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SLOPE STABILITY CLASSIFICATION OF TIME DEPENDENT DETERIORATING SLOPES

Robert Hack Engineering Geology, ESA, International Institute for Geoinformation Sciences and Earth Observation (ITC) The Netherlands

Seoul, Korea, 29 February 2008

(ITC) The Netherlands Seoul, Korea, 29 February 2008 Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Jan van Goyen, View at Leiden, 1650 – Museum Lakenhal, Leiden
Jan van Goyen,
View at Leiden, 1650 – Museum Lakenhal, Leiden

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

2

Slopes in The Netherlands?

Leiden Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 2 Slopes in The
Sassenheim between Leiden and Lisse "A Field of Tulips in Holland", Claude Monet 1886, oil
Sassenheim between Leiden and Lisse
"A Field of Tulips in Holland", Claude Monet 1886, oil on canvas 65.5 x 81.5 cm, Musée d
Orsay, Paris France

3

d Orsay, Paris France 3 Rock slopes in The Netherland s? Seoul, South Korea - classification

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

Dykes have slopes!

(Brouwersdam, The Netherlands)
(Brouwersdam, The Netherlands)
Dykes have slopes! (Brouwersdam, The Netherlands) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability -

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Dyke with basalt cover can be modelled as a discontinuous rock mass

(sea dyke with basalt cover: photo: Sytske Dijksen; http://www.waddenzee.nl/)
(sea dyke with basalt cover: photo: Sytske Dijksen; http://www.waddenzee.nl/)

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Also real rock slopes in the Southern part of The Netherlands!

(ENCI quarry; photo: http://www.beeldexpressie.be/film/)
(ENCI quarry; photo: http://www.beeldexpressie.be/film/)

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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http://www.beeldexpressie.be/film/) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 6

Other reasons to study slopes even if coming from a flat country

Slopes are an ideal study object for soil and rock mechanics in general because:

Soil or rock in tunnels and foundations often not visible Failures in tunnels or foundations not or difficult to study Slopes often easily accessible Often many slopes in a relatively small area

accessible Often many slopes in a relatively small area Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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and not very scientific, but highly important: many Dutch civil engineering companies work worldwide with

and not very scientific, but highly important:

many Dutch civil engineering companies work worldwide with soil and rock slopes

companies work worldwide with soil and rock slopes Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Slope stability Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 9

Slope stability

Slope stability Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 9

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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What is required to analyse the stability of a slope ?

soil and rock mass properties present and future geometry present and future geotechnical behaviour of soil or rock mass external influences such as earthquakes

soil or rock mass external influences such as earthquakes Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

10

Slope stability analyses done per geotechnical unit in a geometrically uniform slope geometry, e.g. a
Slope stability analyses done per geotechnical
unit in a geometrically uniform slope geometry,
e.g. a slope analyses is done for a uniform
material with uniform geometry
Is that possible ?

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Variation

Heterogeneity of mass causes:

variation in mass properties

Heterogeneity of slope geometry causes Variation in geometry

of slope geometry causes Variation in geometry Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Geotechnical unit: A “geotechnical unit” is a unit in which the geotechnical properties are the

Geotechnical unit:

A “geotechnical unit” is a unit in which the geotechnical properties are the same.

a unit in which the geotechnical properties are the same. Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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geotechnical units are based on the experience and expertise of the interpreter

based on the experience and expertise of the interpreter Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope
based on the experience and expertise of the interpreter Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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“No geotechnical unit is really homogene….” A certain amount of variation has to be allowed

“No geotechnical unit is really homogene….”

A certain amount of variation has to be allowed as otherwise the number of units will be unlimited

allowed as otherwise the number of units will be unlimited Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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“The allowable variation of the properties within one geotechnical unit depends on:

the degree of variability of the properties within a mass, the influence of the differences on engineering behaviour, and the context in which the geotechnical unit is used.

and the context in which the geotechnical unit is used. Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Smaller allowed variability of the properties in a geotechnical unit results in: higher accuracy of

Smaller allowed variability of the properties in a geotechnical unit results in:

higher accuracy of geotechnical calculations less risk that a calculation or design is wrong

less risk that a calculation or design is wrong Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Smaller allowed variability of the properties in a geotechnical unit: requires collecting more data and

Smaller allowed variability of the properties in a geotechnical unit:

requires collecting more data and is thus more costly geotechnical calculations are more complicated and complex, and cost more time

are more complicated and complex, and cost more time Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Hence:

the variations allowed within a geotechnical unit for the foundation of a highly sensitive engineering structure (for example, a nuclear power station) is smaller

the variations allowed within a geotechnical unit in a calculation for the foundation of a standard house will be larger

for the foundation of a standard house will be larger Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Examples What are the implications if wrong? Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability

Examples

What are the implications if wrong?

Examples What are the implications if wrong? Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability -

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Original situation

Original situation Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 21

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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design error

design error Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 22

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Example 2: Many discontinuity sets with large variation in orientation (too many for the design
Example 2: Many discontinuity sets
with large variation in orientation
(too many for the design engineer?)

