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JUDICIAL BRANCH

THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES

United States Supreme Court Building

1 First Street NE., Washington, DC 20543

Phone, 202-479-3000

Members: ........

Chief Justice of the United States ........William H. Rehnquist

Associate Justices ........Harry A. Blackmun, John Paul Stevens, Sandra


Day O'Connor, Antonin Scalia, Anthony M. Kennedy, David H. Souter,
Clarence Thomas, Ruth Bader Ginsburg

Officers: ........

Clerk ........William K. Suter

Reporter of Decisions ........Frank D. Wagner

Librarian ........Shelley L. Dowling

Marshal ........Alfred Wong

Article III, section 1, of the Constitution of the United States provides


that ``[t]he judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one
supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time
to time ordain and establish.'' The Supreme Court of the United States was
created in accordance with this provision and by authority of the
Judiciary Act of September 24, 1789 (1 Stat. 73). It was organized on
February 2, 1790.

The Supreme Court comprises the Chief Justice of the United States and
such number of Associate Justices as may be fixed by Congress. Under that
authority, and by virtue of act of June 25, 1948 (28 U.S.C. 1), the number
of Associate Justices is eight. Pow er to nominate the Justices is vested
in the President of the United States, and appointments are made with the
advice and consent of the Senate. Article III, section 1, of the
Constitution further provides that ``[t]he Judges, both of the supreme and
inf erior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and
shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services, a Compensation, which
shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office.'' A Justice
may, if so desired, retire at the age of 70 after serving for 10 years as
a Federal judge or at age 65 after 15 years of service.

The Clerk, the Reporter of Decisions, the Librarian, and the Marshal are
appointed by the Court to assist in the performance of its functions.
Other Court officers, including the Administrative Assistant, the Court
Counsel, the Curator, the Director of Da ta Systems, and the Public
Information Officer, are appointed by the Chief Justice to assist him with
the administrative aspects of his position.
The library is open to members of the bar of the Court, attorneys for the
various Federal departments and agencies, and Members of Congress. Only
members of the bar of the Court may practice before the Supreme Court.

The library is open to members of the bar of the Court, attorneys for the
various Federal departments and agencies, and Members of Congress. Only
members of the bar of the Court may practice before the Supreme Court. The
term of the Court begins, by law, the first Monday in October of each year
and continues as long as the business before the Court requires, usually
until about the end of June. Six members constitute a quorum.
Approximately 7,000 cases are passed upon in the course of a term. In
addition, some 1,200 applications of various kinds are filed each year
that can be acted upon by a single Justice.

Jurisdiction According to the Constitution (art. III, sec. 2), ``[t]he


judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under
this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or
which shall be made, under their Auth ority; -- to all Cases affecting
Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls; -- to all Cases of
admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction; -- to Controversies to which the
United States shall be a Party; -- to Controversies between two or more
States; -- b etween a State and Citizens of another State; -- between
Citizens of different States; -- between Citizens of the same State
claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or
the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Sub jects.

``In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and


Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court
shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the other Cases before mentioned,
the supreme Court shall have appell ate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and
Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such Regulations as the Congress
shall make.''

Appellate jurisdiction has been conferred upon the Supreme Court


by various statutes, under the authority given Congress by the
Constitution. The basic statute effective at this time in conferring and
controlling jurisdiction of the Supreme Cour t may be found in 28 U.S.C.
1251, 1253, 1254, 1257-1259, and various special statutes. Congress has no
authority to change the original jurisdiction of this Court.

Rulemaking Power

Congress has from time to time conferred upon the Supreme Court power to
prescribe rules of procedure to be followed by the lower courts of the
United States. Pursuant to these statutes there are now in force rules
promulgated by the Cour t to govern civil and criminal cases in the
district courts, bankruptcy proceedings, admiralty cases, appellate
proceedings, and the trial of misdemeanors before U.S. magistrate judges.

For further information concerning the Supreme Court, contact the Public
Information Office, United States Supreme Court Building, 1 First Street
NE., Washington, DC 20543. Phone, 202-479-3211.

Lower Courts

Article III of the Constitution declares, in section 1, that the


judicial power of the United States shall be invested in one Supreme Court
and in ``such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain
and establish.'' The Supreme C ourt has held that these constitutional
courts `` . . . share in the exercise of the judicial power defined in
that section, can be invested with no other jurisdiction, and have judges
who hold office during good behavior, with no power in Congress to pro
vide otherwise.''

United States Courts of Appeals

The courts of appeals are intermediate appellate courts created by act of


March 3, 1891 (28 U.S.C. ch. 3), to relieve the Supreme Court of
considering all appeals in cases originally decided by the Federal trial
courts. The y are empowered to review all final decisions and certain
interlocutory decisions (18 U.S.C. 3731, 3734; 28 U.S.C. 1291, 1292) of
district courts. They also are empowered to review and enforce orders of
many Federal administrative bodies. The decisions of the courts of appeals
are final except as they are subject to discretionary review or appeal in
the Supreme Court.

The United States is divided geographically into 12 judicial


circuits, including the District of Columbia. Each circuit has a court of
appeals (28 U.S.C. 41, 1294). Each of the 50 States is assigned to one of
the circuits, and the Territories ar e assigned variously to the first,
third, and ninth circuits. There is also a Court of Appeals for the
Federal Circuit, which has nationwide jurisdiction defined by subject
matter. At present each court of appeals has from 6 to 28 permanent
circuit judges hips (179 in all), depending upon the amount of judicial
work in the circuit. Circuit judges hold their offices during good
behavior as provided by Article III, section 1, of the Constitution. The
judge senior in commission who is under 70 years of age (6 5 at inception
of term), has been in office at least 1 year, and has not previously been
chief judge, serves as the chief judge of the circuit for a 7-year term.
One of the justices of the Supreme Court is assigned as circuit justice
for each of the 13 ju dicial circuits. Each court of appeals normally
hears cases in panels consisting of three judges but may sit en banc with
all judges present.

The judges of each circuit by vote determine the size of the


judicial council for the circuit, which consists of the chief judge and an
equal number of circuit and district judges. The council considers the
state of Federal judicial business in the circuit and may ``make all
necessary and appropriate orders for [its] effective and expeditious
administration . . .'' (28 U.S.C. 332). The chief judge of each circuit
summons annually a judicial conference of all circuit and district judges
in the ci rcuit, and sometimes members of the bar, to discuss the business
of the Federal courts of the circuit (28 U.S.C. 333). The chief judge of
each circuit and a district judge elected from each of the 12 geographical
circuits, together with the chief judge of the Court of International
Trade, serve as members of the Judicial Conference of the United States,
over which the Chief Justice of the United States presides. This is the
governing body for the administration of the Federal judicial system as a
whole (2 8 U.S.C. 331).

