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M.Tech Environmental Management

(Effective for the students admitted from Academic Year 2008-09)

offered by Center for Environment,

Institute of science and Technology

Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University

Hyderabad – 500 085
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad
(Effective for the students admitted into first year from the Academic Year 2008-09)

The M.Tech Degree of Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University shall be conferred on

candidates who are admitted to the programme and fulfill all the requirements for the award of the


Admission to the above programme shall be made subject to the eligibility, qualifications and
specialization prescribed by the University from time to time.
Admission shall be made on the basis of merit rank obtained by the qualifying candidate at an
Entrance Test conducted by the University or on the basis of any other order of merit approved by
the University, subject to reservations prescribed by the University from time to time.


2.1 A student shall be declared eligible for the award of the M.Tech Degree, if he pursues a
course of study and completes it successfully for not less than two academic years and not
more than four academic years.
2.2 A student, who fails to fulfill all the academic requirements for the award of the degree
within four academic years from the year of admission, shall forfeit his seat in M.Tech


The following specializations are offered at present for the M.Tech course of study.

1. Advanced Manufacturing Systems

3. Chemical Engineering
4. Computer Sciences
5. Computer Sciences and Engineering
6. Design Manufacturing
7. Digital Electronics and Communication Systems
8. Digital Systems and Computer Electronics
9. Electrical Power Engineering
10. Electrical Power Systems
11. Embedded System
12. Industrial Engineering and Management
13. Machine Design
14. Power and Industrial Drives
15. Power Electronics
16. Power Electronics and Electrical Drives
17. Power Systems Control and Automation
18. Power Systems with Emphasis on HV Engineering
19. Soft ware Engineering
20. VLSI Design
21. VLSI Systems Design
22. Environmental Geomatics.
23. Environmental Management
24. Biotechnology
25. Spatial Information Technology
26. Geo-informatics and Surveying Technology
27. Water and Environmental Technology
and any other course as approved by the authorities of the University from time to time.

The programmes are offered on a unit basis with each subject being considered a unit.

4.1 A candidate shall be deemed to have eligibility to write end semester examinations in a
subject if he has put in at least 75% of attendance in that subject.
4.2 Shortage of attendance up to 10% in any subject (i.e. 65% and above and below 75%)
maybe condoned by the College Academic Committee on genuine and valid reasons on
representation by the candidate with supporting evidence.
4.3 A candidate shall get minimum required attendance at least in three (3) theory subjects to
get promoted to the next semester. In order to qualify for the award for the Post-Graduate
Degree, the candidate shall complete all the academic requirements of the subjects, as per
the course structure.
4.4 Shortage of attendance below 65% shall in no case be condoned.


The performance of the candidate in each semester shall be evaluated subject-wise, with a
maximum of 100 marks for theory and 100 marks for practicals, on the basis of Internal
Evaluation and End Semester Examination.

5.1 For the theory subjects 60 marks shall be awarded based on the performance in the End Semester
Examination, 40 marks shall be awarded in the Internel Evaluation. The internal evaluation shall be
made based on the better of the marks secured in the two Mid Term-Examinations conducted one in
the middle of the Semester and the other immediately after the completion of instruction. Each mid
term examination shall be conducted for duration of 120 minutes with 4 questions to be answered
out of 6 questions.
5.2 For practical subjects, 60 marks shall be awarded based on the performance in the End Semester
Examinations, 40 marks shall be awarded based on the day-to-day performance as Internal Marks.
5.3 There shall be a seminar presentation during 3rd semester. For seminar, a student under the
supervision of a faculty member, shall collect the literature on a topic and critically review the
literature and submit it to the Department in a report form and shall make an oral presentation before
the Departmental Committee. The Departmental Committee consists of Head of the Department,
supervisor and two other senior faculty members of the department. For Seminar there will be only
internal evaluation of 50 marks. A candidate has to secure a minimum of 50% to be declared
5.4 A candidate shall be deemed to have secured minimum academic requirement in a subject if he
secures a minimum of 40% of marks in the End Examination and a minimum aggregate of 50% of
the total marks in the End Semester Examination and Internal Evaluation taken together.

5.5 In case the candidate dose not secure the minimum academic requirement in any subject (as
specified in 5.4) he has to reappear for the End Examination in that subject. A candidate shall be
given one more chance to re-register for each subject provided the internal marks secured by a
candidate are less than 50% and he has failed in the end examination. In such case candidate
must re-register for the subject(s) and secure the minimum required attendance. The attendance
in the re-registered subject(s) has to be calculated separately to become eligible to write the end
examination in the re-registered subject(s). In the event of taking another chance, the internal
marks and end examination marks obtained in the previous attempt are nullified.
5.6 In case the candidate secures less than required attendance in any subject(s), he shall not be
permitted to appear for the End Examination in the subject(s). He shall re-register for the subject
when next offered.
5.7 Laboratory examination for M.Tech courses must be conducted with two Examiner’s one of
them being Laboratory Class Teacher and the other person examinar


Every candidate shall be required to submit thesis or dissertation after taking up a topic approved
by the Project Review Committee.

6.1 A Project Review Committee (PRC) shall be constituted with Director as chair person Heads of the
Departments which are offering the M.Tech programs and two other senior faculty members.
6.2 Registration of Project Work: A candidate is permitted to register for the project work after satisfying
the attendance requirements of all the subjects (theory and practical subjects).
6.3 After satisfying 6.2, a candidate has to submit, in consultation with his project supervisor, the title,
objective and plan of action of his project work to the Department Committee for its approval. Only
after obtaining the approval of Department Committee the student can initiate the Project Work.
6.4 If a candidate wishes to change his supervisor or topic of the project he can do so with approval of
Department Committee. However, the Department Committee shall examine whether the change of
topic/ supervisor leads a major change of his initial plans of project proposal. If so, his date of
registration for the project work starts from the date of change of Supervisor or topic as the case may
6.5 A candidate shall submit status report (in a bound-form) in two stages at least with a gap of 3 months
between them.
6.6 The work on the project shall be initiated in the beginning of the second year and the duration of the
project is two semesters. A candidate is permitted to submit Project Thesis only after successful
completion of theory and practical course with the approval of PRC not earlier than 40 weeks from
the date of registration of the project work. For the approval of PRC the candidate shall make as oral
presentation before the PRC.
6.7 Three copies of the Project Thesis certified selected by the supervisor shall be submitted to the
6.8 The thesis shall be adjudicated by one examiner selected by the University. For this, Director of the
Institute shall submit a panel of 5 examiners, who are eminent in that field with the help of the
concerned guide and head of the department.
6.9 If the report of the examiner is not favorable, the candidate shall revise and resubmit the Thesis, in
the time frame as described by PRC. If the report of the examiner is unfavorable again, the thesis
shall be summarily rejected.
6.10If the report of the examiner is favorable, viva-voce examination shall be conducted by a board
consisting of the supervisor, Head of the Department and the examiner who adjudicated the Thesis.
The Board shall jointly report candidate work as:

A. Excellent
B. Good
C. Satisfactory
D. Unsatisfactory

Head of the department shall coordinate and make arrangements for Conducting the viva-voce
examination of the candidate.
If the report of the viva-voce is unsatisfactory, the candidate will retake the viva-voce
examination after three months. If he fails to get a satisfactory report at the second viva-voce
examination, he will not be eligible for the award of the degree.