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Example 3: Many discontinuity sets with large variation in orientation
Example 3: Many discontinuity
sets with large variation in
orientation

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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bedding planes Example 4: Variation in clay content in intact rock causes differential weathering April
bedding planes
Example 4: Variation in
clay content in intact rock
causes differential
weathering
April 1990
Slightly higher clay content

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Example 4: Variation in clay content in intact rock causes differential weathering April 1992 mass
Example 4: Variation
in clay content in
intact rock causes
differential
weathering
April 1992
mass slid

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Uncertainty

Uncertainty in properties Uncertainty (error) in measurements of properties Uncertainties in geometry Uncertainty (error) in measurements of geometry (often small) Uncertainty in failure mechanisms applicable Uncertainty in future environment (for example, weathering)

Uncertainty in future environment (for example, weathering) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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Options for analysing slope stability Analytical Numerical Classification Seoul, South Korea - classification

Options for analysing slope stability

Analytical

Numerical

Classification

slope stability Analytical Numerical Classification Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

28

Analysing slope stability

analytical: only in relatively simple cases possible for a discontinuous rock mass numerical: difficult and often cumbersome, however, possible with discontinuous numerical rock mechanics programs such as UDEC

Hence, classification systems may be a good and simple alternative

classification systems may be a good and simple alternative Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

29

What options from existing classification systems? Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability -

What options from existing classification systems?

What options from existing classification systems? Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability -

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

30

Classification systems are empirical relations that relate rock mass properties either directly or via a

Classification systems are empirical relations that relate rock mass properties either directly or via a rating system to an engineering application, e.g. a slope

rating system to an engineering application, e.g. a slope Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

31

Existing classification systems:

For underground:

Bieniawski (RMR) Barton (Q) Laubscher (MRMR) etc.

For slopes:

(RMR) Barton (Q) Laubscher (MRMR) etc. For slopes: Selby Bieniawski (RMR) Vecchia Robertson (RMR) Romana

Selby Bieniawski (RMR) Vecchia Robertson (RMR) Romana (SMR) Haines etc. etc.

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

32

Development of existing rock mass classification systems

First developed for underground excavations Most slope systems are based on underground systems adjusted to be used for slopes

Therefore a legacy in properties and parameters from underground systems

in properties and parameters from underground systems Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

33

Development of existing rock mass classification systems

Most systems that are used at present are based on systems developed some 30 years ago At that time “state-of-the-art” and new, but this is no reason not to investigate whether the systems are still as applicable or that new methodologies (for example, with the use of computers) allow for better systems

with the use of computers) allow for better systems Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

34

Existing rock mass classification systems

Wide variation in rating systems, methodologies, parameters, calculation methods, boundaries, etc. Addition, multiplication, logarithmic, etc. Wide variation in the influence of parameters on the final result In some un-understandable ratings and relations

result In some un-understandable ratings and relations Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

35

Strange influence parameters in some systems

For example:

A slope in a rock mass with a high intact rock strength and one thick clay filled (gauge type) discontinuity set that will lead to sliding failure.

UCS = 150 MPa

35º
35º

36

clay-filled

discontinuity

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

150 MPa 35º 36 clay-filled discontinuity Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert

Strange influence parameters in some systems

In some systems the intact rock strength will partially determine the stability rating, while the slope will be unstable due to the presence of the thick clay filled discontinuity and not at all be influenced by the intact rock strength. How valid is such a system?

UCS = 150 MPa

35º
35º

37

clay-filled

discontinuity

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

150 MPa 35º 37 clay-filled discontinuity Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert
Rock mass parameters of interest for engineering structures in or on rock Seoul, South Korea

Rock mass parameters of interest for engineering structures in or on rock

of interest for engineering structures in or on rock Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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intact rock strength discon- tinuities orientation (with respect to engineering structure) rock block size and

intact rock strength

discon-

tinuities

orientation (with respect to engineering structure)

rock block size and form

amount of disc. sets

spacing per disc. set

persistence per disc. set

shear strength along discontinuity (condition of discontinuity)

surface characteristics of discontinuity wall

material

friction

geotechnical

unit

roughness

(dilatancy)

strength

deformation

infill material

susceptibility to weathering

deformation parameters of intact rock/rock mass

engineering

structure

geometry of engineering structure (size and orientation of a tunnel, height and orientation of a slope, etc.)

external

influences

water pressure/flow, snow and ice, stress relief, external stress, etc.

type of excavation

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

39

Existing classification systems (1)

The absence of the intact rock strength

(except for a low intact rock strength/environment stress ratio), in the Barton system. The absence of discontinuity spacing as

quantitative parameter in the Barton system. The strong reduction in influence of the water parameter in the Laubscher and Haines systems as compared to the systems of Bieniawski and Barton.

as compared to the systems of Bieniawski and Barton. Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

40

Existing classification systems (2)

