yarn

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yarn

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Textile Fibre Yarn Count
- Textile Formula
- BITRA norms
- Weaving Preparatory Process
- Terry Weaving
- Yarn Processing
- Cv Calculation
- Yarn Characteristics
- Weaving
- USTER's Yarn Count Chart
- Weaving Calculation
- Picanol Weaving
- Weaving Calculation
- Warping
- Woven Fabric Calculation(1)
- Yarn-Numbering-Systems
- [Yarn Diameter Diameter Variation and Strength]
- Tensile Properties of Textile Yarn
- Yarn Converting Formula
- Quality control in Weaving

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Yarn numbering system in Textile consist of two namely : In-Direct Numbering System Length per unit of mass, where a higher count number denotes a thicker yarn. (Ne1) Direct Numbering System Mass per unit of length, where a higher count number denotes a thicker yarn (Denier (D) and Tex

I.

In the cotton system of numbering yarns, which includes ; spun rayons and spun silk. All counts are based on the standard length of 840 yards ( 1 hank) that mean a hank of cotton yarn contains 840 yards. The method of numbering cotton yarn is that of calling one pound of yarn that contain one hank (840 yards). If one pound of yarn contains two hanks (840 x 2) it would be 2s yarn or number two yarn. Thus it will be seen that the yarn number increases as the size of the yarn decreases or, the finer the yarn, the higher the number. It is evident that the number of hanks that it take to weigh one pound determines the count of the yarn. A 120 yard skein is ordinarily used in making yarn number calculation.

The fundamental equation for calculating yarn numbers is by definition: 840 yards = one pound (1) 840 x 1 Or, 840 yards of number one yarn must weight one pound. Therefore, the general equation may be formulated as, Yards = Pounds (2) 840 x count Two equations which may be used to advantage when a reel is used may be derived from equation (2) Multiplying equa.(2) through by 7000 to convert pounds to grains gives, 7000 x yards 840 x count = 7000 x lbs = Grains

Next, multiplying numerator and denominator of left hank side by 1/7 and rearranging gives, (1000) (yard) = Counts 120 x grains When a 120 yard skein is used, the equation becomes, 1000 x 120 yards = Counts 120 x grains Or, (3) (3a)

This equation is convenient for yarn calculations. Dividing through by 10 gives: 100 x yards = Counts ..(3b) 12 x grains Or, 100 Wt.in gr of 12 yards

Example : No.1. Find the yarn number of a 120 yard skein weighing 25 grains. Solving for counts: 1000 25 = 40s

Example No.2. How many yards on a bobbin of 30s yarn, if the net weight of the yarn is a one ounce ? Solving for yardage: Yards = 1 840x30 16 Yards = 1 (840) (30) = 1575 16

II.

This system of numbering yarns includes; mohair, alpaca, camel hair and cashmere. The method of numbering these yarns is that of calling one pound of yarn that contains 560 yards (one hank) 1s yarn. If one pound of yarn contains two hanks, that is 2 x 560 = 1120 yards, it would be 2s yarn. That mean, the yarn number increases as the size of the yarn decreases. The fundamental equation for calculating yarn numbers in this system is, by definition: 560 yards = one pound ..(4) 560 x 1s Or, 560 yards of number one yarn must weight one pound The general equation may formulated as

Yards = Pounds ..(5) 560xCount The following equation may be used to find the yarn number when a reel is used : 1000 Wt.in grains of 80 yards = Count .(6)

Example 3. What is the yarn number of an 80 yards skein weighting 50 grains ? Substituting into equation (6) 1000 50 = 20s worsted

Example 4. How many yards are on a pincop of 20s worsted yarn weighting one ounce ? Substituting into equation (5) Yards = 1 560 x 20 16 Yards = 560 x 20 x 1/16 = 700. III. Woolen (Cut) (300yards to the cut, hank or lea)

This system of numbering yarn includes linen, hemp, jute and ramie. The method of numbering these yarns is that of calling one pound of yarn that contains 300 yards one cut. If one pound of yarn contain three cuts, that is, 300 x 3 or 900 yards, it would be three cut yarn. The fundamental equation for calculating yarn numbers in this system is, by definition : 300 yards = One pound .(7) 300x1s

Or, 300 yards of one cut yarn must weigh one pound.

