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Sub: Environmental Engineering

Topic : Water Supply Engineering

Basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements

___________________________________________________________________________ Basic unit processes and operations for water treatment: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Screening Plain sedimentation Sedimentation with coagulation Filtration Disinfection Aeration Softening Miscellaneous processer like fluoridation, desalination, Re-carbonation and liming

Screening: To remove large size particles like debris, trees, animals etc. There are two type of screens called coarse and file screens. Plain sedimentation: Generally particles in moving water coil will settle down due to high specific gravity. This is the principle of sedimentation. The basin in which the flow of water is retarded is called sedimentation tank. The theoretical average time for which the water is detained id tank is called detention period. Factors influence sedimentation: a) Velocity: - Greater the area, lesser the velocity, settle easily. b) Viscosity: - It is inversely proportional to temperature and settling velocity is inversely proportional to viscosity. c) Size, shape and specific gravity: Small size particles settle slowly. Settling velocity is directly proportional to specific gravity. Spherical particle settle fastly because of its lesser surface area.

Stokes law: Drag force= = . =Submerged weight.


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Sub: Environmental Engineering ( = .

( )

Topic : Water Supply Engineering ) d

= g(G-1) For laminar flow = and ( ( = ) ) Re=


=settling velocity D=dia of particle A=sp.gr. of solids =kinematic viscosity.

Type of sedimentation tanks: 1) Horizontal flow: (a) Rectangular (b) Circular 2) Vertical flow

= If >

then only settling happens.

Horizontal sedimentation tank:



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Sub: Environmental Engineering

Topic : Water Supply Engineering

Theoretically depth does not have an influence on efficiency of tank. Usually H=3 to 4.5m. = = Over flow rate. Generally over flow rate 12-18

Over flow rate or surface over flow rate or surface loading =

Efficiency of sedimentation tank: %particles removed 1100

% of particles settling velocity less than stated 50

=(100= (100-

)+ )+ [

+ +

+ + ]

0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Detention period: Average time for which water is detained in tank.

t= = Circular tank:

Dia = D


V = =

H +


Displacement efficiency = Sludge removal must be done frequently

= 0.25 to 0.5


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Sub: Environmental Engineering Sedimentation Aided with coagulation.

Topic : Water Supply Engineering

By adding coagulants to water floc will from. The very fine colloidal particles present in water get attracted and absorbed on these flocs forming the bigger sized flocculated particles. Coagulation is a chemical technique which is directed towards the destabilization of the charged colloidal particles. Flocculation on other hand is the slow mixing technique which promotes the agglomeration of the destabilized particles. The entire process (coagulation) addition of particles and mixing (flocculation) is usually referred as coagulation. Chemicals used in coagulation are alum and iron salts like ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride. These chemical are most effective when water is alkaline. In absence of alkalinity add sodium carbonate or line to increase alkalinity. 1. Alum: A ( ) 18 ) 18 ) 18 ) 18 O + 3 Ca( ) + 3 Ca( ) + 3N C S 7 O 3Ca 3Ca 3N + 2Al( + 2Al( +2Al( ) + 6C + 18 ) + 18 ) +3C +15

(i) A ( (ii) A ( (iii)A (

2. Copperas [Ferrous sulphate]

Copperas is generally added to raw water in conjunction with line. Lime may be added either to copperas or vice versa. When lime is added first: 1. FeS 7 O+Ca( ) aS + ( ) +7 O

When copperas is added earlier to line: 2. FeS 7 O+Ca( and Fe( ) + Ca( ) ( ) +2CaC +2 O The ferrous hydroxide formed in either case, further gets oxidized, forming ferric hydroxide. 4 Fe( ) + +2 O 4 Fe( ) (floc) 3. Chlorinated copperas: 6(FeS 7 ) +3C 2 ( ) +2FeC +42 O The resultant combination of ferric sulphate and ferric chloride is known as chlorinated copperas. ) ( ) +CaS +7 O


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Sub: Environmental Engineering F ( ) +3Ca( 2FeC +3Ca( ) ) 3CaS +2Fe( 3CaC +2Fe( ) )

Topic : Water Supply Engineering

It is very effective coagulant for treated low PH waters

3.Sodium aluminates (N A N A N A N A + Ca( +CaC +CaS )