The absence of a water/water pressure

parameter in the Robertson modification for slopes of the Bieniawski system and in the slope stability system of Vecchia. The strong influence of the susceptibility to

weathering in the Laubscher system. The strong increase in influence of orientation of discontinuities in relation to the orientation of the walls and roof of underground excavations in the Laubscher system compared to the Bieniawski system.

in the Laubscher system compared to the Bieniawski system. Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

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MAXIMUM NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF PARAMETERS (in percentage from final maximum rating)(1)(2)

classification

 

intact rock

   

system(2)

rating range

strength

RQD

EARLY SYSTEMS (for underground excavations)

 

Deere (RQD)

0

- 100

 

100

 

Wickham (RSR)

19 - 120

 

RECENT SYSTEMS (for underground excavations)

 

Bieniawski (RMR)

0

- 100

15

20

 
 
   

with rock

   

0.00006 -

load

Barton(3) (Q)

2666

parame-

ter(3)

Laubscher

0

- 120

17

13(5)

 

(no change of class)

SLOPE SYSTEMS

Selby

0

- 100

20

   

Bieniawski (RMR)

0

- 100

15

20

Vecchia

0

- 100

 

Robertson

       

(RMR)(10)

0

- 100

30

20

Romana (SMR)

0

- 115

13

17

Haines

0

- 100

17

13(5)

Influence of intact rock strength and RQD

17 13(5) Influence of intact rock strength and RQD Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

42

MAXIMUM NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF PARAMETERS (in percentage from final maximum rating)

classification system

water

excavation methods

EARLY SYSTEMS (for underground excavations)

Deere (RQD)

   

Wickham (RSR)

7

17

RECENT SYSTEMS (for underground excavations)

Bieniawski (RMR)

15

 

Barton(3) (Q)

95

 

Laubscher

3

20

SLOPE SYSTEMS

Selby

   

Bieniawski (RMR)

15

 

Vecchia

   

Robertson (RMR)(10)

   

Romana (SMR)

13

13

Haines

3

20

Influence of water and method of excavation

3 20 Influence of water and method of excavation Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

43

Classification systems:

Problems with Intact rock strength

If intact rock is defined as Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS):

Inclusion of discontinuities within 10 cm length

Samples tested in the laboratory tend to be of better quality (or of lower quality if rock is very strong)

The intact rock strength measured depends on the sample orientation if the intact rock exhibits anisotropy.

UCS is not a valid parameter because, in reality, most rock will be stressed under circumstances resembling conditions of triaxial tests rather than UCS test conditions

of triaxial tests rather than UCS test conditions Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

44

Classification systems:

Problems with RQD (1)

Arbitrary length of 10 cm Orientation of borehole in relation with discontinuity spacing

Arbitrary length of 10 cm Orientation of borehole in relation with discontinuity spacing
of borehole in relation with discontinuity spacing spacing discontinuities 0.09 m horizontal borehole RQD = 0

spacing discontinuities 0.09 m

with discontinuity spacing spacing discontinuities 0.09 m horizontal borehole RQD = 0 % horizontal borehole RQD
with discontinuity spacing spacing discontinuities 0.09 m horizontal borehole RQD = 0 % horizontal borehole RQD

horizontal borehole RQD = 0 %

horizontal borehole RQD = 100 %

borehole RQD = 0 % horizontal borehole RQD = 100 % vertical borehole RQD = 0

vertical borehole RQD = 0 %

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

45

Classification systems:

Problems with RQD (2)

Weak rock pieces (weathered pieces of rock or infill material) that are not sound should not be considered for determining the RQD (Deere et al., 1967, 1988). To exclude infill material will usually not be too difficult; however, excluding pieces of weathered, not sound rock is fairly arbitrary.

The RQD value is influenced by drilling equipment, drilling operators and core handling. Especially RQD values of weak rocks can be considerably reduced due to inexperienced operators or poor drilling equipment.

due to inexperienced operators or poor drilling equipment. Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

46

Classification systems:

Problems with RQD (3)

No standard core barrel - single, double, or triple barrel ?

Diameter of boreholes

Drilling fractures should be re-fitted, but what are drilling fractures?

RQD should be determined per lithology, but where is the lithology boundary if washed away?

but where is the lithology boundary if washed away? Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

47

Classification systems:

Problems with RQD (5)

Some systems allow for replacing RQD by fracture frequency or equivalent or use a relation to calculate an RQD value from discontinuity measurements on an exposure

Why should then the RQD be used as parameter?

an exposure Why should then the RQD be used as parameter? Seoul, South Korea - classification

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

48

Many classification systems allow for only one rating for discontinuity set spacing and shear strength;

Many classification systems allow for only one rating for discontinuity set spacing and shear strength; this then to be the spacing and shear strength of the most unfavourable discontinuity set

shear strength of the most unfavourable discontinuity set Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

49

What is the most unfavourable discontinuity set ?