A candidate shall be eligible for the respective degree if he satisfies the minimum academic
requirements in every subject and secure ‘satisfactory’ report on his thesis/dissertation and viva-

First class with Distinction: 70% or more

First class below 70% but not less than 60%
Second class below 60% but not lee than 50%


If the candidate has not paid any dues to the University or if any case of in-discipline is pending
against him, the result of the candidate will be withheld and he will not be allowed into the next
higher semester. The issue of the degree is liable to be withheld in such cases.


Candidates who have discontinued or have been detained for want of attendance or who have
failed after having undergone the course are eligible for admission to the same or equivalent
subjects as and when subjects are offered, subject to 5.5 and 2.0


10.1 The academic regulations should be read as a whole for purpose of any interpretation.
10.2 In case of any doubt or ambiguity in the interpretation of the above rules, the decision of the
Vice-Chancellor is final.
10.3 The University may change or amend the academic regulations and syllabus at any time and
the changes and amendments made shall be applicable to all the students with effect from
the date notified by the University.
10.4 Wherever the Word he, him or his occurs, it will also include she, her and hers.
10.5 There shall be no transfers within the constituent colleges of Jawaharlal Nehru
Technological University.

M.Tech. Environmental Management
EMT-1.1 Ecology and Environmental Chemistry 4 -
EMT-1.2 Computer Programming & Statistics 4 -
EMT-1.3 Water and waste water Treatment 4 -
EMT-1.4 Remote Sensing and GIS 4 -
EMT-1.5 Elective – I 4
EMTL-1.6 Water & Air Pollution Monitoring Methods Lab - 8
EMTL-1.7 Environmental Data Analysis Lab - 8
TOTAL: 20 16



EMT-2.1 Air Pollution & Control Management 4 -
EMT-2.2 Environmental Polices, Laws & Impact Assessment 4 -
EMT-2.3 Solid & Hazardous Waste Management 4 -
EMT-2.4 Industrial Occupational Health & Safety 4 -
EMT-2.5 Elective - II 4
EMTL-2.6 Soil/ Sludge, Wastewater & Soil Microbiology - 8
Analysis Lab
EMTL-2.7 Environmental Remote Sensing and GIS Lab - 8
TOTAL: 20 16

EMTS-3.1 Seminar
EMTP-3.2 Project Work

T = No. of Theory periods per week.

P= No. of Practicals/laboratory periods per week.

Elective – I
1. Natural Resource Management
2. Environmental Microbiology & Biotechnology
3. Environmental Geology

Elective – II
1. Environmental Economics and Socio Economic Planning
2. Environmental Aspects of Mining Industry
3. Environmental Systems Optimisation & Modelling
M.Tech. Environmental Management – I Semester


Definition principles and scope of Ecology. Physico-chemical and Biological factors in environment.
Climatic Factors: Interaction of ecological factors – light – temperature. Precipitation- Humidity -Wind -
Atmospheric gases -Fire factor. Edaphic factors (Soil science) - Structure and composition of atmosphere,
hydrosphere, and biosphere. Edaphic Factors (Soil Science) Composition of soil-Soil profile – Soil
classification- Soil components- Inorganic and organic components of soil, Nitrogen pathways and NPK in
soils, soil properties.

Ecosystem Ecology: Structure and function, Abiotic and Biotic components, Energy flows, Food
chains / webs Ecological Pyramids of population, numbers and energy, Pond, Marine, Grassland, Forest,
Desert and Cropland ecosystems.

Atmospheric Chemistry : Chemical reactions in the atmosphere- Aerosols types- production and
distribution- Aerosols and Radiation - Structure and composition of atmosphere - temperature inversion –
Global climate and photochemical reactions- Global warming - Ozone depletion - Green House Effect ,
CFC 's Acid Rain – Corrosion mechanism- Prevention –Particles in Atmosphere – Composition sources –
Types and effects.

Water Chemistry- Water resources, hydrological cycle, physical and chemical properties of water,
complexation in natural and waste water, role of microorganisms, – Water pollutants- Types – Sources –
Heavy metals – Metalloids –Organic- Inorganic - Biological and Radioactive – Types of reactions in
various water bodies including marine environment- Eutrophication- Groundwater – Potable water.
Carrying capacity of river -

Soil Chemistry : Soil Chemistry: Composition of lithosphere, inorganic and organic contaminants in the
soil, Biodegradation – Nondegradable waste and its effect on the environment – Bioremediation of surface
soils- Fate and transport of contaminants – Bioindicators- Soil parameters- Soil destruction – Erosion – Soil
Conservation - Nitrogen pathways and NPK in soil .Cyclic pathways in Environment-N,P & CO2 cycles.

Toxicological chemistry- Introduction to toxicology and - Toxicants-Dose response relationship-
Evaluation methods-LD50, LC-50 pesticide, Toxic chemicals in the environment - Impact of toxic chemicals
on Enzymes - Biochemical effects of arsenic, lead, mercury, carbon monoxide, Nitrogen oxides - sulphur
dioxide - ozone and PAN - cyanide - pesticides and Carcinogens.
Green Chemistry: Introduction – Ecological and Carbon foot print- Carbon Credits- Carbon Sequestration
– Cleaner Development management (CDM) –Polluters Pay- Consumerism- Sustainable mining – Urban
forestry – Vermiculture technology – Bio-fertilizer technology -Green buildings-Green building practices –
Approaches to green computing- Current issues on biofuel production and use- Nanotechnology and
Environment –Environment education.