The general equation may be formulated as, Yards 300xcut = One pound (8)

The following equation may be used to find the cut when a reel is used: 1000 = Cut (9a) Wt.in grains of 42.8 yds Or, 2333.3 = Cut (9b) Wt.in grains of 100 Yds

Example 5. What is the yarn number (cut) of a 300 yards skein of woolen yarn weighing one ounce ? Substituting into equation (8): 300 300 x cut = 1/16

Cut = 300 = 16 cut 300 x 1/16 Example 6. What is the yarn number of a 42.8 yards skein of woolen yarn weighing 50 grains ? Substituting into equation (9a): 1000 = 20s woolen cut. 50

IV.

This system of numbering yarns is that of calling one pound of yarn that contains 100 yards (one cut). If one pound of yarn contains 100 x 5 = 500 yards, it would be fice cut asbestos or glass yarn. The foundamental equation for calculating yarn numbers in this system is, by definition: 100 yards 100x1 cut = One pound .(13)

Or, 100 yards of one cut asbestos (or glass) yarn must weigh one pound. The general equation for use in this system is Yards = Pounds (14) 100xcut Example: No.7. What cut asbestos yarn will be necessary, if 1000 yards of yarn must weigh one pounds ? Substituting into eq.(14) and solving for cut: Cut = 1000 = 10 cut asbestos 100x1 V. Jute System (Spindle = No.lbs.per 14,400 yards)

This system of numbering yarns is that of giving the weight of a 14,400 yard spindle in pounds. This system is also a direct one, since it is based on the number of pounds in a given number of yards (14,400). The equation to use in calculating jute spindles is: Spindle = No.lbs. in a 14,400 yard hank ..(18a) = 100 x number pounds in 144 yards ..(18b) The general eq. for use in making calculations involving this system of yarns is derived from (18a), and is :

Spindle = 14,400 x lbs (19) Yards Example; 8. What is the spindle of a 144 yard skein of jute yarn weighing 0.1 pound ? Substituting directly into (18b); 100 x 0.1 = 10 spindle jute yarn. VI. Denier System (grams per 9000 meters)

This system of numbering yarn includes the numbering of silk, nylon,vinyon, acetate, nitrocellose, viscose and cupramonium rayon. The method of numbering these yarns is that of giving the weight of 9000 meteres in grams. If 9000 yards of rayon yarn weigh 40 grams it will be called denierrayon. The formula used in calculating the denier of a yarn or filament is : Denier = Weight in grams of 9000 meters .(20a) = 20 x wt.in grams of 450 meters (20b) Which may be expressed as : Denier = Weight in grams of 450 meters (20c) 0.05 From the above relation eq. (20a), a general equation for use in finding the weight, denier or length of any given sample of yarn may be formulated: Denier = 9000 x grams ............................................(21) Meters Example: 9. What is the weight in grams of 300 meters of a three denier yarn ? Substituting directly into equation (21): 3 = 9000 x grams 300

VII. The Universal Grex System (Grams per 10,000 meters) This system is one of the lates methods of numbering yarns and, as the name indicates, it is to be used for numbering all yarns. The fundamental formula for use in calculating yarn number is: Grex = number of gram in 10,000 meters of yarn .(22a) = 20 x number of grams in 500 meters of yarn ...(22b) = 100 x number of grams in 100 meters of yarn .(22c) If 10,000 yards of yarn weigh 100 grams it will be 100 Grex (gx) yarn. A general equation for use in finding the Grex number, meters, or weight in grams for any given sample of yarn is : Grex = 10,000 x grams .(23) Meters Example: No. 10. What is the Grex number, if 500 meters weigh 2.0 grams ? Substituting directly into (23): Grex = 10,000 x 2 = 40 Grex 500 VIII. International Metric System (No. meters per gram) The system of numbering yarns includes all yarns. The general equation for use in finding the count(metric) for any saple of yarn is : Meters = Count (metric) ..(27) Grams Example : No. 11. What is the length in meters of 20 grams of 30s count yarn ?

