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World Applied Sciences Journal 17 (8): 1046-1053, 2012 ISSN 1818-4952 IDOSI Publications, 2012

Dynamic Analysis of Concrete Dam Due to Seismic Forces


Manzori Iman, 2Kamanbedast Amir Abbas and 1Erfanian Azmoudeh, Mohammad Hossein
1

Islamic Azad University, Dezfoul Branch, Iran Department of Agriculture, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad university, Ahwaz , Iran
1

Abstract: The present study investigates and analyses the behavior of a small concrete gravity dam during the strong ground horizontal motions due to an earthquake with ANSYS 12.The model in thesis is the structure of Dezfool regulatory gravity dam. The height of the spillway is about 10 meters up to elevation of the spillway crest and it is in the class of small dams. The location of dam is in Iran, North of Khuzestan province, near city of Dezfool. It hasn't ever shakes under the influence of powerful ground motions in the area. Because of lowness and special firmness of the structure it behaves like a solid body, therefore the structure should be compared with many different earthquake accelerations and then the maximum vibration of the body is considerable. After linear dynamic analysis with ANSYS the results show the stresses on the body of the dam are relative to particularity of each earthquake like magnitude, epicenter distance and PGA .The body of Dezfool regularity dam consists of 172 plane 82 elements and It is modeled two dimensional in ANSYS. The procedure of analyses is linear time-history dynamic analysis. The acceleration records of ground motions in the ANSYS dynamic time- history analysis are real records of occurred earthquakes. The other data which are used in ANSYS modeling are approximately unreal and exaggerated and they are used for magnifying the influence of earthquake on the dam's body. Key words: Dynamic Analysis Concrete Dam Seismic Forces Simulating r an also weak points of spreading of earthquake forces in building units by using linear dynamic analysis based on historical time points in a small concrete dam [1-4]. In linear dynamic analysis method the history of the structures behavior is under theaccelerogram of earthquake was studied and the amounts of force and stress and movement were calculated. In this study we used the ANSYS which is considered to be powerful software in studies of a kind. For the purposes of analysis historic time points we used the records ofseveral earthquakes such as Manjil and Tabas and Anza in USA. The acceleration of each has been calculated based on the maximum acceleration received in site of study. Ultimately stresses and movements in elements and several groups of different dams under earthquake pressure will be studied. History: Dynamic analysis of concrete dams under earthquake is more complicated compared to other building under the same conditions. HassanMirza-Bozorg and MehdiVarmarziar in 2009 did a study in which they

INTRODUCTION Iran is located in a high profile earthquake region thus there are elevated chances of earthquake in the Iranian Plateau. Recognizing earthquake behaviors is of high importance. Previous earth quake experiences has shed light on the fact that in order to decrease the damages caused by earthquakes is only possible through in depth studies of previous earth quakes and also taking into consideration quake behavior of important structures. Concretedames are of great importance in cases of earthquakes because any damage can cause irreparablefinancial and causalities. Dynamic analysis of the concreteweight dams against external and internal forces has been the center of attention of Scientists and experts. Present study is focused on dynamic analysis of concrete dam against difference forces caused by recent earthquake. We are planning to address the several problems that are a result of static analysis method, such as not having a logical base for defining behavior factor
Corresponding Author:

Kamanbedast Amir Abbas, Department of Agriculture, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad university, Ahwaz, Iran

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World Appl. Sci. J., 17 (8): 1046-1053, 2012

studied the effect of earthquake on the linear response of the concrete dam. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of non-uniform instigation tremulous on tremulous response of concrete dam and to compare it to uniform instigationwhich is common in analyzing and designing dams using the ABAQUES software. Theweight concrete dam below plateau number one was picked as the study site. The distribution of hydrodynamic pressure was calculated using wave equations and compressibility hypothesis of fluid, minimum viscosity and minimal movements. The Horizontal and vertical signs of Taft Lincoln was used. Ghopra in 1991 studied the effect of earthquake on a weight dam conditional of the fact that there is a shaking floor under the dam. In this study the effect of earthquake on a rigid damand a flexible dam was studied and several graphs were shown. Lotfi and Khoshnoudian in 1991 did a dynamic analysis of using a combination of boundary elements and finite element method confined was done. In this study the material used in the body of dam isotropic and linear elastic base and foundation and also geyrchansbandeh water was taken into consideration. AmirKeyvanKalantar in his maters thesis entitled dynamic analysis of concrete dams using ANSYS, initially researched from a dynamic analysis perspective the Garmsar dam and taking into consideration 3d elements. After doing the study using nonlinear showed that horizontal movements due to low height of the dam and hardness of the dam has little effects to complete his studies he took into consideration the studies done in India. The Equations Governing the Lineal Dynamic Analysis of Structures: Using equations below structures dynamic manner has analyzed and the value of force, torque, stress and structures movement can be calculated. Mode (i) motion equation under the accelerograph (t ) can be written as g L i (t) + i2 yi (t) = i g (t) yt + 2i i y (1) Mi And modal participation factor is
Li = n j =1 m jji

yi =

Li Zi Mi

(4)