Energy Resources: Fossil fuels- composition, characteristics and energy content of coal, Petroleum
andNatural gas. Non-conventional energy resources: Solar radiation and its technological ways of
harvesting; Solar collectors, photovoltaics, solar ponds; Hydroelectric power, Tidal, Ocean Thermal
Energy Conversion, Wind, Geothermal Energy, Nuclear energy-fission and fusion.

Text Books:

1. Concepts of Ecology. E.J.Kormondy, 1984. Indian reprints 1991 Prentice-Hall of India.

2. Environmental Chemistry, A.K.De, New Age Intl. pub Co, New Delhi, 1990
3. Energy Resources, Conventioinal & Non-conventional, M.V.R. Koteswara Rao, B.S.
Publications, 2003.

Reference Books:

1. Fundamentals of Ecology, E.P. Odum, 1971, W.B.Saunders & Co.

2 Environemental chemistry, Stanley E. Manahan 1990, Lewis publishers.
3 Energy Management by W.R.Murphy, Bnttes Oxford 2001.
M.Tech. Environmental Management – I Semester


Unit-I : Computer basics :Problem solving using computers- flowcharts-algorithms-CPU-Input and

output units-.computer memory- Basic concepts of Object oriented Languages

Unit-II : Basic structure of C++ programming- tokes-keywords-data types: basic data types-derived data
types-user defined data types- constants-variables-arrays-one, two and multi dimensional arrays-
structure-union-enumerated data types.

Unit-III: Arithmetic operators- relational operators-increment and decrement operators-bit wise

operators-arithmetic expression-precedence of operators-Evaluation of expression- type compatibility-
expression and implicit conversion-manipulators-control structures: decision making and branching-
decision making and looping-Function declaration and definition- argument passing-return values.

Unit-IV: Class and objects-member functions- array of objects-object as a argument- function

overloading- friend function-operator overloading-this pointer-static data member-static member

Unit-V: Constructors: default constructor-parameterized-copy constructor-dynamic constructor-

destructors-Inheritance-single inheritance-multiple inheritance-multilevel inheritance-pointers virtual
functions and polymorphism

Unit-VI : Introduction to statistics :population-sample –primary data and secondary data - graphical and
diagrammatic representation of data- Measure of central tendency-Mean, median and mode-measure of
dispersion-range-standard deviation -raw and central moments-skewness and kurtosis(definition only)-
Concept of probability –classical and relative frequency definition of probability-addition and
multiplication laws of probability( without proofs) and examples.

Unit-VII : Concept of Random variables: Probability mass function-probability density function-

probability distribution function( definitions only)- Binomial ,Poisson and Normal distribution(
definitions and statements of properties and examples).Principles of least square-fitting of straight line-
parsons coefficient of correlation and concept of linear regression.

Unit-VIII: Concept of testing of hypothesis critical region-two type errors-level of significance of large
sample tests for single mean and difference of means. single proposition and difference proportion- chi
square test for goodness of fit and chi square test of means and f-test for equality of variances-
arithmetic, Geometric and harmonic mean.

Text books : 1) Fundamentals of Computers by V Raja Raman

2) Object Oriented Programming with C++ by E. Balagurusawmy
3) Statistical methods S.P.Gupta. S Chand Pubplications
M.Tech. Environmental Management – I Semester

Sources of Water : Sources of water, Precipitation - Classification as per BIS 2296- Selection of raw
water sources for public water supply - Drinking water quality standards. Population Forecasting –
Different methods for population forecasting - Per capita Supply – Basic needs – Factors affecting per
capita consumption, Fire-fighting demand, pressure requirements, Fluctuations in rate of water
consumption. Surface sources – Intakes - types. Sub surface sources- Development of wells, yield
measurement of wells.

Water Pollution: Sources of Wastewater –Rivers, lakes, Oceans, as sinks for the waste disposal, Self-
purification of streams, Characterization of domestic and industrial wastewater. Waste water disposal
methods, tolerant limits and disposal standards.


Water Treatment Methods: Different water treatment techniques: Principles, Design, Construction and
Operation of various unit operations in water treatment. Disinfection & Specific Methods: Criteria for
good disinfectant – Special water treatment methods - Water softening, Deflouridation, Iron and
Manganese removal, Removal of color, and odor Design period for various water supply components,

WasteWater Treatment: Different sources of water- Methods of water purification- Characterization of
degree of treatment of wastewater - primary treatment - sedimentation – flotation. - Secondary
(biological) treatment – design and principles in biological treatment facilities – activated sludge
process - Trickling Filters - Low cost waste Treatment systems and their design – RBC, oxidation pond,
Oxidation ditch, anaerobic digesters, UASB Sludge treatment and disposal-. Sludge conditioning,
dewatering drying methods. Sludge disposal methods, composting.

Advanced / Tertiary Wastewater Treatment: Removal of suspended solids, dissolved solids-nitrogen
removal- phosphorus removal-adsorption-refractory organics and their treatment – Reuse and Recycle of

Industrial waste treatment: Sources, characteristics, methodology and process for the treatment of
industrial wastes of sugar industry - Beverage Industry - Tannery industry - Textile mill waste industry -
Fertilizer plant - Steel plant - Oil refinery - Pharmaceutical plant - Paper and pulp mills- Design New
concepts in Biological Waste Treatment - Advanced Wastewater Treatment –Removal of suspended solids
- Removal of Dissolved solids - nitrogen removal - Phosphorus Removal - Chemical Oxidation - Recovery
of Materials from process effluents.

Sewage Treatment and Disposal: Self purification of streams- BOD and its importance- Treatment
methods- Primary, Secondary and Tertiary levels- Disinfections of treated sewage effluent – Septic tank
design and effluent disposal methods- Disposal on land, Sewage sickness-Disposal by dilution – Design of
biological treatment units – Sludge charecterstics, unit operation in sludge disposal, conventional and high
rate digesters – Disposal of sludge- Gas utilization.
Phytoremediation Treatment – Introduction - Current trends in role of phytoremediation – examples of
species potential in absorbing heavy metals and pollutants in wastewater – root zone treatment technology -
Microbial remediation – role of bacteria and other microbes in cleaning of sewage waters – oil spilled
waters – domestic wastewaters – pollute agricultural runoff – biomedical waste retaining waters.

Text Books:

1. Text Book of Water Supply & Sanitary Engineering: S.K.Garg VOL I & II, Oxford IBH
2. Water Supply Sanitary Engineering: H. S. Birdie & Birdie, New Delhi.
3. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment Disposal Reuse, Metcalf & Eddy.

