It prevents people from feeling isolated. It allows differences and promotes harmony. It provides a multitude of opportunities to discuss similarities and differences. It promotes social consciousness of people afflicted with social problems. It helps overcome denial and fears of difference. It provides daily opportunities to talk about diversity and current events. It promotes positive actions to rectify unjust behaviors and events. It blends easily into themes of study found in schools. It provides the needed balance of literature representative of many cultures. It offers a good option for locating well-written literature. It prepares us for the future.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Resource: Multicultural Booklist for Children


PRESCHOOL: What a Wonderful World by George David Weiss and Bob Thiele, illustrated by Ashley Bryan. Atheneum, 1995.(Multi-ethnic) One Afternoon by Yumi Heo. Orchard, 1994. (Asian-Pacific American) Grandmother's Nursery Rhymes/Las Nanas de Abuelita by Nelly Palacio Jaramillo, illustrated by Elivia. Holt, 1994. (Latino) Margaret and Margarita/Margarita y Margaret by Lynn Reiser. Greenwillow, 1993. (Latino) Baby Says by John Steptoe. Lothrop, 1988 (African-American) I Love My Hair! by Natasha Anastasia Tarpley, illustrated by E. B. Lewis. Little Brown, 1998. (African-American) Baby Rattlesnake by Te Ata, illustrated by Mira Reisberg. Children's Book Press, 1989. (American Indian) You Are My Perfect Baby by Johce Carol Thomas, illustrated by Nneka Bennett. HarperCollins, 1999. (African-American) Round Is a Mooncake: A Book of Shapes by Rosanne Thong, illustrated by Grace Lin. Chronicle, 2000. (Asian-Pacific American) Where Did You Get Your Moccasins? by Bernelda Wheeler, illustrated by Herman Bekkering. Peguis, 1986. (American Indian) More, More, More, Said the Baby: Three Love Stories by Vera B. Williams. Greenwillow, 1990. (Multi-ethnic) Do You Know What I'll Do? by Charlotte Zolotow, illustrated by Javaka Steptoe. HarperCollins, 2000. (African-American) AGES 5-7: Drumbeat... Heartbeat: A Celebration of the Powwow by Susan Braine. Lerner, 1995. (American Indian) Grandfather Counts by Andrea Cheng, illustrated by Ange Zhang. Lee & Low, 2000. (AsianPacific American) Halmoni and the Picnic by Sook Nyul Choi, illustrated by Karen M. Dugan. Houghton Mifflin, 1993. (Asian-Pacific American) Hairs/Pelitos by Sandra Cisneros, illustrated by Terry Ybez. Knopf, 1994. (Latino) Abuela by Arthur Dorros, illustrated by Elisa Kleven. Dutton, 1991.(Latino) Honey, I Love, and Other Poems by Eloise Greenfield, illustrated by Leo and Diane Dillon. Harper, 1978. (African-American) The Good Luck Cat by Joy Harjo, illustrated by Paul Lee. Harcourt, 2000. (American Indian) Celebrating Families by Rosemarie Hausherr. Scholastic, 1997. (Multi-ethnic) Mirandy and Brother Wind by Patricia McKissack, illustrated by Jerry Pinkney. Knopf, 1988. (African-American)

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Shades of Black: A Celebration of Our Children by Sandra L. Pinkney, photographs by Myles C. Pinkney. Scholastic, 2000. (African-American) Giving Thanks: A Native American Good Morning Message by Jake Swamp, illustrated by Erwin Printup, Jr. Lee & Low, 1995. (American Indian) Morning on the Lake by Jean Bourdeau Waboose, illustrated by Karen Reczuch. Kids Can Press, 1998. (American Indian) AGES 7-9: My Name Is Maria Isabel by Alma Flor Ada. Atheneum, 1993. (Latino) From the Bellybutton of the Moon, and Other Summer Poems/Del Ombligo de la Luna, y Otros Poemas de Verano by Francisco X. Alarcon, illustrated by Maya Christina Gonzalez. Children's Book Press, 1998. (Latino) Golden Tales: Myths, Legends and Folktales from Latin America by Lulu Delacre. Scholastic, 1996. (Latino) The People Could Fly: American Black Folktales by Virginia Hamilton, illustrated by Leo and Diane Dillon. Knopf, 1985. (African-American) Maples in the Mist: Poems for Children from the Tang Dynasty by Minfong Ho, illustrated by Jean and Mou-sien Tseng. Lothrop, 1996. (Asian-Pacific) John Henry by Julius Lester, illustrated by Jerry Pinkney. Dial, 1994. (African-American) Baseball Saved Us by Ken Mochizuki, illustrated by Dom Lee. Lee & Low, 1993. (Asian-Pacific American) Wings by Christopher Myers. Scholastic, 2000. (African-American) The People Shall Continue by Simon Ortiz, illustrated by Sharol Graves. Children's Book Press, 1988. (American Indian) Tar Beach by Faith Ringgold. Crown, 1991. (African-American) What's the Most Beautiful Thing You Know about Horses? by Richard Van Camp, illustrated by George Littlechild. Children's Book Press, 1998. (American Indian) Justin and the Best Biscuits in the World by Mildred Pitts Walter. Lothrop, 1998. (AfricanAmerican) AGES 9-12: Through My Eyes by Ruby Bridges. Scholastic, 1999. (African-American) American Indian Animal Stories by Joseph Bruchac. Fulcrum, 1992. (American Indian) Bud, Not Buddy by Christopher Paul Curtis. Delacorte, 1999. (African-American) The Birchbark House by Louise Erdrich. Hyperion, 1999. (American Indian) The Journey: Japanese Americans, Racism and Renewal by Sheila Hamanaka. Orchard, 1990. (Asian-Pacific American) Oh, Freedom! Kids Talk About the Civil Rights Movement with the People Who Made It Happen by Casey King and Linda Barrett Osborne. Knopf, 1997 (Multi-ethnic)

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Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Family Pictures/Cuadros de Familia by Carmen Lomas Garza. Children's Book Press, 1990. (Latino) Now Is Your Time! The African-American Struggle for Freedom by Walter Dean Myers. HarperCollins, 1992. (African-American) The Tree Is Older Than You Are by Naomi Shihab Nye. Simon & Schuster, 1995. (Latino) Esperanza Rising by Pam Munoz Ryan. Scholastic, 2000. (Latino) Quilted Landscape: Conversations with Young Immigrants by Yale Strom. Simon & Schuster, 1996. (Multi-ethnic) Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry by Mildred D. Taylor. Dial, 1976. (African-American) The Rainbow People by Lawrence Yep. HarperCollins, 1989. (Asian-Pacific American) The Friends by Kazumi Yumoto. Farrar Straus Giroux, 1996. (Asian-Pacific) Source: Cooperative Children's Book Center, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madison

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Both in school and out, children are exposed to racist and sexist attitudes. These attitudes - expressed over and over in books and other media - gradually distort their perceptions until stereotypes and myths about minorities and women are accepted as reality. It is difficult for a librarian or teacher to convince children to question society's attitudes. But if a child can be shown how to detect racism and sexism in a book, the child can proceed to transfer the perception to wider areas. The following ten guidelines are offered as a starting point in evaluating children's books from this perspective. Look for Stereotypes. A stereotype is an over-simplified generalization about a particular group, race or sex, which usually carries derogatory implications. Some infamous (overt) stereotypes of African-Americans are the happy-go-lucky, watermelon-eating Sambo and the fat, eyerolling "mammy"; of Chicanos, the sombrero-wearing peon or fiesta-loving, macho bandito; of Asian Americans, the inscrutable, slant-eyed "Oriental"; of Native Americans, the naked savage or "primitive brave" and his "squaw"; of Puerto Ricans, the switchblade-toting teenage gang member; of women, the completely domesticated mother, the demure, doll-loving little girl or the wicked stepmother. While you may not always find stereotypes in the blatant forms described, look for variations which, in any way, demean or ridicule characters because of their race or sex. 1. Check the Illustrations

Resource: 10 Quick Ways to Analyze Children's Books for Racism and Sexism from The Council on Interracial Books for Children

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Who's Doing What? Do the illustrations depict minorities in subservient and passive roles or in leadership and action roles? Are males the active "doers" and females the inactive observers? 2. Check the Story Line Liberation movements have led publishers to weed out many insulting passages, particularly from stories with African-American themes and from books depicting female characters; however, racist and sexist attitudes still find expression in less obvious ways. The following checklist suggests some of the subtle (covert) form of bias to watch for.

Look for Tokenism. If there are racial minority characters in the illustrations, do they look just like whites except for being tinted or colored in? Do all minority faces look stereotypically alike, or are they depicted as genuine individuals with distinctive features?

Standards for Success. Does it take "white" behavior standards for a minority person to "get ahead"? Is "making it" in the dominant white society projected as the only ideal? To gain acceptance and approval, do persons of color have to exhibit extraordinary qualities - excel in sports, get As, etc.? In friendships between white and non-white children, is it the child of color who does most of the understanding and forgiving? Resolution of Problems. How are problems presented, conceived and resolved in the story? Are minority people considered to be "the problem"? Are the oppressions faced by minorities and women represented as related to social injustice? Are the reasons for poverty and oppression explained, or are they accepted as inevitable? Does the story line encourage passive acceptance or active resistance? Is a particular problem that is faced by a racial minority person or female resolved through the benevolent intervention of a white person or male?

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Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Role of Women. Are the achievements of girls and women based on their own initiative and intelligence, or are they due to their good looks or to their relationship with boys? Are sex roles incidental or critical to characterization and plot? Could the same story be told if the sex roles were reversed? 3. Look at the Lifestyles Are minority persons and their setting depicted in such a way that they contrast unfavorably with the unstated norm of white middle-class suburbia? If the minority group in question is depicted as "different", are negative value judgments implied? Are minorities depicted exclusively in ghettos, barrios, or migrant camps? If the illustrations and text attempt to depict another culture, do they go beyond over-simplifications and offer genuine insight into another lifestyle? Look for inaccuracy and inappropriateness in the depiction of other cultures. Watch for instances of the "quaint-natives-in-costume" syndrome (most noticeable in areas like clothing and custom, but extending to behavior and personality traits as well). 4. Weigh the Relationships Between People Do the whites in the story possess the power, take the leadership, and make the important decisions? Do racial minorities and females of all races function as essentially supporting roles? How are family relationships depicted? In African-American families, is the mother always dominant? In Hispanic families, are there always lots of children? If the family is separated, are societal conditions - unemployment, poverty, for example - cited among the reasons for the separation? 5. Note the Heroes For many years, books showed only "safe" minority heroes - those who avoided serious conflict with the white establishment of their time. Minority groups today are insisting on the right to define their own heroes (of both sexes) based on their own concepts and struggles for justice. When minority heroes do appear, are they admired for the same qualities that have made white heroes famous, or because what they have done has benefited white people? Ask this question: "Whose interest is a particular hero really serving?" 6. Consider the Effect on a Child's Self-Image Are norms established which limit any child's aspirations and self-concept? What effect can it have on images of the color white as the ultimate in beauty, cleanliness, virtue, etc., and the color black as evil, dirty, menacing, etc.? Does the book counteract or reinforce this positive association with the color white and negative association with black?

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What happens to a girl's self-image when she reads that boys perform all of the brave and important deeds? What about a girl's self-esteem if she is not "fair" of skin and slim of body? In a particular story, is there one or more persons with whom a minority child can readily identify to a positive and constructive end? 7. Consider the Author's or Illustrator's Background Analyze the biographical material on the jacket flap or the back of the book. If a story deals with a minority theme, what qualifies the author or illustrator to deal with the subject? If the author and illustrator are not members of the minority being written about, is there anything in their background that would specifically recommend them as the creators of this book? 8. Check Out the Author's Perspective No author can be wholly objective. All authors write out of a cultural, as well as a personal context. Children's books in the past have traditionally come from authors who were white and who were members of the middle class, with one result being that a single ethnocentric perspective has dominated children's literature in the United States. With any book in question, read carefully to determine whether the direction of the author's perspective substantially weakens or strengthens the value of his/her written work. Is the perspective patriarchal or feminist? Is it solely eurocentric, or do minority cultural perspectives also appear? 9. Watch for Loaded Words A word is loaded when it has insulting overtones. Examples of loaded adjectives (usually racist) are "savage," "primitive," "lazy," "superstitious," "treacherous," "wily," "crafty," "inscrutable," "docile," and "backward"." Look for sexist language and adjectives that exclude or ridicule women. Look for use of the male pronoun to refer to both males and females. While the generic use of the word "man" was accepted in the past, its use today is outmoded. The following examples show how sexist language can be avoided: ancestors instead of forefathers; chairperson instead of chairman; community instead of brotherhood; firefighters instead of firemen; manufactured instead of manmade; the human family instead of the family of man. 10. Look at the Copyright Date Books on minority themes - usually hastily conceived - suddenly began appearing in the mid1960s. There followed a growing number of minority experience" books to meet the new market demand, but most of these were still written by the white authors, edited by white editors, and published by white publishers. They therefore reflected a white point of view. Not until the early 1970s has the children's book world begun to even remotely reflect the realities of a multiracial society. The new direction resulted from the emergence of minority authors writing about their

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

own experiences. Unfortunately, this trend has been reversing, as publishers have cut back on such books. Non-sexist books, with rare exceptions, were not published before 1973. The copyright dates, therefore, can be a clue as to how likely the book is to be overtly racist or sexist, although a recent copyright date, of course, is no guarantee of a book's relevance or sensitivity. The copyright date only means the year the book was published. It usually takes about two years from the time a manuscript is submitted to the publisher to the time it is actually printed and put on the market. This time lag meant very little in the past, but in a time of rapid change and changing consciousness, when children's book publishing is attempting to be "relevant," it is becoming increasingly significant. Source: http://www.birchlane.davis.ca.us/library/10quick.htm

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Resource: If the World Were a Village of 100 People

If we could reduce the worlds population to a village of precisely 100 people, with all existing human ratios remaining the same, the demographics would look something like this:

The village would have 60 Asians, 14 Africans, 12 Europeans, 8 Latin Americans, 5 from the USA and Canada, 1 from the South Pacific 51 would be male, 49 would be female 82 would be non-white; 18 white

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

67 would be non-Christian; 33 would be Christian 67 would be unable to read 80 would live in substandard housing

50 would be malnourished and 1 dying of starvation 33 would be without access to a safe water supply 39 would lack access to improved sanitation 7 people would have access to the Internet

24 would not have any electricity, and most of the 76 that do have electricity only use it at night 1 would have a college education

1 would have HIV

2 would be near birth; 1 near death

33 would be receiving --and attempting to live on-- only 3% of the income of the village
Sources for statistics: The original version of the STATE OF THE VILLAGE REPORT by Donella H. Meadows was published in 1990 as "Who lives in the Global Village?" and updated in 2005. The initial report was based on a village of 1000. David Copeland, a surveyor and environmental activist, revised the report to reflect a village of 100 and single-handedly distributed 50,000 copies of a Value Earth poster at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro.

5 would control 32% of the entire worlds wealth; all 5 would be US citizens 16 live on $1 or less per day; 33 live on $2 per day

Research for many of the facts for the 2005 update was done by the Sustainability Institute. (See www.odt.org/pop.htm for further details.) The rest comes from a variety of sources including David Smiths childrens book: If the World Were a Village, the CIA World Factbook 2001 (age, birth, death, internet), 2001 World Development Indicators, World Bank (HIV), Adherents 2001 (religion) Bread for the World (malnourishment), United Nations Population Fund (food security) The Global Supply and Sanitation Assessment 2000 Report (improved water, improved sanitation) Additional Source: http://www.familycare.org/news/if_the_world.htm

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Culminating Activity: Barriers Books -- Telling the Story


*Mandatory activity Objective: Students will be able to present information about special education or a barrier to an age-specific audience. Activities: 1. Introduce this activity by explaining to the students that they are going to write a book suitable for publication about an aspect of special education or a barrier to learning. Their audience may be kindergarten, elementary school children, or middle school students. The book will be an individual project. It will be due on the date you designate after the following series of lessons on special education and barriers to learning. 2. Provide each student with a copy of the handout titled Special Education Barriers Book Assignment and go over each section, responding to questions. Essential Question: How might students overcome barriers to learning?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

3. As the class approaches the halfway point in their writing, have them read their first drafts to each other in small groups. Provide them beforehand with a copy of "PQP Method for Peer Evaluation of Books." Make arrangements with local elementary and middle schools to have these completed books read to the students. 4. Your district reading coordinators may be helpful with information about readability levels. Most word processing programs also have a readability program.

Materials: Handout: "Special Education/Barriers Book Assignment Handout: PQP Method for Peer Evaluation of Books Assessment: Instructors may use the Big Book rubic found in Unit 1. Time:

Standards: I.2.2: Students will identify the special needs and exceptionalities of learners and determine how these needs affect the learning process. I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that can impede successful learning. I.1.3: Students will examine and appreciate others diversity.

2 hours class time (two to three weeks preparation outside of class)

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Special Education / Barriers Book Assignment


CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Topics: The book may address any of the special education categories or barriers to learning. Death of a loved one (including that of a pet) Different culture, nationality, language, or religion Prejudice (e.g. racial, ethnic) Children with prolonged illness (e.g. leukemia, cancer, sickle cell anemia) Child abuse (physical, sexual, emotional, verbal, and mental) Lacking a skill (e.g. athletic skill, artistic skill) Exceptional abilities Barriers facing individual, families, society (e.g. latchkey children, eating disorders, substance abuse, depression, divorce) Poverty (i.e. homelessness) Social ostracism, isolation, or rejection Feelings of inferiority Physical issues (e.g. wearing hearing aids, being wheel-chair bound)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Some Goals: 1. To tell a story of what the person's life is like dealing with special education and barrier issues 2. To provide information about the area of special education or the barrier 3. To prevent problems associated with special needs and/or barriers 4. To accurately portray the perspective of one of the characters involved 5. To provide positive reassurance for dealing with barriers (Note: Write with one of the above goals in mind, or you may write using a combination of two or more.)

Some Guidelines: Your book must include illustrations that are appropriate for the content and age level of the intended reader. The art may be original, computer-generated, or photographed. The vocabulary and sentence structure must meet the age level of the intended audience. The font should also be appropriate in size for the intended reader. The book format may be a pop-up, three-dimensional, or sensory-appealing book design (i.e. different textures to touch). The script should be non-sexist and non-racist.