) CaA + 2 NaCl +N +C + O



The constituents of a coagulation sedimentation tank: 1. Feeding device: a) Dry feeding b) wet feeding. 2. Mixing device : a)Mixing basin with baffle wall b) Mechanical mixing basin. The power required in flash mixing is expressed in terms of temporal mean velocity gr di nt =[ ]

=velocity gradient dyn mi is osity V=volume of raw water P=power

3. Flocculation tank. 4. Sedimentation tank.

The process of passing water through the beds of granular material is known as filtration. Filtration may help in removing color, odour, turbidity and some pathogenic bacteria from water. There are two kinds of filters 1. Slow sand gravity filters 2. Rapid sand filters. The slow sand filters are almost 30 times slower then rapid sand filters. Theory of filtration: 1) Mechanical straining: Particles of size more than voids will be filtered out.


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Sub: Environmental Engineering

2) Flocculation and sedimentation: voids acts as tiny tanks.

Topic : Water Supply Engineering

3) Biological metabolism: - The bacteria present in sand particles will consume algae and produce harmless substance. These products forms a layer called schmutzdecke. (Dirty layer) or (Dirty skin) which further helps in absorbing impurities. 4) Electrolytic changes: The charges of sand grain and impurities are opposite in nature. They get neutralize and the character of water will change. So sand needs to be replaced frequently.

Construction of slow sand filters:

1. Enclosure tank: Open water-tight rectangular tank made of concrete. The bed slope is 1 in 100 towards the central drain. The depths vary from 2.5m to 3.5m the plan area very 100 to 2000 sq.m. 2. Filter media: Sand layers about 90 to 110cm in depth placed over gravel support. Varies from 0.2 to 0.4 mm. Cu varies from 1.8 to 3.0 finer media kept at top and coarser at bottom. 3. Base material: it is grovel and it supports the sand. Generally three to four layers each of 15-20 cm depth are used. The coarsest gravel is used in the bottom most layers and the first gravel is used in the topmost layer. Size varies from 3mm to 65mm 4. Under drainage system: The gravel support is laid on the top of an under drainage system. It consists of a central drain and lateral drains 5. Inlet and outlet arrangements: - Inlet chamber is to not disturb the sand layers. In order to maintain a constant discharge through the filter, an adjustable telescopic tube is used.

Operation and clearing: Telescopic tube should be adjusted to get uniform discharge, Due to head loss changes frequently. Cleaning is done by back washing. The top surface is removed by 1.5 to 3cm.


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Sub: Environmental Engineering

Topic : Water Supply Engineering

after washing water will not be pure for 24 to 36 hrs. To form schmutzdecke minimum time 2 to 3days is required. Cleaning interval: 1 to 3 months. Rate of filtration: 100-200 lit/hr/m . Efficiency: Bacteria removal: 98-99%. Removes all odeours and tastes due to organic matter. Turbidity can be removed only up to 500mg/l. Rapid sand filters: Filter media: cm depth. varies from 0.35 to 0.55 and Cu varies from 1.3 to 1.7. Thickness is about 60 to 90

Base material: 60 to 90cm thick gravel of different sizes gravel size various from 3mm to 40mm.

Rate of filtration: - 3000 to 6000 lit/hr/m . Efficiency: Bacterial removal: 80 to 90%. Turbidity removal: 35 to 40 mg/l. Disinfection: The process of killing bacteria in filtered water is known as disinfection. Minor methods: a) Boiling (b) treatment with line c) treatment with zero d) treatment with iodine and bromine e) treatment with U.V.rays f) treatment with potassium permanganate g) treatment with silver called Electro-katadyn process

Chlorination: The process of killing bacteria in water by adding chlorine is called chlorination. Disinfection action of chlorine: C + O HOCl + HCl

The hypochlorous acid is unstable and may break into hydrogen ions and hypochlorite ions +OC Free available chlorine: The sum of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ions and molecular chlorine. Out of all forms of free available chlorite the hypochlorous acid is the most destructive, being about 80 times more effective then the hypochlorous ions. For this reason PH value of water during chlorination is generally maintained less than 7. The chlorine reacts with ammonia present in coater. N + HOCl N l+ O Monochloramine ( PH > 7.5) N Cl + HOCl NHC + O Di-chloramine (PH 5-6.5) N C + HOCl NC + O Nitrogen trichloramine (PH<4.0)


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Sub: Environmental Engineering

Topic : Water Supply Engineering

The chloramine so formed are stable and are found to possess disinfecting properties. They can also remove odour from water but only to a certain extent. Free chlorine: - When the added chlorine has consumed all the ammonia available in water then it would present as free chlorine.