What is the most unfavourable discontinuity set ? discontinuity set with good condition; e.g. high shear

discontinuity set with good condition; e.g. high shear strength discontinuity set with very poor condition; e.g. low shear strength

set with very poor condition; e.g. low shear strength Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope
set with very poor condition; e.g. low shear strength Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

poor condition; e.g. low shear strength Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert

50

Classification systems problem:(1)

In many systems the following parameters are absent:

Anisotropic roughness of discontinuities

Discontinuity karst features

Susceptibility to weathering

Deformation of intact rock and rock mass, stress relief Relative orientation of slope and discontinuities

Slope height

Water, influence of ice and snow

• Slope height • Water, influence of ice and snow Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

51

Classification systems problem:

Water (1)

If water parameter defined on amount of water:

1 Amount of water depending on intersected number of discontinuities, hence, on the size of the excavation
2 The amount of water is not the pressure of water (which is the important parameter)
3 Amount and pressure not constant throughout the slope; e.g. lower in the slope higher pressure than high in the slope
4 Difference in underground excavations and slopes for pressure regime

in underground excavations and slopes for pressure regime Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

52

Classification systems problem:

Water (2)

5 Water transport in discontinuities mainly via channels: if also applicable to pressure: resulting pressure on a discontinuity considerably less than pressure over full discontinuity surface 6 Run-off water over the slope face degrades slope face and may lead to instability

7 Not constant over time - wait for maximum rainfall?

7 Not constant over time - wait for maximum rainfall? Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

53

Classification systems problem:

Water (3)

Practical problems with determining water:

1 How to differentiate between run-off water over the slope face and water under pressure out of a discontinuity? 2 How to measure the quantity of water out of a slope (tunnel with weir) and differentiate with surface run-off 3 Terminology often subjective: dripping <> wet

3 Terminology often subjective: dripping <> wet Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

54

No clear differentiation between “as is” and “as will be”

External influences as weathering and method of excavation will have influenced the site characterized but will also (and likely differently) influence the new slope in the future

likely differently) influence the new slope in the future Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

55

Bias and familiarization

Often not clear how many different persons developed a system and whether designer bias may be present

Those using a system and being satisfied with the system may be so familiarized that they do not see the flows anymore

be so familiarized that they do not see the flows anymore Seoul, South Korea - classification

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

56

Slope Stability probability Classification (SSPC) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability -

Slope Stability probability Classification (SSPC)

Slope Stability probability Classification (SSPC) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability -

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

57

SSPC

three step classification system

based on probabilities

independent failure mechanism assessment

probabilities • independent failure mechanism assessment Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

58

Three step classification system (1)

river

1

slightly

2 weathered

old road

fresh

Reference Rock Mass

proposed new road cut

3

moderately

weathered

1: natural exposure made by scouring of river, moderately weathered; 2: old road, made by excavator, slightly weathered; 3: new to develop road cut, made by blasting, moderately weathered to fresh.

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

moderately weathered to fresh. Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 59

59

Three step classification system (2)

EXPOSURE ROCK MASS (ERM) Exposure rock mass parameters significant for slope stability:

Material properties: strength, susceptibility to weathering

Discontinuities: orientation and sets (spacing) or single

Discontinuity properties: roughness, infill, karst

Exposure specific parameters:

Method of excavation

Degree of weathering

Factor used to remove the influence of the

method excavation and degree of weathering

influence of the method excavation and degree of weathering Slope specific parameters: • Method of excavation

Slope specific parameters:

Method of excavation to be used

Expected degree of weathering at end of engineering life-time of slope

REFERENCE ROCK MASS (RRM) Reference rock mass parameters significant for slope stability:

Material properties: strength, susceptibility to weathering

Discontinuities: orientation and sets (spacing) or single

Discontinuity properties: roughness, infill, karst

Factor used to assess the influence of the method excavation and future weathering
Factor used to assess the influence of the
method excavation and future weathering
influence of the method excavation and future weathering SLOPE GEOMETRY Orientation Height SLOPE ROCK MASS (SRM)

SLOPE GEOMETRY Orientation Height

and future weathering SLOPE GEOMETRY Orientation Height SLOPE ROCK MASS (SRM) Slope rock mass parameters significant

SLOPE ROCK MASS (SRM) Slope rock mass parameters significant for slope stability:

Material properties: strength, susceptibility to weathering

Discontinuities: orientation and sets (spacing) or single

Discontinuity properties: roughness, infill, karst

• Discontinuity properties: roughness, infill, karst SLOPE STABILITY ASSESSMENT Seoul, South Korea -

SLOPE STABILITY ASSESSMENT

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

60

Excavation specific parameters for the excavation which is used to characterize the rock mass

Degree of weathering

Method of excavation

mass • Degree of weathering • Method of excavation Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

61

Rock mass Parameters

Intact rock strength

Spacing and persistence discontinuities

Shear strength along discontinuity

- Roughness - large scale

- small scale

- tactile roughness

- Infill

- Karst

Susceptibility to weathering

roughness - Infill - Karst • Susceptibility to weathering Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

62

Slope specific parameters for the new slope to be made

Expected degree of weathering at end of lifetime of the slope

Method of excavation to be used for the new slope

• Method of excavation to be used for the new slope Seoul, South Korea - classification

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

63

Intact rock strength By simple means test - hammer blows, crushing by hand, etc. Seoul,

Intact rock strength

By simple means test - hammer blows, crushing by hand, etc.