The book should be suitable for publication. Include a title, name of author, name of illustrator, and, if you so choose, dedication, sources and/or Note to parents section. The book should be constructed and assembled in an attractive, user-friendly manner. Its structure must be durable to sustain handling and reading. A rubric will be used to evaluate the book.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Special Education / Barriers Book Assignment, Page 2 of 2


DATE DUE ASSIGNMENT Indicate topic and purpose/goal due

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Declare age level of intended audience (e.g. or fifth grades, middle school)

Last day to change topic and purpose/goal

kindergarten, first and second grades, third, fourth, Share first draft of script with small group Share at least half of the final script and illustrations and plans for remainder of book after your presentation

Bring your book to share with the class and turn in

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

PQP Method for Peer Evaluations of Books


The "Praise-Question-Polish" approach to the evaluation of writing may help your students become critical examiners of each others' work.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 2: Styles and Needs

Step 1 PRAISE

After hearing another person read his book, PRAISE that person for the things that you like most in his writing. You will use such phrases as "My favorite part was . . .," "I liked . . . best because... ," and "You were really effective (e.g. clever, clear) when..." Praise needs to be specific and sincere. Ask the reader QUESTIONS that will do two things: clarify ideas for you, the listener (perhaps these are areas that need clarification or revision), and make the writer think about other possibilities in his writing. Use such phrases as "What would happen if you changed.... ," "Why did you use this particular ....," "Have you thought about ...." Help the writer POLISH his work. Indicate misspellings, run-on's, punctuation errors, needless repetition, diction weaknesses, sentence structure flaws, etc.

Step 2 QUESTION

Step 3 POLISH

Source: Charleston (S.C.) Area Writing Project

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Physical Development -- Background Information


*Mandatory lesson Objective: Students will be able to identify physical developmental characteristics and stages from birth through age eighteen. Essential Question: What are some benchmarks of physical growth? Activities: Option 1: 1. Assign each group of 3 or 4 students a type of development-physical, cognitive, moral, psychosocial, or language. That group will teach the important information regarding this development after researching the topic. Students can use some of the suggested activities listed below in option 3 or come up with their own lesson. Option 2: 1. Introduce the different teaching methodologies as you present each of the different developmental theories. For example, use a lecture to teach physical development, use cooperative learning to teach cognitive development, use technology to teach moral development, etc. Option 3: 1. Distribute the handout titled Physical Development, and provide a mini-lecture on the content.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

2. Distribute the handout, My Physical Growth. Tell students that they are to locate one or more of their baby pictures and interview an adult who can help them complete the worksheet titled My Physical Growth about themselves. A day or two later, the students will get in small groups of three or four to show their pictures and share the information about their personal growth.

Materials: Teacher Resource: Major Physical Changes from Birth to Age 5 www.sciencenetlinks.com/pdfs/growth1_actsheet.pdf Teacher resource: Growth Changes During Puberty www.sciencenetlinks.com/pdfs/growht2_actsheet.pdf Handout: Physical Development or use a PowerPoint presentation Handout: My Physical Growth Handout: Picture Cubes (or you can use a Kleenex box) Baby/early childhood pictures (provided by the students)

3. An alternative to the activity titled My Physical Growth is the Picture Cube activity. Give each student a copy of the pattern for the cube or use a tissue box. Enlarge the pattern and have them cut it from poster board. They will attach pictures of themselves to the six sides from early childhood to adolescence. At the designated date, they will present their picture cubes to the class and explain the physical stage of development portrayed in various pictures. The picture cubes may be placed on display in the classroom.

Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students may demonstrate their knowledge of physical development in their lifelines (culminating activity).

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

2. Students may demonstrate their knowledge of physical development in response to test questions. 3. Teachers may assess the products and presentations of either My Physical Growth or Picture Cubes. Time: 20 minutes for mini-lecture on physical development; 40 minutes for class presentations of either My Physical Growth or Picture Cube Standards: I.3.1: Students will differentiate among the physical states of learners. I.3.5: Students will apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of learners. III.1.5 Students will defend effective teaching methodologies.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Physical Development

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

In all stages of development, humans follow four main principles of growth Four Main Principles of Growth

Human growth and development is based on a combination of genetics and environment. Environmental factors, such as maternal nutrition, stress, diseases, age, and use (or nonuse) of cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs, affect development and birth size.

Principles of Growth for All Stages of Development

From Birth to Age Two Zygote (from conception to two weeks) This new life has inherited 23 chromosomes from each parent, 46 in all, creating the complex genetic blueprint for every detail of human developmentsex, hair and eye color, height, and skin tone. Embryo (from two to eight weeks) Foundations of the brain, spinal cord, and nervous system are already established. The heart begins to beat; backbone and muscles are forming; and arms, legs, eyes, and ears have begun to show. Fetus (from eight to thirty-eight weeks) Everything is now present that will be found in a fully developed adult. The fetus sleeps, awakens, exercises, turns its head, opens and closes its mouth. Neonate (from birth to two years) By ten months, the child imitates word sounds and actions. By fourteen months, he understands he/she can make things happen by his actions. By sixteen months, he/she enjoys games and songs. By eighteen months, his/her vocabulary explodes. Prenatal Development (Three Trimesters of 12-Week Periods Each) First trimester: This time is most critical in terms of the developing babys health. The embryo is most susceptible to negative environmental effects. During this time, the development of the central nervous system takes place. Second trimester: The organism is capable of physical movement. Muscle and bone development begin. Body growth begins, fingers and toes develop, and reflexes, such as sucking and swallowing, are developed. Third trimester: Growth, especially of the brain, is great in this period, and the fetus can see and hear. Although the lungs are not fully developed until the ninth month, most other systems are well developed. Neonatal Development (Birth to Two Years) The newborn (neonate) is a miraculous, unique individual with many impressive features. The baby is born with only a few innate reflexes, but quickly matures and changes. Developmental Stages

At birth, males and females weigh about seven pounds and average 19 inches long. (This is approximately the weight of a gallon of milk and the length from the elbow to the fingertip.) Males are slightly heavier and larger than females at birth. Physical growth is rapid during the first years of life.

The baby grows ten to twelve inches in the first year. By age two, the child has reached fifty percent of his adult height. The newborn gains an average of an ounce a day. By four months, his weight has doubled; it has tripled by one year and quadrupled by age two. Much of this early weight gain is fat. Fat production slows down after nine months.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

In general, infants develop according to the following steps: Sit: six months Creep: eight months Crawl: ten months Stand: twelve months Walk: thirteen months Preschool Development (Two to Six Years) During this stage, physical growth slows down, but is still very obvious. By age three, the average child weighs thirty-two pounds and is thirty-eight inches tall. By the end of this period, at age six, the average child weighs forty-eight pounds and is forty-eight inches tall. Girls are still slightly smaller and shorter than boys. The child is moving from gross motor skills (big muscles) to small motor skills. For example, children can throw a big ball before they can use scissors. Children of this age need much physical activity. Sample activities for children of this age include games such as Simon Says and songs such as If Youre Happy and You Know It, Clap Your Hands. Middle Childhood Development (Six to Twelve Years) During this stage, physical growth is slow, but steady. By age twelve, the child is approximately five feet tall and weighs around eighty pounds. Of course, there is much variance in height and weight at this age. Generally, girls are taller and heavier than boys by the end of middle childhood. Children refine small muscle and motor skills during this period. Between the ages of six to twelve, the major growth and change is in the cognitive domain. Adolescent Development (Eleven to Eighteen Years) During this period of raging hormones, there is a two-year difference in growth spurts. Girls experience this growth spurt at approximately age 10 and boys at 12. This growth spurt is asynchronous: the extremities grow before the main parts, such as the feet before the legs and the hands before the arms. This is the cause for the awkward, clumsy stage many adolescents experience. At this time, the oil glands and sweat glands also increase in production, often causing pimples. Big changes are next the development of sex characteristics. Changes in primary sex characteristics, those directly related to reproduction, occur. Also, it is during this time that secondary sex characteristics (those not necessary for reproduction), such as growth of facial hair and breast development, occur. An important concept titled the secular trend indicates that physical and sexual changes are occurring at earlier ages than in previous generations.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

My Physical Growth
Cadet: ____________________________________________________________________ Directions: Complete the responses below. At birth, most full-term babies weigh about 7 pounds. I weighed ____________________. At birth, most full-term babies are 19 inches. I was __________________ long. Most babies sit alone by sixth months. I sat alone when I was __________ months old. Most babies begin to walk by thirteen months. I began walking when I was _________ months old. I said my first word when I was ____________ months old. That word was _______________. The toys I liked as a preschooler were

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

My favorite preschool books were

My parents/guardians/family members seemed most proud when I first

My familys favorite story about me as a baby or toddler is

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Picture Cubes

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

GLUING FLAP

GLUING FLAP

GLUING FLAP

GLUING FLAP

GLUING FLAP

GLUING FLAP

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Cognitive Development -- Background Information


*Mandatory lesson Objective: Students will be able to identify cognitive developmental characteristics and stages. Essential Question: In what ways do Piagets findings aid teaching and instruction? Activities: Option 1: 1. Assign each group of 3 or 4 students a type of development- physical, cognitive, moral, psychosocial, or language. That group will teach the important information regarding this development after researching the topic. Students can use some of the suggested activities listed below in option 3 or come up with their own lesson. Option 2: 1. Introduce the different teaching methodologies as you present each of the different developmental theories. For example, use a lecture to teach physical development, use cooperative learning to teach cognitive development, use technology to teach moral development, etc.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Option 3: 1. As a hook for this lesson, role-play the following situations that portray the various levels of cognitive development. Assign students different roles and responses in the following scenarios:

Scenario 1: Pour one cup of water into a tall, thin clear glass container. Pour another cup of water into a short, wide clear glass container. Ask one person the question, Do the containers have the same amount of water, or does one have more water than the other one? He/she will respond, The tall container has more water than the short container. Ask the other person the same question, and he/she will respond, The containers have the same amount of water.

Scenario 3: Hold a stuffed animal up in front of someone who will look at it, reach for the animal, and try to put it in his mouth. Then remove the stuffed animal from sight; the person will not look for it. Then hold a stuffed animal up in front of another person who will reach for the animal and grasp it. Then the instructor will remove it from sight and that person will say, Where did you put the bear (or whatever kind of stuffed animal is held up)? Is it behind your back? It wants me to hold it.

Scenario 2: Ask one person the question, How would your life be different without a thumb? He/she responds, But I do have a thumb. Ask the other person the same question, and he/she will respond, I would have to learn how to grasp utensils such as pens, scissors, and forks differently. I would have to adapt my use of the keyboard because I would not have a thumb to hit the space bar. I might experience some difficulties when catching a ball. Id probably feel self-conscious about not having a thumb.

Scenario 4: Hold up pictures of an elephant and a donkey (illustrations provided with this lesson). Ask one person, What do you see? He/she responds, An elephant and a donkey. The instructor asks, Could these animals represent something else? The person responds, Theyre just two pictures of an elephant and a

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

2. Distribute the handout Cognitive Development According to Piaget, and provide a mini-lecture on its content.

donkey. Then hold up a picture of an elephant and a donkey, and ask another person the same questions. To the first question, he/she will respond, An elephant and a donkey. To the second question, he/she responds, The elephant can stand for the Republican Party, and the donkey can stand for the Democratic Party.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

3. Next, ask the participants to complete the handout entitled Labeling Scenarios Pertaining to Cognitive Development. Discuss what cognitive level each person in the role-plays demonstrated. Answers for role play and handout: Scenario One (Water): Scenario Two (Thumb):

First Speaker: Pre-operational Stage (relies on what seems right) Second Speaker: Concrete Operational (capable of conservation) First Speaker: Pre-operational or Concrete Operational (cannot do abstract thinking) Second Speaker: Formal Operations

Scenario Three (Stuffed Animal):

First Speaker: Sensory Motor Stage (e.g. wants to put stuffed animal in mouth; no object permanence)

Scenario Four (Pictures of elephant and donkey):

Second Speaker: Pre-operational Stage (e.g. animism; object permanence) First Speaker: Pre-operational Stage and Concrete Operational Stage (lack of abstract thinking) Second Speaker: Formal Operational (abstract thinking)

4. Lead a brief, whole-group discussion about Some Questions Critics Have Raised about Piaget. 5. You might want to show the video titled Cognitive Development.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Materials: Role play items: Two different sized water containers; a stuffed animal Teacher Resource: Handout: Four Stages of Cognitive Development Teacher Resource: video clip on overview of Piagets theory narrated by Dr. David Elkind http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-9014865592046332725 Teacher Resource: Cognitive Development: Scenario Four Handout: Cognitive Development According to Jean Piaget or use a PowerPoint presentation Handout: Labeling Scenarios Pertaining to Cognitive Development Handout: Some Questions Critics Have Raised about Piaget Optional: Cognitive Development video Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students may demonstrate their knowledge of cognitive development in their lifelines (culminating activity). 2. Students may demonstrate their knowledge of cognitive development in response to test questions. Time: 50 minutes

Standard: I.3.2: Students will examine the cognitive stages of learners. Source: (Lesson adapted from PACE I Curriculum, Department of Education, SC, 2003)

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Four Stages of Cognitive Development

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

4. Formal Operational Stage (Ages 12 and older) (Mastery of thought) This is the stage of abstract reasoning. The person can do inductive and deductive reasoning from hypothetical situations and can perform mental manipulations. He can answer how and why questions. A person at this cognitive level can actually think about thinking in a systematic way. There are five cognitive processes a formal operational thinker can do better than a concrete one: a. Logic (e.g., If all dogs are vicious, and Fifi is a dog, Fifi must be vicious.) b. Abstract reasoning (e.g., algebra; considering a variety of possibilities) c. Hypothetical reasoning (thinking of many plausible solutions to problems; considering what-ifs and potential scenarios) d. Extended thinking or mental leaps (e.g., If I have sex, I might get pregnant, have to drop out of school, not go to college, not be able to get a good job) e. Projective thinking (e.g., Once I have completed my undergraduate degree, I am going to law school; thinking across multiple time horizons) f. Metacognitive thinking (being aware of and regulating ones own thinking processes) g. Reflective thinking (reflecting upon and learning from actions and experiences)

3. Concrete Operational Stage (Ages 7-11) Children can reason deductively (reason from the general to the specific or from a premise to a logical conclusion) and deal with the world in the way they see it. They can no longer be tricked if they can see something literally. Children still cannot reason abstractly nor do problem solving in their heads, such as mental manipulation. People in this stage of thinking are capable of conservation (the recognition that physical properties remain the same regardless of changes in their outward appearance) and seriation (putting things in order). They are capable of classification (categorize, group, and detect relations).

2. Pre-Operational Stage (Ages 2-6) Language development is an important task of this period and enhances symbolic thought. The child relies on intuition or what seems right. For example, if the child is asked, Which is more-or are the two worth the same?, he will probably pick a nickel instead of the dime because the nickel is bigger or the five pennies instead of the nickel because he reasons that five is more than one. There is also evidence of animism, assigning human qualities to inanimate objects. Children at this age are also egocentric, seeing the world in terms of themselves. Children can answer what questions, but not why questions. They can pretend and engage in creative play, which is a step towards use of symbols. They learn that drawings and words (either spoken or written) stand for something (ex. a dog). Children at this age also have an understanding of the past and future. However, they usually center on one problem or communication at a time. For example, if a mother says, Your father is my husband, the child might not understand. A child at this cognitive level might say, I dont live in the United States; I live in South Carolina.

1. Sensory Motor Stage (Ages Birth- 2) (Mastery of concrete objects) Children learn through their senses. When they encounter a new object, they see it, smell it, hear it, touch it, or put it in their mouths. Towards the end of this stage, children develop object permanence, realizing that an object exists independently of their perception of it.

As the child grows and develops, he/she goes through four stages of cognitive development.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Teacher Resource: Cognitive Development: Scenario Four

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Source: PACE I Curriculum, SC Department of Education, 2003.)

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Jean Piaget, noted as the Father of Cognitive Development, determined that children and adults think differently. His work was based on case studies and systematic observations of people doing tasks. He believed that all behavior is related to thinking or cognition, that cognition is developmental, and that both genetics and environment play roles in cognition. Important to understanding his theory are three steps: 1. reflexes: simple blocks of cognition that help infants to adapt (e.g. sucking, grasping) 2. schema: reflexes categorized into schema in the same way that a computer organizes data 3. operations: logical thought processes

Cognitive Learning Theory Cognition is the mental process by which knowledge is acquired. If a teacher asks students a question, and they give an answer, the teacher has given them a stimulus (the question), and they have given a response (the answer). The process in between, the thought process, is called cognition.

Cognitive Development According to Jean Piaget

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Piaget believed that people learn new information in one of the following two ways:

1. assimilation: fitting new information into an already existing schema (ex. If a student is asked to imagine that a person had never seen a soccer ball and to explain one, the student may describe it as being round with a white and black design, thus helping the other person to assimilate it. When faced with a new food, one may say, What does it taste like? In this way, he would be trying to assimilate it. 2. accommodation: adjusting schema to fit new situations or demands; adjusting existing knowledge to accommodate new information (i.e. If a student were asked, Does 3RS?!=2M*!?, he could not answer because he doesnt know the code. He would need to accommodate. Sometimes learners must use both accommodation and assimilation. For example, in learning to play chess, one would use assimilation in that chess is like checkers, but he must also use accommodation in that chess requires new information, such as the names of the chess pieces and their movements.

Piagets developmental theory of thinking emphasizes the need for the learner to participate in the learning. Knowledge cannot be merely transmitted verbally; it must be constructed and reconstructed by an active learner exploring, manipulating, experimenting, questioning, and searching. Also, learning is a social process that is enhanced through collaboration and peer interaction. Based on Piagetian theories is the learner-centered educational philosophy in which teachers take on more of the role of facilitators.

Piaget wrote about readiness approach, stressing that children cannot learn something until maturation gives them the ability. Their state of intellectual development determines what they are able to learn.

