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International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering& Management (IJAIEM)

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Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013 Page 81



ABSTRACT
This research a review on testing for equality of means against ordered means. Statistical hypothesis testing is a key technique of
frequents statistical inference, and it is widely used, but also much criticized. The critical region of a hypothesis test is the set of
all possible outcomes which, if they occur, well lead us to reject the null hypothesis in favour of alternative hypothesis.

Keywords: testing, equality , means, ordered ,hypothesis testing

1. INTRODUCTION
Hypothesis testing is a method of making statistical decision using experimental data. One use of hypothesis testing is in
deciding whether experimental result contains enough information to cast doubt on conventional wisdom. Hypothesis
testing are performed by many researcher in various fields of inquiry, usually to discover something about particular
process. Literally, hypothesis testing is a method of testing a claim about a parameter in a population, using data
measured in a sample[3,4]. In this method, we test some claim by determine a likelihood that a sample statistic could
have been selected if the hypothesis regarding the population parameter were true.
The null hypothesis is a conservative statement about a population parameter, and it is so termed because it is most in
variably states that the given sample comes from a population. The purpose of hypothesis testing is to test the variability
of the null hypothesis in the light of experimental data.

2. METHODOLOGY
Depending on the data, the null hypothesis either will or will not be rejected as a variable possibility.[6] worked on
hypothesis testing of homogeneity of the form
0 1 2 0 1 2
: ... , : ..
g g
H against the ordered alternative H = = = = < <
Let
0 , , 1 1 ,
1 1 1 1
> < s s =
+ + + i i i i i i i
only if and means of pair each for then g i o o
Hence the test for hypothesis set above becomes
is of estimate unbiased an
g i H against H
i
i
o
o o 1 1 0 min : 0 :
1 1 1 0
= > =

1
1
1
2
2
1

~ , ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
hom var
i i i
i i i
i i i
i i
i i
Y Y
then
N v and
v v Y Y
v Y v Y
under the assumption or ogenity of iances
n n
o
o o o
o
o o
+
+
+
+
=
(

=
= +
= +


A REVIEW ON TESTING FOR EQUALITY
OF MEANS AGAINST ORDERED MEANS

1
SAADU,Y. O,
2
ADEOYE, A.O AND
3
YUSUF, G. A

1
DEPARTMENT OF LIBRARY INFORMATION KWARA STATE POLYTECHNIC ILORIN
2
DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS/STATISTICS FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC OFFA
3
DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS KWARA STATE POLYTECHNIC ILORIN
International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering& Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com
Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013 Page 82

Thus
1 2
1
( )
i i
i
i i
n n
v
n n
o o
+
+
+ (
=
(

(1)
Now consider the quantity m
i
such that
1
1
1 1
2

( )
~ ( , )
i i
i
i i
i i i i i
i i
n n
m and let
n n
m m Y Y
then
N
o
o
+
+
+
=
= =

|
.
|

\
|
=
+ 1 1

i
i
mi Where

The result of the equation (2.3) above is so because:
) ((
) ( (
)

( ) (
1
1
i i
i i
i
Y Y E mi
Y Y mi E
i mi E E
=
=
=
+
+
o

Thus,
( )
1

i i i
i i
E m
+
| |
= =
|
\ .
(2)
Also,

( )
2
2
1
1 1
1 2 1
1 1
1 2 1

( ) ( )
1
( , ,..., )
( , ,.., )
i i i i i
i i
i i
g
g
v v m m v
n n
n n
Now let
and
o o
o


+

= =
+ +
=
+
=
=


1 1 2 2 1 1
'
1 1 2 2 1 1
( ), ( ),..., ( )
( ), ( ),..., ( )
g g g g g
g g g g g
Then
m Y Y m Y Y m Y Y
and
V m m m




( =

( =


Therefore, the hypothesis set can be written in terms of as
i

International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering& Management (IJAIEM)
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Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847

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2
1 1
2
2
1
2
1
) (
1
) (
1
1
1 1 , 0 min : 0 :
i ij
ni
j
g
i
i ij
ni
j
i
i
i i i o
Y Y
g n
S
and
Y Y
n
S
let Now
g i H against H
E E

=
E

=
s s > =
= =
=



2
1
2
) 1 (
1
i
g
i
S ni
g n
S
Then
E

=
=

Where

2
i
S is the sample variance for the i
th
population,
2
1 1 S and g i s s is the pooled sample variance for all the g
population.
Define