By simple means test - hammer blows, crushing by hand, etc. Seoul, South Korea - classification

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

64

Spacing and persistence of discontinuities

Based on the block size and block form by first visual assessment and then quantification of the characteristic spacing and orientation

of the characteristic spacing and orientation Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

65

amplitude roughness:

wavy ≈ 5 – 9 cm i = 14 - 20° ≈ 5 – 9
wavy
≈ 5 – 9 cm
i = 14 - 20°
≈ 5 – 9 cm
slightly wavy
i = 9 - 14°
≈ 3.5 – 7 cm
i = 4 - 8°
curved
≈ 1.5 – 3.5 cm
slightly curved
i = 2 - 4°
straight

1 m

curved ≈ 1.5 – 3.5 cm slightly curved i = 2 - 4° straight ≈ 1
curved ≈ 1.5 – 3.5 cm slightly curved i = 2 - 4° straight ≈ 1

(i-angles and dimensions only approximate)

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

Shear strength - roughness large scale

66

amplitude roughness > 2 - 3 mm stepped amplitude roughness > 2 - 3 mm
amplitude roughness > 2 - 3 mm
stepped
amplitude roughness > 2 - 3 mm
undulating
planar

0.20 m

(dimensions only approximate)

planar ≈ 0.20 m (dimensions only approximate) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

Shear strength - roughness small scale

67

Three classes: rough smooth polished Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert

Three classes:

rough smooth polished

Three classes: rough smooth polished Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

Shear strength - roughness tactile

68

Infill:

-

cemented

-

no infill

-

non-softening (3 grain sizes)

-

softening (3 grain sizes)

-

gauge type (larger or smaller than roughness amplitude)

-

flowing material

smaller than roughness amplitude) - flowing material Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

Shear strength - Infill

69

Shear strength - karst

Karst or no karst

Shear strength - karst Karst or no karst Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

70

Shear strength - condition factor Discontinuity condition factor ( TC ) is a multiplication of

Shear strength - condition factor

Discontinuity condition factor (TC) is a multiplication of the rating for small- and large scale roughness, infill and karst (similar to method used by Laubscher)

infill and karst (similar to method used by Laubscher) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

71

Orientation dependent stability Stability depending on relation between slope and discontinuity orientation Seoul, South

Orientation dependent stability

Stability depending on relation between slope and discontinuity orientation

on relation between slope and discontinuity orientation Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

72

TC (= discontinuity condition parameter) (-)

How did we develop it? - sliding criterion:

parameter) (-) How did we develop it? - sliding criterion: 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 TC =
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 TC = 0.0113 * AP (AP in deg) 0.2 stable unstable
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
TC = 0.0113 * AP (AP in deg)
0.2
stable
unstable
0
0
20
40
60
80

AP (= apparent discontinuity dip in direction slope dip) (deg)

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

73

Sliding criterion

sliding occurs if :

Sliding criterion sliding occurs if : TC < 0.0113 * AP Seoul, South Korea - classification

TC

< 0.0113 * AP

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

74

Sliding probability

95 % 1.00 70 % 50 % discontinuity stable with respect to sliding 30 %
95
%
1.00
70
%
50
%
discontinuity stable
with respect to sliding
30
%
5 %
0.80
0.60
0.40
discontinuity unstable
with respect to sliding
0.20
0.00 0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
TC (condition of discontinuity)
30 40 50 60 70 80 90 TC (condition of discontinuity) A P (deg) Seoul, South

AP (deg)

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

75

Toppling criterion

(

TC < 0.0087 * 90° − AP + dip

criterion ( TC < 0.0087 * − 90 ° − AP + dip Seoul, South Korea

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

discontinu ity

)

76

Toppling probability

1.00 95 % 70 % 0.80 50 % Fig. 9. Toppling criterion. discontinuity stable with
1.00
95
%
70
%
0.80
50
%
Fig. 9. Toppling
criterion.
discontinuity stable
with respect to toppling
30
%
5 %
0.60
0.40
discontinuity unstable
with respect to toppling
0.20
0.00
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
TC (condition of discontinuity) (-)
40 50 60 70 80 90 TC (condition of discontinuity) (-) - 90 - AP +

- 90 - AP + slope dip (deg)

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

77

Orientation independent stability Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 78

Orientation independent stability

Orientation independent stability Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 78

