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Inspection of Faults in Textile Web Materials using

Wavelets and ANFIS

B. Venkatesan
, u.S.Ragupathy
, P.Vidhyalakshmi
, B.Vinoth
Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering
Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode-638 052.
Tamilnadu, India
Abstract:Quality is the watchword of any type of business. A
product without quality leads to loss and lack of customer
satisfaction. This is true in case of textile industries also. Textile
manufacturing is a process of converting various types of fbers
into yarn, which in turn woven into fabric. Weaving process is
used to produce the fabric or cloth by interlacing two distinct set
of yarn threads namely warp and weft yarn. In textile industries,
quality inspection is one of the major problems for fabric
manufacturers. At present, the fault detection is done manually
afer production of a sufcient amount of fabric. The fabric
obtained from the production machine are batched into larger
rolls and subjected to the inspection frame. The nature of the
work is very dull and repetitive. Due to manual inspection of the
manufactured fabric, there is a possibility of human errors with
high inspection time, hence it is uneconomical. This paper
proposed a PC-based inspection system with benefts of low cost
and high detection rate. Both normal and faulty images are
processed and features are extracted by using Gray Level Co
occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and classifcation is done using
Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Proposed
scheme performs 36.66% better than the existing microcontroller
based classifcation system.
Kewords: ANFIS; Textile Defect Detection; GLCM; Wavelet
The Indian textile industry has a major impact on the
world economy through millenniums. At present, all the
textile industries aim to produce good quality fabrics with
high production rate. In the textile sector, there are huge losses
due to faulty fabrics. The fabric is obtained by interweaving of
warp and wef ya. The raw material for the garment industry
is available in the form of continuous rolls. Nearly, 85% of the
defects in the gament industry are due to the faults found in
the fabrics. These faults are obtained in the fabrics due to
irregular weaving of warp ad wef yam in the weaving
process. Hence fabric inspection is utmost important for
maintaining its quality.Most defects in cloth occur while it is
woven on the loom. Some of these fabric defects are visible,
while others are not. Again some fabric defects may be
978-1-4673-2322-2112/$31.00 2012 IEEE
identifed during weaving and some afer weaving. The
maual inspection of fabric material is not economical.Hence,
the investment in automated fabric defect detection is more
economic when reduction in labor cost and other benefts are
The various fault detection approaches for textile web
material is given in [1 ].An automated defect detection and
classifcation system enhances the product quality and results
in increased productivity [2]. Improved gabor flters for textile
detection results in less computational complexity as well as
possibility of online implementation. Auto-correlation is used
as a robust algorithm for pattered and un-pattered fabric
detect detections [3]. In the fabric fault detection
methodology, wavelet transform with multiresolution level 3
gives better results than the other traditional methods like
Fourier Transform and Sobel Algorithm of edge detection
[4]. Multi Resolution Combined Statistical and Spatial
Frequency (MRCSF) methodology is the combination of frst
order and second order statical properties combined with
spatial fequency of multiresolution analysis. This method
succeeded in classifing the fabric with repeated patters as
defective or non-defective based on the MRCSF [5].
Comparing with the traditional fequency fltering techniques
such as ideal, butterworth, exponential and trapezoid low and
high flters, the multi-scale analysis ability of Wavelet
transform performs much better, All the classifers require
training fom the known classes of fabric defects. A large
number of classes with large intra-class diversity remainas
major problem in using Feed-forward Neural Network (FFN)
and Support Vector Machines (SVM) based inspection
techniques [8] & [9].
On detail review of the above literatures, an idea about
fabric inspection method is proposed. The rest of the paper is
organized as follows. The proposed methodology with its
block diagram is given in section II. Section III discuss about
the wavelet transform. GLCM formulation and fture
extraction is presented in section IV. Results and
Discussionare presented in section V. Conclusion is drawn in
section Vl.In this project, offine inspection is made.
Using PIC microcontroller, detection of fault is basically
done by using Neural Network. The overall accuracy to detect
fault is 76.33% [lO].The images of fabric material with
diferent faults are captured and then processed. Images with
No fault, Hole, Oil Spot and Hole with Oil Spot are
considered for inspection. The proposed scheme tries to
strengthen the fault detection rate. It consists of fve major

