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Name: Choong Mel June Student ID: 12WAD00443 Group: AA1 Subject: AACB3214 Biodiversity and Ecology Date:

20 May 2013 Experiment 3 Title: Reproduction structures of plants Aim: 1. 2. To observe the biodiversity of flowers. To observe the characteristics of the flowers.

Introduction: Flowers are the plant's reproductive structures. Angiosperms are types of plants that bear fruits and flowers. Flowers are usually both male and female, and are brightly colored to attract insects to help them carry pollen used for sexual reproduction. Not all flowers are colorful, though. These flowers usually use the wind for pollination. A complete flower will have 4 main part of structure which is the calyx, corolla, stamen (androecium), carpel (gynoecium). Structures of flower: (a) Pistil Central female organ of the flower. It is generally bowling-pin shaped and located in the center of the flower. Stigma Receives pollen, typically flattened and sticky. Style Connective tissues between stigma and ovary. Ovary Contains ovules or embryo sacs. Ovules Unfertilized, immature seeds. (b) Stamen Male flower organ Anthers Pollen-producing organs. Filament The stalk of the stamen which bears the anther. (c) Petals Usually colorful petal-like structures making up the flower, collectively called the corolla. They may contain perfume and nectar glands. (d) Sepals Protective leaf-like enclosures for the flower buds, usually green, collectively called calyx. Sometimes highly colored like the petal as in iris. (e) Receptacle Part of flower stalk bearing the floral organs, at base of flower. (f) Pedicel Flower stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence. Materials: 1. Two types of flowers 2. Razor blade 3. Slides 4. Cover slip 5. Microscope 6. Distilled water Methods: 1. The flowers were examined and each set of the floral organs were carefully removed, beginning with the outermost organs. 2. A stamen was examined with the microscope. Then the pollen was extracted, mounted with water on a slide and examined under the microscope. 3. The pistil was split lengthwise with a razor blade and the internal cavity of the ovary was noted. 4. All the observation was recorded.

Result: Floral Parts Sepals Petals Stamen Anther Pollen Filament Pistil Stigma Style Ovary

Flower 1 Two, large, overlapping and form a tube at the bottom, green in colour Three, small, purple in colour, overlapping and form a tube at the bottom Five, moon-shaped and continued with filament, small, brown in colour Round, rough Long, thin tube, fused with petals Irregular-shaped, small, green in colour, enclosed stigma Short, slender tube Free central arrangement, epigynous

Flower 2 Five, small, separated, green in colour Five, big, yellow in colour, separeted Ten, elongated and continued with filament, big, brown in colour Round, rough Short, thick tube, split from petals Sharp and curl in shape, small, white in colour, exposed stigma Long, thin tube Free central arrangement, hypogynous

Discussion: There are many differences between flower 1 and flower 2 observed in this experiment. One of it is their sepals. Flower 1 has two large sepals with overlapping and forming a tube at the bottom part while flower 2 has five small sepals which separated from each sepals. Despite the differences, they both have same colour of sepals which are in green colour, forming the outermost whorl called calyx. Inside the sepals is another ring of modified leaves called petals which are often brightly coloured. This layer is known as the corolla. In term of petals, flower 1 have three, purple colour petals while flower 2 have five, yellow colour petals. Besides that, flower 1 has a smaller petal compared to flower 2. Petals of flower 1 are overlapping while petals of flower 2 separated individually. Flowers have different colours because of the pigments that are found in them and because of that, it allows them to attract various kinds of insects and animals to help in pollination. This means that both of these flowers are insect pollinated flowers. Besides, stamen of flower 1 is structurally different from flower 2. Flower 1 has five, small, brown in colour anthers. They are moon-shaped and continued with filaments. Meanwhile flower 2 has ten, big, brown in colour anthers. They are elongated and continued with filaments. Both of these flowers have round and rough pollens. Rough surface of the pollen allows them to hold on to the insect or animal body so that pollination can take place. Furthermore, the filaments of flower 1 are long, thin and fused with petals. For flower 2, the filaments are short, thick and split from petals. In this experiment, they are also structurally different in terms of pistil. Pistil is the innermost layer of flower. Flower1 has a irregular-shaped, small, green in colour stigma. It is enclosed and covered by the petals. Flower 2 has a sharp and curl in shape, small, white in colour stigma. It is exposed to the air and surrounded by stamens. The characteristics of these stigmas make a better hold onto pollen that does land on it. Flower 2 also has a longer and thinner style compared to flower 1. The ovary of flower 1 is epigynous while the ovary of flower 2 is hypogynous. Both of these flowers have same ovule arrangement that is free central arrangement. Conclusion: Different types of flowers have different structures with others. They can be distinguished by observing their four main organs which is calyx, corolla, pistil and stamen. These differences are mainly cause by external factor such as temperature, pollinating agent, and others. Hence, no flowers are structurally same with one and another.