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

78

Overall spacing of discontinuity sets

1 1 discontinuity set 0.9 0.8 2 discontinuity sets 0.7 minimum spacing maximum spacing 0.6
1
1
discontinuity set
0.9
0.8
2 discontinuity sets
0.7
minimum
spacing
maximum
spacing
0.6
3 discontinuity sets
minimum spacing
intermediate spacing
maximum spacing
0.5
factor1
0.4
factor3
0.3
factor2
0.2
bedding1
&
joint3
joint2
0.1
0.1
1
10
100
1000
factor

discontinuity spacing (cm)

Block size and form relations from Taylor

spacing (cm) Block size and form relations from Taylor Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

79

Overall condition of discontinuity sets

Overall condition of discontinuity sets CD = TC TC TC 1 2 3 + + DS

CD

=

TC TC TC 1 2 3 + + DS DS DS 1 2 3 1
TC
TC
TC
1
2
3
+
+
DS
DS
DS
1
2
3
1
1
1
+
+
DS
DS
DS
1
2
3

TC

the spacings of discontinu ity sets 1, 2, 3

are the condition, and

DS

are

1,2,3

1,2,3

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

80

Shear plane failure following Mohr- Coulomb for rock mass If the dip slope ≤ ϕ

Shear plane failure following Mohr- Coulomb for rock mass

Shear plane failure following Mohr- Coulomb for rock mass If the dip slope ≤ ϕ ’

If the dip

slope

ϕ

mass

the maximum slope height (

H max

:

) is infinite

H

max

=

16

.

*

else

10

- 4

* coh

’ *

mass

(

)

(

)

sin

dip

slope

*

cos

ϕ

mass

 

 

-

-

1

cos

(

dip

slope

ϕ

mass

)

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

81

H max / Hslope

Probability orientation independent failure

H max / H slope Probability orientation independent failure 10 1 0.1 Das hed pr obability

10

1

0.1

Das hed pr obability lines indi c ate that the number of sl opes us ed for the devel opment of the SS PC s ys tem for thes e s ec tions of the graph is limited and the pr obability lines may not be as c ertai n as the pr obability lines dr awn with a conti nuous line.

probability to be stable > 95 %

95 %

90 %

70 %

%

50

30 %

(example)

10 %

5 %

probability to be stable < 5 %

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

ϕmass / slope dip

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

0.8

1.0

82

How did we do this?

For each slope

j :

visually estimated stability

visaually estimated stability

= class 1

= class 2 or 3

⎧ ϕ mass ≥ 1 ( stable ) → er = 1 ⎪ dip slope
ϕ
mass
1
(
stable
)
er
=
1
dip
slope
H
max
≥ stable
1
(
)
er
=
1
ϕ
H
slope
mass
< 1
dip
H
H
max
slope
slope
< unstable
1
(
)
er
=
⎪ H
H
slope
max
ϕ
ϕ
mass
mass
≥ (
1
stable
)
er
=
dip
dip
slope
slope
H
max
≤ (
1
unstable
)
er
=
1
ϕ
H
mass
slope
< 1
dip
H
H
max
max
slope
> 1
(
stable
)
er
=
H
H
slope
slope

ER

=

j

er = ⎪ ⎪ H H ⎩ ⎩ slope slope ER = ∑ j er j

er

j

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

83

Hmax / Hslope

How did we do this?

100

10

1

0.1

0.01

Hmax / Hslope How did we do this? 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 0 shear plane

0

shear plane model:

stable

shear plane model:

unstable

0.01 0 shear plane model: stable shear plane model: unstable visually estimated stability stable (class 1)

visually estimated stability stable (class 1) unstable with small problems (class 2) unstable with large problems (class 3)

problems (class 2) unstable with large problems (class 3) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
problems (class 2) unstable with large problems (class 3) 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

ϕ mass / slope dip

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

84

80 visually estimated stability a: SSPC stable (class 1) unstable (class 2) unstable (class 3)
80
visually estimated stability
a: SSPC
stable (class 1)
unstable (class 2)
unstable (class 3)
60
40
20
0
< 5
7.5
15
25
35
45
55
65
75
85
92.5
> 95
number of slopes (%)
number of slopes (%)

SSPC stability probability (%)

80

60

40

20

0

visually estimated stability b: Haines stable (class 1) unstable (class 2) unstable (class 3) Haines
visually estimated stability
b: Haines
stable (class 1)
unstable (class 2)
unstable (class 3)
Haines safety factor: 1.2
-45
-35
-25
-10
-5
5
15
25
35
45

Haines' slope dip - existing slope dip (deg)

unstable stable 80 visually estimated stability c: SMR stable (class 1) unstable (class 2) unstable
unstable
stable
80
visually estimated stability
c: SMR
stable (class 1)
unstable (class 2)
unstable (class 3)
60
40
20
0
5
15
25
35
45
55
65
75
85
95
number of slopes (%)

unstable

35 45 55 65 75 85 95 number of slopes (%) unstable stable Percentages are from
35 45 55 65 75 85 95 number of slopes (%) unstable stable Percentages are from

stable

Percentages are from total number of slopes per visually estimated stability class.