Reference books:

1. Waste water treatment, Donalk N. Sundstrom and Herbet E.klei Prentice Hall Inc.Englwood
2. Waste water treatment, 2 nd Ed. M. Narayana Rao & Amal K.Datta Oxford & IBM pub.com Ltd
3. Advances in Industrial Wastewater Treatment, Goel P.K., (ed)., Techno Science Publications,
Jaipur (1999).
M.Tech. Environmental Management – I Semester



Remote Sensing - Definition of a map, types of maps, map reading, map scale, map projections basics
and fundamental concepts of Remote Sensing, physics of Remote Sensing, Effects of atmosphere,
Spectral Reflectance of Earth Surface features in different wave regions of Electromagnetic spectrum,
characteristics of space platforms and sensors.

Fundamentals of Satellite Image Interpretation, Techniques of Image interpretation, Techniques of
digital data interpretation, Multi-spectral Data Analysis, overviews of Image processing methods for feature

Geographic Information System: Introduction, definition and terminology, GIS categories,
Components of GIS Fundamental Operations of GIS, A theoretical framework for GIS. The Essential
Elements of a GIS: An overview, Functional Elements, Data in a GIS, Data Structure Raster Data
Structures, Vector Data Structures, Comparisons between Data Structures.

Data Acquisition and Data input: Introduction, Existing Data sets, Types of Data Products.
Digitalization and Scanning. Preprocessing: Format Conversion, Error detection and Editing, Merging,
Edge Matching, Rectification and Registration, Interpolation.

Data Management: Basic Principles of Data Management; Efficiency, Conventional Database
Management systems, Spatial database Management Product Generation: Types of output products,
hardware components. Integrated Analysis of Spectral and Attribute data.

Data Quality: Introduction, Components of data quality, Sources of error. Introduction to GPS.

Text Books:

1. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation by T.M.Lillesand and R.W.Kiefer, John Wiley, Third
2. 2. Fundamental of Geographic Information Systems –Demers 1995 Edition.
3. 3.Textbook of Remote Sensing and GIS, M.Anji Reddy, B.S.Publications
M.Tech. Environmental Management – I Semester



Water Pollution Monitoring:

1. pH and Conductivity
2. Turbidity
3. Hardness by EDTA Method
4. Alkalinity
5. Estimation of Nitrate -Nitrogen by UV method
6. Ammonical - Nitrogen
7. Nitrite - Nitrogen
8. Estimation of phosphates
9. Sulfates by Spectrophotmetric & Nephelometric Method
10. Residual Chlorine
11. Dissolved Oxygen
12. Biochemical Oxygen Demand
13. Chemical Oxygen Demand
14. Fluorides by Ion Analyzer

Air Pollution Monitoring

Estimation of:
1. NOx
2. SOx
3. Particulate matter
4. Hydrocarbons
M.Tech. Environmental Management – I Semester


Computer programmes with reference to Environmental problems. Each student should develop and
execute a minimum of 15 programmes and submit in the form of a record.
1.Write a C++ program that evaluates the following algebraic expression after reading necessary
values from the user:

a) ax+b \ ax-b
b) 2.5log x + Cos 32o + x2 – y2 + (2xy)
c) x5 + 10x4 + 8x3 + 4x + 2
d) (4x + 3) (3y + 2z – 4)
e) a e-kt
f) 1
------ e-( X-m / √ 2 σ) 2
α √2 π

2. Write a C++ program that prints the given 3 integers in ascending order using IF-ELSE
3. Using WHILE statement write a C++ program to find the sum of 1 + 2 + 3+ 4 +…n
4. Write a C++ program using FOR statement to find the following from a given set of 20 integers
a) Total number of even integers
b) Total number of odd integers
c) Sum of all even integers
d) Sum of all odd integers
5. Write a C++ program to obtain the product of two matrices A of size (3 * 3) and B of (3 * 2). The
result matrix C++ is to be printed out along with A and B. Assume suitable values for A and B.
6. Write C++ procedures to add, subtract, multiply and divide two complex numbers (x + y) and (a +
ib). Also write the main program that uses these procedures.
7. Write a C++ program to convert the given data from Centigrade to Farenheit.
8. Calculate the hardness of a given water sample using C++ programming language.
9. Write a C++ program to find the pH of 10 water samples using IF, ElSE and WHILE.
10. Modify the above program using FOR loops.
11. Write a C++ program to convert the SOx data in µg/m3 to ppm for one sample.
12. Modify the above program using DO WHILE loops to calculate for 20 samples.
13. Create a class with private and public variables and declare constructors with and without
parameters to the class.
14. Write a C++ program that declares two classes as friends to each other and uses data from the friend
15. Declare one base class and two derived class and use the base class data in derived class.
M.Tech. Environmental Management II Semester

Classification and properties of air pollutants-emission sources-major emissions from Global
sources-importance of anthropogenic sources-behaviour and fate of air pollutants- photochemical
smog-effects of air pollution-health, vegetation and materials damage in India-air pollution standards -
Isolation and heat balance of the atmosphere – different types of terrain – effects of terrain features on
atmosphere – mechanical and thermal turbulence- Indoor air pollution.

Meteorological aspects of air pollution dispersions- Temperature laps Rates and Stability-wind velocity
and turbulence-Plume behavior dispersion of air pollutants- solutions to the atmospheric dispersion
equation - the Gaussian Plume Model. Air pollution sampling and measurement-types of pollutant sampling
and measurement-Ambient air sampling-collection of gaseous air pollutants-collection of particulate
pollutants- stock sampling, analysis of air pollutants-sulfur dioxide- nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide,
oxidants and ozone- hydrocarbons-particulate matter.

Control methods-sources- correction methods- -particulate emission control- gravitational settling
chambers-cyclone separators- fabric filters-electrostatic precipitators-wet scrubbers- -control of gaseous
emissions-adsorption by solids-absorption by liquids-combustion, condensation – control of SO2 emission –
desulphurization of flue gases – dry methods – wet scrubbing methods. Control of sulphur dioxide
emission-desulphurization of flue gases-dry methods-wet scrubbing methods-control of nitrogen
oxides-modification of operating conditions- modification of design conditions-effluent gas treatment
methods-carbon monoxide control-control of hydrocarbons-mobile sources.

Air pollution from specific industries: Steel mills, Petroleum refineries, Portland cement plants, Acid
plants, Municipal Incinerators, Kraft Pulp Mills, Non ferrous smelters, Asphaltic Concrete Plants.