Combined chlorine: -The chlorine with ammonia in the form of chloramines is called the combined chlorine and is much less effective in causing disinfection compared to the free chlorine, being about 25 times less effective.

The free chlorine as well as combined chlorine will cause germicidal action on bacteria and pathogens. The free chlorine will instantaneously kill the pathogens, while the combined chlorine will provide long term germicidal effect.

Chlorine demand: - The chlorine consumed in oxidation of organic matter and in formation of chloramines is called chlorine demand of water. When once it gets satisfied, the chlorine will appear as a free chlorine or residual chlorine.

Various forms in which chlorine can be applied: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Liquid chlorine Bleaching powder Chlorine tablets Chlorine di-oxide Chloramines. ) ) + +2OC HOC

Bleaching powder: Ca( Ca( OC

Type of chlorination: 1. Plain chlorination: - This term is used to indicate that only the chlorine treatment and no other treatment has been given to the raw water. Dose: 0.5mg/lit 2. Pre-chlorination: It is the process of applying chlorine to the water before filtration. Or even before sedimentation. 3. Past chlorination: - this also called simply chlorination is the normal standard process of applying chlorine in the ends when all other treatments have been completed.


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Sub: Environmental Engineering

Topic : Water Supply Engineering

4. Double chlorination: - The pre-chlorination and past chlorination are generally used in double chlorination.

5. Break point chlorination:

B 45 5 A 45
C (Break point) 5

The point C is the point beyond which any further addition of chlorine will appear equally as free chlorine. This point is called the break point. The addition of chlorine beyond break point is called break point chlorination. The drop from B to C is due to inorganic matter. The deviation from 4 bacterial killing. in AB portion is due to

6. Super chlorination it indicates the addition of excessive amount of chlorine to water. This may be required in special cases of highly polluted water or during epidemics of water diseases. 7. Dechlorination: removing chlorine form water is called Declorination.

Testing of chlorine residuals: 1. Orthotoldine test 2. D.P.D test 3. Chlorotex test 4. Starch iodine test.

1. Orthotoldine test: In this test 10ml of chlorinated sample of water is taken after the required contact period in a glass tube. To this add 0.1 ml of Orthotoldine solution. The color formed as noted after 5sec and 5min. Comparing this yellow color with standard colors gives free chlorine and combined chlorine available in water. 2. D.P.D test: In the test palins DPD reagent is used. (Diethyl-Phenylene- Diamine). Compare the red color with standard color. 3. Chlorotex test: Chlorotex reagent is used. The immediate development of a color will indicate the presence of chlorine. Based on color concentration is decided. 4. Starch iodine test : Pottasium iodine is used. By adding this blue color will form. To remove blue color adds sodium thiosulphate and calculates chlorine.


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Sub: Environmental Engineering

Topic : Water Supply Engineering

Softening: 1. To remove temporary hardness.

a). Boiling. Ca( ) + Heat CaC +C + O

b). Addition of lime. Mg C Mg( Ca( 2. Permanent hardness: a) Lime soda process. (i) Ca( ) +Ca( ) 2CaC + O +Ca( ) ) +Ca(

Mg( ) +Ca C ) Ca( ) + Mg( ) CaC +2

+ Ca(

Carbonate hardness of Ca + lime (ii)(a) Mg(




+ Mg(

Carbonate hardness of Mg + lime (ii)(b) Mg C +ca( ) Mg( ) +Ca C

carbonate hardness of ca.

Carbonate hardness of Mg + lime (iii) MgC + Ca( ) Mg( ) +Ca C non-carbonate hardness of Ca

Non-carbonate hardness of Mg + lime (iv) MgS + Ca( ) Mg( ) +Ca S

Non-carbonate hardness of Mg + lime (v) CaC + N C Ca C +2NaCl

non-carbonate hardness of Ca

Non-carbonate hardness of Ca (vi) CaS +N co Ca C +N

Non-carbonate hardness of ca. b). Zeolite or Base exchange or cation-exchange process: Z= N ( ) .( i )


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Sub: Environmental Engineering

( { ) ( { ) +

Topic : Water Supply Engineering

N Z+

Sodium zeolite

} Z + 2NaCl----N



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