visually estimated stability:

class 1: stable; no signs of present or future slope failures (number of slopes: 109) class 2: small problems; the slope presently shows signs of active small failures and has the potential for future small failures (number of slopes: 20) class 3: large problems; The slope presently shows signs of active large failures and has the potential for future large failures (number of slopes: 55)

potential for future large failures (number of slopes: 55) completely unstable Romana's SMR (points)

completely

unstable

Romana's SMR (points)

'tentative' describtion of SMR classes: partially completely unstable stable stable stable
'tentative'
describtion of SMR classes:
partially
completely
unstable
stable
stable
stable

Comparison

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

85

Poorly blasted slope
Poorly blasted slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

86

Poorly blasted slope

New cut (in 1990):

Poorly blasted slope New cut (in 1990): Visual assessed: extremely poor instable. SSPC stability < 8%

Visual assessed: extremely poor instable. SSPC stability < 8% (13.8 m high, dip 70°, rock mass weathering:

'moderately' and 'dislodged blocks' due to blasting).

Forecast in 1996: SSPC stability: slope dip 45°.

In 2002: Slope dip about 55° (visually assessed unstable).

In 2005: Slope dip about 52° (visually assessed unstable – big blocks in middle photo have fallen).

unstable – big blocks in middle photo have fallen). Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

87

Plane sliding failure

40 year old road cut, Spain

y e a r o l d r o a d c u t , Spain

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

88

Plane sliding failure (2)

162° 15 m bedding planes 9 m 37° road
162°
15 m
bedding planes
9 m
37°
road
failure (2) 162° 15 m bedding planes 9 m 37° road Fig. 108. Geometrical cross section

Fig. 108. Geometrical cross section of the slope.

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

89

Plane sliding failure (3)

Laboratory test: φ=45°

SSPC: φ≈35°

Stability assessed using:

=45° • SSPC: φ≈ 35° • Stability assessed using: - SSPC – 55% stability probability, failure

- SSPC – 55% stability probability, failure imminent (φ≈35°)

55% stability probability, failure imminent ( φ≈ 35°) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

90

Slope Stability probability Classification (SSPC) Saba case - Dutch Antilles Seoul, South Korea - classification

Slope Stability probability Classification (SSPC)

Saba case - Dutch Antilles

Classification (SSPC) Saba case - Dutch Antilles Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

91

Landslide in harbour

Landslide in harbour Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 92

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

92

Geotechnical zoning

Geotechnical zoning Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 93

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

93

SSPC results

SSPC results P yroclastic d ep osits R ock m ass friction R ock m ass

P yroclastic d ep osits R ock m ass friction R ock m ass cohesion C alculated m axim u m possib le height on the slop e

C alcu lated S S P C

35°

39kPa

13m

L aborato ry / field 27° (m easured) 40kPa (m easured) 15m (observed)

/ field 27° (m easured) 40kPa (m easured) 15m (observed) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

94

Failing slope in Manila, Philippines

Failing slope in Manila, Philippines Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

95

Failing slope in Manila (2)

Failing slope in Manila (2) • tuff layers with near horizontal weathering horizons (about every 2-3

tuff layers with near horizontal weathering horizons (about every 2-3 m)

slope height is about 5 m

SSPC non-orientation dependent stability about 50% for 7 m slope height

unfavourable stress configuration due to corner

height • unfavourable stress configuration due to corner Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

96

97 Widening existing road in Bhutan (Himalayas) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability

97

Widening existing road in Bhutan (Himalayas)

97 Widening existing road in Bhutan (Himalayas) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability -

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

98 Bhutan (5) Method of excavation Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability -

98

Bhutan (5) Method of excavation

98 Bhutan (5) Method of excavation Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

99 Widening existing road in Bhutan (Himalayas) (2) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

99

Widening existing road in Bhutan (Himalayas) (2)

99 Widening existing road in Bhutan (Himalayas) (2) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

Widening existing road in Bhutan (Himalayas) (3) Above road level: • Various units • Joint

Widening existing road in Bhutan (Himalayas) (3)

Above road level:

Various units

Joint systems (sub-) vertical

Present slope about 21 m high, about 90° or overhanging (!)

Present situation above road highly unstable (visual assessment) Below road level:

Inaccessible – seems stable

Below road level: • Inaccessible – seems stable Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

100

Widening existing road in Bhutan (Himalayas) (4)

Widening existing road in Bhutan (Himalayas) (4) Above road level: • Following SSPC system about 12

Above road level:

Following SSPC system about 12 – 27 m for a 75° slope (depending on unit) (orientation independent stability 85%) Below road level:

Inaccessible – different unit ? – and not disturbed by excavation method

different unit ? – and not disturbed by excavation method Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

101

Heterogeneity

even if uncertainty is included this is only up to a certain extend – what extend is to the discretion of the engineer

can heterogeneity be defined by an automatic procedure , e.g. for example Lidar

defined by an automatic procedure , e.g. for example Lidar Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

