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Multiplexing is the transmission of multiple signals on one medium. Switches are capable of filtering out unnecessary traffic.

. - The Layer in a network architecture define a model for the functions or services that need to be performed. Token Management is a service that controls which users computer talks when during the current session by passing a software token back and forth. - The Transport layer of the OSI model performs end-to-end error control and end-toend flow control. - The network layer of the OSI model performs congestion control. Congestion Control ensures that the network does not become saturated at any one point. - The bottom layer in the OSI model, the Physical layer, handles the transmission of bits over a communications channel. Simple Network Management Protocol is used to allow the numerous elements within a computer network to be managed from a single point. - The TCP/IP transport layer commonly uses the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to maintain an error-free end-to-end connection. - The addition of control information to a packet as it moves through the layers is called encapsulated. A logical connection is a nonphysical connection between sender and receiver that allows an exchange of commands and responses. Digital signals are discrete waveforms, rather than continuous waveforms. - The amplitude of a signal can be expressed as volts, amps, or watts. - The Frequency of a signal is the number of times a signal makes a complete cycle within a given time frame. Human Voice between 300 to 3400HZ - When traveling through any type of medium, a signal always experiences some loss of its power due to friction. This loss of power, or loss of signal strength, is called Attenuation. Modulation is the process of sending data over a signal by varying either its amplitude, frequency, or phase. - The number of times a signal changes value per second is called the Baud rate. - Using Differential Manchester, when a device transmits a binary 0, a zero voltage is transmitted. When the device transmits a binary 1, either a positive voltage or a negative voltage is transmitted. - The Manchester encoding schemes solve the synchronization problem but are relatively inefficient because they have a baud rate that is TWICE the bps. - Three currently popular modulation techniques for encoding digital data and transmitting it over analog signals are amplitude shift keying, frequency shift keying, and Phase shift keying. - Frequency shift keying is subject to intermodulation distortion. Phase shift keying represents 0s and 1s by different changes in the phase of a waveform. - Quadrature Phase shift keying incorporates four different phase angles, each of which represents 2 bits. - One encoding technique that converts analog data to a digital signal is PCM. EBCDIC is an 8-bit code allowing 256 possible combinations of textual symbols. Shift Keying is a simpler form of modulation in which binary 1s and 0s are represented by uniquely different values of amplitude, frequency, or phase. Because of its good shielding properties, coaxial cable is good at carrying analog signals with a wide range of frequencies. Broadband coaxial technology typically transmits analog signals and is capable of supporting multiple channels of data simultaneously. - Baseband technology uses digital signaling in which the cable carries only one channel of digital data. Single-Stranded Coaxial cable contains, as the name implies, a single copper wire in the center of the cable. - When a light signal inside the cable bounces off the cable wall and back into the cable, this is called Reflection. Single-Mode transmission requires the use of a very thin fiber-optic cable and a very focused light source, such as a laser. - The closer a satellite is to the Earth, the shorter the times required to send data to the satellite, that is, to uplink. - The transmission time from when a signal first leaves a satellite and then arrives at a ground station is called propagation delay. Cells range in size from one half mile in radius to 50 miles. AMPS 1st gen phone WiMAX broadband transmission tech base on IEEE. Ultra-wideband transmits data over wide range of freq. rather than limiting to a narrow, fixed band of freq. ZigBee good at sending low-speed signals over short to medium distances. An interface standard can consist of four parts, or components: the electrical component, the mechanical component, the functional component, and the procedural component. - The Procedural component of an interface describes how the particular circuits are used to perform an operation. - FireWire supports two types of data connections: an asynchronous connection and a(n) isochronous connection. - A Full-Duplex connection is one in which both sender and receiver may transmit at the same time. - Some systems, for various reasons, allow only one side or the other to transmit at one time. This type of connection is an example of a Half-Duplex connection. - SCSI is a technique for

interfacing a computer to high-speed devices such as hard disk drives, tape drives, CDs, and DVDs. - InfiniBand is a serial connection or bus that can carry multiple channels of data at the same time. Isochronous connection provides guaranteed data transport at a predetermined rate.

LEO (Low-Earth-Orbit) 100 to 1000 miles out Used for wireless e-mail, special mobile telephones, pagers, spying, videoconferencing MEO (Middle-Earth-Orbit) 1000 to 22,300 miles Used for GPS (global positioning systems) and government GEO (Geosynchronous-Earth-Orbit) 22,300 miles Always over the same position on earth (and always over the equator) Used for weather, television, government operations HEO (Highly Elliptical Earth orbit) satellite follows an elliptical orbit Used by the military for spying and by scientific organizations for photographing celestial bodies

* Analog data-to-analog signal, which involves amplitude and frequency modulation techniques * Digital data-to-digital signal, which involves encoding techniques * Digital data-to-discrete analog signal, which involves modulation techniques * Analog data-to-digital signal, which involves digitization techniques