The adamant force of structure that impresss to j level is


n ( f s ) j = m =1 k mj m (t )

(5)

m(t), is locomotion of m level toward foundation. Therefore the adamant force of structure in i mode is

n n ( f s ) ji = m k mj [ mj yi (t )] = ( m = 1= 1 k mj mi ) yi (t )

(6)

Using the modes plumb characteristic may be written:


K i = i2 Mi

(7)

Thus for mass mj in the j row of above equations right hand side matrix we get:
n m =1 kmj
mi 2 = i m j ji

(8)

From substitute (8) in (6) we get:


( f s ) ji =
2 i

mj

ji

yi (t )

(9)

And from (4) stead yi(t)


( f s ) ji =
2 i

mj

ji

Li Zi (t ) Mi

(10)

This force is in balance with a virtual quake force (qji), thus from substitute value of Li and Mi we get:
q ji =
2 i

mj

ji

n j =1 m j n j =1 m j

ji 2 ji

Z i (t )

(11)

The base shear force in I mode is


n 2 2 ( j =1 m j ji ) Q= n Z i (t ) j =1 q ji = i 2 n j =1 m j ji

(12)

(2)

If the effective mass of i mode is expressed as below:


M i* = ( m j
2 ji ) m j ji 2

This equation is linear so we can solve it


zi + 2
i

i + iz

2 i zi

= g(t)

(3)
Qi (t ) =

(13) (14)

Using the linear system: 1047

M i*zi (t )

World Appl. Sci. J., 17 (8): 1046-1053, 2012

And eventually for mixing the effect of modes in each moment, we add the values. As example for base shear,
2 * Q (t ) = in=1 Qi (t ) = 1 M1 z1 (t ) + 2 * 2 M 2 z2 (t ) + ...

(15)

From the following expression


* * * M1 >> M 2 >> M 3

Where, [M] is mass characteristic matrix, [C] is damping characteristic matrix, [K] is structures solidity characteristic matrix, {r} is the vector of comparative nodal spots changing and [J] is univalent matrix which should transmit basic acceleration vector ag into independence point. Modeling the Dams System and Foundation: The dam is located in the south west of Iran north of Dezfool, and it has not undergone powerful earthquakes. The building of the dam due to its small height and its hardness shows a strong behavior under horizontal movements and its because of this that in the below study the modeling was done under the acceleration of several earthquakes so that we can study the maximum vibration. In order to model the dams system and its foundation we used structure elements.Because the analysis was done in 2D in the ANSYS software we used the 2D element, plane 82 with 8 nodes, both for the foundation and the body of the dam. The elements used have plane strain characteristics which are without any thickness which are usually considered for building that have a similar shape through their length [5]. The damping amount considered for this study was of historic kind and was 0.05. The weight of the concrete is 2630kg/m3, the Poisson efficient was 0.2 and the Young model was 31010 N/m2. The 2D model was analyzed using a historical lineal dynamic assay. Boundary condition of the dam system included foundation modeling by dimensions they are: depth equals the floor of the dam and the length of the foundation 3 times that of the dam, and all the freedom degrees is involved in the floor and surroundings [6]. The forces on the dam are the dams weight and also the hydrodynamic pressure and hydrostatic pressure behind the dam and also the force of the wave and also the uprising force. The acceleration of three earthquakes (Tabas, Manjil in Iran and Anza in USA) was used after normalizing for the Dezfool region. The normalization was done accordingly, initially the faults those were made by earthquake were identified, these faults include the Dezfool fault and Mountain fault in the Khuzestan province and in the vicinity of the Dezfool regulatory dam. The Dezfool fault is with a length of over 200Km the orientation of the dam is North West to South East with the slope facing North West, it should be noted that as the depth increases the slope decreases. The Lahbory Valley was created as a result of this fault. The Mountain fault has confined the folded belt of Zagros to the south and South west. In Figure 3 the two faults and their relative distance to the dam has been highlighted.