'
1 2 1
( , , ... )
g
T T T T

=
1 2 1 2 3 2 1 1
( ), ( ),... ( )
g g g
T m Y Y m Y Y m Y Y

( =


and U as

1
1 1 1 2
, , ...
g
T
T T T
U
S S S S

(
= =
(


Where T
i
is defined as
) (
1 i i i i
Y Y m T =
+

Then, we have

1 1 3 2 2 1
1 2 1
1 2 1
1
( )
( ) ( )
, ,...
( , ,... )
( )
, 1 1
g g
g
g
i i
Y Y
Y Y Y Y
U m m m
S S S
u u u
Where
Y Y
Ui mi i g
S

+
(

=
(

=

= s s

Then, statistic U has a multivariate t distribution with mean and n-g degree of freedom.
) , (
1
g n MT
g

Independent of statistics [1]


1 1
min
s s
=
g i
i
u v Let

Where v is non- decreasing in T and distributed independently of S.
Therefore, in testing the hypothesis,
International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering& Management (IJAIEM)
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Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013 Page 84

0 1 2
1 1 2
: ...
: ...
g
g
H
against
H


= = =
= < <

[1] proposed the test statistic ) (u given by

, ,
1, min
( )
0,
i g n
if u t
u
otherwise
o
|
>

(3)
Where min (u
i
) accepts the preconceived order
1 1 , ,
, 1, 2, ..., 1
i g n
i i g and t
o

+
< = is determine such that
)] ( [ u Eo =, (0,1) and predetermined to satisfy sufficiency criterion.
However, the critical values
o , ,n g
t developed using ordered statistic and its distribution as contained in [1] may be use.
These critical values are generally smaller than the usual critical values of the t-distribution at a specified degree of
freedom. The implication of this is that the critical value of the t-distribution when in use tend to be more conservative
than the critical values
o , ,ni g
t developed for the test. Thus, if test rejects the null hypothesis using the critical values
of the tdistribution it will surely reject it using the critical values
o , ,ni g
t .
In term of
2
1 2
, , ..., ,
g
Y Y Y and S lest becomes

1
, , , 1,..., 1
1 1
2
1 2
( )
1, min
( , , ..., , )
,
i i
g n i g
i g
g
mi Y Y
if t
S
Y Y Y S
o otherwise
o
|
+
=
s s


That is Ho is rejected if,

1
, , , 1,..., 1
1
1
( )

min
i i
g n i g
i i
i i
Y Y
T mi t
S
n n
Where mi
n n
o
+
=
+
+

=
=
+

For equal sample sizes becomes T statistic test the i m ni , =

1
( )

min 1, ..., 1
2
i i
Y Y
m
T i g
S
+

= =
It should be noted that test above reduces to the two-sample one tail t-test when g = 2 and it also inherits the three
optimality properties of Uniformly Most Powerful Unbiased (UMPU), Uniformly Most Powerful Invariant (UMPI) and
Asymptotical Consistency of the two sample one tailed t-test,[1]
However, since the reduces to the two samples one tailed t-test when g= 2, it then shows that statistic T of 5 and 6
follow the multivariate T- distribution. Therefore, the decision rule adopted with unequal sample sizes taken from all the
g population is to reject the null hypothesis H
0
, if
1
1
,1
1
( )

min
i i
i i
n g
i i
Y Y
n n
T t
n n S
o
+
+

+

= >
+
(4)
With equal sample sizes, this reduce to
.
) (
2

, ,
1
o n g
i i
t
S
Y Y
m
T >

=
+

Where ni = m for
o , , n g i
t and is obtained from table of critical values developed to test by [1] which is obtained
using ordered statistics and its distribution. However, these critical values are generally smaller than those obtained using
International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering& Management (IJAIEM)
Web Site: www.ijaiem.org Email: editor@ijaiem.org, editorijaiem@gmail.com
Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013 Page 85