United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit

This court was established under Article III of the Constitution pursuant
to the Federal Courts Improvement Act of 1982 (28 U.S.C. 1 note), as
successor to the former United States Court of Customs an d Patent Appeals
and the United States Court of Claims. The jurisdiction of the court is
nationwide (as provided by 28 U.S.C. 1295) and includes appeals from the
district courts in patent cases; appeals from the district courts in
contract, and certain ot her civil actions in which the United States is a
defendant; and appeals from final decisions of the U.S. Court of
International Trade, the U.S. Court of Federal Claims, and the U.S. Court
of Veterans Appeals. The jurisdiction of the court also includes t he
review of administrative rulings by the Patent and Trademark Office, U.S.
International Trade Commission, Secretary of Commerce, agency boards of
contract appeals, and the Merit Systems Protection Board, as well as
rulemaking of the Department of Veter ans Affairs; review of decisions of
the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Ethics concerning discrimination
claims of Senate employees; and review of a final order of an entity to be
designated by the President concerning discrimination claims of
Presidentia l appointees.

The court consists of 12 circuit judges. It sits in panels of


three or more on each case and may also hear or rehear a case en banc. The
court sits principally in Washington, DC, and may hold court wherever any
court of appeals sits (28 U.S.C. 4 8).

---------------------------(TABLE START)---------------------------

Judicial Circuits -- United States Courts of Appeals


head level 1 :Circuit
head level 1 :Judges
head level 1 :Official Station

-----------------------------------------------------------------

District of Columbia Circuit@rs#

(Clerk: Ron Garvin; ....... Circuit Justice

Circuit Executive: Linda Finkelstein; ....... Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist

Washington, DC)

....... Circuit Judges

....... Abner J. Mikva, Chief Judge ....... Washington, DC

....... Patricia M. Wald ....... Do.

....... Harry T. Edwards ....... Do.

....... Laurence H. Silberman ....... Do.

....... James L. Buckley ....... Do.

....... Stephen F. Williams ....... Do.

....... Douglas H. Ginsburg ....... Do.

....... David Bryan Sentelle ....... Do.


....... Karen LeCraft Henderson ....... Do.

....... A. Raymond Randolph ....... Do.

....... Judith W. Rogers ....... Do.

....... (Vacancy)@rs#

First Circuit@rs#

Districts of Maine, New ....... Circuit Justice

Hampshire, Massachusetts, ....... Justice David H. Souter

Rhode Island, and Puerto Rico

(Clerk: Francis P. Scigliano; ....... Circuit Judges

Circuit Executive: ....... Stephen G. Breyer, Chief Judge ....... Boston, MA

Vincent F. Flanagan; ....... Juan R. Torruella ....... San Juan, PR

Boston, MA) ....... Bruce M. Selya ....... Providence, RI

....... Conrad K. Cyr ....... Bangor, ME

....... Michael Boudin ....... Boston, MA

....... Norman H. Stahl ....... Concord, NH@rs#

Second Circuit@rs#

Districts of Vermont, ....... Circuit Justice

Connecticut, northern New ....... Justice Clarence Thomas

York, southern New York,

eastern New York, and ....... Circuit Judges

western New York ....... Jon O. Newman, Chief Judge ....... Hartford, CT

(Clerk: George Lange III; Circuit ....... Amalya Lyle Kearse ....... New
York, NY

Executive: Steven Flanders; ....... Ralph K. Winter, Jr. ....... New


Haven, CT

New York, NY) ....... Roger J. Miner ....... Albany, NY

....... Frank X. Altimari ....... Uniondale, NY

....... J. Daniel Mahoney ....... Milford, CT

....... John M. Walker, Jr. ....... New York, NY

....... Joseph M. McLaughlin ....... Do.


....... Dennis G. Jacobs ....... Do.

....... Pierre N. Leval ....... Do.

....... (2 vacancies)@rs#

Third Circuit@rs#

Districts of New Jersey, ....... Circuit Justice

eastern Pennsylvania, ....... Justice David H. Souter

middle Pennsylvania,

western Pennsylvania, ....... Circuit Judges

Delaware, and the Virgin ....... Dolores Korman Sloviter, Chief Judge
....... Philadelphia, PA

Islands ....... Edward R. Becker ....... Philadelphia, PA

(Clerk: P. Douglas Sisk; ....... Walter K. Stapleton ....... Wilmington, DE

Circuit Executive: ....... Carol Los Mansmann ....... Pittsburgh, PA

Toby D. Slawsky; ....... Morton I. Greenberg ....... Trenton, NJ

Philadelphia, PA) ....... Anthony J. Scirica ....... Philadelphia, PA

....... William D. Hutchinson ....... Pottsville, PA

....... Robert E. Cowen ....... Trenton, NJ

....... Richard Lowell Nygaard ....... Erie, PA

....... Samuel A. Alito, Jr. ....... Newark, NJ

....... Jane R. Roth ....... Wilmington, DE

....... Timothy K. Lewis ....... Pittsburgh, PA

....... (2 vacancies)@rs#

Fourth Circuit@rs#

Districts of Maryland, ....... Circuit Justice

northern West Virginia, ....... Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist

southern West Virginia,

eastern Virginia, western ....... Circuit Judges

Virginia, eastern North ....... Sam J. Ervin III, Chief Judge .......
Morganton, NC

Carolina, middle North ....... Donald S. Russell ....... Spartanburg, SC


Carolina, western North ....... H. Emory Widener, Jr. ....... Abingdon,VA

Carolina, and South ....... Kenneth K. Hall ....... Charleston, WV

Carolina ....... James Dickson Phillips, Jr. ....... Durham, NC

(Clerk: Bert M. Montague; ....... Francis D. Murnaghan, Jr. .......


Baltimore, MD

Circuit Executive: ....... James Harvie Wilkinson III .......