Vehicular Air Pollution - Genesis of Vehicular emissions-Natural Pollution-
Gasification of Vehicles- Point sources of Air Pollution from automobiles-Fuel tank, carburettor,
crank case- Exhaust emissions-Mechanism of Origin of air pollution from automobiles- Automobile air
pollution - Indian Scenario- Population and pollution loads of vehicles- Automobile Pollution
Control-Control at sources-Exhaust gas treatment devices-Alternate fuels comparison-Thermal
Reactor-Catalytic Converter- Automobile Emission Control- Legal measures.

Noise Pollution
Sources of noise pollution – measurement of noise and indices – effect of meteorological parameters on
noise propagation- noise exposure levels and standards – noise control and abatement measures – impact of
noise on human health.

Air Quality Modeling and Management: Air quality assessment-conceptual frame work for air quality
management-preparation of air shed discharge standards-background air quality and meteorological
conditions-determination of air pollution dispersion potential-air quality modeling-data requirements for
air quality modeling-modeling procedures

Text Books:

1. Environmental Pollution Control, C.S.Rao, Wiley Eastern Ltd., 1993

2. Air Pollution, M.N.Rao McGraw Hill 1993.
3. Textbook of Air Pollution and Control Technologies- Y. Anjaneyulu, Allied Publishers (P) Ltd., 2002.

Reference Books:

1. Fundamentals of Air Pollution, Samuel, J.W., 1971, Addison Wesley Publishing

2. Fundamentals of Environmental Pollution, Krishnan Khannan S.Chand & Company
Ltd., 1994.
3. Environmental Air Analysis, Trivedi & Kudesia, Akashdeep Pub.1992
4. Text Book of Environmental Chemistry Tyagi O.D and Mehra M, Anmol Publications (1990).
M.Tech. Environmental Management II SEMESTER


Environment Protection: Need- Issues-Problems and Awareness- International and National Efforts for
Environment Protection – Agenda 21- Environmental Ethics and Global Imperatives- Current
Environmental Issues- in India- Constitutional Amendments- Article 48 A & 52 A.

Environmental Legislation: Scope and importance- Key Concept of environmental and approaches –
Environmental management and approaches- Environmental legislation and punitive control- Objectives
of legislation and frame work in the country-Planning and enforcement-Environmental Organizations-
Information exchange and surveillance- EIA Notification in 1994 – ISO 14000- EMS Standards.

Environmental Policies - National and International trends, changes in global perspective, International
treaties. Legal provisions for environmental protection; various Acts, Rules and Regulations.
Notifications issued under various Acts and Rules. Environmental standards, Criteria for standard
setting. Public Liability Insurance Act and Acts relating to hazardous and toxic substances

Environment Impact Assessment & Audit: Concepts of EIA, framework of Environmental
Assessment, environmental setting, methods for impact identification – example. Adhoc, matrices
checklists, networks, overlay techniques, choosing the appropriate methodology- Prediction and
assessment of impact of air, water (surface and Ground), vegetation, wild life and noise environment;
conceptual approach, identification of the types and quantities of pollutants, procurement of relevant
quality standards and regulations, impact predictions, assessment of impact significance, identification
and adapt ion of mitigation measures- Concepts of environmental audit: definition of audit, programme
planning, formation of audit team, Types of audit.

Environmental Economics: Definition and scope, interlinkage between economy and environment.
Circular flow diagram. Concepts of spaceship, Earth, Material Balance, and Entropy law.
V. Economic growth and environment- Limits to growth model. Market failure, Externalities and public
goods. Optimium level of pollution. Polluter pays principle. Pollution taxes vs. direct controls. Cost
benefit analysis of the environment- Direct and indirect methods, limitations. Green accounts. Concept
of sustainable development.


Environmental Laws and Act: -Environmental laws- Need- Indian prospective – National committee
on Environmental Planning (NCEP)- Role of Indian Judiciary in the protection of Environment: Forest
Conservation Act, 1980, Indian Forest Act (Revised) 1982, Wild Life Protection Act, 1972 amended
1991, Air (Prevention and Control of pollution) Act 1981 amended 1987, The Water (Prevention and
Control of pollution) Act 1988, Motor Vehicle Act 1988, Hazardous Waste Management Act 1989,
Biomedical waste Act, 1999, Plastic Act 2000, Municipal solid waste Act 1999, Public Liability
Insurance Act 1992

Text Books:
1. Environmental Impact Assessment by Canter IW, Mc Grew Hill co, NY, 1977.
2. Environmental Impact Assessment, By Y.Anjaneyulu, BS Publications, 2002.
3. Environmental Management Law & Administration- Dr. Paras and Dr. Parag Diwan, Vanity
Books International
Reference Books.
1 Environmental Audits, Govt. Industries Environmental Impact Assessment -Larry, W. Canter
(2nd ed), McGraw Hill Inc. Singapore, 1996.
2 Strategic Environmental Assessment - Riki Therirvel, E.Wilson, S.Thompson, D.Heaney, D.
Pritchard. Earthscan, London, 1992.
3 Environmental Impact Assessment-Cutting edge for the 21st century - Alan Gilpin, CUP,
London, 1994.
4 Environmental Impact Assessment-Theory & Practice - Peter Wathern, Unwin Hynman,
Syndeny, 1988.
5 A Practical Guide to Environmental Impact Assessment - Paul, A Erickson, Academic Press,
M.Tech. Environmental Management II SEMESTER


Solid waste: Definition of solid wastes – domestic solid wastes – types of solid wastes – collection –
transportation – characteristics solid waste – segregation – types of disposal methods- Soil Pollution,
Industrial solid waste leaching of heavy metals, their interactions with soil components. Different kinds
of synthetic fertilizers and their interaction with different components of Soil.- remediation of
contaminated sites.

Solid waste disposal: Sanitary landfill planning, site selection, design and operation, equipment, costs,
Aerobic landfill stabilization. Biological oxidation. Composting, optimum conditions for composting

Solid waste management: Engineering principles; Sources, nature and characteristics; quantitative and
qualitative; Solid waste problems: Industrial, mining, agricultural and domestic (urban) wastes.
Hydrologic aspects of solid waste. Regulatory aspects of solid waste management.

