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PRESSURE VESSEL HANDBOOK Twelfth Edition with foreword by Paul Buthod Professor of Chemical Engineering University of Tulsa Tulsa, Oklahoma Eugene F. Megyesy PRESSURE VESSEL PUBLISHING, INC. P.O. Box 35365 + Tulsa, Oklahoma 74153 Copyright © by Eugene F. Megyesy Copyright 1972, 1973 by Pressure Vessel Handbook Publishing, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means including information storage and retrieval systems — without permission of the publisher. Library of Congress Control ‘Number: 2001 130059 ISBN0-914458-213 COPYRIGHT: 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1986, 1989, 1992, 1995, 1998, 2001 Printed and bound in the United States of America, NOTE: This new edition of the Pressure Vessel Handbook super- sedes ll previous editions, effective July 1,200] ‘The changes over the previous Eleventh Edition have been made necessary by the revision of Codes, Standards, Specifications, ete FOREWORD Engineers who design equipment for the chemical process industry ‘are sooner or later confronted with the design of pressure vessels and mounting requirements for them. This is very often a frustrating experience for anyone who has not kept up with current literature in the field of code requirements and design equations, First he must familiarize himself with the latest version of the applicable code, Then he must search the literature for techniques, used in design to meet these codes. Finally he must select material properties and dimensional data from various handbooks and company catalogs for use in the design equations. Mr. Megyesy has recognized this ‘problem, For several years he has been accumulating data on code requirements and calculational methods, He has been presenting this information first in the form of his “Calculation Form Sheets” and now has put it all together in cone place in the Pressure Vesiel Handbook. 1 believe that this fills a real need in the pressure vessel industry and that readers will find it extremely useful. Paul Buthod PREFACE This reference book is prepared for the purpose of making formulas, ‘echnical data, design and construction methods readily available for the designer, detailer, lyoutmen and others dealing with pressure vessels. Practical men in tis industry often have difficulty finding the required data and solutions, these being scattered throughout extensive literature or advanced studies. The author's aim was to bring together all of the above material under one cover and present it in a convenient form. ‘The design procedures and formulas of the ASME Code for Pressure Vessels, Section VIII Division T have been utilized as well as those generally accepted sources which are not covered by this Code. From among the alternative construction methods described by the Code the ‘author has selected those which are most frequently used in practice. In order to provide the greatest serviceability with this Handbook, rarely occurring loadings, special construction methods or materials have been excluded from its scope. Due to the same reason this Handbook deals only with vessels constructed from ferrous material by welding, since the vast majority of the pressure vessels are in this category. ‘Allarge part of this book was taken from the works of others, with some of the material placed in different arrangement, and some unchanged. ‘The author wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to Professor ‘Séndor Kalinszky, Sénos Bodor, Lészl6 Félegyhézy and J6zsef Gyérfi for their material and valuable suggestions, to the American Society of ‘Mechanical Engineers and to the publishers, who generously permitted the author to include material from their publications. ‘The author wishes also to thank all those who helped to improve this new edition by their suggestions and corrections. Suggestions and criticism conceming some errors which may remain in spite of all precautions shall be greatly appreciated. They contribute 19 the further improvement of this Handbook. Eugene F. Megyesy ASME CODE vs. THIS HANDBOOK ‘The ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSELCODE- 2001, Sect. VIN,Dis.1 The American Society of Mechanical Engi- nears set up a Commit in 1911 for te Purpose of formulating standard rules for Jheeonstuction of steam boilers and other pressure vessels that wil perform ina safe Sndrelablemanner. ‘The Code comprises these ules. ts seope includes vessels: 1. made ofnonferous materi, castiron, High alloy and carbon steel, 2. made by welding, forging, bracing, nd 5. applying awide variety of consiruction methods and dtl It includes all vessels where the question a sfey is concemed. PRESSURE VESSEL HANDBOOK - 2001, Twelfth Edition ‘The Handbook covers design and con- struction methods of pressure vessels: 1 made of earbon steel, 2. made by welding 3. applying construction methods and details which are the most