Charlottesville, VA

Samuel W. Phillips; ....... William W. Wilkins, Jr. ....... Greenville, SC

Richmond, VA) ....... Paul V. Niemeyer ....... Baltimore, MD

....... J. Michael Luttig ....... Alexandria, VA

....... Clyde H. Hamilton ....... Columbia, SC

....... Karen J. Williams ....... Orangeburg, SC

....... M. Blane Michael ....... Charleston, WV

....... (2 vacancies)@rs#

Fifth Circuit@rs#

Districts of northern ....... Circuit Justice

Mississippi, southern Mississippi, ....... Justice Antonin Scalia

eastern Louisiana, middle

Louisiana, western Louisiana, ....... Circuit Judges

northern Texas, southern ....... Henry A. Politz, Chief Judge .......


Shreveport, LA

Texas, eastern Texas, and ....... Carolyn Dineen King ....... Houston, TX

western Texas ....... William L. Garwood ....... Austin, TX

(Clerk: Charles R. Fulbruge III; ....... E. Grady Jolly ....... Jackson, MS

Circuit Executive: ....... Patrick E. Higginbotham ....... Dallas, TX

Lydia Comberrel; ....... W. Eugene Davis ....... Lafayette, LA

New Orleans, LA) ....... Edith H. Jones ....... Houston, TX

....... Jerry Edwin Smith ....... Houston, TX

....... John M. Duhe, Jr. ....... Lafayette, LA

....... Rhesa H. Barksdale ....... Jackson, MS

....... Jacques L. Wiener, Jr. ....... Shreveport, LA


....... Emilio M. Garza ....... San Antonio, TX

....... Harold R. Demoss, Jr. ....... Houston, TX

....... (4 vacancies)@rs#

Sixth Circuit@rs#

Districts of northern Ohio, ....... Circuit Justice

southern Ohio, eastern ....... Justice John Paul Stevens

Michigan, western

Michigan, eastern Kentucky, ....... Circuit Judges

western Kentucky, eastern ....... Gilbert S. Merritt, Chief Judge .......


Nashville, TN

Tennessee, middle Tennessee, ....... Damon J. Keith ....... Detroit, MI

and western Tennessee ....... Cornelia G. Kennedy ....... Detroit, MI

(Clerk: Leonard Green; ....... Boyce F. Martin, Jr. ....... Louisville, KY

Circuit Executive: ....... Nathaniel R. Jones ....... Cincinnati, OH

James A. Higgins; ....... H. Ted Milburn ....... Chattanooga, TN

Cincinnati, OH) ....... Ralph B. Guy, Jr. ....... Ann Arbor, MI

....... David A. Nelson ....... Cincinnati, OH

....... James L. Ryan ....... Detroit, MI

....... Danny J. Boggs ....... Louisville, KY

....... Alan E. Norris ....... Columbus, OH

....... Richard F. Suhrheinrich ....... Lansing, MI

....... Eugene E. Siler, Jr. ....... London, KY

....... Alice M. Batchelder ....... Medina, OH

....... Martha Craig Daughtrey ....... Nashville, TN

....... (Vacancy)@rs#

Seventh Circuit@rs#

Districts of northern Indiana, ....... Circuit Justice

southern Indiana, northern ....... Justice John Paul Stevens

Illinois, central Illinois,


southern Illinois, eastern ....... Circuit Judges

Wisconsin, and western ....... Richard A. Posner, Chief Judge .......


Chicago, IL

Wisconsin ....... William J. Bauer ....... Do.

(Clerk: Thomas F. Strubbe; ....... Walter J. Cummings ....... Do.

Circuit Executive: ....... Richard D. Cudahy ....... Do.

Collins T. Fitzpatrick; ....... John L. Coffey ....... Milwaukee, WI

Chicago, IL) ....... Joel M. Flaum ....... Chicago, IL

....... Frank H. Easterbrook ....... Chicago, IL

....... Kenneth F. Ripple ....... South Bend, IN

....... Daniel A. Manion ....... South Bend, IN

....... Michael S. Kanne ....... Lafayette, IN

....... Ilana Diamond Rovner ....... Chicago, IL@rs#

Eighth Circuit@rs#

Districts of Minnesota, ....... Circuit Justice

northern Iowa, southern ....... Justice Harry A. Blackmun

Iowa, eastern Missouri,

western Missouri, eastern ....... Circuit Judges

Arkansas, western Arkansas, ....... Richard S. Arnold, Chief Judge .......


Little Rock, AR

Nebraska, North Dakota, ....... Theodore McMillian ....... St. Louis, MO

and South Dakota ....... George G. Fagg ....... Des Moines, IA

(Clerk: Michael Ellis Gans; ....... Pasco M. Bowman II ....... Kansas City, MO

Circuit Executive: ....... Roger L. Wollman ....... Sioux Falls, SD

June L. Boadwine; ....... Frank J. Magill ....... Fargo, ND

St. Louis, MO, and ....... Clarence Arlen Beam ....... Lincoln, NE

St. Paul, MN) ....... James B. Loken ....... St. Paul, MN

....... David R. Hansen ....... Cedar Rapids, IA

....... Morris S. Arnold ....... Little Rock, AR

....... (Vacancy)@rs#
Ninth Circuit@rs#

Districts of northern ....... Circuit Justice

California, eastern ....... Justice Sandra Day O'Connor

California, central California,

southern California, Oregon, ....... Circuit Judges

Nevada, Montana, eastern ....... J. Clifford Wallace, Chief Judge .......


San Diego, CA

Washington, western ....... James R. Browning ....... San Francisco, CA

Washington, Idaho, Arizona, ....... Proctor Hug, Jr. ....... Reno, NV

Alaska, Hawaii, Territory ....... Mary M. Schroeder ....... Phoenix, AZ

of Guam, and District ....... Betty B. Fletcher ....... Seattle, WA

Court for the Northern ....... Jerome Farris ....... Seattle, WA

Mariana Islands ....... Harry Pregerson ....... Woodland Hills, CA

(Clerk: Cathy Catterson; ....... Cecil F. Poole ....... San Francisco, CA

Circuit Executive: ....... Dorothy W. Nelson ....... Pasadena, CA

Gregory B. Walters; ....... William C. Canby, Jr. ....... Phoenix, AZ

San Francisco, CA) ....... William A. Norris ....... Los Angeles, CA

....... Stephen Reinhardt ....... Los Angeles, CA

....... Robert R. Beezer ....... Seattle, WA

....... Cynthia Holcomb Hall ....... Pasadena, CA

....... Charles E. Wiggins ....... Reno, NV

....... Melvin Brunetti ....... Reno, NV

....... Alex Kozinski ....... Pasadena, CA

....... John T. Noonan, Jr. ....... San Francisco, CA

....... David R. Thompson ....... San Diego, CA

....... Diarmuid F. O'Scannlain ....... Portland, OR

....... Edward Leavy ....... Portland, OR

....... Stephen S. Trott ....... Boise, ID

....... Ferdinand F. Fernandez ....... Pasadena, CA

....... Pamela A. Rymer ....... Pasadena, CA


....... Thomas G. Nelson ....... Boise, ID

....... Andrew J. Kleinfeld ....... Fairbanks, AK

....... (2 vacancies)@rs#

Tenth Circuit@rs#

Districts of Colorado, ....... Circuit Justice

Wyoming, Utah, Kansas, ....... Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg

eastern Oklahoma, western

Oklahoma, northern ....... Circuit Judges

Oklahoma, and New ....... Stephanie K. Seymour, Chief Judge ....... Tulsa, OK

Mexico ....... James K. Logan ....... Olathe, KS

(Clerk: Robert L. Hoecker; ....... John P. Moore ....... Denver, CO

Circuit Executive: ....... Stephen H. Anderson ....... Salt Lake City, UT

Eugene J. Murret; ....... Deanell Reece Tacha ....... Lawrence, KS

Denver, CO) ....... Bobby R. Baldock ....... Roswell, NM

....... Wade Brorby ....... Cheyenne, WY

....... David M. Ebel ....... Denver, CO

....... Paul J. Kelly, Jr. ....... Santa Fe, NM

....... (3 vacancies)@rs#

Eleventh Circuit@rs#

Districts of northern ....... Circuit Justice

Georgia, middle Georgia, ....... Justice Anthony M. Kennedy

southern Georgia, northern

Florida, middle Florida, ....... Circuit Judges

southern Florida, northern ....... Gerald B. Tjoflat, Chief Judge .......


Jacksonville, FL

Alabama, middle Alabama, ....... Phyllis A. Kravitch ....... Atlanta, GA

southern Alabama ....... Joseph Woodrow Hatchett ....... Tallahassee, FL

(Clerk: Miguel J. Cortez, Jr.; ....... R. Lanier Anderson III ....... Macon, GA

Circuit Executive: ....... J.L. Edmondson ....... Atlanta, GA


Norman E. Zoller; ....... Emmett Ripley Cox ....... Mobile, AL

Atlanta, GA) ....... Stanley F. Birch, Jr. ....... Atlanta, GA

....... Joel F. Dubina ....... Montgomery, AL

....... Susan H. Black ....... Jacksonville, FL

....... Edward E. Carnes ....... Montgomery, AL

....... (2 vacancies)

----------------------------(TABLE END)--------------------------

---------------------------(TABLE START)---------------------------

Federal Circuit -- Washington, DC


head level 1 :
head level 1 :

-----------------------------------------------------------------

Circuit Justice ........Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist

Chief Judge ........Glenn L. Archer, Jr.

Judges ........Helen Wilson Nies ........Giles S. Rich ........Pauline


Newman ........Haldane Robert Mayer ........Paul R. Michel ........S. Jay
Plager ........Alan D. Lourie ........Raymond C. Clevenger III
........Randall R. Rader ........Alvi n A. Schall ........(Vacancy)

Clerk: Francis X. Gindhart

Administrative Services Officer: Ruth A. Butler

----------------------------(TABLE END)--------------------------

United States District Courts

The district courts are the trial courts of general Federal jurisdiction.
Each State has at least one district court, while the larger States have
as many as four. Altogether there are 89 district courts in the 50 States,
plu s the one in the District of Columbia. In addition, the Commonwealth
of Puerto Rico has a district court with jurisdiction corresponding to
that of district courts in the various States.

At present, each district court has from 2 to 28 Federal


district judgeships, depending upon the amount of judicial work within its
territory. Only one judge is usually required to hear and decide a case in
a district court, but in some limited cases it is required that three
judges be called together to comprise the court (28 U.S.C. 2284). The
judge senior in commission who is under 70 years of age (65 at inception
of term), has been in office for at least 1 year, and has not previously
been ch ief judge, serves as chief judge for a 7-year term. There are
altogether 610 permanent district judgeships in the 50 States and 15 in
the District of Columbia. There are 7 district judgeships in Puerto Rico.
District judges hold their offices during good behavior as provided by
Article III, section 1, of the Constitution. However, Congress may create
temporary judgeships for a court with the provision that when a vacancy
occurs in that district, such vacancy shall not be filled. Each district
court has on e or more United States magistrate judges and bankruptcy
judges, a clerk, a United States attorney, a United States marshal,
probation officers, court reporters, and their staffs. The jurisdiction of
the district courts is set forth in title 28, chapter 85, of the United
States Code and at 18 U.S.C. 3231.

Cases from the district courts are reviewable on appeal by the


applicable court of appeals.

Territorial Courts

Pursuant to its authority to govern the Territories (art. IV, sec. 3,


clause 2, of the Constitution), Congress has established district courts
in the territories of Guam and the Virgin Islands. The District Court of
the Canal Zone was a bolished on April 1, 1982, pursuant to the Panama
Canal Act of 1979 (22 U.S.C. 3601 note). Congress has also established a
district court in the Northern Mariana Islands, which presently is
administered by the United States under a trusteeship agreement w ith the
United Nations. These Territorial courts have jurisdiction not only over
the subjects described in the judicial article of the Constitution but
also over many local matters that, within the States, are decided in State
courts. The district court o f Puerto Rico, by contrast, is established
under Article III, is classified like other ``district courts,'' and is
called a ``court of the United States'' (28 U.S.C. 451). There is one
judge each in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands, and two in the Vi
rgin Islands. The judges in these courts are appointed for terms of 10
years.

For further information concerning the lower courts, contact the


Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Thurgood Marshall
Federal Judiciary Building, One Columbus Circle NE., Washington, DC 20544.

United States Court of International Trade

This court was originally established as the Board of United States


General Appraisers by act of June 10, 1890, which conferred upon it
jurisdiction theretofore held by the district and circuit courts in
actions arising under the tariff acts (19 U.S.C. ch. 4). The act of May
28, 1926 (19 U.S.C. 405a), created the United States Customs Court to
supersede the Board; by acts of August 7, 1939, and June 25, 1948 (28
U.S.C. 1582, 1583), the court was integrated into t he United States court
structure, organization, and procedure. The act of July 14, 1956 (28
U.S.C. 251), established the court as a court of record of the United
States under Article III of the Constitution.