Hazardous wastes – Hazardous waste definition, - Physical and biological routes of transport of hazardous
Substances - sources and characterization categories and control – sampling. Analysis of hazardous wastes
– analytical approach for hazardous waste characterization – proximate analysis – survey analysis – directed
analysis – analytical methods-

Hazardous waste disposal & treatment: Hazardous Wastes: Storage and transportation – disposal
facilities TSDF cradle to grave concept – land disposal of wastes – landfills – underground disposal, sea
disposal - Pyrolysis; Incineration - waste characterization, combustion calculation, unit operations,
supply of air, products of combustion, furnace temperature, furnace calculation, storage of refuse, waste
reduction and environmental control - environmental laws, Indian scenario.

Hazardous waste management: Hospital waste management treatment technologies – waste recovery
processes solidification, stabilization, and encapsulation – biological processes – thermal processes
Cyanides, Dioxins, Detergents, Plastics, Nylon, PCB’s and others- Waste minimization methods-
Monitoring and management strategies – Chemical and disaster management and risk analysis-
Degradation of pesticides, detergents, plastics and polymers- Hazardous waste – landmark episodes,
classification, generation. Guidelines for HWM. Regulatory framework in the USA, EU and India, Basal
Convention and other international statistics.

Hospital & Radioactive waste management: Classification, collection and treatment. Thermal
treatment incinerability tests, different types of incinerators and their applicability for hazardous waste
management, reclamation/remediation of hazardous wastes. Management of gaseous emissions/air
pollutants generated during treatment and disposal operations of hazardous wastes- Sources –Radiation
standards by ICRP-Other standards (AERB)- Low level and high level radioactive waste management.
Waste minimization & Recycling: waste recovery process, pollution prevention and recycling
Environmental facility assessment and audit waste minimization – hazardous waste remediation
technologies- recycling of waste for industrial , agricultural and domestic purposes- recycling of metal
products- reduction of paper,plastic- recycling of food manufacturing , beverages, apparel, leather, paper,
pulp,chemical and other industries- fly ash utilization- Emerging technologies –Laws –Policy of Govt.


1. Hazardous waste management Charles A. Wentz. Second edition 1995. McGraw Hill
2. Integrated Solid waste management George Tchobanoglous, Hilary Theisen & Samuel A. Vigil.
3. Hazardous waste chemistry, toxicology and treatment Stanley E. Manahan 1990 , Lewis

References books:

1. Hazardous waste management - Lecture notes, Centre for Environment IPGSR JNT University 1997.
2. Standard handbook of hazardous waste treatment and disposal Harry M. Freeman McGraw Hill 1997.
3. Management of solid wastes in Developing countries Frank Flintoff WHO Regional Publications1976.
M.Tech. Environmental Management II SEMESTER


Introduction to Safety Philosophy-Sequence of Accident Occurrence, Occupational Injuries-
Effects of Industrial Accidents, Analysis of Accidents, Injury Data, Accident Investigations &
Reporting, Accident Costing

Safety & Health Management- Employer & Employee Responsibilities, Record-keeping &
Reporting Requirements, Safety Organization, Responsibilities of Safety Officer, Supervisors, Safety

Risk management: Definitions of Hazards, Risks, Evolution of Methodical Analysis, System safety
Analysis techniques, Performance measurement, Operational Reviews - Internal & External.

Work Practices In Industries – Hazards in Chemical Operations, Material Handling Hazards,
Lifting Machinery & Pressure Vessels, Material Safety Data Sheets, Classification of Chemicals,
Hazardous Chemicals, Storage Practices, Radiation Safety, Petroleum Storage Requirements,
Pesticide Safety.

Indian Statutes- Central Acts, Factory’s Act, AP Factory Rules, Construction Safety Regulations,
Petroleum Rules 2002, Electrical Act & Rules.

Fire Safety- Basic Elements, Causes, Industrial Fires, Explosions, Effect On Environment, Property
& Human Loss, Prevention Techniques, Building Design, Fire Protection Systems, Contingency
Plan, Emergency Preparedness, Evacuation.

Industrial Best Practices- In Electrical, Mechanical, Fire, Machine Guarding, Personal Protective
Equipment, Occupational Health, Ergonomics Ambulance, Noise Abatement Methods, Management
Of Contractors.

Occupational Safety & Management Standards- Indian Standards, OHSAS 18001 Standard and
its Elements, CE Certificate, Social Accountability Standards, System Implementation, Benefits.

Text Books:

1. Industrial safety and health, David L. Goetsch, Macmillan Publishing Company, 1993.
2. Handbook of environmental health and safety, Vol I & II, Herman Kooren, Michael
Bisesi, Jaico Publishing House, 1999.
M.Tech. Environmental Management II SEMESTER


a). Soil and sludge analysis

1. Estimation of following parameters.

Physical Parameters:
a) Moisture content
b) Electrical conductivity
c) Bulk density
d) Specific gravity
e) Water holding capacity

Chemical parameters:

a) pH i) Potassium
b) Nitrogen (Kjeldahl) j) Organic matter
c) Nitrate k) Chlorides
d) Total phosphorous l) Sulphate
e) Alkalinity
f) Calcium
g) Magnesium
h) Sodium

b) Wastewater and Soil Microbiology:

General techniques of microbiology: Media preparation, Sterilization, inoculation, cultivation,

isolation, purification and enumeration. (Plate count, Membrane filtration method).
Kinetics of bacterial growth: Bacterial growth curve, estimation of number of generations,
generation time.
Determination of microbial quality of water: standard plate count, standard coliform test,
determination of coliform density by MPN method fecal coliform test, fecal streptococcal plate
Morphological identification of various common soil fungi.
Microscopic examination of different algae of water and wastewater.
M.Tech. Environmental Management II SEMESTER


1. Study of toposheet and base map preparation;

2. Description of satellite and sensor details of the imagery used for thematic mapping;
3. Land use / land cover map preparation;
4. Soil map preparation;
5. Field visits for finalization of land use / land cover map and soil map;
6. Scanning / digitization of maps;
7. Digital image display; image enhancement;
8. Image registration
a. Ground Control points from toposheets (GCP)
b. Geo referencing
9. Image classification for land use / land cover. Classification has to be performed with the field
knowledge (supervised classification) using EASI / PACE; study of existing GIS software’s;
10. Generation of thematic layered information like land use / land cover / soils.
11. Preparation of spatial distribution maps of at least two environmental quality parameters (water / air
quality) using GIS software.

III & IV Semester



M.Tech. Environmental Management


Natural Resources : Definition -- Importance – Classification -- Human physiological socio-
economic and cultural development – Human population Explosion – Natural Resource Degradation --
Concept of conservation - Value system -- Equitable resource use for sustainable life system .