A third aspect of intellectual growth is equilibration, striking a balance between the learner and his environment (between assimilation and accommodation). When a person experiences something new, disequilibration sets in until he assimilates and accommodates the new information and reestablishes equilibration. According to Piaget, because some children can reach equilibration faster, they are able to advance more quickly in logic development.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Labeling Scenarios Pertaining to Cognitive Development


Sensory Motor Stage (Ages Birth-2) Pre-Operational Stage (Ages 2-6) Concrete Operational Stage (Ages 7-11) Formal Operational Stage (Ages 12-older)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Label the following comments made in the scenarios, using the following Piaget Stages:

Scenario One: Same Amount of Water in Different Containers First Speaker: ______________________________________________ The taller container has more water than the short container. Second Speaker: ____________________________________________ The containers have the same amount of water. Scenario Two: Imagining Having a Hand Without a Thumb First Speaker: ______________________________________________ But I do have a thumb. Second Speaker: ___________________________________________ I would have to learn how to grasp utensils such as pens, scissors, and forks differently. I would have to adapt my use of the keyboard because I would not have a thumb to hit the space bar. I might experience some difficulties when catching a ball. Id probably feel self-conscious about not having a thumb. Scenario Three: Stuffed Animal In Sight and Out of Sight First Speaker: ____________________________________________ (He says nothing. He does not look for the toy after it is removed from sight.) Second Speaker: __________________________________________ Where did you put the bear? Is it behind your back? It wants me to hold it. Scenario Four: Pictures of an Elephant and a Donkey First Speaker: ____________________________________________ An elephant and a donkeyTheyre just pictures of an elephant and a donkey. Second Speaker: __________________________________________ Two animals, an elephant and a donkeyThe elephant can stand for the Republican Party, and the donkey can stand for the Democratic Party. Source: PACE I Curriculum, SC Department of Education, 2003

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Some Questions Critics Have Raised about Piaget


The following criticisms of Piagets theories are ones that you might want to consider: 1. Piagets theories are based on case studies of a small population of white, middle-class children. Are the same stages true for other cultures, atypical living arrangements, and other populations? What influences do environmental factors have on these stages? 2. The sequences and chronology of Piaget are rigid. Some normal children are far behind these stages while others are far ahead. Can stages be skipped? What about precocious seven-year-old chess players? Shouldnt adults be capable of formal operational thinking (e.g., If adults know that drinking and driving is dangerous, why do they do it?) 3. Piaget does not adequately describe adolescents. Should they have their own egocentric stage? They appear to understand rules, as in the formal operations stage, yet many feel that rules apply to everyone else but themselves. (e.g. Teenagers believe in using birth control, yet many do not use birth control themselves.) 4. What are the implications that Piagets theories have for classroom educators? For example, if most children do not reach the formal operations stage until age twelve, should algebra be taught in middle schools? If children cannot understand the hypothesis and cannot do inductive reasoning before the formal operational stage, should science fair projects be required in elementary school? What happens when teachers ask numerous why questions to students in the concrete operational stage?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Moral Development -- Background Information


*Mandatory lesson Objective: Students will be able to identify moral developmental characteristics and stages. Activities: Option 1: 1. Assign each group of 3 or 4 students a type of development-physical, cognitive, moral, psychosocial, or language. That group will teach the important information regarding this development after researching the topic. Students can use some of the suggested activities listed below in option 3 or come up with their own lesson. Essential Question: What are some characteristics and stages of moral development?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Option 2: 1. Introduce the different teaching methodologies as you present each of the different developmental theories. For example, use a lecture to teach physical development, use cooperative learning to teach cognitive development, use technology to teach moral development, etc.

Option 3: 1. Begin this lesson by having students participate in a values auction. Use the Directions for Values Auction, and distribute the handout titled, Bidders Sheet for Values Auction, to the students. 2. After the auction, discuss the processing questions listed in #6 on Directions for Values Auction. 3. Distribute Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development. After you have provided a mini-lecture on moral development, engage the students in a discussion about the implications of moral development in the classroom, using the following questions: a) What is the schools role in moral development? b) To what degree is it the schools role to encourage moral development? c) To what degree is it the familys role to encourage moral development? d) What are your hunches as to some primary influences on moral development? e) With what aspects of Kohlbergs stages do you agree? f) Kohlberg's theories deal with moral thinking. What are some differences between moral thinking and moral behavior?

4. Distribute the handout titled, Scenarios Regarding Moral Development, and ask small groups to rank the individuals or groups behavior according to Kohlbergs theories. Below are possible answers, but participants might give other plausible answers. For further discussion, students can get into groups of 3 or 4 and discuss the dilemmas in the handout listed below. They will then report back to the whole group on their discussion. The class will determine which stage of Kohlbergs moral development each group was using based on their discussion. Possible Answers to Scenarios: a) Kohlberg: Postconventional Stage, Substage 5 b) Kohlberg: Conventional Stage, Substage 4

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

5. Divide the class into small groups to participate in the student handout titled, What to Do? Moral Decisions on Prom Night. After they have completed the chart, provide the correct answers. Then discuss the following questions: a) Which character created the most debate for your group? Why? b) To which character did you most closely relate? c) What are some things that made this assignment difficult? d) How does this activity validate Kohlbergs theory? e) How does it deconstruct Kohlbergs theory? f) Would it be good if more of us acted in the Postconventional stage more often? Why or why not? g) If more of us acted in the Postconventional stage more often, how might life be different? or 6. Instead of the Prom Night activity, students will read an article regarding a controversial subject that would fuel a class debate, such as abortion, physician- assisted suicide, capital punishment, etc. After reading the article, students will write a description of their beliefs supported with reasons why they feel as they do. Divide the class into 2 groups to discuss the pros and cons of the article. At this time, a debate should be conducted. Upon completion of the debate, the student responses will be evaluated. The teacher will question the class, not on the content of their responses, but on what stage of moral reasoning their responses were based. Materials: Teacher Resource: Directions for Values Auction Handout: Bidders Sheet for Values Auction Handout: Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development or use a PowerPoint presentation Handout: Scenarios Regarding Moral Development Handout: What to Do? Moral Decisions on Prom Night Teacher Resource: What to Do? Moral Decisions on Prom Night Teacher Resource: Four dilemmas with discussion questions http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/kohlberg.dilemmas.html Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. On an essay test, students may respond to the following: a) Explain why you think Kohlbergs theory is accurate as it pertains to moral development. b) Explain why you think Kohlbergs theory is not accurate as it pertains to moral development. c) Explain another way that we develop morally. d) Create situations that demonstrate each level of moral reasoning according to Kohlberg. 2. Students may research other theories of moral development (i.e., those of Gilligan) and stage a debate of the opposing ideas. 3. Students may incorporate information about moral development in their lifelines (culminating activity).

e) Kohlberg: Postconventional Stage, Substage 6

d) Kohlberg: Conventional Stage, Substage 4

c) Kohlberg: Preconventional Stage (maybe fear of retaliation or might want favor returned; Conventional Stage, Substage 3wants to be liked)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Time: 50 minutes Standards: I.1.2: Students will evaluate themselves as diverse individuals, learners, and community members. I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that can impede successful learning. I.3.3: Students will distinguish between the moral stages of learners. I.3.5: Students will apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of learners.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Instructors Resource: Directions for Values Auction


1. Distribute the Bidders Sheet for Values Auction handout, and tell the students that they have an imaginary $1,000 to spend at an auction. 2. Ask the students to look over the items to determine how much money they will bid on the most desired items. Once the bidding begins, they do not have to stick with the allotted amounts. Instruct the students to bid in $100.00 increments. 3. Students must assume they do not currently have any of the items, so if they want the items, they must bid on them. If they bid on an item, but do not get it, they do not lose the money they bid. If they receive the item, they must subtract the amount they bid from the $1,000. Students are trusted to be honest. 4. After students have written in the amount budgeted for their bids on the Bidders Sheet for Values Auction handout, start the auction. In random order, put the items up for bid. For example, say, Today we have Number 18a long healthy lifeup on the auction block. Who will open the bidding at $100? Who will give me $200? $300? Encourage the players by saying prompts like Going once, going twice, sold to the lady on the front row. 5. Proceed to sell all the items. Add in a blue light special in the middle of the auction. It can be something special like a date with the man or woman of their dreams. 6. The most important part of the auction is in the processing. Here are some questions/comments you may want to ask: (a) What values do the items represent? What are some things you learned about yourself and your classmates through the choices you and they made? (b) Did you stick with the amount you budgeted for each item, or did you stray from the amount during the heat of the bidding? (c) Were you tempted to bid on the blue light special even though you had not budgeted for it? How do temptations sometimes lure us away from our set values? (d) Tell the students that obviously you cannot give or sell them these items (values), but ask them how they might obtain these items if they really want them.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Bidders Sheet for Values Auction


Item Up for Auction Teaching certificate New car World without prejudice children Amount Budgeted Participants Highest Bid Top Bid

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Well behaved, successful Career that enables you to help others Voted best-looking Beautiful, large house Happy marriage choice power person in world

Trip around the world

An A in course of your Job with prestige and Career that pays $100,000 a year Job with lots of freedom

Complete new wardrobe Self-confidence Lots of friends

Job with lots of leisure time

Long, healthy life

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

According to Lawrence Kohlberg, a child's moral development is closely linked to cognitive development. Kohlberg used the work of Piaget to generate his stages of moral development. His model consists of three major stages, each with two substages. Kohlberg viewed these steps as sequential and progressive.
Stage One: Preconventional Stage In this stage, the child makes moral decisions based on reward and punishment. In other words, moral reasoning is based on the consequences of the act. The child thinks something is right if it is praised (e.g., sharing toys) or wrong if it is punished (e.g., saying "bad" words). The child does not consider the act itself. Thus, the child has a very selfish orientation to right and wrong.

Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Substage 1. Obedience and Punishment Substage 2. Reciprocity Stage Two: Conventional Stage

The child does not understand the conventions of society. Fear is his motivation. He obeys to avoid punishment. The child shares if others share and hurts if others hurt. These actions come not from a sense of justice or gratitude, but from a selfish sort of "back scratching."

The child wants to please others, such as parents and teachers, and so he goes by the rules. Moral reasoning is based on compliance with the rules and values of society. Something is right if the church or teachers say it is right; something is wrong if society says so. The child is obsessed with the idea of fairness. The child is concerned with what others think and conforms in order to be liked by authority figures and others. The child sees rules as absolute. He believes that rules are rules and should be obeyed simply because they are rules. He does not examine the fairness of the rules themselves. In this stage, the child or person goes beyond himself and society. This stage is also called the stage of individual principle. The person does what he thinks is right, regardless of what others or society say is right. (For example, a reporter might choose not to reveal his source, or a soldier might refuse to fire on a village because children may be present.) Moral reasoning is based on personal standards of right and wrong. Many people never reach this stage or operate in it regularly. One question arises: Would it be good if everyone operated on this stage at all times? The person believes that laws are relative and may be changed if the need arises. The person sees the cosmic view and believes in transcending individual existence and seeking the unity of self with the universe. (This category is usually reserved for role models such as Ghandi and Mother Teresa.) Personal beliefs are based on abstract ethics or abstract principles about the way humans are. For example, one might believe in the concept that humans have dignity and rights and are due respect.

Substage 3. Good Child Substage 4. Law and Order Stage Three: Postconventional Stage

Substage 5: Social Contract Substage 6: Principled Substage 7: Cosmic

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

According to Kohlberg, most preschoolers are in the preconventional stage. Sometimes by early adolescence, children reach the conventional stage. While some senior high students may reach the postconventional stage, some researchers believe that most Americans never go beyond the conventional stage at any age. (As an example, our last four presidential campaigns have been based on the "Law and Order" substage, causing us to question the average American's status in moral development.) Kohlberg believed that children can be attracted to operating at high levels of moral reasoning, and parents and educators should seek ways to help young people go beyond the preconventional stage. Some Criticisms of Kohlberg's Theory Instructors may wish to consider the following criticisms of Kohlbergs theory in presenting this information to Cadets: A. Kohlberg sampled only men in his research. What difference might exist between men and women in moral development? B. Kohlberg did not sample a variety of cultures. What are some relationships between culture and moral development? What are some differences in morals between cultures? C. Kohlberg's theories deal with moral thinking. What are some connections between moral thinking and moral behavior? D. Kohlberg's theories are based on self-reported data from the respondent to the interviewer. How reliable might this be? How reliable might this not be?

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Directions: Read the following moral dilemmas and rank the individuals or groups (in bold type) behavior according to Kohlberg. Note: Based on varied rationale and perceptions, more than one acceptable answer might be given. Preconventional Stage Conventional Stage Postconventional Stage 1. A homeless mother steals a loaf of bread from a grocery store in order to feed her starving baby. Kohlbergs Stage __________________________________________ 2. The teacher has her class lined up in the hall to go to lunch. She has asked the students to walk in a single file. A child who sees another child get out of line to get a drink of water tells the teacher. Kohlbergs Stage _________________________________________ 3. One student knows that another classmate downloaded a research paper from the Internet and turned it in as his own writing. The student did not tell on the classmate. Kohlbergs Stage _________________________________________ 4. A principal finds a pocketknife in the back of a students truck in the student parking lot. The student says that it is not his. The day before he had taken several bags of donations to Goodwill for a neighbor, and he says that the knife must have fallen out of one of those bags. The school board expelled the student based on the Zero Tolerance policy about having weapons on school grounds. Kohlbergs Stage _________________________________________

Scenarios Regarding Moral Development

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

5. A single father of three children was jailed for protesting an environmental issue. The children have been in his care; no other relatives live nearby. Kohlbergs Stage __________________________________________ Source: Adapted from PACE I Curriculum, SC Department of Education, 2003

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Directions: Read the following moral dilemmas and classify the individuals or groups behavior according to Kohlberg. Next, write in what you think the individual should have done. After each student has had time to rank the individuals, share classifications among your group members and try to reach consensus. Present the decisions to the class. It is Prom Night at Anywhereville High School. As the prom winds down, the word gets out that there is an after-prom party at Michaels house. Michael moved to Anywhereville three weeks ago. He has heard stories about the type of parties in this town. He is trying to copy what others have told him. It is widely known that alcohol will be available, and there will be no adults present. Michaels parents are out of town. They have purchased a keg of beer, and they are aware of what will happen in their absence. The drinking age was eighteen when they were in high school. They feel that teens would not make such a big deal about drinking if the law were like it used to be twenty years ago. Prom Night

What to Do? Moral Decisions on Prom Night

Tommys parents go get him and do not punish him for his behavior. They do not condone teen drinking, but they were encouraged that Tommy followed the family rule. David goes to the party, realizes what is going on, and leaves because his religion teaches that all should follow the laws of the government.

Tommy goes to the party and drinks. He has a strong desire to fit in and maybe even be thought of as cool. Later, he calls his parents to come pick him up because he made a promise to them that he would never drive drunk or get in the car with anyone who has been drinking.

Travis, her date who wants to go to the party, agrees to take her home because he wants Alyson to go out with him again.

When Alyson is asked by her date to attend the party, she asks her date to take her home. She did not ask for her parents permission, and she is afraid she will get caught.

A teacher, Mr. Tibbs, has suspicions about what the students are up to, but he does not pry about the details because he does not want to betray the confidence of a student who accidentally mentioned it to him.

Steven and Kaleb arrive at the party to find many of their friends very drunk. They decide to stay sober, and go to each person and get their car keys. They promise to take turns driving so that everyone gets home safely. Their dates, Jenna and Leslie, are very angry because their special night is spent driving their drunken friends all over town.

Candace goes to the party and becomes very concerned for the safety of the drinking students and that someone will make a poor choice while under the influence. Although she knows her friends will be angry, she decides to go home and call the parents of the students attending the party. Later to make sure the party is stopped, she calls the police.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

What to Do? Moral Decisions on Prom Night


Individual or Group Michael Michaels parents Mr. Tibbs Alyson Travis Tommy Tommys parents David Candace Steven Kaleb Jenna Leslie Kohlbergs Stage Your rationale for Kohlbergs Stage

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Instructors Handout: What to Do? Moral Decisions on Prom Night


Individual or Group Michael Michaels parents Mr. Tibbs Alyson Travis Tommy Kohlbergs Stage 1: Preconventional Substage 2 3: Postconventional Substage 5 2: Conventional Substage 3 1: Preconventional Substage 1 2: Conventional Substage 3 Explanation Reciprocity: His actions are motivated by the desire to do as others do They believe that laws are relative to their personal beliefs. He is motivated by concern for what the other students think of him. She is not concerned for what is right; she just does not want to get caught. His only concern is Alysons approval. Substage 3: He is motivated by a need for peer approval. Substage 4: He follows his parents rules because they are rules.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

2: Conventional Substage 3 Substage 4 2: Conventional Substage 4 2: Conventional Substage 3 3: Postconventional Substage 5 3: Postconventional Substage 6

Tommys parents David Candace Steven and Kaleb

They are pleased that Tommy followed the family rule; they do not evaluate the worth of the rule or its long-term effect. He is simply following the rules he learned at church.

Jenna and Leslie

1: Preconventional Substage 2

She rejects the teen edict of dont get others in trouble of her society in order to look out for everyones well being. They believe that the safety and well being of their friends is most important. Therefore, they are willing to be different in order to bring about a positive outcome. They are angry that their night is not what they expected. They demonstrate no concern for others.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Social Development -- Background Information


*Mandatory lesson Objective: Students will be able to identify psychosocial developmental characteristics and stages. Activities: Option 1: 1. Assign each group of 3 or 4 students a type of development- physical, cognitive, moral, psychosocial, or language. That group will teach the important information regarding this development after researching the topic. Students can use some of the suggested activities listed below in option 3 or come up with their own lesson. Essential Question: What does Erikson have to say about social development?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Option 2: 1. Introduce the different teaching methodologies as you present each of the different developmental theories. For example, use a lecture to teach physical development, use cooperative learning to teach cognitive development, use technology to teach moral development, etc.

Option 3 1. As a hook for this lesson, give out the handout titled Erikson: Timeline Task and tell the students to guess the chronological order of life using Eriksons phases. Allow them to talk with one another as they attempt to organize the terms into the sequenced life stages. 2. After they have had a few minutes trying to determine the correct order, distribute the handout, Erikson: Psychosocial Development Theory, and provide a mini-lecture on the content.