Effect of high modes will diminish. It should be noted that peak moment of different operatives are not equal since two operatives may be written as
r (t ) =

ai zi (t ) =a1z1(t ) + a2 z2 (t ) + ... S (t ) = bi zi (t ) =b1z1 (t ) + b2 z2 (t ) + ...

Its obvious that just when all of factors (ai&bi) are proportionate, the peak moment is the same. Therefore: bi = kai Otherwise, the peak moment isnt equal. Therefore, for example if r(t) come to peak at t1, the peak amount of s wont be s(t1) necessarily. Therefore it is necessary to calculate each operatives peak point separately. After calculate Qi(t) to determining force and movement of different levels in dam body, we get:
q ji (t ) = m j ji n j =1 m j ji Qi (t )

(16)

Earthquake force in j level and i mode is qji(t) = qji (t) = qj1 (t) + q j1 (t )+... (17)

j levels movement in I mode:


= q ji (t ) mj
2 i

ji

(18)

j (t )

mjij = 2 i

q (t )

1 1 1 2 q j1 (t ) + 2 q j 2 (t ) + ... (19) mj 1 2

According to finite element theory, matrix equation which commanding the structures dynamic answer to the base stirring up in time zone can be shown as:
} + [ K ]{r} = [ M ]{ r} + [C ]{r [ M ][ J ] ag

(20)

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World Appl. Sci. J., 17 (8): 1046-1053, 2012

Fig. 1: A view of the dam and its foundation

Fig. 2: The dimension of the dam and a model of foundation. Before starting the historical dynamic study we will analyze it using a structure model analysis so that we can assess the vibration models that are shown as frequencies [1, 5]. It should be noted that due to the low height of the structure we anticipate a high frequency even in the initial analysis. The records for the accelerations from the three earthquake Manjil, Tabas and Anza was calculated using the modal analysis and the quakes that were close to the same frequency as the structure were considered to make the maximum vibration in the structure. Using the macro shown in Figure 4, the modal analysis was done using ANSYS; from the 20 modes requested from the software three were considered (Fig 5). In this Fig the first column is the mode number the second column is frequency mode (Hertz) and the third column is participation factor and the fourth column is damping and the fifth modal mass. After researching and static analysis and medal from the regulatory dam of Dezfoolusing the acceleration records the dynamic analysis was done.Accelerograph of two earthquakes in Fig 6 and 7 was studied in several seismography stations. 1049

Fig. 3: The faults of Khuzestan After a thorough examination of the exact location of the faults the acceleration in the region is calculated based on statistics and probability. The calculation was done based on the biggest acceleration for a giver probability from two quake sources and for certain structures were done based on the biggest quake that occurs once every 200 years. For the purpose of this study for this structure the acceleration was calculated using a 10% probability. One of the features of the ANSYS software is that can do various calculations.

World Appl. Sci. J., 17 (8): 1046-1053, 2012

Fig. 4: Macro Medal analysisFig5. Structures normal vibration models

Fig. 6: Accelerographfrom the Manjil quake was analyzed in AB-BAR seismography station

Fig. 7: AccelerographTabas quake in Tabas seismography station 1050

World Appl. Sci. J., 17 (8): 1046-1053, 2012

Fig. 8: Analysis results a. main tension

in node 3,b. main tension

in node 2

Fig. 9: Analysis results a. maximum movement of node 1 in Y direction b. maximum movement of node 1 in X direction

Fig. 10: Main tensiona3Fig11: normalized tension in Y direction Numerical Results: The dynamic analysis of the dam during the Manjilquake (Ab-Bar station) that occurred for 50sec is shown in figures 8 and 9.8a is the main tension node 3, 8b is the main tension node 2, and 9a is the maximum movement of node 1 in the Y axis and 9b is the maximum movement node 1 in the X axis. The dispersion of normalized vibrations (tensions) in the body of the structure in the X and Y axis and also the amount of the main tension ( 1, 2 and 3) is shown in figures. The tensions are organized in a way the 1 is the most positive (tensional) and 3 is the most negative (pressed). The amount of the tension extremity and equal tension is shown as below: 1051