The Customs Courts Act of 1980 (28 U.S.C. 251) constituted the
court as the United States Court of International Trade and revised
provisions relating to its jurisdiction. The Court of International Trade
has all the powers in law and equity of a district court.

The Court of International Trade has jurisdiction over any civil


action against the United States arising from Federal laws governing
import transactions. This includes classification and valuation cases, as
well as authority to review certain a gency determinations under the Trade
Agreements Act of 1979 (19 U.S.C. 2501) involving antidumping and
countervailing duty matters. In addition, it has exclusive jurisdiction of
civil actions to review determinations as to the eligibility of workers,
firm s, and communities for adjustment assistance under the Trade Act of
1974 (19 U.S.C. 2101). Civil actions commenced by the United States to
recover customs duties, to recover on a customs bond, or for certain civil
penalties alleging fraud or negligence ar e also within the exclusive
jurisdiction of the court.

The court is composed of a chief judge and eight judges, not


more than five of whom may belong to any one political party. Any of its
judges may be temporarily designated and assigned by the Chief Justice of
the United States to sit as a court o f appeals or district court judge in
any circuit or district. The court has a clerk and deputy clerks, a
librarian, court reporters, and other supporting personnel. Cases before
the court may be tried before a jury. Under the Federal Courts Improvement
Ac t of 1982 (28 U.S.C. 1295), appeals are taken to the U.S. Court of
Appeals for the Federal Circuit, and ultimately review may be sought in
appropriate cases in the Supreme Court of the United States.

The principal offices are located in New York, NY, but the court
is empowered to hear and determine cases arising at any port or place
within the jurisdiction of the United States.

For further information, contact the Clerk, United States Court of


International Trade, One Federal Plaza, New York, NY 10007. Phone,
212-264-2814.

Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation

The Panel, created by act of April 29, 1968 (28 U.S.C. 1407), and
consisting of seven Federal judges designated by the Chief Justice from
the courts of appeals and district courts, is authorized to temporarily tr
ansfer to a single district, for coordinated or consolidated pretrial
proceedings, civil actions pending in different districts that involve one
or more common questions of fact.

For further information, contact the Clerk, Judicial Panel on


Multidistrict Litigation, Room G-255, Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary
Building, One Columbus Circle NE., Washington, DC 20002. Phone,
202-273-2800.

Special Courts

The Supreme Court has held that ``. . . Article III [of the
Constitution] does not express the full authority of Congress to create
courts, and that other Articles invest Congress with powers in the
exertion of which it may create inferior court s and clothe them with
functions deemed essential or helpful in carrying those powers into
execution.'' Such courts, known as legislative courts, have functions
which ``. . . are directed to the execution of one or more of such powers
and are prescribed b y Congress independently of section 2 of Article III;
and their judges hold office for such term as Congress prescribes, whether
it be a fixed period of years or during good behavior.'' Appeals from the
decisions of these courts, with the exception of the U.S. Tax Court and
the U.S. Court of Military Appeals, may be taken to the U.S. Court of
Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Appeals from the decisions of the Tax
Court may be taken to the court of appeals in which judicial circuit the
case was initially he ard. Certain decisions of the U.S. Court of Military
Appeals are reviewable by writ of certiorari in the Supreme Court.

United States Court of Federal Claims

The Claims Court was established on October 1, 1982, as an Article I court


(28 U.S.C. 171, Article I, U.S. Constitution). The Claims Court succeeds
to the original jurisdiction of the former Court of Claims, as provid ed
for in 28 U.S.C. 1491 et seq. Its name was changed to the United States
Court of Federal Claims by the Federal Courts Administration Act of 1992
(28 U.S.C. 1 note, 106 Stat. 4516). The Court is composed of a chief
judge, designated by the President, an d 15 associate judges. All judges
are appointed for 15-year terms by the President with the advice and
consent of the Senate.

The court has jurisdiction over claims seeking money judgments


against the United States. A claim must be founded upon either: the United
States Constitution; an act of Congress; the regulation of an executive
department; an express or implied-i n-fact contract with the United
States; or damages, liquidated or unliquidated, in cases not sounding in
tort.

If a bidder files a claim with the Court before the award of a


Government contract, it has jurisdiction to grant declaratory judgments
and equitable relief. Under the Contract Disputes Act (41 U.S.C. 601 et
seq.), the Court may render judgments upon a claim by or against a
contractor, or any dispute between a contractor and the United States
Government arising under the act.

The Congress, from time to time, also grants the Court


jurisdiction over specific types of claims against the United States. The
National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, established by 42 U.S.C.
300aa-10 (the Vaccine Act), is an example of such special jurisdiction.

The Court also reports to Congress on bills referred by either


the House of Representatives or the Senate.

Judgments of the Court are final and conclusive on both the


claimant and the United States. All judgments are subject to appeal to the
United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Collateral to any
judgment, the Court may issue orders directing the restoration to office
or status of any claimant or the correction of applicable records.

The Court's jurisdiction is nationwide. Trials are conducted


before individual judges at locations most convenient and least expensive
to citizens.

For further information, contact the Clerk of Court, United States Court
of Federal Claims, 717 Madison Place NW., Washington, DC 20005. Phone,
202-219-9657.

United States Court of Military Appeals

This court was established under Article I of the Constitution of the


United States pursuant to act of May 5, 1950, as amended (10 U.S.C. 867).
Subject only to certiorari review by the Supreme Court of the United St
ates in a limited number of cases, the court serves as the final appellate
tribunal to review court-martial convictions of all the armed services. It
is exclusively an appellate criminal court, consisting of five civilian
judges who are appointed for 15-y ear terms by the President with the
advice and consent of the Senate. The court is called upon to exercise
jurisdiction to review the record in all cases:

-- extending to death;

-- certified to the court by a Judge Advocate General of an


armed service or by the General Counsel of the Department of
Transportation, acting for the Coast Guard; or

-- petitioned by accused who have received a sentence of


confinement for 1 year or more, and/or a punitive discharge.

The court also exercises authority under the All Writs Act (28
U.S.C. 1651 (a)).

In addition, the judges of the court are required by law to work


jointly with the senior uniformed lawyer from each Armed Force, the Chief
Counsel of the Coast Guard, and two members of the public appointed by the
Secretary of Defense, to make a n annual comprehensive survey and to
report annually to the Congress on the operation and progress of the
military justice system under the Uniform Code of Military Justice, and to
recommend improvements wherever necessary.