3. You may choose to view the video Everyone Rides the Carousel that is based on Eriksons stages. Materials: Teacher Resource: a short video clip which briefly explains Eriksons Development Theory http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=7953598721199398444&q=B+F+Skinner&hl=en Handout: Erikson: Timeline Task Handout: Erikson: Psychosocial Development Theory or use a PowerPoint Presentation

Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students may write a reflective journal or portfolio entry on the state in which they are currently thriving or struggling. 2. Students may interview and record parents or other adults journeys through Eriksons stages. 3. Students may incorporate information about social development in their lifelines. 4. Students may demonstrate their knowledge of psychosocial development in response to test questions. Time: 45 minutes Standard: I.3.4: Students will analyze the steps in the psychosocial stages of learners.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Erikson: Timeline Task

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

The following are phrases that Erikson created to identify eight stages of life. They are presently in alphabetical order. Try to arrange the stages in chronological order. You may engage in conversation with those sitting next to you as you try to establish the proper order. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Generativity vs. Self-Absorption Identity and Reputation vs. Identity Confusion Industry vs. Inferiority Initiative vs. Guilt Integrity vs. Despair Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation Trust vs. Mistrust Stage Your Guess Correct Order

Stage 1 (Infancy)

Stage 2 (Early Childhood) Stage 3 (Play Age) Stage 4 (Elementary School Age) Stage 5 (Adolescence) Stage 6 (Young Adult) Stage 7 (Adult) Stage 8 (Older Adult)

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Erikson: Psychosocial Development Theory

Eriksons psychosocial theory explains how a person interacts with the world and those around him. Erikson has outlined eight major dilemmas that are universally experienced over the course of life. Each dilemma has a positive pole, which represents social maturity on one end of a continuum, and a negative pole, which represents a developmental crisis on the opposite end of the continuum. The ages listed in the stages are generally considered the optimal time for completing the task. People can work through a stage at a later time, but it may be more difficult, for the tasks are progressive and build upon one another. Stage 1: Infancy (0 to 1 years) / Trust vs. Mistrust The newborn is completely dependent upon others and learns either to trust those around him or suffer feelings of mistrust. The infant will either learn to feel secure in the belief that when he cries because of a wet diaper, someone will come to change it, or he will become mistrustful that if he cries because of hunger, no one will bring a bottle.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Stage 2: Early Childhood (1 to 3 years) / Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt In these early childhood years, the child is trying to become autonomous and gain control over his body. He will either feel proud of himself as he masters potty training, or he will feel shame and doubt when he experiences difficulty with the task.

Stage 3: Play Age (3 to 5 years) / Initiative vs. Guilt Between the ages of three and five, the child takes much initiative and is very curious and asks many questions. Either he is praised and encouraged in his effort, or he is made to feel guilty and told to be quiet and not ask so many questions. Stage 4: Elementary School Age (5 to 12 years) / Industry vs. Inferiority In the elementary school years, the child is acquiring much knowledge and many new skills. Either the young person will feel industrious as he learns to read, write, and do math, or he will feel inferior when he belongs in the low reading group and makes poor grades.

Stage 5: Adolescence (12 to 18 years) / Identity and Reputation vs. Identity Confusion Erikson stated that the fifth stage was one of the most important stages for success in life. The young adolescent either begins to determine who he is and what he wants out of life, or he grapples with an identity crisis. Stage 6: Young Adult (18 to 25 years) / Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation Once a young person has figured out who he is, he is ready to share himself with another person. He is ready to have an intimate relationship and start a family, or he will feel isolated and not connected to society. Unfortunately, some young people want to move into the intimacy stage before they have mastered the identity crisis.

Stage 7: Adulthood (25 to 65 years) / Generativity vs. Self-Absorption In the prime adult years, people will either be productive and contribute to society, or they will become self-absorbed and negative.

Stage 8: Older Adult (65+ years) / Integrity vs. Despair As the person nears the end of life, he will either feel a sense of accomplishment that his life made a positive difference, or he will feel despair and regret for all the things he did or did not do.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

The Importance of Language: Introducing Vygotsky


*Mandatory lesson Objective: Students will be able to identify developmental characteristics of language and social cognition in the transference of knowledge and culture. Essential Question: How dependent are we on language? To what degree does language influence culture and vice versa?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Option 2: 1. Introduce the different teaching methodologies as you present each of the different developmental theories. For example, use a lecture to teach physical development, use cooperative learning to teach cognitive development, use technology to teach moral development, etc. Option 3 1. Instruct the students that they will be completing an activity today, but they will not be allowed to speak or write in order to communicate with their partner. Pair students and distribute each pair a set of materials. Instruct the pairs that they are to build a structure with the materials given. They are to use everything they are given (e.g. straws, paper, paper clips, tape, wooden sticks, clay). They may not speak or write to their partner. Give each pair 15 minutes to complete their structures. After the groups have finished, present each structure to the class, and have the pair explain what it is. 2. Discuss with the students any difficulties they had with the project. Then discuss with the students the importance of language in teaching, cooperating, and working with people. Ask the students to brainstorm ways to teach without using verbal or written communication.

Activities: Option 1: 1. Assign each group of 3 or 4 students a type of development. That group will teach the important information regarding this development after researching the topic. Students can use some of the suggested activities listed below in option 3 or come up with their own lesson.

3. Distribute the handout Social Cognitive Development: Lev Vygotsky or use the video clip, and provide a mini-lecture on the content. 4. Follow up the discussion of Vyotskys theory with this activity to appreciate the importance of language in the conveyance of culture and learning. a) b) c) d)

Write a descriptive paragraph on the scariest monster you can imagine. Exchange your descriptive paragraph with another student. Draw the monster using only the words on the page. Share the pictures, and ask the students who wrote the description to read the paragraph. e) Discuss with the class what was easy or difficult about the assignment.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

5. Divide the class into small groups and have each group research and report on one of the following: a. Record idioms from different geographic regions and/or different languages. Northern states: Youuns buy some pop and hoagies. Southern states: Yall buy some Coke and sandwiches. Latino expression: pineapple in armpit is comparable to American slang pain in the (posterior) c. Provide examples of traditional childrens games and toys in other cultures. How do games and toys reflect culture?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

b. Provide some phonetic examples of animals sounds as portrayed by different words in different languages. d. Explain your concept of a supreme being without using words or with a vocabulary of only 25 words. Then research Vygotskys theories about the need for language. f. Present words that do not exist in other languages (e.g. There is no word for privacy in Russian, no word for maintenance in some nomadic tribal languages). Discuss implications regarding the concept: If a word does not exist in a language, then the concept doesnt exist.

e. Compare important customs and rituals within another society and yours (e.g. In Asian weddings, the bride wears a colorful dress. India still has arranged marriages.)

h. Discuss some new learnings that you can do with help, but have not mastered well enough to perform well. Read about and report on how this relates to ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development). j. Instructors might want to show part or all of the video entitled Emotional Intelligence: A New Vision for Educators. It will reinforce some of the theories of Piaget, Gardner, Erikson, and Vygotsky. i. Review Vygotskys cognitive theory and the importance of language and the transference of learning.

g. Read about and report on the wild boy from Alvignon who was raised by wolves and had no language. An alternative assignment is to learn about the Los Angeles child (Genie) who had been kept in isolation and, at age 13, had a comprehension vocabulary of fewer than 20 words.

Materials: Variety of materials to complete their structures such as paper, straws, Popsicle sticks, clay, paper clips, tape Handout: Social Cognitive Development: Lev Vygotsky Teacher Resource: a short video clip which briefly explains Vygotskys Development Theory http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=634376752589779456&q=B+F+Skinner&hl=en Optional video: Emotional Intelligence: A New Vision for Educators Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students may complete a journal or portfolio reflection of how it felt not being able to communicate with others. 2. Students may write a reflective journal or portfolio entry of their experiences in school regarding culture.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

3. Students may incorporate Vygotskys theories in their lifelines (culminating activity). 4. Students may demonstrate their knowledge of Vygotskys social/cognitive theories in response to test questions. Time: 1 hours Standards: I.1.3: Students will examine and appreciate others diversity. I.3.2: Students will examine the cognitive stages of learners. I.3.5: Students will apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of learners.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Social Cognitive Development: Lev Vygotsky


Lev Vygotsky was a Russian psychologist who studied cognitive learning theories in the 1920s and 1930s. Vygotsky concluded that culture was a primary determinant in learning and that language was the primary method of conveying knowledge. Therefore, Vygotsky concluded that learning could only take place in social situations; students cannot learn in a vacuum. Likewise, children learn best with the assistance, guidance, and encouragement from adults. Vygotsky is very similar to Piaget in the emphasis on language and the importance of play in learning and passing on culture. Vygotsky was unlike Piaget in that he did not collapse cognitive development by age or stages; he defined learning differences by the ZPD, or Zone of Proximal Development. Social Cognitive Theory ZPD Impact of Culture
Culture is the primary determinant in learning. Activity, language, culture, society, and social interaction are important in cognitive growth. Zone of Proximal Development: The difference between what the child can do on his own and what the child can do with help. Culture provides the content knowledge (what to think). Culture defines the means for thinking (how to think). Children learn through experiences shared with others. Language is a primary factor in this interaction between the child and others (adults). Children cannot learn by themselves; they need the interaction between the child and the adult--the transmission of culture and cultural values. Interaction between adults and children is vital in the learning process. Adults provide support and assist the child in becoming an independent learner through scaffolding--adjusting support as needed for the child to become independent. Children should be assessed at just above their level of ZPD.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Implications for Teaching

Importance of Play Self Talk Conscious Awareness Testing

Play, especially in the use of symbolic forms, contributes significantly to the childs intellectual development. Play is essential to social, personal, and professional activities. Internalized talking is important because it provides self-guidance.

Tests measure students current level of ability (what they can do independently). What students can do with the help of others might be a truer measurement of their abilities.

Awareness of self, language, concepts, place in the world these are what make man human and social, linking history and culture.

Source: (Adapted from PACE II Curriculum, SC Department of Education, 2004.)

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Culminating Activity: Cadet Preschool Model or Cadet Preschool Booklet


*Optional activity: (Students will complete one of the three additional culminating activities in this unit.) Objective: Students will be able to analyze, synthesize, and apply developmental information relating to preschool-aged children.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Essential Question: What must preschools include? How might the physical structure of a preschool accommodate preschool-aged children and their development?

Activities: 1. Cadet Preschool Model: Explain to the Cadets that they will design a model preschool. The class may be divided into small groups, with each group creating a preschool, or the entire class can create one model preschool made of parts contributed by individuals and pairs of students. Distribute the handout titled, Cadet Preschool Assignment.

2. Cadet Preschool Booklet: Or, if instructors do not want Cadets to make the preschool models, instructors might want to give one-page assignments so that each Cadet has one aspect about preschools to research, which could include the following: safety features of a preschool facility, importance of play, discipline, toys, teacher/child ratio, laws. Then everyones research can be assembled into a booklet, copied, and each Cadet will get everyone elses information from oral and/or written mini-reports. 3. Distribute copies of the handout, What to Look for in a Preschool. Allow the students to have some time to begin the project and then several homework days to complete the project outside of class. 4. When the preschool(s) is/are presented (or if mini-reports are given), invite other school personnel and students from other classes to hear the presentations. 5. Review the handout titled, Stages of DevelopmentFrom Birth to Age Six. Materials: Handout: Cadet Preschool Assignment Handout: What to Look for in a Preschool Handout: Stages of DevelopmentFrom Birth to Age Six Optional: The Discipline Wheel video Rubric: Teacher Cadet Preschool Centers 6. Instructors may want to show the 12-minute video titled, The Discipline Wheel.

Assessment: You may use the rubric for the preschool model. If the booklet is assigned, assess each minireport based on criteria you establish beforehand. Time: 1 hour to introduce assignment and allow students to select individual or small group duties; one week outside of class to complete the project; one additional class period to present the model preschools Standard: I.3.5: Students will apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of learners.

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Cadet Preschool Assignment

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

The preschool can take on different looks and designs, some of which may be the following: Posters and/or Display Boards Three-Dimensional Model PowerPoint Presentation Components 1. Name of the preschool 2. A drawing, illustration, or model of the layout of the school Whole buildingLabel office, halls, classrooms, kitchen, play area, etc. Model classroomCreate one classroom as a model for all the classrooms (e.g. equipment, furniture, toys, centers, bathrooms, windows, etc.) Outside/PlaygroundLabel equipment, fencing, parking area, etc. 3. A newspaper advertisement or poster to recruit teachers and staff 4. A letter to the childrens parents, addressing the following: The schedule and activities for a typical day The importance of learning through play The encouragement of language development An appreciation of cultural and ethnic diversity The enhancement of the social, emotional, mental, and physical development of the children Hours/days open Cost per child Discipline techniques Safety precautions Teacher-child ratio

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

5. Oral presentation which includes the description of the facility, the advertisement, and the contents of the parent letter. Presenters might want to role-play staff members to present the information. For example, the architect could explain the layout of the building, the director could explain some of the policies, the teachers could explain topics such as play and language development, a parent can explain some aspect of the preschool, etc. 6. Special features of your preschool (optional) Is it located at the parents place of employment, such as a factory, college campus, or hospital? Is it government subsidized in a low socio-economic area? Is it a parochial preschool? Is there any special focus (e.g., nature or creative arts)? Is it equipped and staffed for children with special needs?

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

A preschool program has long-term effects on young childrens success in school and ultimately in life. About 8 million American children are in preschools. The two key features of a preschool (child care facility) are the teachers and the environment. Early social and emotional experiences are the seeds of human intelligence. A good preschool mirrors a childs upbringing in a good home. Advice for Teachers or Caregivers Be responsive to each childs abilities, needs, language differences, and overall development. The most important characteristic of a preschool is a teachers relationship with the children and the ability to be responsive to each child. Talk to the children frequently. Engage them in conversation one-on-one, in small groups, and with the whole class. Make sure that children are exposed to words. A childs vocabulary is one of the best ways to predict how well he will read. The size of a childs vocabulary depends directly on how many words he has heard, beginning in infancy. Be knowledgeable about child development (e.g. how children learn the alphabet and number concepts and how to enhance childrens social and emotional development). Advice for Creating an Effective Environment

What to Look for in a Preschool

Sources: What to Look for in a Preschool, by Naomi Karp, National Institute on Early Childhood Development and Education, 2000; The New Preschool, by Lyn Nell Hancock and Pat Wingert, Newsweek special issue.

Plan indoor and outdoor activities. Enable them to participate in activities that will develop their language, mathematics, and problem-solving skills. Give them opportunities to paint, color, sing, dance, jump, run, and climb. Provide many books and printed materials. Read to the children at least thirty minutes every day. The thirty minutes will often be split into two or three different reading sessions, depending on the age and attention span of the children. Let the children sit near the teacher. Ask the children to predict what will happen in the story, to find certain objects in a picture, to count illustrations, and to participate in other activities that engage them in conversations about the story. Even if the children are too young to talk, they should be read to every day. Decorate rooms with the childrens recent artwork. Display the alphabet and number lines. Print the childrens names on their work. Label objects in the room so that children will associate items with printed words. Use a curriculum that gives children opportunities to experience language, science, mathematics, physical education, art, and music daily. Allow them to explore and experiment in a safe, loving environment. Follow specified guidelines for hygiene and safety. Limit class sizes (one adult per three to four infants; one adult to six toddlers; one adult per twelve children, ages three to five).

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Stages of DevelopmentFrom Birth to Age Six


Ages Zero to One: Cognitive: Sensorimotor Stage Begins to make use of imitation, memory, and thought Begins to recognize that objects do not cease to exist when they are hidden (object permanence) Psychosocial: Trust v. Mistrust Infants needs for nourishment, care, and familiarity are met; parental responsiveness and consistency are important Language: Receptive Language Responds to speaker by looking at speaker Responds differently to aspects of speakers voice (friendly/unfriendly, male/female) Turns to source of sound Stops ongoing action when told No (when negative is accompanied by appropriate gesture and tone) Crying and non-crying sounds Babbles when alone or when spoken to Interacts with others by vocalizing after adult Communicates meaning through intonation Play Reflexive actions become playful Ages One to Two: Cognitive: Sensorimotor State/Beginning of Preoperational Stage Moves from reflex actions to goals-directed activity Psychosocial: Autonomy v. Shame and Doubt Greater control over self in environment; self-feeding, toileting, dressing Language: Receptive Language Responds correctly when asked where/ when questions accompanied by gesture Understand prepositions on, in, and under Follows request to bring familiar object from another room Understands simple phrase with key words (Open the door. Get the ball.) Follows a series of two simple but related directions Language: Expressive Language Uses single words plus a gesture to ask for objects Says successive single words to describe an event Refers to self by name Uses my or mine to indicate possession Has vocabulary of about 50 words for important people, common objects, and recurrence ( More. All Gone.) Play: Early Play Play develops a basic trust Coordination begins Peek-a-boo and Hide and Seek occur with the development of object permanence
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Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Ages Two to Six: Cognitive: Preoperational Gradual development of ability to think in symbolic form Able to think operations through in one direction Egocentric: difficulty seeing others points of view Psychosocial: Initiative v. Guilt Pursuing activity for its own sake Learning to accept without guilt that certain things are not allowed Imagination; play-acting adult roles Language: Receptive Language Points to pictures of common objects when they are named Can identify objects when told their use Enjoys listening to storybooks and requests them again Begins to understand sentences involving time (ex. tomorrow) Carries out a series of two to four related directions Understands sequencing of events when told Incorporates verbal directions in play Language: Expressive Language Gives first and last name Asks what and where questions Makes negative statements (I cant open it.) Tells of past experiences Joins sentences together to form compound sentences Talks about causality using because and so Tells content of a story, but may confuse facts Play: Productive (ages one to three) Satisfies the need to be in control and have power Enhances the elaboration of language in social texts Play: Reproductive (ages three to six) Inventing symbolization in art Pretend play Early writing

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Rubric for Teacher Cadet Preschool Centers


Name of Preschool___________________________________________________ Names of Staff Members ___________________________________________ Missing Weak 1 2 Satisfactory 3 Outstanding Comments 4

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Design of Building Classroom(s) Design Outside/Playground Letter to Parents Advertisement for Teachers Importance of Play Language Development Multicultural Sensitivity Discipline Techniques Operational Details (e.g. cost, hours, ages, teacher-child ratio, schedule) Safety Precautions Promotion of Social, Emotional, Physical and Cognitive Growth Oral Presentation Overall Impression Comments:

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Observations of Children from Birth through Age Five


*Mandatory activity Objective: Students will be able to identify stages of development and play of children ages birth through five when observing their behavior. Essential Question: What are some traits and capabilities of children ages birth to 1, 1 to 2, 2 to 3, and 3 to 5? Note: It is recommended that you also teach the next lesson titled Observing Play before the Cadets observe in preschools. Activities: 1. Prior to or in conjunction with the observation, the instructor may want to assign additional readings in a basic child development text. The First Three Years of Life by Burton White, is easy to find in bookstores and libraries. 2. Three Possibilities for Infant Observations: a) Make arrangements to visit the newborn nursery at your local hospital. Request that this visit be augmented with a discussion with a pediatrician or nurse specializing in infant care. (Note: In some areas, this is not permitted. In other areas where such visits are permitted, there are regulations.) b) Arrange to have several mothers with infants come into the classroom with their children to discuss the different stages of development their babies have completed. c) View a video (ex. The Amazing Newborn). 3. Three Possibilities for Ages Two to Five Observations: a) Make arrangements with a local preschool to have your students observe toddlers. Students will benefit from opportunities to observe in a variety of preschools, such as Head Start Programs, college-based sites, and private preschools. Although the age levels vary, most preschools serve children from six months through ages four or five. b) If you cannot arrange for your students to observe in a preschool, make plans to have them observe a kindergarten class. (Observation could be coupled with a puppet show or big books presentation to save time.) c) View a video about this age group child. 4. Prepare your students to observe by introducing them to the Preschool Observation Form. The following points need to be clarified with the introduction of this form: a) Look at all areas when you are observing the classroom environment, teacher, and the children. What do the teacher and children talk about? What elements make up the environment? What types of intellectual tasks are children able to accomplish? What do you notice about the childrens physical development? b) Record your observations sometime that day while details are still fresh in your mind.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Draw inferences about children this age based on your observations. Observations are what you see; inferences are what you conclude from what you see. Keep in mind what you have learned from your research about children this age. 5. Class Discussion: After visiting a preschool, hold a class discussion centered on the following questions: What seem to be the positive environmental influences on children this age? Negative environmental influences? Name and describe the most important factors in organizing a classroom environment for preschool children. What do children seem to learn from playing? Are children this age capable of taking control of their own learning? What are the three most important characteristics that you learned about children this age? Materials: Handout: "Preschool Observation Form" Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students may complete the Preschool Observation Form" and process their findings in class discussions. 2. Students may demonstrate their knowledge of preschools in their preschool models or preschool booklets. Time: 1 class period

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Standards: I.3.1: Students will differentiate among the physical stages of learners. I.3.2: Students will examine the cognitive stages of learners.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Preschool Observation Form


Observer (Cadet): Site: Approximate Age (or Age Range) of Children: Teacher and Environment Date: Teachers Name:

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Students

Cognitive reasoning Interactions Student to Student

Physical development

Teacher to Student

Inferences:

The BIG Question: What made this an appropriate or inappropriate atmosphere for learning?