Substituting into equation (27) Meters = 20 x 30 = 600 Another equation which may be used to advantage is : Yards = Pounds (28) 497x count

CONVERTING FROM ONE YARN SYSTEM TO ANOTHER It is often necessary and desireable to transform from one system of numbering yarns to another. For example, if a ply yarn is composed of one end of cotton and one end of rayon, it is necessary to transform either to the denier or to the cotton system to obtain the resultant yarn number. Example A. To convert from cotton count to denier. Locate cotton on row; it is on row 1. Locate denier on column; it is on column 8. The intersection of row 1 and column 8 gives 5319 which is Ct conversion factor to convert from cotton to denier. If cotton count is 10s the corresponding count in denier system would be: 5319= 531,9 denier. 10 (1) Cotton Hank (spun silk, spun rayon) To convert cotton hank to worsted hank: Cotton hank : Worsted hank : Yards = Lbs 840xcount Yards = Lbs 840xcount

Examples Illustrating Use of Table I Conversion Factors(Attach) Procedure to use in converting from one system to another : Rule: Always go from row to column in converting from one system to another. Example 1. To convert from cotton to denier. Locate cotton on row; it is on Row 1 and on Column; it is on column 8. The intersection of Row 1 and Column 8 gives: (5315) which conversion factor to convert from cotton to denier. Ct If cotton count is 10s the corresponding count in denier system would be 5319= 531.9 denier 10

Example 2. To convert from cotton to Denier system 9000 meters/gram = one denier Denier = 9000 x 39.37 x 454 = Yds/lbs = Hank 36 Yds/hank Pound 840 x Count Denier = 4,468,495 840 x Ct = 5319 Count

PLY YARNS AND RESULTANT COUNT Yarns are frequently used which are composed of two or more threads twisted together. Also, for certain purposes, two or more of these twisted threads may be cabled together to form heavier and stronger yarns.This combined number is called the resultant count and may be expressed in any of the yarn numbering systems. An equation for finding the resultant counts will now be developed for each namely: I. Ply yarns of the same count and same system An equation for use in solving ply yarns in this class is, Ct = Rc .(29) n Where: Ct = Count of yarn plied n = number of plys Rc = Resultant count Example: Given: 2 ply 20s. Find the resultant count. Substituting into equations(29): 20 = 10s 2 Ordinarily the yarn will be called twentys two ply (20s/2) and the resultant count (10s)

Ply yarns of different count, but expressed in the same reciprocal system Example : Find the resultant counts of 10s, 20s and 30s cotton yarn twisted together. Solution: 30 = 1; 30 =1.5; 30 = 3 30 20 10

II.

1 + 1.5 + 3 = 5.5 The resultant count is : 30 = 5.45s 5.5 The general equation for use in finding resultant counts by this method is: 1 + 1 + 1 + = 1 .(30) C1 C2 C3 Rc Where; C1, C2, C3 ..Ca represents yarn number and Rc = Resultant count. Example : Given : A ply yarn composed of one strand each of 10s, 20s and 30s. Find the resultant count. Solution: Substituting into eq. (30) gives: resultant count 1 + 1 + 1 = 0.1 + 0.05 + 0.003 = 0.183 lb/hank = 1 = 5.46s 10 20 30 0.183 III. Resultant counts for yarns expressed in direct units

Expressed in mathematical form, Rc = C1 + C2 + C3 + Cn(31) Where the Cs indicate count of each yarn and Rc the resultant count. Example: Three rayon yarns weighing three grams, eight grams and twelve grams respectively, per 9000 meters. Find resultant count when the yarns are plied together. Solution: Rc = 3 + 8 + 12 = 23s (denier) Ply yarns composed of different materials and expressed in different systems When twisted yarns are composed of different materials, or are expressed in different yarn numbering systems, it is necessary to first reduce all of yarn to one of given systems, or to some other system. IV.