For further information, contact the Clerk, United States Court of


Military Appeals, 450 E Street NW., Washington, DC 20442-0001. Phone,
202-272-1448.

United States Tax Court

This is a court of record under Article I of the Constitution of the


United States (26 U.S.C. 7441). Currently an independent judicial body in
the legislative branch, the court was originally created as the United
States Board of T ax Appeals, an independent agency in the executive
branch, by the Revenue Act of 1924 (43 Stat. 336) and continued by the
Revenue Act of 1926 (44 Stat. 105), the Internal Revenue Codes of 1939,
1954, and 1986. The name was changed to the Tax Court of the United States
by the Revenue Act of 1942 (56 Stat. 957), and the Article I status and
change in name to United States Tax Court were effected by the Tax Reform
Act of 1969 (83 Stat. 730).

The court is composed of 19 judges. Its strength is augmented by


senior judges who may be recalled by the chief judge to perform further
judicial duties and by 14 special trial judges who are appointed by the
chief judge and serve at the pleasur e of the court. The chief judge is
elected biennially from among the 19 judges of the court.

The Tax Court tries and adjudicates controversies involving the


existence of deficiencies or overpayments in income, estate, gift, and
generation-skipping transfer taxes in cases where deficiencies have been
determined by the Commissioner of Int ernal Revenue. It also hears cases
commenced by transferees and fiduciaries who have been issued notices of
liability by the Commissioner.

The Tax Court has jurisdiction to redetermine excise taxes and


penalties imposed on private foundations. Similar jurisdiction over excise
taxes has been conferred with regard to public charities, qualified
pension plans, and real estate investme nt trusts.

At the option of the individual taxpayer, simplified procedures


may be utilized for the trials of small tax cases, provided that in a case
conducted under these procedures the decision of the court would be final
and not subject to review by any court. The jurisdictional maximum for
such cases is $10,000 for any disputed year.

In disputes relating to public inspection of written


determinations by the Internal Revenue Service, the Tax Court has
jurisdiction to restrain disclosure or to obtain additional disclosure of
written determinations or background file documents and, at the request of
any person, to order disclosure of the identity of any person to whom the
written determination pertains, if there has been a third party contact
noted on the determination made public.

The Tax Court has jurisdiction to render declaratory judgments


relating to the qualification of retirement plans, including pension,
profit-sharing, stock bonus, annuity, and bond purchase plans; the
tax-exempt status of a charitable organizatio n, qualified charitable
donee, private foundation, or private operating foundation; and the status
of interest on certain governmental obligations. Additional jurisdiction
was conferred on the Tax Court by the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue
Act of 19 88 (102 Stat. 3342). Such jurisdiction includes injunctive
authority over certain procedure assessments, authority to review certain
jeopardy assessments and jeopardy levies, and authority to hear and decide
appeals by taxpayers from the denial of adminis trative costs by the
Internal Revenue Service.

All decisions, other than small tax case decisions, are subject
to review by the courts of appeals and thereafter by the Supreme Court of
the United States upon the granting of a writ of certiorari.

The office of the court and all of its judges are located in
Washington, DC, with the exception of a field office located in Los
Angeles, CA. The court conducts trial sessions at various locations within
the United States as reasonably convenien t to taxpayers as practicable.
Each trial session is conducted by a single judge or a special trial
judge. All proceedings are public and are conducted judicially in
accordance with the court's Rules of Practice and the rules of evidence
applicable in tri als without a jury in the U.S. District Court for the
District of Columbia. A fee of $60 is prescribed for the filing of a
petition. Practice before the court is limited to practitioners admitted
under the court's Rules.

For further information, contact the Administrative Office, United States


Tax Court, 400 Second Street NW., Washington, DC 20217. Phone,
202-606-8751.

United States Court of Veterans Appeals

The United States Court of Veterans Appeals was established on November


18, 1988 (102 Stat. 4105, 38 U.S.C. 4051) pursuant to Article I of the
Constitution, and given exclusive jurisdiction to review decisions of th e
Board of Veterans Appeals. However, the Court may not review the schedule
of ratings for disabilities or actions of the Secretary in adopting or
revising that schedule. Decisions of the Court of Veterans Appeals may be
appealed to the United States Cour t of Appeals for the Federal Circuit.
The Court consists of a chief judge and at least two, but not
more than six, associate judges. All judges are appointed by the President
with the advice and consent of the Senate for terms of 15 years.

The court's principal office is in the District of Columbia, but


the Court can also act at any place within the United States.

For further information, contact the Clerk, United States Court of


Veterans Appeals, Suite 900, 625 Indiana Avenue NW., Washington, DC
20004-2950. Phone, 202-501-5970.

Other Courts

There have also been created two courts of local jurisdiction for the
District of Columbia: the District of Columbia Court of Appeals and the
Superior Court.

Business of the Federal Courts

The business of all the Federal courts described here, except


the Court of Military Appeals, the Tax Court, the Court of Veterans
Appeals, and the District of Columbia courts, is discussed in detail in
the text and tables of the Annual Report of the Director of the
Administrative Office of the United States Courts (1940-92).

ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES COURTS

Washington, DC 20544

Phone: See ``Sources of Information'' section at end of statement

Director ........L. Ralph Mecham

Deputy Director ........(vacancy)

Associate Director for Management and Operations ........Clarence A. Lee, Jr.

Chief, Office of Audit ........David L. Gellman

Chief, Office of Management Coordination ........Cathy A. McCarthy

Chief, Office of Program Assessment ........Duane R. Lee

General Counsel ........William R. Burchill, Jr.

Legislative and Public Affairs Officer ........(vacancy)

Chief, Judicial Conference and Management Coordination ........Karen K.


Siegel

Chief, Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs ........Robert E.