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Observing Play
Objective: Students will be able to identify various types of play of preschool children and the significance of their play. Essential Question: What is significant about children at play? Activities: Note: Teachers may want to complete both the Preschool Observation and the Preschool Play Observation at the same time in order to save time. 1. It is important for students to understand that children choose different types of play depending on their social development level, environment, culture, and needs at a specific time. Distribute the handout titled, Childrens Play: Purposes, Types, Advice. Use the handout for a reading assignment for homework and/or basis for class discussion. *Mandatory lesson

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

2. Arrange with a preschool for your students to observe during recess or play time and explain what they will be doing. Ask about the childrens age range. Cadets may also observe play at other settingschildren they baby-sit, see at church, know in their neighborhood, etc. 3. Provide the students with the "Preschool Play Observation Form. Review the procedures. Explain that each student will document the different types of play he/she observes. It might be helpful for students to note if the same child is engaging in different forms of play, or if they are noting several different children of apparently different ages.

5. Instructors may want to show the video titled, The Power of Play.

4. Upon completion of the observation, discuss the following questions: a. What are the different types of play you observed? (Let the class share specific examples.) b. Did the same child engage in different types of play? Give examples. c. What types of materials or environment would be desirable and developmentally appropriate for these children? Why? d. What role did the teachers play in the children's choice of play styles? e. How do factors such as gender, culture, or special needs affect children's play?

Materials: Handout: Childrens Play: Purposes, Types, Advice Teacher Resources: articles and PowerPoint presentations on learning through play http://www.zerotothree.org/site/PageServer?pagename=key_play Handout: "Preschool Play Observation Form" Optional: The Power of Play video Assessment: 1. Students may complete the "Preschool Play Observation Form" and process their findings in small group discussions. 2. Students may demonstrate their knowledge of play in the preschool model or preschool booklet. Time: 1 hours (discussions and observations)

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Standards: I.3.2: Students will examine the cognitive stages of learners. I.3.4: Students will analyze the steps in the psychosocial stages of learners.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Childrens Play: Purposes, Types, Advice

Background Information: Children need to feel ownership and responsibility for their own actions in their classes. They need to feel safe and confident to take risks, as they do in their play. They must feel a sense of community in having their own ideas, trying them out, feeling good, caring about each other, and sharing in collaborative activity. Without such a classroom culture, the children will not experiment, remain engaged, or show interest. Play offers the child the opportunity to make sense of the world by using available tools. Understanding is created by being completely involved in doing, either by ones self or with others. Through play, the child understands the world better, and the adult understands the child better. Purposes of Childrens Play: Express their thoughts Express their feelings and emotions Work through and master psychological issues (past and present) Cope with change (ex. adjusting to a newborn baby in the household) Prepare for future tasks and roles Develop cognitive abilities and intelligence Develop motor skills and physical fitness Develop stick-to-itiveness (perseverance); learn not to give up Enhance creativity Enhance self-discovery and self-concept Experience fun Relax; reduce stress Develop socialization; develop interaction skills Experiment with different roles Learn differences between what is good and bad Learn concepts of reality and make-believe Free aggression (or allow one to discover its source) Build a sense of security between the child and parent(s) Enhance personality and individualism Deal with pressing family issues Identify with others and their situations and roles Develop competency in self Construct physical, language, and logic-mathematical knowledge Display understanding (active construction of meaning by creating hypotheses and testing it by interacting with the materials and events) Experiment; engage in trial and error Solve problems Construct understanding of relationships (logic-mathematical knowledge) Explore/Experiment with language without fear of correction or constraint Accomplish shared goals Construct understanding through written language (ex. rules of a game) Enhances ideas and connections across content areas

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Types of Social Play:

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Types of Play According to Piaget: Practice Play Practice play, which is merely for pleasure, stresses the importance of pleasure over learning. Learning does not necessarily take place in practice play. Other elements of active education, certainly interest, are present in practice play. For example, children will not continue to jump without an interest generated from within or within peer relationships. Children often adapt rules during practice play. Symbolic PlaySymbolic play involves representation of an absent object and make-believe. Play is the epitome of active interest. Children cannot manipulate something that is not present, nor can an object be substituted for another without some mental effort. Children seek alternate means for communicating their intent by experimenting to find out if their actions/representations can be understood. During symbolic play, children disagree, discuss the problem, and come to agreement so that the play can continue. Children come to see others points of view. Games with RulesGames with rules are defined by prescribed acts, penalties for not following the rules, and action that proceeds towards a designated goal. Children often willingly submit themselves to the rules so that the game can continue. Interest and cooperation are evident or the game cannot continue. The concept of genuine experimentation is not as commonplace. Children do experiment in games with rules when they try to alternate means of achieving an end. ConstructionsConstructions are seen as a midway point between play and work. Children might use materials to represent reality, for example, by carving wood to represent a boat, instead of simply taking a block of wood and pretending it is a boat. When a child is engaged in making something for the pleasure of making it, he is active and engaged in genuine experimentation. Constructions taken on by a group involves cooperation.

Solitary Independent PlayThe child plays alone and independently with toys that are not like those used by other children near him. He makes no attempt to talk or interact with these children. (ex. One baby sits on a floor mat and plays with a stuffed animal, and the other baby next to him plays with a rattle.) Parallel PlayThe child plays alone, but chooses an activity that is like that of children near him, perhaps with similar toys, but the child does not interact with or affect the play of those near him, other than attempting to take a toy away. (ex. Two toddlers play side by side, each with his own stack of blocks and each making his own structure. They do not talk to or share with one another.) Associative PlayThe child plays with and talks to other children in a common activity, but they do not work together toward a common goal. (ex. Three children are coloring pictures. They talk with one another and share their crayons, but each is creating his own individual piece of art.) Cooperative Group PlayThree or more children play together to achieve a common goal or product. Each child is contributing to the efforts of the group to accomplish something. (ex. Several kindergarten students are creating a Lego structure. They are sharing the Legos, talking to one another, and making group decisions about what they are building together.)

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Advice and Information about a Childs Play Unless there is danger, it is usually best to approve of the childs play without interfering. When a child struggles with a situation in play, it is often best not to assist him because well-intended help might divert him from seeking and finding the solution best for him. Parents should avoid imposing their goals of play on their children. Empty praise can confuse a child at play. Parents should refrain from frequently directing and dominating a childs play. Play and game have different meanings. Play refers to activities generally free from rules and goals. Games are based on competition and rules. Parents should not allow a child to pretend to shoot someone with a toy gun, yet they should not overreact if the child wants to play with a toy gun. Educational toys lose their value if they serve the purpose of only instruction and not fun. Then play is trapped in rules and pressure. Just as a parent wants a child to respect his time to work, a parent must respect his childs time to play. Give a few minutes warning ahead of time if the play will be stopped. A little boys playing with a doll will in no way hurt his masculinity, nor will a little girls femininity be hurt if she wants to play with trucks. In other words, toys do not negatively impact gender roles. It is okay to let a child beat an adolescent or adult in a game. With little children, the rules need not be enforced. If a little child breaks the rules, do not consider that action to be a form of cheating. The child will play by the rules when he is older and more confident. Sources: Childhood Education, Mid-Summer 1996 v72 n5 p. 274(4) Understanding through Play by Christine Chaille; Steven B. Silvern and The Importance of Play by Bruno Bettelheim from The Atlantic Monthly, March 1987.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Preschool Play Observation Form


Types of Play Document in the spaces below observations you make of types of play. Try to document at least three examples of each. Practice Play a. b. c. Symbolic Play a. b. c. Games with Rules a. b. c. Constructions a. b. c.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Cognitive Lab Experiment


*Optional activity Objective: Students will be able to identify points made by theorists Piaget and Vygotsky through conducting tasks and making observations. Essential Question: What evidence is there that Piaget and Vygotskys theories are sound? Activities: 1. Cadets will work with a teammate in producing a written lab report to share with fellow Cadets. Remind Cadets that the purpose of these experiments is to better their understanding of the need for developmentally appropriate materials and communication styles in dealing with different age levels of children. Cadets may conduct these experiments in preschools, kindergartens, or afterschool programs. They may also conduct them with children in their families and neighborhoods. Remind Cadets to keep the child's actual name in notes or reports confidential. It is important that they record the exact age of the child. 2. One Cadet will do most of the talking to the child during the actual interview and tasks, and the other will take notes in an unobtrusive way during the activity. Decide beforehand who will do what. Establish rapport with the child, and be positive and friendly at all times during this activity. If the child refuses to do an activity, do not press the issue. Go on to something else. Have a good time! 3. Gather materials for the child to use, and bring them to school by the day of the activity. Materials: Handout: Conducting Tasks and Observations Materials (provided by students): one short glass container, one tall glass container, food coloring, measuring cup, Play-Doh, seven vases, seven flowers, seven pennies Assessment: The students can be assessed on their written and oral reports about task results. Time: 15 minutes to explain the task; 2 homework days outside of class; 1 hour to present reports

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Standards: I.3.2: Students will recognize and recall cognitive stages of learners. I.3.5: Students will make intrapersonal applications of developmental changes of learners.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Conducting Tasks and Observations

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Note: Do not feel restricted to just these three experiments. You may do research about other tasks conducted by Piaget and use those instead of or in addition to the three listed here. Get your teachers permission before using alternate tasks. Practice them before conducting them with a child. 1. Conservation #1. Materials: three non-breakable clear containers, two matching short, fat ones and one that is tall and thin; colored water Next, pour the water from one of the short glasses into the tall, thin one, and line it up with the other fat glass of water. Ask again if each glass has the same amount of water. He might think the taller glass has "more water" if he is still having difficulty with the concept of conservation, the principle that "the amount or number of something remains the same even if the appearance or arrangement is changed, as long as nothing is added and nothing taken away." (Bybee and Sund, 1982) Task: Ask the child if both balls have the same amount of clay. He should say yes, if they are identical. Then take one ball, and roll it into a long "snake" shape. Now ask again if the balls contain the same amount of clay. Record the response, and then say something like, "The other day a little girl told me that the snake weighed just as much as it did before it was changed from a ball shape. What would you say to her?" Record the response. Task: Put the same amount of colored water into the two short, fat glasses. Ask the child if both contain the same amount of colored water. He will probably say "Yes."

2. Conservation #2. Materials: two balls of clay or Play-Doh of the same color and size

3. Global Evaluation #3: Materials: seven vases, seven flowers, and seven pennies

Task: With seven vases in a row and a pile of flowers nearby, ask the child to get one flower for each vase and then to check his work by putting one flower in each vase (thus establishing one-to-one correspondence). Then remove the flowers, put them in a bunch, and ask the child if there are still the same number of flowers and vases, or if there are more flowers or more vases. Vary the procedure using pennies in place of vases, telling the child he/she can buy one flower for one penny. Ask him/her to find out how many pennies he/she will need to buy all the flowers. Children of four to five years of age often cannot make the one-to-one correspondence of flowers to vases. They might make a row of flowers below the rows of vases, so that the end flowers line up with the end vases, but there are more or fewer flowers in the row than there are vases. Piaget calls this global evaluation. The flowers are not thought of separately. If the ends of the vases and flowers line up, the child thinks the number is the same.

Observations:

Observe the class specifically for evidence to Vygotskys theory regarding socialization and learning. What evidence do you find of the following? ZPD (Zone of Proximal Development) (See notes on Vygotsky.) Cultural aspects of learning

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Writing the Report:


2. Body:

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

1. Introduction: Briefly explain/define cognitive development. a. Explain each task that was completed, the concept tested, the materials used, whether the task was achieved or not, and at what cognitive level the result of the task appears to place the child. Include comments about the student's behavior as well as paraphrased statements and quotations. Summarize the child's explanation for his responses. b. Discuss your observations--what you observed and how it relates to the cognitive theory of Vygotsky.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

3. Conclusion: Classify the child's cognitive level (sensorimotor, preoperational, transitional, concrete operational, formal operational) based on the results of the activity. Briefly discuss the characteristics of this level. Suggest several appropriate activities, play materials, and other experiences that would be developmentally beneficial for this child's developmental stage. 4. What have you learned from conducting this activity that might be helpful to you as a future parent or educator? 5. Based on your observations and study of the two cognitive theories, discuss the appropriateness of each. 6. Attach interview notes to the Lab Report.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Play Day

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

*Mandatory lesson

Objective: Students will be able to identify the various purposes and kinds of play. Essential Question: How does game design facilitate child development? Activities: 1. Play: Divide the class into small groups and have them rotate through the play areas, allowing a few minutes for each area. Prior to the beginning of class, have the room arranged in sections representing the following play activities: Symbolic Play: place random objects in a bag and tell the students to play house, school, or store Practice Play: a paddle ball game, toy musical instrument, jump ropes, pogo stick

Games with Rules: Sorry, Trouble, and Candyland are quick games for the classroom

Constructions: any building toy such as Play-Doh, K-Nex, Legos, Lincoln Logs, Hot Wheels track sets, or train sets

2. Class Discussion: Allow time for the students to discuss this activity. Ask what category each type of play would fit and what could they learn from each of these types of play. Materials: Toys and games listed above for four types of play

Do not tell students ahead of time what they will be doing with toys. Allow them to play for about 20 minutes.

Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students may write a journal or portfolio entry to explain what he or she learned through play. 2. Students may incorporate this information about play in their preschool models or booklets. Time: Standards: l.3.2: Students will examine the cognitive stages of learners. I.3.4: Students will analyze the steps in the psychosocial stages of learners. 1 hour

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

A Trip to the Toy Store


*Optional activity Objective: Students will be able to evaluate developmentally appropriate toys and games. Essential Question: In what ways do toys both reflect and develop a child? Activities: 1. Review the previous information in the curriculum handouts about play. According to Piaget's stages of cognitive development, preschool children use play to represent and reflect upon people, places, and events in their world. This age child needs large, soft manipulative toys, ones that have parts to pull apart and re-assemble, ones with pockets for hiding and discovering things, and ones with bright colors. As children mature, they engage in different types of play. Through play, children may grow and exercise their capabilities, learn about their world, and cope with conflicting emotions by re-enacting real-life situations. Types of play range from playing alone, to playing side-by-side, to purposefully interacting with other children. The best toys for children include those that help them simulate real-life situations, engage in fantasy play, and try out various adult roles. Toys may also encourage children's gross motor coordination, eye-hand coordination, and creative instincts. 2. Explain to the students that as individuals, pairs, or small groups, they are to visit a toy store, go on-line shopping to various virtual toy stores, or use current toy catalogues to become familiar with toys on the market. Assign students to find a "good" toy for each of the following ages: 2 to 12 months 2 to 3 years old 4 to 5 years old 6 to 12 years old Have them write down the following information in order to report back to the class: the name of the toy, the manufacturer, the cost, and a description of the toy, including what it allows the child to do that is developmentally appropriate for him. Instructors may have students search for the following items to add to their check list: a lunch box with a picture of an African-American on it a birthday card written in Spanish an ethnic doll a board game with minority characters or pieces a toy or game that features a woman or a man in a non-traditional role

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

3. In class, have students compare shopping trips, their findings, and feelings about the experience. What did they notice about the price of the childrens toys? Which age was the easiest to shop for? Which age was the most difficult to shop for? Which manufacturer's products seemed to consistently be good bargains and developmentally appropriate for the age recommendations on the toy? Which were not? How difficult was it to find the items on the shopping list? Materials: Handout: A Trip to the Toy Store Handout: A Shopping Check List for Toys Teacher Resource: video clips on all things dealing with parenting- including safe and appropriate toys. http://www.expertvillage.com/about_11_parenting.htm Optional: Catalogs with Toys Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students will write a reflective essay based on their toy store experience by answering the following questions: a. Overall, was there any toy that stood out so strongly that you felt it was truly the ideal toy because of its developmental appropriateness? Explain. b. What advice would you give to toy manufacturers that would help them better meet the play needs of all children and assist parents in making wise toy selections? 2. Imagine that you are a young parent, you have little money to purchase toys, but you are determined to fill your pre-school aged child's toy chest with developmentally appropriate toys using items found around the house. Name the items you will place in the toy chest, and include an explanation of why each is developmentally appropriate for your child. 3. Prepare a poster to display your research about the toys and provide a mini-presentation on your findings. Time: 15 minutes to present the lesson; three homework days out of class to research information; 40 minutes for class presentations and discussions

Standard: I.3.5: Students will apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of learners.