Land Resources: Land evaluation and suitability studies by Remote Sensing and GIS. Techniques of Land
use /Land cover mapping and planning.- Municipal GIS: Land use Statistics as a basis for Environmental
Planning, Solid and Hazardous waste disposal site selection.

Geosciences: Role of Remote Sensing and GIS in geological studies and case studies. Ground Water
exploration and targeting using RS &GIS, Application of RS in Environmental Geology.

Oceanographic Applications: Ocean color, Sea Surface Temperature, Earth Radiation budget. NOAA

Ecology and Forestry: Spectral response of vegetation and mapping, Ecosystem Analysis,
Environmental impact analysis and monitoring, Ecosystem modelling, survey and mapping of forest
cover, Forest change detection, Forest Damage assessment and Forests monitoring, Focus on Mangrove
forests, Wetland mapping-Environmental Governance.

Water Resources: Watershed characteristics, watershed management and integrated approach for
sustainable planning using RS &GIS. Water quality management and modelling.

Mineral Resources: Use and exploitation -- Environmental effects of extracting and using mineral
resources – Restoration of mining lands – Expansion of supplies by substitution and conservation-
Case Studies

Environmental Education & Ethics: Environmental education at primary, secondary and tertiary level-
Non-formal environmental education – Environmental education for professional level groups.
Environmental Organization and Agencies: Environmental administrative control- Department of
Environment and Forests- Special Technologies- Introduction to Environmental Ethics and Philosophy:
Ethics in society; Environmental Consequences; Responsibility for Environmental Degradation-
Environmental Ethics and Issues of National and International Governance: changing nature of
environmental ethics in relation to international and national paradigms of environmental governance-
ethical basis of Environmental education and awareness; The conservation ethics and traditional value
system of India
Text Books:

1. Introduction to Environmental Remote Sensing by Barrett, Second Edition, Chapman & Hall, 1982.
2. Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation by Lillesand and Kiefer, John Wiely, Third Edition.
3. Geoinformatics for Environmental Management, M.Anji Reddy,B.S.Publications

Reference Books:

1. Remote Sensing in Hydrology by Engman, Chapmen Hall, 1991

2. Advances in Environmental Remote Sensing by F. Mark Danson.
3. Remote Sensing in Geology by Siegal, john Wiley, 1989.
4. .Principles of GIS for Land Resources Assessment by Burrough P.A.
5. Trivedi R.K., Environment and Natural Resources Conservation , (1994)

Diversity of Microorganisms: Prokaryotes and eukaryotes, eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell structure.
General characters, beneficial and harmful effects of major groups of microorganisms, protozoa, algae,
fungi, bacteria and virus.

Microbial Growth and Nutrition: Isolation, cultivation (aerobic and anaerobic) and preservation of
micro organisms. Nutritional requirements, nutrient media (selective, differential enriched, enrichment
media) and growth conditions. Bacterial growth curve, exponential growth, generation time. Bacterial
growth in batch and continuous cultures (chemostat and trubidostat).

Effect of environment and control of microorganisms:Effect of temp pH, osmotic pressure,
dessication, radiant energy on microorganisms and microbial adaptations. Control of microorganisms by
physical and chemical agents: Inhibition of growth and killing, sterilization and disinfection. Desirable
characteristics of an antimicrobial agent; mode of action of antimicrobial agent. Physical agents – heat,
filtration, and radiation.. Classes of disinfectants - phenol and phenolics - alcohol, halogens, surfactants,
and heavy metals. Evaluation of antimicrobial agents.

Microorganism in agriculture: Use of microbes as biofertilizer; Biological N2 fixation, phosphate
solubilization, VAM fungi and crop productivity. Biological control of plant pathogens and insects by
microorganisms and microbial products- Energy Requirement: Microbial production of non-
conventional fuels- methane (biogas), hydrogen and ethanol. Use of microorganisms in petroleum
augmentation and recovery.


Biodegradation of natural and xenobiotic compounds: Microbial degradation of biopolymers (chitin,

lignin, cellulose, starch, protein, lipids, fat). Hydrocarbons: (aliphatic and aromatic compounds;
biodegradation of xenobiotic compounds.

Bioindicators and Biosensors: Plankton community as indicators of water pollution; use of diversity
index in evaluation of water quality. Determination of microbiological quality of potable and
recreational waters. Microbial biosensors. Advantages and limitations, different components of
biosensor- biologically active material- analyte. Types based on biochemical recognition (biocatalysis-
based; bioaffintiy based and microorganisms based biosensors) various transducer principles
(conductometric, potentiometric, amperometric, optical, acoustic, thermal detector)-specific biosensors-
glucose, acetic acid, assimilable sugar, ammonia gas, alcohol, BOD, methane and mutagen sensor.
Bioremediation: Introduction to bioremediation. Constraints and priorities, types of bioremediation-
intrinsic and engineered, in-situ and ex-situ bioremediation. Biostimulation, bioaugmentation. Specific
bioremediation technologies, bioventing, biosparging, land farming, prepared beds, biopites,
composting, constructed wetlands.

Text books:

1. Microbiology, Pelczar, M.J;Reid, R.D; Chan, E.C.S. Tata Mc Graw-Hill publishing company-
New Delhi.
2. Biotechnology the science and the business Moses V. and Cape, R.E.1991. Harwood academic
publishers, London.
3. Microbial Biotechnology- Glazer, A.N. and Nikaido, H. 1995.W.H.Freeman and company.

Reference books:
1. Exploiting biotechnology (1995) Vivian, and Moses S. -Harwood academic Publishers.
2. Biotechnological approaches in soil microorganisms for sustainable crop
3. Frontiers in applied microbiology. Ed. Mukherji, Singh, V.P. and Garg, K.
4. Comprehensive biotechnology ed. Moo Young. Vol. I to IV
M.Tech. Environmental Management


Mining and the Environment: Mineral production, history of environmental problems, causal aspects,
range and importance, nature and extent, influencing factors. Visual impact: Sources, landscape analysis
and planning.- Mining related pollutants: Air pollution - emission factors, abatement and control. Water
pollution: Water in mineral industries, nature and effect, abatement and control. Noise and air blast:
Sources and levels, remedial measures.

Blast vibration: Ground vibration due to blasting; measurement and recording, Damage and
nuisancecriteria and standards. Land degradation; Causes and abatement. Reclamation: Reclamation of
mined land and waste dumps; specific problems, revegetation; case studies. Subsidence: Prediction of
deformation and damage; subsidence damage control.