Feidler

Assistant Director for Automation and Technology ........Roy L. Carter


Deputy Assistant Director ........James S. Lamb

Chief, Automation Planning and Policy Formulation Office ........Kathryn


C. Hogan

Chief, Technology Enhancement Office ........Richard D. Fennell

Assistant Director for Court Programs ........Noel J. Augustyn

Chief, Court Administration Policy Staff ........Abel J. Mattos

Assistant Director for Facilities, Security and Administrative Services


........P. Gerald Thacker

Deputy Assistant Director ........William J. Lehman

Court Security Officer ........(vacancy)

Chief, Relocation and Travel Management Office ........Robert E. Moreland

Assistant Director for Finance and Budget ........Richard A. Ames

Deputy Assistant Director ........Nancy A. Potok

Chief, Financial Analysis Office ........Penny G. Jacobs

Chief, Judicial Impact Office ........Nancy A. Potok

Assistant Director for Human Resources and Statistics ........Myra Howze


Shiplett

Deputy Assistant Director ........R. Townsend Robinson

Chief, Analytical Services Office ........David L. Cook

Chief, Equal Employment Opportunity and Special Projects Office


........Maurice E. White

Assistant Director for Judges Programs ........Peter G. McCabe

Chief, Long Range Planning Office ........Charles W. Nihan

Chief, Rules Committee Support Office ........John K. Rabiej

Chief, Accounting and Financial Systems Division ........Nancy C.


Fleetwood

Chief, Internal Services Division ........Charles F. McBride

Chief, Appellate and Circuit Court Administration Division ........John P.


Hehman

Chief, Article III Judges Division ........John E. Howell

Chief, Automation Resources Division ........Dennis E. Morey

Chief, Bankruptcy Court Administration Division ........Glen K. Palman


Chief, Bankruptcy Judges Division ........Francis F. Szczebak

Chief, Budget Division ........Joseph J. Bobek

Chief, Court Systems Division ........Stephen M. Beckman

Chief, Contracts and Services Division ........Ralph J. Simmons

Chief, Defender Services Division ........Theodore J. Lidz

Chief, District Court Administration Division ........Lydia Pelegrin

Chief, Human Resources Division ........Charlotte G. Peddicord

Chief, Integrated Technology Division ........Pamela B. White

Chief, Magistrate Judges Division ........Thomas C. Hnatowski

Chief, Probation and Pretrial Services Division ........Eunice Holt Jones

Chief, Space and Facilities Division ........William J. Lehman

Chief, Statistics Division ........Steven R. Schlesinger

Chief, Systems Technology Division ........Frank S. Dozier

@U1

[Insert Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts chart]@U0

The Administrative Office of the United States Courts is charged with the
nonjudicial, administrative business of the United States Courts,
including the maintenance of workload statistics and the disbursement of
funds appropriated for the maintenance of the U.S. judicial system.

The Administrative Office of the United States Courts was


created by act of August 7, 1939 (28 U.S.C. 601). The Office was
established November 6, 1939. Its Director and Deputy Director are
appointed by the Chief Justice of the United States aft er consultation
with the Judicial Conference.

Administering the Courts

The Director is the administrative officer of the courts of the United


States (except the Supreme Court). Under the guidance of the Judicial
Conference of the United States the Director is required, among other
things, to:

-- supervise all administrative matters relating to the offices


of clerks and other clerical and administrative personnel of the courts;

-- examine the state of the dockets of the courts, secure


information as to the courts' need of assistance, and prepare and transmit
quarterly to the chief judges of the circuits statistical data and reports
as to the business of the courts;

-- submit to the annual meeting of the Judicial Conference of


the United States, at least 2 weeks prior thereto, a report of the
activities of the Administrative Office and the state of the business of
the courts;

-- fix the compensation of employees of the courts whose


compensation is not otherwise fixed by law;

-- regulate and pay annuities to widows and surviving dependent


children of judges;

-- disburse moneys appropriated for the maintenance and


operation of the courts;

-- examine accounts of court officers;

-- regulate travel of judicial personnel;

-- provide accommodations and supplies for the courts and their


clerical and administrative personnel;

-- establish and maintain programs for the certification and


utilization of court interpreters and the provision of special
interpretation services in the courts; and

-- perform such other duties as may be assigned to him by the


Supreme Court or the Judicial Conference of the United States.

The Director is also responsible for the preparation and


submission of the budget of the courts, except the budget of the Supreme
Court.

Probation Officers

The Administrative Office exercises general supervision of the accounts


and practices of the Federal probation offices, subject to primary control
by the respective district courts that they serve. The Office publishes
quarterly, in coo peration with the Bureau of Prisons of the Department of
Justice, a magazine entitled Federal Probation, which is a journal ``of
correctional philosophy and practice.''

The Director also has responsibility with respect to the


establishment of pretrial services in the district courts under the
Pretrial Services Act of 1982 (18 U.S.C. 3152). These offices report to
their respective courts information concerning p retrial release of
persons charged with Federal offenses and supervise such persons who are
released to their custody.

Bankruptcy

The Bankruptcy Amendments and Federal Judgeship Act of 1984 (28 U.S.C.
151) provided that the bankruptcy judges for each judicial district shall
constitute a unit of the district court to be known as the bankruptcy
court. Bankruptcy judges are appointed by the courts of appeals in such
numbers as authorized by Congress and serve for a term of 14 years as
judicial officers of the district courts.

This act placed jurisdiction in the district courts over all


cases under title 11, United States Code, and all proceedings arising in
or related to cases under that title (28 U.S.C. 1334). The district court
may provide for such cases and procee dings to be referred to its
bankruptcy judges (as authorized by 28 U.S.C. 157).

The Director of the Administrative Office recommends to the


Judicial Conference the official duty stations and places of holding court
of bankruptcy judges, surveys the need for additional bankruptcy
judgeships to be recommended to Congress, and determines the staff needs
of bankruptcy judges and the clerks of the bankruptcy courts.

Federal Magistrate Judges

Under the Federal Magistrates Act, as amended (28 U.S.C. 631), the
Director of the Administrative Office, under the supervision and direction
of the Judicial Conference, exercises general supervision over
administrative matters i n offices of United States magistrate judges,
compiles and evaluates statistical data relating to such offices, and
submits reports thereon to the Conference. The Director reports annually
to Congress on the business that has come before United States mag istrate
judges and also prepares legal and administrative manuals for the use of
the magistrate judges. The act provides for surveys to be conducted by the
Administrative Office of the conditions in the judicial districts in order
to make recommendations as to the number, location, and salaries of
magistrate judges, which are determined by the Conference subject to the
availability of appropriated funds.

Federal Defenders

The Criminal Justice Act (18 U.S.C. 3006A) establishes the procedure for
the appointment of counsel in Federal criminal cases for individuals who
are unable to afford adequate representation under plans adopted by each
district court. Th e act also permits the establishment of Federal public
defender or Federal community defender organizations by the district
courts in districts where at least 200 persons annually require the
appointment of counsel. Two adjacent districts may be combined to reach
this total.