the t-distributions. The implication of this is that the students t-distribution when in use for the ordered alternative
provides a more conservative test then the actual [2]. Furthermore, if the test statistic rejects using the percentage points
of the t-distribution it would be rejected using the actual critical values developed.
However, the rejection or acceptance of the null hypothesis Ho by the proposed test procedure is on the strength of the
alternative set H
1
. In this connection, if Ho is rejected at a specified o level, it shows that the data being analyzed
supports the ordered alternative set of H
1
.[6] developed the test procedure for testing Ho against ordered means with one
of them being the control, assuming homogenous variances. For the general case, we can let
1 +
=
i i
o if and only
if g i where
g i
.... , 3 , 2 , 1 ) ( max = = but for the control
g i
o = where g is fixed and
g i
i g
......., , 2 , 1 ), ( max = = in particular, if
1
represents the mean of population , ...... , 2 , 1 , g i i = the
problem is to test the hypothesis.
1 2 1
1
1 2 1
: ...
: ...
o
g
g
H
against
H

= =
s s s

Where
i
g i
g
Max
s s
=
1
is control mean from the g
th
population. By the term control, we mean that all other g1
treatment means are compared against
g
and serves as the basis of comparison other.

' , 1 1
0 , 1,... 1.
i
i
i g
i
i g
s i g
Define
Then
if and only if i i g

o
o
s s
=
< < =

Therefore, the hypothesis of equation (2.9) becomes
1
1 1
: 0 , 1, 1
: max 0
o i i
i
i g
H i g
against
H
o
o
s s
= =
<

The unbiased estimate of is
i
o

i i g
Y Y o = (5)
Therefore,
| |
g i
g i
g i i
i i i
n n
X v X v
Y Y v v
Where
v N
2 2
) ( ) (
) ( )

(
) ( , ~

o o
o
o o o
+ =
+ =
=

This occurs under equality of variance assumption and independent sampling.
Thus,
International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering& Management (IJAIEM)
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Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013 Page 86

2

( )
i g
i
i g
n n
v
n n
o o
( +
=
(
(


Consider the quantity m
i
which is defined as

) (

1 1
2
1
g i i i i i
g i
g i
i
X X m m
let and
g i
n n
n n
m
= =
s s
(
(

+
=

o

Then, we have that,

2
~ ( , )
( )
i i
i i i g
N
Where m
o
=

( )
( )
2 2
]

[ ]

[
) ( )

(
o o o
o
= = =
= =
i i i i i
g i
i i i r
v m m v v and
m E m E Since

Now, let

) . .......... , , (
) .. ,......... , (
1 1
1 1
2
1
2
1

=
=
g
g
i
and



Then

1
1
1 2 2 1 1
1
1 2 1
1 2 1
( ), ( ),... ( ),
, , ...,
g g g g g
g
g g g g
m m m
and
m m m


( =

( | | | | | |
=
| | | (
\ . \ . \ .

Therefore, equation (2.11) becomes
1
1 1
: 0 , 1,..., 1
: max 0
o i i
i
i g
H i g
against
H

s s
= =
<

Suppose we define statistic T as
| | ) ( ... ),........ ( ), ( 1
1
2 3
2
1
1
2

= g g
g
Y Y m Y Y m Y Y m T
=(T
1
, T
2
,,T
g-1
) and
S
2
, the pooled sample variance for all the g populations as

2
1 1
2
) (
1
i ij
ni
j
g
i
X X
g n
S E E

=
= =

i
g
i
i i
g
i
n n Where
S n
g n
S
is That
1
2
1
2
,
) 1 (
1
=
=
E =
E

=


2
S is the sample variance for the i population, independent of T.
International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering& Management (IJAIEM)
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Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013 Page 87


1
1
1 1 3 2 2 1
1 2 1
1 2 1
( )
( ) ( )
, ,...,
( , , ... )
g g
g
g
T
U
S
Y Y
Y Y Y Y
U m m m
S S S
U U U

=
(

=
(

=

Therefore, statistics U is distributed ) , (
1
g n MT
g

multivariate T distribution.
Define statistic H as, H = h(u) =
i
k i
U
1 1
min
s s
. Then H is non-decreasing in T and distributed independent of S
2
. Thus, we
propose a test procedure for testing hypothesis set up as
0
1 1
1, max
( )
0,
i
i k
if u t
u
otherwise
|
s s
>



Where max u
i
shows that the preconceived order
0 1
..., .......... , 2 , 1 , t and g i i
i i
= <
+
is determine
such that ) 1 , 0 ( , )] ( [
0
oc o = u E
H
is predetermined.
In term of
2
1 2
, , ..., ,
g
X X X and S becomes
2
0
1 1
( )
1, max
( , )
,
i g i g
i g
i g
Y Y n n
if t
n n S
Y S
o otherwise
|
s s


