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Violence Against Women

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Presented by : Sukriti kapoor 2k9/EC/713

Violence Against Women

Violence Against Women


The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993) defines violence against women as any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such act, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in pubic or in private life.

Violence against women

Violence against women often occurs as a part of a

traditional or a religious belief . Traditional forms include FGM ( also called female circumcision), honour killing , early marriages.

Violence against women


Female genital mutilation

In some parts of the world specially africa and asia , a kind of operation is performed on girls of age 4-6 yrs to ensure their purity. This operation involves the removal or the cutting of the external genitalia. FGM is believed to prevent a woman to have sexual desires so that she is faithful to her husband .

Violence Against Women


Domestic violence According to the 2003 report by human rights watch , many women in Uganda are harmed or even killed in domestic violence.Wives are routinely beaten because their husbands consider them to be property.

Violence Against Women

Phase 1. Pre-birth

Type of violence Sex-selective abortion

Violence Against Women


2 Infancy Female infanticide; physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Child marriage: female genital mutilation; physical sexual and physiological abuse.

3 Girlhood

Violence Against Women


4 Adolescence and Adulthood Dating and courtship violence (acid throwing and date rape) economically coerced sex ( e.g. school girls having sex with "sugar daddies" in return for school fees); incest; sexual abuse in the workplace; rape; sexual harassment; forced prostitution and pornography;

Violence Against Women


trafficking in women; partner violence; marital rape; dowry abuse and murders; partner homicide; psychological abuse; abuse of women with disabilities; forced pregnancy. Forced "suicide" or homicide of widows for economic reasons, sexual, physical and psychological abuse.

5 Elderly

(Source: Violence Against Women,WHO,FRH/WHD/97.8)

Violence Against Women


Factors That Perpetuate violence 1 Cultural - Gender-specific socialization - Cultural definitions of appropriate sex roles - Expectations of roles within relationships - Belief in the inherent superiority of males - Values that give men proprietary rights over women and girls

Violence Against Women


2 Economic - Womens economic dependence on men - Limited access to cash and credit - Limited access to employment in formal and informal sectors

Violence Against Women


3 Legal - Lesser legal status of women either by written law and/or by practice - Legal definitions of rape and domestic abuse - Low levels of legal literacy among women - Insensitive treatment of women and girls police and judiciary

Violence Against Women


Health Consequences of Violence Against Women

NON-FATAL OUTCOMES
1. Physical health outcomes: - Injury - Unwanted pregnancy - Gynaecological problems

Violence Against Women


- STDs including HIV/AIDS - Miscarriage - Chronic pelvic pain - Headaches - Permanent disabilities - Self-injurious behaviors (smoking, unprotected sex)

Violence Against Women


2. Mental health outcomes: - Depression - Fear - Anxiety - Low self-esteem - Sexual dysfunction - Eating problems - Obsessive-compulsive disorder - Post traumatic stress disorder

Domestic Violence Against Women And Girls


FATAL OUTCOMES - Suicide - Homicide - Maternal mortality - HIV/AIDS ( Source: Violence against Women , WHO Consultation, 1996)

Domestic Violence Against Women And Girls

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