Each defender organization submits to the Director of the


Administrative Office an annual report of its activities along with a
proposed budget or, in the case of community defender organizations, a
proposed grant for the coming year. The Direct or is responsible for the
submission of the proposed budgets and grants to the Judicial Conference
for approval. The Director also makes payments to the defender
organizations out of appropriations in accordance with the approved
budgets and grants, as we ll as compensating private counsel appointed to
defend criminal cases in the United States courts.

Sources of Information

Information may be obtained from the following offices:

Bankruptcy Division. Phone, 202-273-1900.

Budget Division. Phone, 202-273-2100.

Court Administration Division. Phone, 202-273-1530.

Defender Services Division. Phone, 202-273-1670.


General Counsel. Phone, 202-273-1100.

Human Resources Division. Phone, 202-273-1270.

Judicial Conference Secretariat. Phone, 202-273-1140.

Legislative and Public Affairs Office. Phone, 202-273-1120.

Magistrate Judges Division. Phone, 202-273-1830.

Probation and Pretrial Services Division. Phone, 202-273-1600.

Statistics Division. Phone, 202-273-2240.

For further information, contact one of the offices listed above,


Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Thurgood Marshall
Federal Judiciary Building, One Columbus Circle NE., Washington, DC 20544.

FEDERAL JUDICIAL CENTER

Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary Building,

One Columbus Circle NE., Washington, DC 20002

Phone: See ``Sources of Information'' section at end of statement

Director ........William W. Schwarzer

Deputy Director ........Russell R. Wheeler

Director of Research ........William B. Eldridge

Director of Planning and Technology ........Gordon Bermant

Director of Judicial Education ........Denis J. Hauptly

Director of Court Education ........Steven A. Wolvek

Director of Publications and Media ........Sylvan A. Sobel

The Federal Judicial Center is the judicial branch's agency for planning
and policy research, systems development, and continuing education.

The Federal Judicial Center was created by act of December 20,


1967 (28 U.S.C. 620), to further the development and adoption of improved
judicial administration in the courts of the United States.

The Center's basic policies and activities are determined by its


Board, which is composed of the Chief Justice of the United States, who
is, by statute, permanent Chairman of the Board, and two judges of the
United States courts of appeals, thre e judges of the United States
district courts, and one bankruptcy judge, all of whom are elected for
4-year terms by the Judicial Conference of the United States. The Director
of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts is also a
permanent me mber of the Board.

Congress assigned the Center the following basic functions:

-- to conduct research on the operation of the United States


courts and to stimulate and coordinate such research on the part of other
public and private persons and agencies;

-- to stimulate, create, develop, and conduct programs of


continuing education and training for judges and support personnel of the
judicial branch;

-- to study and determine ways in which automatic data


processing and systems procedures may be applied to the administration of
the courts;

-- to provide staff, research, and planning assistance to the


Judicial Conference and its committees, consistent with the performance of
the other functions set forth above;

-- to develop recommendations for improvement in the


administration and management of the courts and to submit recommendations
to the Judicial Conference of the United States;

-- to submit to government agencies recommendations for


improvement of their programs or activities that relate to the
administration of justice;

-- to conduct, coordinate, and encourage programs relating to


the history of the judicial branch; and

-- to cooperate with and assist other agencies and


organizations in providing advice to further improvement in the
administration of justice in the courts of foreign countries.

Sources of Information

Employment

Employment inquiries and applications may be directed to the Office of


Personnel. Phone, 202-273-4165.

Publications

Single copies of most Federal Judicial Center publications are available


free of charge. Phone, 202-273-4153.

For further information, contact the Federal Judicial Center, Thurgood


Marshall Federal Judiciary Building, One Columbus Circle NE., Washington,
DC 20002. For a recorded message and office directory, dial 202-273-4004
on a touch-tone phone.

UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION

Suite 2-500, South Lobby, One Columbus Circle NE., Washington, DC 20002-8002
Phone, 202-273-4500

Chairman ........William W. Wilkins, Jr.

Commissioners ........Julie E. Carnes, Michael S. Gelacak, A. David


Mazzone, Ilene H. Nagel, (2 vacancies)

Commissioners (ex officio) ........Janet Reno

........Edward F. Reilly, Jr.

Staff Director ........Phyllis J. Newton

Deputy Staff Director ........Paul K. Martin

General Counsel ........John R. Steer

Director of Communications ........Kent S. Larsen

Director of Policy Analysis ........Susan Katzenelson

Director of Training and Technical Assistance ........Sharon O. Henegan

Director of Administration ........Mary G. Hogya

Director of Monitoring ........Alf A. Olson

@U1

[Insert United States Sentencing Commission chart]@U0

The United States Sentencing Commission develops sentencing policies and


practices for the Federal criminal justice system.

The United States Sentencing Commission was established as an


independent commission in the judicial branch of the Federal Government by
the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 (28 U.S.C. 991 et seq. and 18 U.S.C.
3551 et seq.). The Commission establi shes sentencing policies and
practices for the Federal courts, including guidelines prescribing the
appropriate form and severity of punishment for offenders convicted of
Federal crimes.

The Commission is composed of seven voting members appointed by


the President with the advice and consent of the Senate for 6-year terms,
and two nonvoting members. One of the voting members is appointed
Chairman.

The Commission evaluates the effects of the sentencing


guidelines on the criminal justice system, advises Congress regarding the
modification or enactment of statutes relating to criminal law and
sentencing matters, establishes a research and de velopment program on
sentencing issues, and performs other related duties.

In executing its duties, the Commission promulgates and


distributes to Federal courts and to the U.S. Probation System guidelines
to be used in determining sentences to be imposed in criminal cases,
general policy statements regarding the applic ation of guidelines, and
policy statements on the appropriate use of probation and supervised
release revocation provisions. These sentencing guidelines and policy
statements are designed to further the purposes of just punishment,
deterrence, incapacitat ion, and rehabilitation; provide fairness in
meeting the purposes of sentencing; avoid unwarranted disparity; and
reflect advancement in the knowledge of human behavior as it relates to
the criminal justice process.

In addition, the Commission provides training, conducts research


on sentencing-related issues, and serves as an information resource for
Congress, criminal justice practitioners, and the public.

Sources of Information

Public Information

Information concerning the Commission's activities is available from the


Office of Communications. Phone, 202-273-4590.

Judges and Probation Officers Technical Assistance Service Phone,


202-273-4545 (hotline).

Prosecuting and Defense Attorneys Phone, 202-273-4527 (hotline).