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A Shopping Check List for Toys


Age Range Birth to 12 months

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Name and description of toy

Manufacturer

Cost Developmentally appropriate? Why?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

1 3 years

4 5 years

6 12 years

Shopping Check List a lunch box or school supply with a picture of an African-American on it a birthday card written in Spanish an ethnic doll a board game with ethnic diversity represented in characters or pieces a toy or game that features a woman or a man in a non-traditional role

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Making Manipulatives
*Mandatory activity

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Objective: Students will be able to design a manipulative or game suitable for hands-on/kinesthetic learning for preschool or elementary school children. Essential Question: How do manipulatives facilitate learning? Activities: 1. Distribute the handout titled Instructions for Making Manipulatives, and discuss it with your students. As individuals or as pairs, Cadets will design an instructional product that will involve tactile/kinesthetic learning. It will be designed to be touched, handled, moved, or manipulated in some way as part of the learning process. 2. Students will provide demonstrations of their manipulatives and let their peers field test them. If time permits, your class may want to visit a preschool or elementary school where Cadets see children use their manipulatives for learning. Materials: Materials will vary, according to the students self-made manipulatives Handout: Instructions for Making Manipulatives Assessment: You may use the rubric to assess manipulatives that is included. Time: 15 minutes to explain the assignment; 3 days outside of class to work on assignment; one class period for presentations of manipulatives/games

Standard: I.3.5: Students will apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of learners.

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Instructions for Making Manipulatives

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Cadets, you will design an instructional product that will involve tactile/kinesthetic learning. It will be designed to be touched, handled, moved, or manipulated in some way as part of the learning process. Manipulatives, games, instructional toys, and instructional products must meet all of the following criteria: be cognitively appropriate for the target audience laminated for durability (if they are created with paper products) be easy to store be safe have written instructions involve hands-on movement and/or social interaction be practical, fun, and user-friendly for intended age group

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Presentations Students will give a five-minute presentation of the manipulative, game, instructional toy, or instructional product to the class. Assessment: Ask the teacher about the rubric by which the manipulatives will be assessed. Formats Possible formats for these manipulatives include, but are not limited to, the following: game boards posters with moveable pieces flash cards materials that involve counting, labeling, matching, sorting, connecting, or differentiating

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Evaluation Form for Instructional Manipulatives / Games


Teacher Cadet ______________________________________________________________ Date ______________________________________________________________________ Name/Description of Manipulative / Game: ________________________________________ Intended age range for child who will use the toy/game: newborn-1 1-2 2-4 5+

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

(1= very poor; 2= poor; 3= good; 4= above average; 5= outstanding) Manipulative/Game Age-appropriate Visually appealing Addresses learning or skill Instructions easy to follow Durable/storable Adheres to safety guidelines Fun for child to use/engage in play Presentation of Product Clear instructions Good speech techniques (volume, rate, enunciation, eye contact) Held attention of audience Total Points _________________ (Total possible points= 50) (Multiply by 2 for 100-point scale) 1 1 2 3 4 5

Comments:

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Culminating Activity: Whats a Parent to Do?

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

*Optional activity (Students will complete one of the three additional culminating activities in this unit.) Objective: Students will identify ways to foster parents understanding of how they can help their child be successful in elementary school. Essential Question: What information might parents need to support their child as a learner? Activities: 1. Have the students interview parents and teachers of elementary school students about how parents can help their child to be successful, or have students research how parents can help their child to be successful in school. 2. Have students create a brochure, PowerPoint presentation, or letter to parents with tips for students to be successful in elementary school. 3. Allow students to work either individually or in groups. Tell the students that the completed brochure or presentation might be shared with an audience (for example, displayed in the media center, presented at the PTA meeting, or shared with high school students who are studying child development) if they choose this assessment option. Materials: Handout: Parenting Elementary-Aged Children Assessment: Brochures, presentations, or letters may be the culminating assessment. See the evaluation rubric for Whats a Parent to Do? brochure. Time: 15 minutes in class to explain the project; one week outside of class to complete the project; 1 class period to present the products (brochure, PowerPoint, or letter)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Standards: I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that can impede successful learning. I.3.5: Students will apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of learners.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Background philosophy and research: Parents are ultimately the ones responsible for their childrens education. When parents are involved in their childrens studies, children learn immeasurably better. The value of parental support has been demonstrated by dozens of studies. The home and family background have more influence on achievement than the schools. Parental attention can even help raise IQ in younger children. Laissez-faire parents might find themselves dealing with passive children who lack a productive work ethic. Learning is not always easy. Reading Help children build a small home library. Make reading books an enjoyable experience. Read to children frequently in a designated time period every day (e.g. after supper, before bedtime). Explain words that children might not know. Ask children questions to help them connect the story to their own lives. Encourage children to talk about books they read (discuss their favorite parts or retell the story in their own words). Read many kinds of books, with characters similar and dissimilar to those in the childrens lives. Reread favorite books. Include stimulating books as presents to children. Review newspaper stories and television newscasts with children. Have children use the read, react, remember method such as SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) or PQRST (Preview, Question, Read, State, Test). Have children read headings, questions, summaries, and picture captions. Set purposes for reading. Use teacher or text questions, or make up questions and have your child answer them. Train children to read with an active mind, looking for answers and comparing answers to predictions made before reading. Have children look away from the assignment after each section and state the ideas in his/her own words. Listen to children read aloud to you. Introduce children to technology that makes reading fun (e.g. educational television shows, computer software programs, read-along books with sound effects, and dramatic readers). Assist children with reviews by having them recall important facts and ideas, even weeks after an assignment. Encourage children to write notes and cards to relatives and friends. Write notes and letters to children to model written communication. Seek pen pals for children, especially those who live in a very different geographic area.

Parenting Elementary-Aged Children

Writing

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Modeling Read at the same time children are studying; create a sort of study hour for the whole family. Show interest in reading, writing, and learning to demonstrate the value of knowledge and education. Express to children that, along with their teachers, they are also responsible for their success in school. Study Time Set aside a regular study time approximately five times a week. Help children organize assignments and budget time for completion. Allow children to rest or play after school and prior to studying. Many want to study late afternoons or early evenings. Set a limit on extracurricular activities if they interfere with studying time. Encourage step-by-step work on long-term projects to avoid last-minute careless work. Keep in mind that one hour of concentrated studying is better than two hours full of distractions and interruptions. Plan for study breaks. The age of the student will determine how long he/she can concentrate before a rest is needed. A kitchen timer or alarm clock can be used to signal break time. Another method is listing the tasks to be done and planning a short break after each is completed. Arrange a telephone time when children can receive and make calls. Designate someone to take the number of anyone calling during study time. After lessons are completed, children can return the phone calls. Study Area Provide an area for the child to study that is away from the center of activity in the home. Provide study tools including pencils, sharpener, pen, paper, ruler, and dictionary. Cut down on TV time and turn off the radio while children are studying. Have good lighting. No less than a 100-watt bulb should be used for studying. Select a comfortable room temperature. A room on the cool side is usually better than one that is too hot. Clear the table or desk to have enough space for writing; it should be free of distractions. Consider posture. Sitting in a comfortable chair usually helps a student stay alert; however, lying down may be so relaxing that it interferes with concentration. Create flashcards to be used for definitions, dates, names, facts, formulas, and vocabulary. Communication with Teachers Be aware of homework assignments and sign homework assignment sheets. Talk to teachers to make sure the work is being done. Meet regularly with childrens teachers. Dont wait for teachers to call with problems. Watch out for slip-ups and intervene strategically if they occur.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Communication with Your Son/Daughter Review schoolwork with your children. Support children while they are doing homework by checking in every now and then to see how things are going. Offer help if they need it. Ask children questions about what they learned. Hold dinnertime discussions about what children have done in school. Be careful not to do the work for the child. Assist, but do not take the responsibility from the child. Help with building blocks such as multiplication tables or vocabulary. Extension of Learning Beyond the Home and Classroom Take children on educational trips to libraries, book stores, museums, zoos, and other local points of interest. Consider family trips and vacations that provide enriching learning experiences. Turn shopping into a reading game, with children reading signs, labels, coupons, prices, etc. Setting Expectations Set limits and goals. Do not hesitate to say no to matters that hamper academic progress. Help children learn self-discipline so that they can understand the importance of classroom discipline. Maintain high expectations for children in school and reward them for achievement.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

(Note: 1 is the lowest score; 5 is the highest.) 1 2

Evaluation Form: Whats a Parent to Do? Brochure

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

1. To what extent is the assessment presented attractively? 3 4 5 2. To what extent does the assessment reflect information obtained from readings, observations, and interviews about elementary school children? 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 3. To what extent does the assessment address the issue of reading to children? 4. To what extent does the assessment address the issue of friends? 5. To what extent does the assessment address the issue of intellectual development?

6. To what extent does the assessment address the issue of high expectations? 1 1 1 1 1 Comments: 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 7. To what extent does the assessment address the issue of self-concept? 8. To what extent does the assessment address the issue of discipline and punishment? 9. To what extent is the writing in the assessment clear, complete, concise, and correct? 10. To what extent does the assessment address appreciation of diversity?

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

The Hurried Child


*Mandatory lesson

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Objective: Students will be able to identify ways in which children are pushed beyond age-appropriate physical, cognitive, moral, and psychosocial levels of development. Essential Question: What are the factors that contribute to stress for children? What are some results of children being stressed? Activities: 1. Students will complete the reading of The Hurried Child by reading and responding to chapters or pages from Dr. David Elkinds book. Using a guide for reading, they will report on their portion of the book to the whole class. 2. The teacher will divide one copy of the book into enough pages to give each student an equal number of pages. This will require tearing the book into pages which will be paper clipped or stapled together. [Note: This strategy has enabled teachers to address this lesson with one copy of the text when they did not have classroom sets.] Tell students they are to keep the pages in order, not mark on them, and return them after the discussion. The teacher will then have the book sections to use again. Give each student the pages and a copy of the worksheet to complete for his/her section. (Note: If you do not have time for students to read and report on longer passages, or if you do not have a copy of Elkinds book, you may use the two-page Summary of Dr. David Elkinds Major Points in The Hurried Child.) The Hurried Child Worksheet Chapter number (or page numbers) read Ten important ideas from your reading Questions to discuss based on your reading Materials: A copy or a class set of Dr. David Elkinds book, The Hurried Child Handout: Summary of Dr. David Elkinds Major Points in The Hurried Child Test or Handout: The Hurried Child Questions (for test or discussion) Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. The students may provide written answers to The Hurried Child--Questions. (Note: These questions can be used as a take-home test, or they can be used for class discussion.) 2. The teacher may assess the students comprehension of Elkinds philosophies by using a rubric for their presentations. 3. The students may design a poster or collage to demonstrate Elkinds major points. They must attach a written explanation of the poster or collage.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

4. Students may write and perform a brief skit that demonstrates the concept of the hurried child. 5. Students may write an essay comparing and contrasting their own childhood with that of their parents. Time: 1 hours

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Standards: I.1.4: Students will analyze the role of self-esteem in learning and its contributing factors. I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that can impede successful learning. I.3.5: Students will apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of learners.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Summary of Dr. David Elkinds Major Points in The Hurried Child

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Since David Elkind's publication of his landmark book The Hurried Child in the 1980s, the term "hurried child" has come to embody the view held by many that children are growing up too fast too soon. Elkind says that the phenomenon is becoming more common and accepted. He points to the fact that young, would-be parents get showered with information that would have them believe that if they will just use the right products and procedures, they can achieve fantastic results. They can raise their baby's IQ's and have them doing gymnastics, reading, and swimming before they are three months old! In other words, the media would have us believe that the earlier and harder we push children, the more outstanding the results.

Elkind contends that the value of such early pushing is not supported by the evidence. However, what is supported by quite a bit of evidence is the fact that children are suffering from more stress symptoms than ever before.

Now that this "hurrying" process has been going on for almost twenty years, many of the hurried children have become hurried teenagers. Stress symptoms in young people have increased by an alarming 300%. Consider the following ways children are hurried: Designer fashions are created for very young children (e.g., Gap for Kids, Limited Too, Baby Gap, Nike for Kids) and even lingerie for little girls. Make-up, perfume, and nylon stockings are marketed for the elementary age student. Result: When children dress as adults in adult clothing, they tend to feel and act like adults, but do not think like adults or have the judgment of adults.

Parents are pressured to make sure their children have all of the right stuff" to be accepted. For example, a child's ears are pierced because all of the other girls have theirs done, or a young child receives a buzz haircut to make him into the "little man," although he is terrified of the electric clippers. Result: The message comes through to the child that behaviors and items meant for older people are acceptable for him if everyone else is doing them or has them. Young people are pressured into competitive sports at too early an age. Result: Thirty percent develop life-long injuries because their bodies are not fully developed; adults push winning, and that results in many young people sitting on the bench much of the time feeling labeled as a failure. Those that do get to play can get "sports burnout" by high school.

Young girls often engage in cheerleading wearing skimpy costumes and train to be in beauty pageants, causing high levels of stress. Result: We reinforce "jock" stereotypes and outdated sex role images at an early age. Childrens camps are now more professionalized achievement camps than recreational fun camps, often featuring major sports figures. Result: We have turned what used to be play into work. Children lose the benefit of spontaneous play (learning about interpersonal and social relations) when sports are over-structured by adults.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Trends Over Past Twenty Years An upward curve for the number of youngsters who are active sexually Few taboos in children's literature, television or films; children exposed to almost anything in terms of violence and sex; very little quality programming provided for young people Television pushing children to get their parents to buy all manner of advertised merchandise. Schools pushing children by offering academics (even in nursery school) when they are not ready for it and should be working on socialization and motor skills. (Some preschools have waiting lists and administer Kindergarten Aptitude Tests (KAT). Parents are made to feel if a child does not get into the right nursery school, he may not get into an Ivy League university.) More and more subjects appropriate for older age groups being taught at a younger age Parents hurrying children. The increase in single-parent homes has resulted in the parent often using the young child as a confidant. Even though children try to be supportive, they really do not have the intellectual, social, or emotional maturity to help the parent. In two-parent working families, it is tempting to have children take on more than their share of household responsibilities.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Conclusions Elkind says our society's ideas about hurrying children are incorrect. We do not properly prepare children for living in a difficult world by pressuring them into adulthood. We effectively prepare them with love, time to grow, and a sense of self and sense of caring for others.

Should caregivers prepare children for dealing with stress by stressing them more? No, caregivers should give children a sense of security, help them develop a healthy self-concept, and model healthy stress relief mechanisms. Adults must resist the temptation to hurry children. Hurried children are stressed children. Signs of stress include frequent stomachaches, headaches, listlessness and lack of motivation, discipline and learning problems, increased crime and suicide rates, cult memberships, etc. Elkind states that children's schedules are geared to the parents work schedule and can be very stressful. Our clock energy gets us through the day. When we have stress, we don't get our clock energy renewed every day. When we have excessive stress and dont refurbish our clock energy over a period of time, then we begin to use our calendar energy to restore our clock energy. This causes premature aging for adults as well as physical and psychosomatic complaints in children. What Can Parents Do? Recognize that children need time to grow. Provide children with a place and time for quiet and sharing time. Say "no" in the interest of the child; provide limits.

Parents tend to become more self-centered when stressed. They invest more energy in themselves leaving less for their children. Parents want children to grow up fast because it is easier to deal with an adult. So by reducing our stress, we can help reduce our children's stress. What Can Schools Do? Schools can help by providing smooth transitions between and within classes and between school and home schedules. They must guard against too early an emphasis on academics and recognize the need for and value of play as a learning experience and stress reliever. Sources: Adapted from All Grown Up and No Place to Go, by David Elkind, 1998, and The Hurried Child, 1982.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

The Hurried ChildQuestions

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

1. Comment on Elkinds complaints about childrens fashions. 2. What are some physical and social problems with organized, competitive sports for elementary school-aged children? 3. What are Elkinds feelings about young girls wearing makeup, being a cheerleader, and entering beauty contests? Do you agree or not? 4. How might the fact that little girls are wearing makeup and little boys are playing midget football contribute to sexual stereotyping? 5. What is valuable about childrens spontaneous play? What are some ways in which they are being deprived of this type of play today? 6. Give some specific examples of how the media are hurrying children. 7. How have childrens literature and television programs changed over recent years? Consider, especially, the characteristics in the stories. What are the vanishing taboos? 8. Some nursery schools are now including academic subjects in their programs. How does Elkind feel about this? How do you feel? 9. Our countrys high divorce rate has created family situations in which children are often more hurried. Explain. (examples: single parenthood, financial problems, parents dating, child becoming the parents confidant, etc.) 10. Elkind states that many parents go by the social intuition that since we live in a tough world, we best prepare our children by exposing them to these harsh realities. What does Elkind say about this philosophy? 11. What signs are there that children are dealing with too much stress? 12. Elkind says to provide children with an oasis of quiet every now and then. What are some examples of how we can do this for children? 13. Parents should never say no to their children. Reject or defend this statement, according to Elkind. Explain. 14. What can schools do to reduce stress for the children and teachers? 15. In what ways do you agree and/or disagree with Elkinds views?