Example : A ply yarn is composed of one strand of 20s cotton and one strand of 20s worsted yarn; the worsted yarn requires 120 for 100 of cotton, in order words, require 20% more length. Find resultant count. Convert the worsted to cotton: 20 x 0.667 = 13.34s 20 = 1; 20(1.20) = 1.5 (1.20) = 1.8 20 13.34 20 hank weigh 2.8 lbs 20 = 7.14s resultant count (expressed in cotton hank) 2.8

PERTEMUAN MINGGU KEENAM YARN DIAMETER Due to cross-section of yarn is not a true circle, therefore a yarn have not diameter. Many textile experts have been suggested that shape of yarn elliptical and rectangular with semi-circular. If the length of 1kg of C-tex yarn is: 106/C =>meter Let Vy be specific volume of the yarn in meters cubic per kg (m 3/kg), therefore specific volume (Vy, m3) and if the yarn diameter is d (m), hence the specific volume: Vy = d2 x 106 4 C 2 And than to make d

d2 = Vy x 4/ x C/106

Hence:

d=

x 1.128 103

meter

, hence we

d=

d (mm) =

PERTEMUAN MINGGU KETUJUH CALCULATING PERCENTAGE COMPOSITIONS FOR THE NEW FABRIC When several different yarns with differing fiber composition are combined in one fabric, the resulting fiber composition for the new fabric has to be calculated. In either case it is important for designer to understand the procedure. Example: Fabric is made from three yarns namely; Yarn (a) is a cotton/acrylic blend =>50% cotton/50% acrylic Yarn (b) is a linen/cotton blend => 60% linen/ 40% cotton Yarn (c) is 100% acrylic Apiece of the fabric weighs 400 grams To work out the percentage composition of the fibers in the fabric it is necessary to rove the fabric. The resulting unroved yarns are weighed as yarns (a), (b) and (c) it is found that; Yarn (a) weighs 175 grams Yarn (b) weighs 125 grams Yarn (c) weighs 100 grams From this information we can work out the percentage composition of yarns in the fabric and therefore the percentage composition of the fibers. The percentage composition of yarns in the fabric: Yarn (a) as a percentage is 175 x 100 = 43.75% 400 Yarn (b) as a percentage is 125 x 100 = 31.25% 400 Yarn(c) as a percentage is 100 x 100 = 25% 400 The percentage composition of fibers in the fabric: 43.75% of the fabric is made up of yarn (a). This yarn is 50% cotton/50% acrylic % cotton = 50% of 43.75% = 21.87% % acrylic = 50% of 43.75% = 21.87%

31.25% of the fabric is made up of yarn (b). This yarn is 60% linen/40% cotton. % linen = 60% of 31.25% = 60 x 31.25% = 18.75% 100 % cotton = 40% of 31.25% = 40 x 31.25% = 12.50% 100 25% of fabric is made up of yarn (c). This yarn is 100% acrylic % acrylic = 100% of 25% = 25% To get the percentage composition of the fibers in the fabric we must add together the percentage compositions as established: % cotton = 21.87% + 12.5% = 34.37% ~ 34% ] % acrylic = 21.86% + 25% = 46.87% ~ 47% ] to the nearest whole %linen = 18.75% ~ 19% ] number Alternatively, the fiber composition can be worked out as below: Yarn (a) weights 175bgrams and is 50% cotton/50% acrylic. Therefore weight of cottongrams is 50% 0f 175 = 87.5 grams and Weight of acrylic is 50% of 175 grams = 87.5 grams Yarn (b) weight 125 grams and is 60%, linen 40% cotton; Therefore weight of linen is 60% of 125 grams = 60 x 125 = 75 grs 100 And weight of cotton is 40% of 125 grams = 40/100 x 125 = 50grs Yarn (c) weighs 100 grams and is 100% acrylic; Therefore weight of acrylic 100 grams. The weights of the fibers are therefore: Cotton =>87.5 grams + 50 grams = 137.5 grams Acrylic =>87.5 grams + 100 grams = 187.5 grams Linen => 75 grams

And finally, the percentage composition are: % Cotton = 137.5 x 100 = 34.38 = 34% 400 % acrylic = 187.5 x 100 = 46.88 =47% 400 % linen = 75 x 100 = 18.75 = 19% 400

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