102

Heterogeneity (2)

unit 3 unit 2 unit 1 (modified after Slob et al, 2002)
unit 3
unit 2
unit 1
(modified after Slob et al, 2002)

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

103

Future degradation of soil or rock due to weathering, ravelling, etc.

no reliable quantitative relations exist to forecast the future geotechnical properties of soil or rock mass

the future geotechnical properties of soil or rock mass Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

104

Future degradation (2)

Future degradation (2) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 105

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

105

Future degradation (3) 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 z [m]
Future degradation (3)
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
z [m]
Future degradation (3) 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 z [m] 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0
7.0
7.0

7.5

8.0

8.5

9.0

9.5

y [m] May 2001

2.0 1.5 1.0 z [m] 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 y [m] May 2001 Excavated
Excavated 1999 May 2002
Excavated 1999 May 2002
Excavated 1999 May 2002
Excavated 1999 May 2002
Excavated 1999 May 2002
Excavated 1999 May 2002

Excavated 1999

May 2002

Reduction in slope angle due to weathering, erosion and ravelling (after Huisman)

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

106

Degradation processes

Main processes involved in degradation:

Loss of structure due to stress release

Weathering (In-situ change by inside or outside influences)

Erosion (Material transport with no chemical or structural changes)

(Material transport with no chemical or structural changes) Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

107

Significance in engineering

When rock masses degrade in time, slopes and other works that are stable at present may become unstable

other works that are stable at present may become unstable Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating
other works that are stable at present may become unstable Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

108

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 109

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 109
Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 109

109

Erosion

Essentially: migration of solid or dissolved material

Weathering occurs usually before and possibly during erosion Transporting agents:

and possibly during erosion • Transporting agents: - Water - Gravity - Ice - Wind -

- Water

- Gravity - Ice

- Wind

- Man!

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

110

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 111
Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 111

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

111

Quantify weathering: SSPC

Quantify weathering: SSPC Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 112
Quantify weathering: SSPC Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 112

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

112

Weathering in time

The susceptibility to weathering is a concept that is frequently addressed by “the” weathering rate of a rock material or mass.

Weathering rates may be expected to decrease with time, as the state of the rock mass becomes more and more in equilibrium with its surroundings.

becomes more and more in equilibrium with its surroundings. Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

113

Weathering rates

Weathering rates Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack 114

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

114

Weathering rates

WE

( )

t

=−WE

init

R

app

WE

log(1

+ t

)

WE(t) = degree of weathering at time t WE init = (initial) degree of weathering at time t = 0 R app WE = weathering intensity rate

t = 0 R a p p W E = weathering intensity rate WE as function

WE as function of time, initial weathering and the weathering intensity rate

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

115

Weathering rates •Material: Gypsum layers Gypsum cemented siltstone layers Middle Muschelkalk near Vandellos (Spain)
Weathering rates
•Material:
Gypsum layers
Gypsum cemented siltstone layers
Middle Muschelkalk near Vandellos (Spain)

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

116

Weathering rates

Weathering rates - Balance between weathering and erosion (or generally) decay, and exposure orientation dependent

- Balance between weathering and erosion (or generally) decay, and exposure orientation dependent features, such as: sunlight, wind, and rain.

dependent features, such as: sunlight, wind, and rain. Middle Muschelkalk near Vandellos (Spain) Seoul, South Korea

Middle Muschelkalk near Vandellos (Spain)

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

117

Weathering intensity rate

Weathering intensity rate Weathering intensity rates R(appWE) for Middle Muschelkalk, siltstone, versus slope
Weathering intensity rate Weathering intensity rates R(appWE) for Middle Muschelkalk, siltstone, versus slope

Weathering intensity rates R(appWE) for Middle Muschelkalk, siltstone, versus slope dip-direction (after Huisman)

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

118

Weathering intensity rate

Weathering intensity rate Weathering intensity rates R(appWE) for Middle Muschelkalk, gypsum, versus slope dip-direction
Weathering intensity rate Weathering intensity rates R(appWE) for Middle Muschelkalk, gypsum, versus slope dip-direction

Weathering intensity rates R(appWE) for Middle Muschelkalk, gypsum, versus slope dip-direction (after Huisman)

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

119

Weathering intensity rate

SSPC system with applying weathering intensity rate:

- original slope cut about 50º (1998) - in 15 years decrease to 35º

slope cut about 50º (1998) - in 15 years decrease to 35º Seoul, South Korea -

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

(1998) - in 15 years decrease to 35º Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability

120

Conclusions

classification works for slope stability

classification can incorporate uncertainty

classification can be improved by using more elaborate relations

computers can be used to optimise complicated relations

be not afraid to abandon inherited methodologies and parameters

not afraid to abandon inherited methodologies and parameters Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

121

Future

definition of heterogeneity

classification systems for earthquake areas

influence of snow and ice

submersed marine slopes ?

influence of snow and ice • submersed marine slopes ? Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating

Seoul, South Korea - classification deteriorating slope stability - Robert Hack

122