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Observations of Elementary-Aged Children


*Mandatory lesson

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Objective: Students will be able to identify characteristic stages of development in children from age six to ten. Essential Question: What factors contribute to learning in children, ages 6-10? Activities: 1. Make arrangements with a local elementary school principal to have your Cadets observe for approximately two hours in a variety of classrooms. It is preferable to visit more than one elementary school; however, if two elementary schools are not located nearby, return to the same school, but have the Cadets observe different grades/classes/subjects. It is highly recommended that students observe both a primary classroom (grades 1-2) and an intermediate classroom (grades 3-5). If time permits, you may want to ask if someone can provide a brief tour of the entire school. 2. Introduce your students to the observation by presenting the "Elementary School Observation Form." The following points might be helpful to discuss with the Cadets to introduce the form: a) Observe the environment, teacher, and the children. b) As you are observing, consider using some guiding questions such as these: In what types of activities are children engaged? Why are these activities developmentally appropriate? c) What does the teacher do? What feelings does the environment elicit? d) Record observations as soon as possible after leaving the classroom. e) Draw inferences based on observations. (An inference addresses why more than what.) 3. Class Discussion: Have a class discussion about what was observed. If possible, arrange for the principal or elementary teacher to be present for the discussion: a) What are the physical differences between a six-year-old child and a ten-year-old child? b) What are the intellectual differences between a six-year-old child and a ten-year-old child? c) What have you observed about the social development of children nine and ten years old? d) What kinds of activities or behaviors have you seen adults do that really help children of this age learn? e) What have you noticed about the types of classroom discipline systems? f) What are the major differences that you see between these children and preschool children?

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Materials: Handout: "Elementary School Observation Form" Assessment: Students may complete the elementary observation form. Time: 2 class periods differentiate among the physical stages of learners. examine the cognitive states of learners. distinguish between the moral stages of learners. analyze the steps in the psychosocial stages of learners. apply an understanding or knowledge of the development changes

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Standards: I.3.1: Students will I.3.2: Students will I.3.3: Students will I.3.4: Students will I.3.5: Students will of learners.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Elementary School Observation Form


Observer (Cadet): Site: Approximate Age (or Age Range) of Children: Teacher and Environment Date: Teachers Name:

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Students

Cognitive reasoning Interactions

Physical development

Student to Student

Teacher to Student

Inferences:

The BIG Question: What made this an appropriate or inappropriate atmosphere for learning?

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Culminating Activity: Pre-Adolescent/Adolescent Literature


Objective: Students will be able to identify characteristics, challenges, and needs of pre-adolescents and adolescents.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

*Optional activity (Students will complete one of the three additional culminating activities in this unit.)

Essential Question: How does adolescent literature reflect stages of children ages 11-16? How does adolescent literature help adolescents develop cognitively, socially, and morally?

Activities: 1. Ask the students to think about some of their favorite books that featured pre-adolescent or adolescent characters. What were some of the issues with which these characters had to deal?

Materials: Handouts: Suggested Short Stories about Adolescents and Suggested Novels about Adolescents Evaluation Form for Adolescent Literature Presentations

4. Explain that each student or small group of students will select a different story or novel to read and report on. He or she will create a poster that literally or symbolically represents the adolescent problem and/or challenge portrayed in the literary work. Allow students to see the rubric by which their poster and presentation will be evaluated.

3. You may ask students to choose stories/books they have not read previously in order to expand their knowledge; however, if time limits are restricting, you may ask them to choose a literary work that they have already read. Hopefully, the assignment will enable them to see the content on adolescence in a new light. Some of the issues addressed in these stories are teenage pregnancies, runaways, substance abuse, initiation into adulthood, peer pressure, suicide, family crisis, criminal behavior, low self esteem, gang wars, athletic competitions, military service, moral decisions, racial and social prejudices, rebellion against authoritative figures, broken dreams, etc. (You may add other titles that you deem appropriate. Also, you may want to omit any piece of literature from this list that you find inappropriate.)

2. Distribute the list of suggested short stories and novels that have pre-adolescent and adolescent characters. Most of these short stories can be found in books of collected short stories in school and public libraries. Also, media specialists are able to make recommendations in addition to these titles listed. Some students may like the option of reading nonfiction articles or books. Have them get your approval before they choose something not listed on the handout.

Assessment: Each student may report on his selected adolescent short story or novel. Teachers may use the rubric to assess both the poster and the presentation. Time: short story: one day out of class to read for homework; one day to complete homework; one day out of class to complete poster novel: seven days out of class to read for homework; one day out of class to prepare poster

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Standards: I.1.2 Students will evaluate themselves as diverse individuals, learners and community members. I.2.2 Students will identify the special needs and exceptionalities of learners and determine how these needs affect the learning process. I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that can impede successful learning. I.3.5: Students will apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of learners.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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Suggested Short Stories about Adolescents


Title A Circle of Fire A Mother of Mannville A Soldier's Home A Summer's Reading A Turn with the Sun A Visit of Charity Almos' a Man An Iowa Childhood Barn Burning Blackberry Winter Cranes Haunted Boys I Stand Here Ironing I'm a Fool Jug of Silver Junkie-Joe Had Some Money Mama's Missionary Money My Sister's Marriage On the Sidewalk Bleeding Paul's Case Peter Two Scarlet Ibis Sophistication Thank You, Ma'am The Afternoon of a Young Poet The Battle of Finny's Ford The Grave The Last Rung of the Ladder The Rockpile The Soldier Ran Away The Stone Boy Two Soldiers White Heron Author Flannery OConnor Marjorie Rawlings Ernest Hemingway Bernard Malamud John Knowles Eudora Welty Richard Wright Edna Ferbere William Faulkner Robert Penn Warren Hwang Sunwn Carson McCullers Tillie Olsen Sherwood Anderson Truman Capote Ronald Miller Chester Hines Cynthia Rocjh Evan Hunter Willa Cather Irwin Shaw James Hurst Sherwood Anderson Langston Hughes M. Carl Holman Jessamyn West Katherine A. Porter Stephen King James Baldwin Kay Boyle Gina Berriault William Faulkner Sara Orne Jewett

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Suggested Novels about Adolescents


TITLE OF NOVEL After the First Death Because of Winn Dixie Because Shes My Friend Bless the Beasts and the Children Borrowed Children AUTHOR STORY SYNOPSIS Robert Cormier Terrorists who are working to free their homeland ISBN: 0440208351 hijack a busload of children. Readers view the
Ten-year-old Opal struggles with the loss of her Kate Dicamillo ISBN: 0763616052 mother and finds her identity in Naomi, Florida. Mutual need creates a difficult friendship between Harriet Sirof ISBN: 0689318448 14-year-old Teri, the well-behaved baby of an extended Italian American family and spoiled Valerie, who has one leg paralyzed from an accident. situation through the eyes of a killer.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Glendon Swarthout Emotionally handicapped adolescents grow in ISBN: 0671521519 maturity and self-esteem through their sensitivity
Mandy knows her ticket out of her Kentucky hill George Ella Lyon ISBN: 0606004777 house is education, but has to stay home to care

to the plight of the buffaloes near their Arizona camp. for the latest addition to her siblings in the 1920s. A trip to Memphis relatives becomes a journey of self-discovery.

The Burning Questions of Bingo Brown The Car The Catcher in the Rye The Cay The Chocolate War

Betsy Byars ISBN: 0140324798

Bingo wonders about girlfriends, his use of mousse, his teachers sanity, and his family. (humorous dialogue)

A teenager left on his own travels west in a kit car Gary Paulsen ISBN: 0440219183 he built himself, and along the way picks up two

J.D. Salinger A troubled teen has run-ins with school ISBN: 0316769487 authorities, parents, and insensitive people Theodore Taylor ISBN: 0385079060
everywhere. Note: This classic has been banned in some regions.

Vietnam veterans, who take him on an eye-opening journey.

A boy refuses to sell chocolates for his Catholic Robert Cormier ISBN: 0440944597 high school. Jerry dares to stand up against cold, calculating leaders and question power.

Set in 1942 on the Dutch Island of Curacao, 11-year-old Phillip Enright is injured and stranded on a remote island with an old black sailor whom he comes to trust and love.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

TITLE OF NOVEL Clover

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

AUTHOR Dori Sanders ISBN: 0816150486 Olive Ann Burns ISBN: 038531258 Robert Lipsyte ISBN: 0064470393 Robert N. Peck ISBN: 0679853065 Marilyn Reynolds ISBN: 0930934768 Ouida Sebestyen ISBN: 0553282611 Carl Deuker ISBN: 0380722690 Alice Childress ISBN: 0380001322 Louis Sachar ISBN: 0440414806 Maya Angelou ISBN: 0553279378 Gary Paulsen ISBN: 0440206324

STORY SYNOPSIS

Cold Sassy Tree

Will Tweedy is a fourteen-year-old boy living in a

Clover Hill, a black ten-year-old girl, is devastated when her father is killed in a car accident shortly after marrying a white woman, who must now raise her. Clover learns lessons about life, death, and relationships.

The Contender A Day No Pigs Would Die Detour for Emmy The Girl in the Box Heart of a Champion A Hero Aint Nothin But a Sandwich Holes

small town in Georgia at the turn of the century. His grandfather Rucker marries a much younger woman (shortly after the death of his grandmother) and becomes the talk of the town. A black male living in poverty becomes a boxer to defend his ego and his self-imposed morals in a crime and drug- ridden neighborhood.

In the Depression, 13-year-old Rob learns about his Vermont fathers quiet dignity, his willingness to admit to errors, and his ability to do what must be done for the familys sake.

Emmy, whose future had once looked so bright, struggles to overcome the isolation and depression of a teen mother with little support from her family or the father of her child. A 16-year old girl writes notes to the world from a small cellar room where she is being held after a kidnapping.

Seth faces a strain on his friendship with Jimmy (a baseball champion and irresponsible fool) when Jimmy is kicked off the team. Benjie is a black boy struggling for identity in the ghetto, develops a heroin addiction, and is helped by friends, teachers, and family. Stanley Yelnats is wrongfully accused of a crime and is sent to live in a juvenile detention camp. There he learns to survive while solving the mystery of his family history and Camp Green Lake. A moving story of childhood and adolescence as a black narrator tells about the values, culture, pain, and joy of being young. This is a self-discovery novel of 15-year-old Will who finds an island one summer and keeps a journal.

I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings The Island

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TITLE OF NOVEL I Will Call It Georgies Blues Jacob Have I Loved Julie of the Wolves

AUTHOR

Suzanne Newton ISBN: 0140345361 Katherine Paterson ISBN: 064403688 Jean C. George ISBN: 1569561176

Controlled by the conservative views of his minister family and his small Southern town, 15-year-old Neal secretly studies to be a jazz pianist.

STORY SYNOPSIS

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Louise develops from a jealous and bitter twin sister to an emotionally healthy adult on an island in the Chesapeake Bay in the 1940s. Miyax, a 13-year-old Eskimo girl, runs away on the tundra and survives with wolves. (Themes of coming of age, ecology, and behavior of wolves) In the 1960s, 10-year-old Rachel sees changes in her family and small Southern town as she sorts out feelings about her black maid, prejudice, and responsibility for her own life. In order to earn money for college, 14-year-old LaVaughn baby-sits for a teenage mother. A teenager reluctantly becomes involved with an Alzheimers disease victim. (Set in New Zealand.) A young musical prodigy portrays the hippie movement of the 1960s in contrast with presentday realities of divorce and materialism. A white boy and black boy form a friendship based on their admiration for each others sports prowess, one in baseball, the other in basketball. (Has themes of overcoming prejudice, dealing with mental illness, and of growing up)

Learning by Heart Make Lemonade Memory Midnight Hour Encores The Moves Make the Man My Brother Sam Is Dead Night Kites Ordinary People The Outsiders

Ronder Thomas Young ISBN: 0140372520 Virginia E. Wolff ISBN: 059048141X Margaret Mahy ASIN: 0689829116 Bruce Brooks ISBN: 0064470210 Bruce Brooks ISBN: 0064470229 James L. Collier & Christopher Collier ISBN: 0027229807 M.E. Kerr ISBN: 0064470350 Judith Guest ISBN: 0140065172 S.E. Hinton ISBN: 014038572X

Conflicting loyalties and the injuries inflicted on the innocent during the Revolutionary War are seen through the eyes of Sams younger brother Tim.

Erick is a 17-year-old boy facing adolescent concerns of dating, friendships, and school, but must face a more devastating problem when he learns his older brother has AIDS. Story of a teenagers struggle to accept his brothers death and find his own identity. Conrad deals with guilt and rejection as his family falls apart.

In this gang novel, the Greasers face death and struggle with peer relationships, poverty, and a search for self.

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Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Rich in Love

TITLE OF NOVEL Remembering the Good Times

AUTHOR Richard Peck ISBN: 0440973392

Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry Running Loose Scorpions The Secret Life of Bees A Separate Peace Shizukos Daughter A Solitary Blue Staying Fat for Sarah Byrnes Summer of My German Soldier Timothy of the Cay Village by the Sea Where the Lilies Bloom

Man recalls his memories of junior high and high school, bonds of friendship, and the horror of dealing with suicide. Josephine Humphreys Set in Mt. Pleasant, SC, a girl drops out of high school to care for her eccentric father, search for ISBN: 014017432X her runaway mother, and help her sister with her baby.

STORY SYNOPSIS

Mildred Taylor ISBN: 014034893X Chris Crutcher ISBN: 0440975700 Walter Dean Myers ISBN: 0064470660 Sue Monk Kidd ISBN: 0142001740 John Knowles ISBN: 0553280414 Kyoko Mori 0449704335 Cynthia Voigt ISBN: 0590471570 Chris Crutcher ISBN: 044021906X Bette Greene ISBN: 0440218926 Theodore Taylor ISBN: 0380725223 Paula Fox ISBN: 0440402999

An African-American family is confronted with prejudice. Cassie survives physically and spiritually.

Humorous narration tells about adolescent pressures to succeed and be popular.

When Jamel inherits gang leadership and a gun from his imprisoned brother, he cannot seem to find a way out. (Set in Harlem) Lily Owen is a fourteen-year- old runaway girl who longs to find out more about her dead mother and escape from her father. (Set in SC in the 1960s.) During WW II at a prep school, a scholarly student might be the cause of a serious injury that leads to the death of his athletic roommate.

After her mothers suicide, Yuki lives with her distant father and his resentful new wife, cut off from her mothers family, and relies on her own strength to cope with tragedy. The development of a loving relationship between Jeff and his divorced father takes place after Jeff, too, has been wounded by his irresponsible mother. Daily class discussions about the nature of man and contemporary issues serve as a backdrop for a seniors attempt to answer a friends cry for help.

This story is told by a 12-year-old Jewish girl in a small Arkansas town who befriends a Nazi POW. Amid prejudice and anger, he leaves her to grow up with knowledge that she is a person of worth.

Vera and Bill Cleaver ISBN: 0064470059

With her father facing surgery, Emma visits her aunt at the seashore and learns about love, envy, rage, and forgiveness. A 14-year-old Appalachian girl keeps her family together after her parents deaths by trying to teach them wildcrafting and being closedmouthed.

The compelling sequel to The Cay. Rescued after being blinded and shipwrecked, 12-year-old Phillip hopes to regain his eyesight.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

The following novelists, among many others, specialize in adolescent literature: Robert Cormier Gary Paulsen Robert Lipsyte Robert Peck Sharon Draper Judy Blume S.E. Hinton Walter Dean Myers Christopher Pike

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Almost any of their works would be appropriate for this assignment. Ask your media specialist(s) for additional suggestions.

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Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Name: ________________________________________ PRESENTATION Absence of distracting mannerisms Content addresses adolescence and teenage issues Grammar Expression Eye Contact Pace Volume POSTER Attractiveness Focus on adolescence Information Title and author given Comments: No Needs Improvement

Evaluation Form for Adolescent Literature Presentations


Satisfactory

Date:_______________ Excellent

Yes

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Observation of the Middle School Student


*Mandatory activity

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Objective: Students will be able to identify characteristics of pre-adolescent and adolescent learners by observing them in a variety of classes. Essential Question: What factors contribute to learning in pre-adolescents and adolescents? Activities: 1. You may introduce the activity by inviting a panel of middle school administrators, teachers, and/or guidance counselors to discuss the middle schools and their pupils. If this is not feasible, try to obtain a copy of a middle school handbook. Discuss the procedures of the school and evaluate whether the rules are appropriate for this age group. 2. Make arrangements with your local middle school principal to have Cadets observe for a class period in various types of classrooms. Have Cadets observe in the following categories: a) core courses on all levels b) special education c) exploratory courses 3. After the observations, have a class discussion about what was observed. If possible, arrange for the principal or teacher to be present for the discussion: a) What are the physical differences between a middle school aged child and a ten-year-old child? b) What are the intellectual differences between a middle school aged child and a ten-year-old child? c) What have you observed about the social development of middle school children? Materials: Handout: "Middle School Observation Form" Assessment: Students may turn in their completed observation forms. Time: 45 minutes to observe; 30 minutes to discuss Standards: I.3.1: Students will differnetiate among the physical stages of learners. I.3.2: Students will examine the cognitive stages of learners. I.3.3: Students will distinguish between the moral stages of learners. I.3.4: Students will analyze the steps in the psychosocial stages of learners. I.3.5: Students will apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of learners.

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Middle School Observation Form Observer (Cadet): Site: Date:

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Teachers Name:

Approximate Age (or Age Range) of Children: Teacher and Environment

Students

Cognitive reasoning

Physical development

Interactions

Student to Student

Teacher to Student

Inferences:

learning?

The BIG Question: What made this an appropriate or inappropriate atmosphere for

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Reporting on All Grown Up and No Place to Go


*Optional activity Objective: Students will be able to identify stages, challenges, and needs of adolescents. Essential Question: What are some questions that inhibit learning in adolescents? Activities: 1. The teacher will divide one copy of the book into enough pages to give each student an equal number of pages. This will require tearing the book into pages which are paper clipped together. Tell students they are to keep the pages in order, not write on the pages, and return them after the discussion. The teacher will then have the book to use again. Give each student the pages and a copy of the worksheet to complete for his/her section. Book-in-a-Day Worksheet Title of book and author Chapter number (or page numbers) read 10 important ideas from your reading Questions to discuss based on your reading 2. Cadets will do mini-presentations on their assigned pages so that the class will be exposed to the main ideas throughout the book. Materials: A copy of the book All Grown Up and No Place to Go by Dr. David Elkind (or a class set) Test/Discussion Questions: All Grown Up and No Place to Go Assessment Choices: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students may take the test that is in the curriculum after all the pages/chapters have been reported on. 2. The teacher may assess the work using a rubric for each presentation. Time: 3 hours Standards: I.1.4: Students will analyze the role of self-esteem in learning and its contributing factors. I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that can impede successful learning. I.3.5: Students will apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of learners.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Read through the following twenty questions and choose the ten that you want to answer, omitting the other ten. Please keep answers thorough, relevant, and grammatically correct. 2. In what ways are adolescents unplaced? 1. Explain the books title.