Waste utilization & Laws: Waste – quantity and types, current uses and emerging trends. Social
impacts of mining & its management. Mine closure: Principles; planning, financial provisions,
implementation, standards for closure criteria, Process; - system approach, developing closure plans,
progressive and final mine closure.Environmental laws related to mining environment: Overview;
provisions of MMDR Act, MCR and MCDR. General and specific environmental standards applicable
to mining under various laws.

Books and References:

1. Environmental Impact of Mining – Down CG and Stocks J. Applied Science Publishers, London,
2. Environmental Impacts of Mining: Monitoring, Restoration and Control. Lewis Publishers, Boca
Raton, 1993.
3. Best Practices Environmental Management in Mining” - EPA (Australia): 1997-2004.
4. Tailings Management - Ritcey GM, Elsevier, 1997.
5. Environmental Management in Mining Areas– Saxena NC, Singh Gurdeep and Ghosh R, (Ed.),
Scientific Publishers (India), Jodhpur 2003.
M.Tech. Environmental Management


Systems approach - concept and analysis. Problems formulation, model construction and deriving
solution from models. Modelling of wastewater management systems- model formation and solution.
Modelling of pesticide management problems; optimization model for planning municipal wastewater

Lagrange multipliers- unconstrained and constrained optimisation, limitations. Sequential search
algorithms- box algorithm, limitations linear programming models, solution and sensitivity analysis;
General linear programming models for air quality management of agricultural non-point source


Separable and integer programming- application to multiobjective planning. Application of integer

programming to municipal solid waste management. Transportation models. Dynamic programming
models- application to land use planning and air pollutant emission control. Present value
conceptsoptimization- over time.

Books and References

1. Handbook of Environmental and Ecological Modelling, Halling-Sorensen B., Nielsen S.N. and
Jorgensen S.E., Lewis Publishers Inc., 1995.
2. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modelling, Jacobson Mark Z., Kluer Academic Press, 2002.
3. An Introduction to Water Quality Modelling, James A. (Ed), (2nd Ed.), 1992.
4. Techniques for Environmental System Analysis - R.H.Pantell Wiley, NY, 2001.
5. System Analysis and Design – RJ Aguilar, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1993.
M.Tech. Environmental Management


Fundamentals of Geology: Introduction to Earth system science- Origin of the Earth -Age of the Earth-
Internal constitution of the Earth- surface-features of the globe- Geological time scale- relationship
between society and the geologic environment- geology in India- Earth resources and management-
legislative measures in India


Petrology: Definition-Rocks, their general classification into igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic -
Forms and structures of igneous rocks- Textures - Classification of igneous rocks - Bowen’s reaction
series - Differentiation and Assimilation - An outline of classification of sedimentary rocks -Textures
and Structures of sedimentary rocks - Definition - agents and kinds of metamorphism - Zones, grades
and facies of metamorphism - Textures and Structures of metamorphic rocks.

Economic Geology Processes of mineral formation - Classification of Mineral deposits - Brief study of
Gold, lron, Copper, Manganese, Lead & Zinc, Bauxite, Coal and Petroleum.

Hydrogeology Groundwater in hydrologic cycle - Origin of water - Meteoric - Juvenile - Magmatic and
Seawater - Brief description of porosity, specific yield, specific retention and permeability - Types of
aquifers: Unconfined Confined - Perched - Aquifuge - Aquitard - Aquiclude - Groundwater recharge -
Articificial recharge - Groundwater movement: Darcy’s law - Groundwater basins of Tamil Nadu.

Environmental Geology Introduction to Environmental Geology - Brief account of different energy
systems - Short account of renewable and non-renewable resources - Mitigation and Disaster and
remedial measures relating to natural hazards - effects of urbanization on quality of surface waters and
causes for groundwater pollution - Impacts of man on environment - Types of Pollution.

Engineering Geology Dams and Reservoirs - Brief description of the following types: Earth dam,
Concrete dam, Arch dam and Buttress dam - Tunnels - Geological consideration and description
Aseismic design of building - Influence of geological conditions on foundation and design buildings -
Earthquakes and seismicity - Seismic zones of India.

1. India’s Mineral resources by S. Krishnaswamy, Oxford TBH Publishing Co., New Delhi, 1979
2. Ground water by S. Ramakrishnan, K.J. Grapharts, Chennai, 1998
Reference books:
1. Textbook of Engineering Geology. By N. Chennakesavulu.
2. Principles of Engineering Geology & Geotechnics. By D.P. Krynine and W.R. Judd.
3. Environmental Geology. Indian context. By K.D. Valdiya.
4. Engineering Geology. By R.M. Ramanatham
M.Tech. Environmental Management


Environmental Economics : Economy and Environment -the historical development of environmental
economics; The circular economy, The sustainable economy. Economics of Pollution;-The optimal level
of pollution, The market achievement of optimal pollution, Taxation and optimal pollution,
Environmental standards, Taxes and subsidies, Marketable pollution permits, Measuring environmental
damage –Total economic volume and valuation methodology, pollution control policy in mixed
economics. Environmental Values Ethics; discounting the future, alternative to adjusting discounting

Economics of Natural Resources;-Renewable resources, Extinction of species, Optimal use of
exhaustible resources Measuring and mitigating natural resource scarcity. Development and
Environment;- Development, Preservation and conservation, Irreversibility and sustainability,
Environment and the 12 developing countries. Carrying capacity based development planning. Cost
Benefit Analysis of Environmental Change; Appraisal of Sustainable development Projects; Principles
of Cost Allocation, Preventive, Punitive and social costs.

Socio-economic Planning: Importance of Socio-economic development planning. Social indicators and
their importance; Social impacts of industrial and developmental activities. Quality of life concept- and
its use in development planning. Social surveys and socio-economic data generation. Social cost of
environmental pollution. Rehabilitation and resettlement of project affected people. Laws related to
social development.

Books and References:

1. Values for the Environment: A Guide to Economic Approach – Winpeny JT, Overseas Development
Institute, London, HMOS, 1991.
2. Economic Analysis of Environmental Impacts – Dixon, John, A, Scura LF, Carpenter RA and
Sherman PB, Earthscan Publications Ltd., London 1995.
3. Environmental Assessment Source Book (Vol – 1)- World Bank, Environment Department,
Washington DC, The World bank, 1991.
4. Valuing the Environment – Barde J and Pearce DW (ed), Earthscan Publication, London, 1991.