>
+

(6)
That is in testing (2.9) the rule is to reject the null hypothesis Ho at a specified type I error if
0
1 1
( )

max
i g i g
i g
i g
Y Y n n
T t
n n S
s s

= <
+
(7)
For equal sample sizes , i m ng ni = = then the rule is to reject Ho if
0
1 1
( )

max
2
i g
i g
Y Y
m
T t
S
s s

= < (8)
For ) 10 . 2 (
i
o define as 1 . ,......... 1
1
= = g i
g
i
o Test reduces to the two sample one side t-test with g = 2
and inherits the three optimality properties of Uniformly Most Powerful Unbiased (UMPU), Uniformly Most Powerful
Invariant (UMPI) and Asymptotical Consistency of the two sample one tailed test, [1]
In this connection, test reduces to the two samples one tail t-test when g 1 =1 and it possesses the three
optimality properties of UMPU, UMPI and consistency using Ho against H
1

Now, if
1
o of (2.10) is redefined as
g i
i
o = then, for i =1, ..g 1,
g i
< , if and only if , 0
i i
> o and
hypothesis set of (2.11) will become

0 min :
1 ........., ,......... 1 , 0 :
1 1
1
>
= =
s s
i
g i
i i o
H
against
g i H
o
o

Following other procedure all through, test of (18) becomes
International Journal of Application or Innovation in Engineering& Management (IJAIEM)
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Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013 ISSN 2319 - 4847

Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013 Page 88

2
0
1 1
( )
1, min
( ,
,
i g i g
i g
i g
Y Y n n
if t
n n S
Y S
o otherwise
|
s s


>
+


For some t
0
. Hence, (2.19) and (2.20) respectively become

0
1 1
0
1 1
( )

min
( )

min
2
i g i g
i g
i g
g i
i g
Y Y n n
T t
n n S
Y Y
m
T t
S
s s
s s

= <
+

= >




REFERENCES

[1] Adegboye, O.S. (1981): On Testing Against Restricted Alternatives In Ganssian Models Ph.D Dissertation,BGSU.
[2] Anne, P.S. and Deborah, I.S. (2002): Combination of Experimental Design Clarendon Press. Oxford
[3] Ott, L. (1984): An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis Second Edition. PWS Publisher
[4] Roussas, G.G. (1973): A First Course in Mathematical Statistics Addison
Wesley Publishing Company Inc.
[5] Yahya, W. B. (2003): Testing Hypothesis Against Ordered Alternative M.Sc Thesis


Saadu, Yusuf olanrewaju was born on 23rd of December, 1984. He finished his National Diploma and Higher
National Diploma in Statistics from kwara state polytechnic, Ilorin in 2005 and 2008 respectively and his just
concluded his Post Graduate Diploma in Statistics from University of Ilorin July 2013. Currently am working at
Kwara State polytechnic, Ilorin as system Analyst in Library Department.

Adeoye Akeem O was born on October 7th 1976 in owu isin, kwara State of Nigeria. He obtained his Higher
National Diploma (H.N.D) in Statistics from the Kwara state polytechnic Ilorin 1n 1999,PGD Statistics in 2008
from University of Ilorin,PGDE Education in 2007 from University of Ado -Ekiti, Teacher training
Certificate(TTC) in 2010 from Federal college of Education Akoka Lagos State, Masters degree (M.Sc) in
Statistics in 2010 from university of Ilorin, Nigeria and currently on his Ph.D in statistics at the university of Ilorin
Nigeria . He has been lecturing Statistics in kwara state polytechnic as an Instructor from April 2005 to March 2013 .He
joined Federal Polytechnic offa from April 2013 to date as a lecturer .He attended many workshop and conferences. He
has thirteen journals for both national and international.


Yusuf Gbemisola .A (Mrs) was born on 1984 from Ajase in ifelodun Local Government Area of kwara State of Nigeria.
She finished his National Diploma and Higher National Diploma in Statistics from Federal Polytechnic, Offa in 2004 and
2007 respectively and she is just concluded her Post Graduate Diploma in Education from Kwara State College of
Education Ilorin August 2013.