You may make reference to the text, notes, and any handouts that you have pertaining to All Grown Up and No Place to Go. However, please paraphrase, putting all answers in your own words. If you disagree with Elkind, please give his opinion, but feel free to add your opposing views. If you agree with Elkind, include examples and experiences with which you are familiar to support Elkinds statements.

Test: All Grown Up and No Place to Go

4. What does Elkind say about pressure-free time?

3. Why does Elkind label todays teenagers as a generation under stress?

6. What does Elkind say about the patchwork self?

5. Why do teenagers need a clearly defined value system?

11. What are some of the problems resulting from teenage pregnancy? Discuss from the perspectives of females and males. 12. What are several ways, according to Elkind, that our high schools are failing adolescents?

10. What markers are vanishing from the lives of adolescents?

9. Explain Elkinds shock of exclusion, shock of betrayal, and shock of disillusion.

8. What are some of the perils of puberty cited by Elkind?

7. What does Elkind say about adolescents self-centeredness?

13. In talking about stress dynamics, Elkind discusses clock energy and calendar energy. Explain what he means by these two phrases. 14. Describe Elkinds three categories of stressful situations. 15. What are several important factors that Elkind makes clear about teenage suicide?

17. According to Elkind, what are several specific ways parents can help teenagers cope with stress? 18. What are several signs or symptoms of over-stressed teenagers? 19. Why does Elkind advocate reducing class size to eighteen or fewer students?

16. What does Elkind say about parents telling their teenage sons and daughters no?

20. What did you find most valuable in Elkinds Stress Management?
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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Observations in the High School


*Mandatory activity Objective: Students will be able to identify characteristics of adolescent learners by observing them in a variety of classes. Essential Question: What factors contribute to learning in adolescents? Activities: 1. Introduce the activity by explaining (or by asking a guidance counselor to explain) the various kinds of courses and academic levels offered in your high school. Students will then have choices to observe classes in the following areas: core courses on various levels, especially non-college bound levels vocational/technical classes fine arts special interest electives (ROTC, journalism, family and consumer science, drama, electives, etc.)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Materials: Handout: "High School Observation Form" Optional: A video on adolescence

4. You may want to show the video titled Adolescent Development from Psychology or Adolescence: Cognitive/Moral Development.

3. After the observations, have a class discussion about what was observed. If possible, arrange for the principal or counselor to be present for the discussion: a) What are the physical differences between a high school aged student and a middle school aged student? b) What are the intellectual differences between a high school aged student and a middle school aged student? c) What have you observed about the social development of high school students?

2. Provide students with copies of the high school observation form.

Assessment: Students may complete the observation forms.

Standards: I.3.1: Students will I.3.2: Students will I.3.3: Students will I.3.4: Students will I.3.5: Students will learners.

Time: 2 days on a traditional schedule; 1 day on block scheduling differentiate among the physical stages of learners. examine the cognitive stages of learners. distinguish between the moral stages of learners. analyze the steps in the psychosocial stages of learners. apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of

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High School Observation Form Observer (Cadet): Site: Date:

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Teachers Name:

Approximate Age (or Age Range) of Children: Teacher and Environment

Cognitive reasoning Interactions

Students

Physical development

Student to Student

Teacher to Student

Inferences:

The BIG Question: What made this an appropriate or inappropriate atmosphere for learning?

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Proactive Parents of Troubled Teens


*Mandatory activity

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Objective: Students will be able to offer solutions to problems that teenagers frequently face. Essential Question: What might be of help to troubled teens? Activities: 1. Begin this activity by having a brief mock wedding to pair up students in your class. You may even want to provide cake and punch. (Depending on the make-up of the class, you may want to skip this part of the lesson.) Immediately following the ceremony, hand each couple an envelope containing either a pink sheet of paper (indicating a girl) or a blue sheet of paper (indicating a boy). Let the couples name their child. Explain that the parents task is to get the child through high school.

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

2. Soon the parents will be faced with a Packet of Problems/Opportunities that adolescents sometimes face. Have each set of parents select one problem and decide upon the resources that they will need to deal with the issue. Resources might include people in the school and community, books, journals, movies, videotapes, doctors, counselors, educators, and Internet sources. Remind the parents that they must reach a resolution that is satisfactory to both of them.

3. Students will use the student handout Troubled Teen Worksheet to focus on each problem. In a day or two, hold a parents meeting or a family counseling session to hear what strategies and resources exist to address each teens problem. Instructors might want to role play the part of a counselor, or the class might want to invite their schools guidance counselor(s) in to listen to the problems and make suggestions to the parents. Materials: pink and blue strips of paper one copy of each Packet of Problems/Opportunities, cut into strips, as indicated scissors envelopes cake and punch (optional) Handout: Troubled Teen Worksheet

Time: 15 minutes for role-play of marriage and delivery of envelopes; one day out of class to do research; 45 minutes to role-play presentations of problems and solutions Standards: I.1.3 Students will examine and appreciate others diversity. I.2.2 Students will identify the special needs and exceptionalities of learners and determine how these needs affect the learning process.

Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. Students may complete the Troubled Teen Worksheet for a grade and attach a list of or copies of their resources. 2. Students may role-play parents who have found solutions for their adolescents problems and be assessed on the content of their reports.

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Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that can impede successful learning. I.3.5: Students will apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of learners.

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Packet of Problems/Opportunities (Page 1 of 3)

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

(FemaleBlind) Problem: Your child was in an accident this summer and is now blind. She wants to stay in the same school with her friends. What are her rights? What is the Americans with Disabilities Act? What services does your district offer? What can the state School for the Deaf and Blind do to help you with your child? What are you going to do? (Male or FemaleFundamentalist) Problem: Your child brings Pat Conroys Prince of Tides home, and you see that she is required to read about a rape scene. The report is a major grade in her English class. What process would you follow in your district if you wanted to object to the assignment? What if you objected and your child did not? What argument would you give your child? (MaleTechnical Courses) Problem: It is time to register your child for school. Find out what your child needs to register for ninth grade classes in a new school district. Your child wants to go to technical college after high school and be trained as an electrician. What would his four-year course of study be in high school? (MaleMediocre Academic Performance) Problem: It is November, and you notice that your child is not studying much this year. When you ask him about this, he replies, "Im passing." What actions might teachers suggest you take? What might the guidance counselor suggest? What do you plan to do about this situation as a parent? (MaleLow Income) Problem: Your son is failing English with a grade of 68 and must have a passing grade to play basketball. He was recruited heavily during his junior year by several major colleges. The only way he can afford to go to college is by earning a basketball scholarship. This English class average will eliminate him from any further competition. Find out what a coach thinks about this situation. What do teachers think? Principal? How far should a parent be willing to go? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(FemaleMinority Student) Problem: Your child is the only African-American child in a ninth grade class. She frequently comes home crying because she is not included in the after-school social events. How can you help her with this dilemma? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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Packet of Problems/Opportunities (Page 2 of 3)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

(FemaleSpecial Education Services) Problem: You receive a letter from the guidance counselor recommending that your child be tested for special education services. How do you feel about this decision? What rights do you, as her parents, have in placement? What procedures must be followed? (FemaleTeenage Pregnancy) Problem: Your child is three months pregnant. What are some of the emotional issues she might be encountering? What is the school district policy on pregnant girls attending school? How have these rules changed? What is the homebound" alternative? Is there a special school for pregnant teens in your community?

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(MaleFootball Issue) Problem: Your son is a rising eighth grader. He is very large for his age and a gifted athlete. He has played junior varsity football in 7th grade and received numerous honors for his performance. The high school coach asks you to consider allowing your son to play varsity during his eighth grade year. What does this mean? Why would the coach want you to do this? What is the school or district policy on this practice? What are the possible disadvantages of allowing this to be done? What would you do? (FemaleIllegal Drug) Problem: Your child is searched in school and is found to have a small amount of cocaine in her pocketbook. She is arrested and taken to a detention facility. What policies should be followed by your school district for a search? For an arrest? What is the state law? What will you say to your child?

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(FemaleExit Exam) Problem: Your child has been in courses for the ninth and tenth grades that are not college preparatory. She has performed very well making As and Bs in all courses. She took the exit exam in the spring of her tenth grade year and failed all three parts. What is the schools responsibility/liability? What responsibility/liability do her teachers have? What are the legal implications if she continues to pass her course work and fails the exit exam a third time?

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(MaleSchool Dress Code) Problem: Your son is wearing the latest clothing fashions and hairstyles. You get a call from a school administrator requesting that you bring him a change of appropriate clothing to the school. You, as a parent, do not feel that your sons dress is inappropriate or offensive. How will you handle the administrators request?

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Packet of Problems/Opportunities (Page 3 of 3)

(MaleConflicts Regarding Social, Athletic, and Academic Interests) Problem: Your son has a photographic memory, loves to read, and made the honor roll from the sixth to eighth grade. He currently is a sophomore and ended his freshman year with a B+ average, but he flunked the whole first marking period. He believes that the girls in the honors classes like boys who are in regular classes and are athletes. He thinks that the boys in honors classes are not liked by the girls. He wants to be popular more than he wants to be smart. He joins the track team, but now is having trouble structuring his time. How can you help your son develop a healthy balance between his social, athletic, and academic interests? (FemaleConflicts Regarding Social and Academic Interests) Problem: Your daughter currently is a junior with a B+ average. She is a good student who is a member of the band, yearbook staff, and drama club. She has been offered the opportunity to obtain a school to work job that will allow her to be paid to work instead of attending school every other day. She will not be able to be in band, yearbook, or drama classes if she chooses this job. She is interested in the job so that she will be able to afford more trendy clothes and an expensive Spring Break trip with her friends. How can you help your daughter make the most beneficial choice? (MaleA Good Student Is Falsely Accused of Plagiarism) Problem: Your son goes to an inner-city school known for its high dropout rate. The two of you live across the street from the school in government-subsidized housing. You have emphasized values in your home, and he tries hard to avoid the local gangs. He was an "A" student in elementary school, but did not score high enough to attend one of the elite magnet schools. He recently wrote an autobiographical essay, but his teacher asked him from what magazine he copied it. She said it was an outstanding essay, but she did not believe that he wrote it. Now he has started sitting in the back of the class and clowning with his friends. Since the incident, he has acquired some new friends who are suspected of being part of a gang. What can you do to help him? (Male Heavily Recruited by the Military) Problem: Your son is in the spring of his senior year. He has a GPA of 2.5 and an 800 on the SAT. He has not applied to or expressed much interest in college. Several recruiters from various branches of the military have begun to call him or visit him at school regularly. He has been enticed by offers to obtain high paying job skills and early financial independence. They have also offered him the opportunity to attend college. You are concerned that he may make a hasty decision without realizing the level of commitment of his decision. What is your schools policy regarding recruiters access to students? Parent involvement? What kinds of questions should he be asking? What can you do to help? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------PAGE I 3 -90

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Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Troubled Teen Worksheet


Childs Name ______________________________________________________________ Problem/Opportunity_________________________________________________________

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Proposed Solution

School and Community Resources

What I Have Learned

Ideas to bring out at the Parents Meeting

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Video: Teens: What Makes Them Tick?


*Optional activity

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Objective: Students will be able to identify how adolescents are characterized and how adults can address both their strengths and needs. Essential Question: What are some special needs and traits of teens? Activities: 1. View the video Teens: What Makes Them Tick 2. Use the handout titled Teens: What Makes Them Tick for written or class discussion or as questions for testing. Materials: Video: Teens: What Makes Them Tick TV and DVD player Handout: Teens: What Makes Them Tick Video Discussion Questions Assessment: Instructors may choose one or more of the following assessments. 1. You may use the handout as a basis for determining a grade. 2. You may use the rubric for class discussion. Time: 1 hours

Standards: I.1.4: Students will analyze the role of self-esteem in learning and its contributing factors. I.2.3: Students will examine major physical, social, and personal challenges that impede successful learning. I.3.5: Students will apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of learners.

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Teens: What Makes Them Tick


Video Discussion Questions

(Page 1 of 2)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

1. Narrator and ABC reporter John Stossel interviews both Aura (18), a fashion designer, and Alexandra (13), an artist. What connection does Stossel make between passion and energy? Does blues guitarist B.B. King agree or disagree with 18-year-old Jonny Langs assessment about energy? How does the hard-working, successful teen compare to the stereotypical way that teenagers are presented in American society?

2. During the segment about brain imaging at Harvard Medical Center, what was most surprising about the way that adults and teenagers process information? 3. At the Sports Medicine Clinic, what did Stossel learn about his physical ability as compared to Bens performance on the treadmill? According to the researchers there, at what ages do males peak physically? Women? Do you agree or disagree? 4. Four levels in teen societal structure are described by Teen Research Unlimiteds marketing researcher Peter Zollo. Give a definition for each level below: Influencers Conformers Passives Edgers

If you are in a group, which one is it? How do you feel about that? Which is the largest group at your school? The smallest? Does grouping matter? When your mother/father/other family member was a teenager, in which group do you think that he/she fit?

5. What type of rebellious behavior did teenagers exhibit in the 1960s? The 1950s?

6. At Harvard Medical Center, Stossel and O.J. (15) underwent an imaging procedure that pertained to facial expressions. What is the larger implication of this experiment? Could this be the reason that some teenagers need to be told to do chores around the house?

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Teens: What Makes Them Tick

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

(Page 2 of 2)

7. According to research, 92% of teenagers lie to their parents. Comment on the research of Boston psychotherapists Mira Kirschenbaum and Charles Foster. Kirschenbaum and Foster also said that up to 85% of a teenagers time is spent alone or with friends. Matt (15) says that he chooses to be with his friends because his friends pay attention to him. Does this surprise you? When Stossel asked Kirshenbaum and Foster to explain what a parent should say when a daughter brings home a tattooed, pierced boyfriend, Scar, what is their answer? Teenagers have an allergic reaction to control. What does that mean to you? Do you agree? Kirschenbaum and Foster note that the second rule that parents should follow is to lecture less and listen more. Explain one benefit of this second rule. 8. Ben attended The Hyde School because he was involved with marijuana. What was his dads comment about Bens experience with drugs?

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

9. What is Kershenbaum and Fosters definition of a successful parent?

10. What is the ideal goal of parenting, according to the psychotherapists?

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Rubric for Teacher Cadet Discussions


Name of Cadet: ____________________________________________________________ Never 0 Participates actively in the discussion; makes multiple, relevant, and worthy comments Uses details and examples from assignments (e.g. texts, videos, lectures) to support assertions Makes connections to other knowledge and experiences Listens attentively and respectfully Paraphrases others for clarity; asks relevant questions; builds on the comments of others without being redundant Seldom 1 Sometimes 2 Often 3

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Comments:

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Culminating Activity: Lifelines

CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

*Mandatory activity (This activity is based on the lessons up to the Vygotsky section of this unit.)

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

Activities: 1. Students will create a booklet or display representing how they have developed physically, cognitively, morally, and socially. This information will be connected to a motif (thematic element in a work of art; a dominant idea or central theme) to unify the booklet or display. Motifs might include music, sports, vehicles, books, hairstyles, toys, hobbies, clothes, foods, TV shows, holidays, birthdays, etc. 2. Students will include a picture on each page or display item (of them, or from clip art or magazines if personal pictures are not available) and write a brief reflection which shows their development in each area physical, cognitive, moral, and social from birth to age five, from age six to twelve, and adolescence.

Essential Question: In what ways has my growing up experience reflected different stages of physical, cognitive, moral, and social development?

Objective: Students will be able to synthesize the information about physical, cognitive, moral, and social development as they apply it to their own lives.

3. Instructors might want to share the following with students as an explanation for this assignment: If you choose clothes, for example, you could construct a clothesline and hang clothes on it, which represent your stages of growth. On a diaper, you could describe your physical, cognitive, moral, and social development as a baby. You could use different clothes and explanations until you get to your present stage in which you could write the description of your adolescent characteristics on jeans and a T-shirt. You will include mini-reports that address the four areas of development (physical, cognitive, moral, and social) to each of the three stages of growth and development (ages 1-5, ages 6-12, age 13-present). Assessment will be based primarily on how the motif is used throughout the lifeline and how accurate and complete the mini-reports are on the four stages of human growth and development. 4. Students may present their lifelines to the class upon completion of the lessons on physical, cognitive, moral, and social development. Assessment: A rubric is included.

Standard: I.3.5: Students will apply an understanding or knowledge of the developmental changes of learners.

Time: 30 minutes (for instructors to explain the assignment); 1 week outside of class to complete the lifeline; 1 class period for Cadets to present lifelines to their peers

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CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR S.C. TEACHER CADET COURSE | EXPERIENCING EDUCATION, TENTH EDITION

Theme I: Experiencing Learning Unit 3: Growth and Development

(1= very poor; 2= poor; 3= good; 4= above average; 5= outstanding)


1 2 3 4 Motif no evident motif motif is vague motif present and/or inconsistent appropriate motif portrayed/ used in most lifeline entries adequately explained adequately explained adequately explained adequately explained three stages of growth included

Rubric for Teacher Cadet Lifeline

not Physical Development addressed not Cognitive Development addressed not Moral Development addressed not Social Development addressed no stages Periods of Development/ of growth Stages/ Ages included Appearance lacks neatness, organization, and visual appeal lacks originality and personalization repeated weakness in mechanics and usage interferes with writers purpose

vaguely addressed vaguely addressed vaguely addressed vaguely addressed one stage of growth included

addressed but needs to be more detailed

appropriate, unifying motif cleverly portrayed in entire lifeline explained with great accuracy and detail

addressed but needs to be more detailed

addressed but needs to be more detailed

explained with great accuracy and detail

addressed but needs to be more detailed two stages of growth included

explained with great accuracy and detail

explained with great accuracy and detail

Uniqueness

is somewhat neat, organized, and visually appealing

Grammar/ Mechanics

has superb has adequate has has little originality and originality and originality and impressive personalization personalization originality and personalization personalization mechanical and usage errors somewhat interfere with writers purpose some mechanical and usage errors very few mechanical and usage errors no mechanical and usage errors

is neat, organized, and visually appealing

is very neat, organized, and visually appealing

four or more stages of growth included

is superb in neatness, organization, and visual appeal

Comments:

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