Image Acquisition


Wavelet Transform

GLCM formulation and Feature Extraction

First images are captured using the CCD cameras. The
second step involves that the RGB color image into gray
conversion and the histogram equalization. The third step
involves the wavelet transform of the preprocessed image. The
fourth is the formulation of GLCM and feature extractions,
and the ffh step is fault classifcation using Adaptive Neuro
Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS).
There are two common types of scanning techniques
employed for the fabric inspection cameras: line scanning and
area scanning. The disadvantage with the line scan cameras is
that they do not generate complete image at once and requires
exteral hardware to build up images fom multiple line scans.
For area scan cameras, the usage of transport encoders is
optional and the inspection resolution in both directions is
independent of web speed. In this project, the camera having
high resolution of659x498 (HxV Pixels) with Charge Coupled
Device (CCD) sensor technology, which is capable of 71
fames/second is used. The pixel data coming fom the camera
is converted into a digitized image by the fame grabber. All
web inspection systems used for fabric inspection, have to
cope with the mUltiple camera inputs. Some systems do this
by using some kind of video multiplexer unit between the
camera and the fame grabber. A rather expensive way to cope
with multiple cameras is to use one fame grabber unit per
camera. IEEE 1 394 FireWire cable is used for communication
between camera and Vision system, and Etheret cable is used
for communication between the Vision system and working
station (PC). Web material images are captured through the
camera using vision system with the help of Vision Assistant
toolkit, and then processed with the help of MA TLAB
In the proposed scheme, the image obtained fom image
grabber or digital cameras are preprocessed and analyzed for
fault detection and classifcation. During preprocessing, the
fabric color image is converted into gray scale image. The
converted gray scale image is then histogram equalized and
wavelet transform is performed, so that the resultant image
will have the fault in an enhanced form. Thus the resultant
image will be more suitable with distinct fault for detection.
Five co-occurrence matrices are calculated fom the
resultant image, four matrices in different orientations
' (k 1,2,3,4) and the ffh matrix is constructed as
the mean of the preceding four matrices calculated at diferent
angles. Four independent statistical features are extracted fom
the GLCM [1 1 ] and given as inputs to adaptive neuro-fzzy
network. The adaptive neuro-fzzy system is used to classif
the diferent type of faults. The block diagram of the proposed
method of fault detection is illustrated in the Fig. 1 .
Image Result

Adaptive Neuro-
Fuzzy Inference
! f
Figure 1 . Block diagram of proposed method
The information that is not readily seen in the time domain
can be seen in the fequency domain. To separate the low and
high fequency components of the image, scaling and wavelet
flter function coefcients are used respectively. By using
these fnctions, the information contents of the image are
separated corresponding to low and high fequencies.
The wavelet is constructed by scaling function satisfing
the two-scale difference equations giving in (1 ) and (2) [1 2].
c(x) L
h(k)c (2x - k) (1 )
t(x) vL
g(k)c (2x - k) (2)
g(k) (_l)
(l- k) (3)
The wavelet bases obtained through the above (1 ) and (2)
procedure be unique, orthononal and have desired regularity
[1 3].Multiresolution decomposition using gabor flter results
in redundant features at different scales. This is due to non
orthogonality. Orthogonal wavelets are not redundant and are
suitable for image denoising and compressing.
Biorthogonalwavelet usually has a linear phase property and is
suitable for image feature extraction. The multiresolution
decomposition using orthogonal and compact supported
wavelet bases can be used to avoid the correlation of features
between the scales. Fig. 2. shows the result of Wavelet
decomposed images of web material.


Figure 2. Two levels of wavelet decomposition
Image analysis consists of two steps: Feature
Extraction and Recognition (Classifcation). Various
techniques are presented like Markov Random Field (MRF),
Gabor Filter, Spatial Gray Level Dependence Matrix
(SGLDM), Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRLM), and
Gray level Dependence Matrix (GLOM) in [1 4]. At
present, research for texture feature extraction is focused
through GLCM.
A. Gra Level Co-occurrence Matri (GLCM)
Features are extracted by computing GLCM, which is used to
describe the texture as a matrix of 'pair gray level
probabilities'. This helps to fnd gray-level pairs, which are all
more dominant and which are all less dominant, and in some
cases, It IS applicable forstochastic textures by randomly
deciding pixel according to pair gray level probabilities. From
the GLCM, four features have been extracted. The extracted
features are Contrast,Correlation, Energy and Homogeneity.
C Class ication
The ANFlS is used for defect classifcation. The extracted
four features are considered as an input to the ANFIS and it
classifes the given input as either Not faulty image or Hole or
Oil Spot or Hole with Oil Spot. ANFlS parameter details are
shown in table I.
Parameters Values
No. of Inputs 4
No. of Output 1
No. of Nodes 1 93
No. of Linear Parameter 405
No. of Non-linear Parameter 24
No. of rules 81
Learing method Hybrid
MSE 0.0952
Figure 3. Architecture of the ANFIS used for training and
In this paper, 40 images have been considered with 30 faulty
images, and results are compared with the existing systems for
the validation. The experiment is conducted in two phases:
Training and Testing. Te existing microcontroller based
fabric inspection is compared with the ANFIS based
inspection system. Results obtained through the proposed
scheme are compared with the existing scheme and the results
are shown in table 2.Figure 4 gives the resultant images and
Figure 4 gives the comparison of classifcation result.

(a) (b) (c)
Figure 4. Results of sample images with Various Defects (a)
Hole (b) Oil Spot (c) Hole with Oil Spot

No. of
No. of
Inspection Fabric
Method Image
40 30
based 40 30
Inspection 40 30
Manual Microcontroller Proposed
No. of No. of
Images Fault
Identifed Classif-
as Faulty ed
29 28
21 18
30 29
Images Identificated as faulty
Fault Eactly clasSified
Figure 5. Comparison of classifcation results between the
existing and proposed method
In this paper computer aided fabric fault detection is
implemented. Wavelet transform is performed and
theFeaturesare extracted by formulation of GLCM for
improved fault classifcation. Proposed method performing
likes manual inspection and provides more effciency than the
existing method as well as the manual inspection method.
We sincerely acknowledge the Department of Science
and Technology for their fnancial support and encouragement
in carrying out this project.
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