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# CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD

A. Method of Research Method of this research is experimental method. Experimental method is a way to find the causal relation between two factors which is done accidentally (Arikunto, 2010: 9). In other word, experimental method is done for finding whether or not it gives an effect of something. This research belongs to quasi-experimental. This is a method which is considered as one of the common designs used in educational research. This research is using this method because it will be done to know the comparison between the experimental class which will get treatment and the control class which will not get treatment (Suwartono, 2007: 58). The design is as follows: Experimental group A X B Control group Where: A: Pre test B: Post test X: Treatment A B

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B. Place and Time of Research This research will be done at SMK Muhammadiyah Belik Pemalang in academic year 2012/2013. The schedule of the research is in table 1. Table 1 The Time of Research No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Activity Observation Making proposal Doing pre-test Doing treatment Doing post-test Analyzing data Making a report Month Apr May

Jan

Feb

Mar

Jun

Jul

Aug

C. Participants The participants of this research are second grade students in SMK Muhammadiyah Belik Pemalang in academic year 2012/2013. The numbers of the students are 278 students.

D. Technique of Collecting Data In this research, test will be use as an instrument to collect data. Test is questions or exercises which are used to measure skill, knowledge and intelligent or talent owned by individuals or group (Arikunto, 2010: 193). This research use two kinds of test, those are pre-test and post-test as the instrument to collect data. Both of two tests are described as follows:

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a. Pre-test Pre-test will be conducted before the treatment is given. It is use to find out the students reading mastery before the groups are given the treatment. b. Post-test Post-test will be conducted after the treatment is given in the treatment class. It is used to measure the effect of certain treatment.

E. Identification of the Variable Variable is the object of the research. In this case, the variables that will be found are: a. Independent variable (x) It is a variable that is assumed to be the cause of the other variable. In this research, the independent variable will be self-assessment technique. b. Dependent variable (y) It is a variable that is assumed to be the result of independent variable. In this research, the dependent variable will be teaching speaking.

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## F. Technique of Instrument Analysis 1. Reliability formula of reliability is:

Notes: r 11 = Reliability k Vt p = The total items = The total variant = Proportion of subject who answer the questions with the correct item (the proportion of subjects who have a score 1) q = Proportion of subjects who get score of 0 (q=1p)

pq = The sum of multiplication between the number of subjects who answered correctlyand the number of subjects who answer incorrectly To find reliability, there are some steps that will be used. The steps are as follows: a. Determining the total variant (Vt) To determine the total variants of the students score, it uses the formula as follows:

Vt =

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Notes: y N = The sum of Y score = The sum square of Y score = Total respondents

## b. Calculating pq In calculating pq here are the steps: 1) Determining p

P=
2) Determining q Q=1p

## 2. Validity The formula is as follows:

Notes: = Person product moment x y = the sum of the scores in x distribution = the sum of the scores in y distribution = the sum of squared scores in x distribution

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= the sum of squared scores in y distribution xy n = the sum of the product of paired in x and y distribution = the number of samples To compute the calculation above, it will be used some step as follows:
a. Finding

In this step, it must be computed by the total number who answers correctly in one question.
b. Finding

In this step, it must be computed by the total number of all the students.
c. Finding

In this step, it can be calculated by the multiplication between the score of students and the total score of the students.
d. Finding

In this step, it must be squared by the score of the students one by one then total them. If r-counted is higher than r-table it means that the question of the test is valid. (Arikunto, 2010: 213)

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G. Technique of Data Analysis The data of this research will be in the form of scores by using t-test compulsion. It is a technique that compares the mean of two scores from two independent samples. The formula of t-test is as follows:

T=
Notes: Mx My = The mean of control group = The mean of experiment group = The sum of quadrate, gain pre-test and post-test in control group = The sum of quadrate, gain pre-test and post-test in experiment group Nx Ny = The number of student of control group = The number of students of experiment group (Suwartono, 2007: 45-46)