World Appl. Sci. J., 17 (8): 1046-1053, 2012


Table 1-4: maximum movements and tension causes in the body of the dam Earthquake Characteristics -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Seismography Earthquake Mnjil station Ab-Bor Center distance from seismography station 40.43km PGAmaximum acceleration 0.50g Normalized to acceleration 0.95g Earthquake amount 7.37M node 1 2 3 Manjil Tonekabon 131.71km 0.08g 0.95g 7.37M 1 2 3 Tabas Tabas 55.24km 0.83g 0.95g 7.35M 1 2 3 Tabas Dihook 20.63km 0.32g 0.95g 7.35M 1 2 3 Anza Terwilliger 7.58km 0.08g 0.95g 5.19M 1 2 3 0.24cm 0.12cm 0.06cm 0.05cm 41kg/cm -40kg/cm2 0.15cm 0.08cm 0.05cm 0.04cm 20kg/cm -22kg/cm2 0.16cm 0.08cm 0.04cm 0.03cm 24kg/cm -24kg/cm2 0.08cm 0.05cm 0.02cm 0.02cm 10kg/cm -12kg/cm2 ANSYS outcomes -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nodes movement in axis x 0.22cm 0.11cm Nodes movement in axis y 0.08cm 0.06cm 42kg/cm -36kg/cm2 Main stresss1 Main stresss3

Tension stress which is shown by SINT in ANSYS has the biggest absolute value between 1 - 2 and 2 - 3 and 3- 1 in other words; = Max(| 3 1|| 2 3| 1 2|) (1-4) And also the equal tension which is shown by SEQV will calculate as below
int

mountain fault MFF located 68/37km from the dam and Dezfool fault 13km from the dam. CONCLUSION In the center of the quake, the higher frequencies are stronger but as we get further away the waves weaken and lose their power as can been seen from Table 1-4 in quakes that are near squre and have a high frequency can cause small structures which have high mode frequency to encounter tremendous shakes and vibrations. The 3 tension which are the most negative tensions (pressed) in the dam as can been seen in 8a in node 3 and at the Dams toe to be in the most severe circumstance (Manjl quake) to reach -36kg/cm2, but in fig8b the pressure tension causes in the dams pivot and in node2 reach -42kg/cm2 and in both cases are less than the approved tensions In the five quakes the accelerations have been normalized to 0.95g and because of this all considered accelerations on the ANSYS software are of an equal maximum. Due to this the maximum tensions caused in the dams body are a sign that all parameters such as distance and size and maximum acceleration all play a role. The maximum movement was seen in the tower during Manjil and Anza quake calculating at 0.24cm. The tension stress made in the pivot of the dam in the Majil and Anza quake was more than the approved tension and can cause cracks in the body of the dam

1 = ( ( SEQV 2
= SEQV

2 1) + (
2

2 3) + (
2

2 2 (2-4) 2) )
2

1 ( ( 2 6(

x 2

y)

+( +

z)

+(

x)

xy

yz

xz

1 2 2 2 ) )

(3-4)

The results of the analysis can also be shown as tension contour in ANSYS. Fig 10 is showing the 3s main tension during Manjil quake at Ab-Bor Station. Fig 11 is showing the normalized tension in the y direction in Manjil Quake in Ab-Bor Station. As can been seen in Table 1-4 the result of the dynamic analysis of regulatory dam during three different quakes(Manjil, Tabas and Anza)was shown using main maximum tension in the x and y on the pivot and toe of the dam and also maximum movement in the tower of the dam using the above frames. It should be noted that these results are normalized to the probability of an earthquake of 10% and over 200 years, also the power of earthquake of these faults is of great confidence. The distance between the centers of the quake from the Dezfool regulator dam in this study was considered to be the same distance as to the station. These faults include the 1052

World Appl. Sci. J., 17 (8): 1046-1053, 2012

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank:Chancellor for Research of Islamic Azad University. REFERENCES 1. Cai, Q.J.M. Robberts and B.W.J. Van Rensburg, 2008. Finite element fracture modeling of concrete gravity dams, Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering, pp: 3-8. Chopra, A.K., 1988. Earthquake response analysis of concrete dam's in R.B. Jansen (e.d), Advanced dam engineering for design, construction and rehabilitation, Van No strand Reinhold, New york, pp: 416-465.

3.

4.

5. 6.

2.

Lynch, J.P., (Fall Semester 2004-2005). CEE810 (CEE619)-Advanced Structural Dynamics and Smart Structures (3 Credits), Michigan University. Johangara, F. and V. Lotfi, 1991. Dynamic analysis of concrete gravity dams by combination of boundary elements method and finite element method. First International conference on seismology and earthquake engineering Tehran. ANSYS, Inc. ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide Release 12.0.1. 2009 SAS IP, Inc. Tao, W., Z. Xianqian and Z. Jianmin, 2008. Research on choice of dam foundation elevation in hydropower engineering.

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