economical and practical, which arein accordance with the Code rules, and thus gener- ally followed by the industry. ‘The vast majority of the pressure vessels today fall into this category. For construction rules and details which are excluded from the scope of the Hand- bbook, references are made tothe applicable Code paragraphs to avoid neglecting them, “The Code - as itis stated in paragraph UG- 2. — "does not contain rules to cover all Getails of design and construction . .." "where details are not given, it is intended that the Manufacturer... shall provide de- tails of design and construction." Details of design and construction not covered by the Code are offered by the Handbook including: Design of tall cow- ers, wind load, earthquake, vibration, ec- centric load, clastic stability, deflection, combination of stresses, nozzle loads, re= action of supports, lugs, saddles, and rect- angular tanks. "The Code is not @ handbook." "It is not intended that this Section be used as a de- sign handbook’ as itis stated in the Fore- word of the Code. ‘The aim of this Handbook is to be easily handled and consulted, Tables, chars elimi nate the necessity of caleulations, Geom- etry, layout of vessels, piping codes, API storage tanks, standard appurtenances, painting of steel surfaces, weights, mea: Surements, conversion tables, literature, definitions, specification for vessels, de- sign of steel structures, center of gravity, design of welded joints, bolted connec- tions, boiler and pressure vessel laws, chemical resistance of metal, volumes, and surfaces of vessels, provide good service- ability. "The updated and revised Code is published in three years intervals, Addenda, which also inchide revisions to the Code, are pub- lished annually. Revisions and additions ‘The Handbook is updated and revised in three years intervals, reflecting the changes ‘of Code rules, new developments in the de- sign and construction method, and in- become mandatory six(6)monthsafterthe | cludes the revisions ofits squress date of issuance, except for boilers and pres- ‘ure vessels contracted for prior tothe end of the 6 month period. (Code Foreword) ae THE ASME CODE ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1 ‘An internationally recognized Code published by ‘The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. PRESSURE VESSEL - is a containment of solid, liquid or gaseous material under internal or external pressure, capable of withstanding also various other load- ings, BOILER - is a part of steam generator in which water is converted into steam under pressure, RULES OF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION - Boiler explosions around the tum of the century made apparent the need for rules governing the design and con- struction of vessels. The first ASME Code was published in 1914 ISSUE TIME - The updated and revised Code is published in three years intervals (2001 and so on). Addenda, which also include revisions to the Code, are pub- lished annually. Revisions and additions become mandatory 6 months after the date of issuance, except for boilers and pressure vessels contracted for prior to the end ofthe 6 month period, (Code Foreword) SCOPE OF THE CODE- The rules of this Division have been formulated on the basis of design principles and construction practices applicable to vessels de- signed for pressures not exceeding 3000 psi. Code U-1(4) ‘Vessels, which are not included in the scope of this Division, may be stamped with the Code U Symbol if they meet alithe applicable requirements of this Divi- sion, Code U-2(g) ‘THE DESIGN METHOD - The Code rules concerning design of pressure parts are based on the maximum stress theory, i.e. elastic failure in a ductile metal vessel occurs when the maximum tensile stress becomes equal tothe yield strength of the material. OTHER COUNTRIES' Codes deviate from each other considerably, mainly be~ cause of differences in the basic allowable design stresses. The ASME Code's regulations may be considered to be at midway between conservative and unconservative design, COMPUTER PROGRAMS - Designers and engineers using computer programs for design or analysis are cautioned that they are responsible for all technical assumptions inherent in the programs they use and they are solely responsible for the application of these programs to their design. (Code, Foreword) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION NOT COVERED - This Division of the Code does not contain rules to cover all details of design and construction. Where complete details are not given, itis intended that the Manufacturer shall provide details which will be as safe as those provided by the rules ofthis Division, Code U-2(e) PARTI PART IL PART IIL PARTIV PARTV CONTENTS Design and Construction of Pressure Vessels . Geometry and Layout of Pressure Vessels Measures and Weights ... 321 Design of Steel Structures soe 447 ‘Miscellaneous