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The Dravidians were, however, a highly enterprising race of warriors and traders.

They practised peaceful industry and commerce. They traded in their own vessels and carried the Indian teak, rice, muslins and peacocks to far off Persia, Mesopotamia and Asia Minor. Originally, the Dravidians had no caste system and no regular classes of priests etc. These institutions were later on introduced y the Aryan colonists who rought with them refined notions of religion and philosophy. The Dravidians were gradually converted to the faith of the Aryans. In modern times they are mainly represented y the Tamils, the Andhras, the !annadigas and the Malayalis. The earliest historical reference to the Deccan, "known as Dakshinapatha in the period#, is in the Aitareya $rah% mana "circa &'' $.(.#, which also refers to various tri es of people living here such as the Andhras, the Pulindas, the )a aras etc. Panini "circa *'' $.(.#, the great )anskrit

grammarian, also refers to the south ut does not give any details. In the epic age "circa +,''%+''' $.(.# the Deccan was known as Dandakaranya, It is associated with the life of -ama in the forest. The Andhras The greater portion of the Deccan appears to have come under the rule of the Mauryan kings even efore Asoka. .owever, definite mention of the Andhras occurs in the thirteenth rock% edict of Asoka. Pliny "+st century A.D.# speaks of a powerful king of the Andhra country possessing thirty fortified towns as well as an army of +'',''' infantry, /,''' cavalry and +,''' elephants. !ondapur in Medak Disrict of Telangana, 012 miles, .from3 .ydera ad, is4 surmised to e one of the 52thirty6 walled 5.towns% descri ed, y .the 7reek writers, )P2,,,%08 The original kingdom of the Andhras appears to have een near the mouth of

the river !rishna, with its capital at )rikakulam "Divi Taluk, !rishna District, Andhra Pradesh#. The early Andhra kings seem to have con9uered the northern Decean consisting of $erar, .ydera ad and the (entral Provinces. In the middle period Pratish%thana "now Paithan in the Auranga ad District, Maharashtra )tate# ecame the capital of the Andhra !ings. The Andhra kings are usually identified with the )atavahana kings. According to the Puranas, )imuka was the first among the )atavahana kings. .owever, on the evidence of a copper coin8, Mahamahopadhyaya :. :. Mirashi has held that one )atavahana was the founder of this dynasty. Possi ly, the Puranas do not mention him as he was a local ruler and did not attain imperial status. !ing )imuka is regarded as having flourished in the last 9uarter of the third century $.(. "( /1' $.(.# .e seems to have overthrown the yoke of the Mauryas and e;tended the limits of

his kingdom far and wide across the Decean. The ne;t great king in the line was )atakarni Of )atakarni we have inscriptions which tell us that he was the supreme ruler of Dakshinapatha. .e appears to have con9uered <estern Malwa. The ne;t important king !untala )atakarni invaded Magadha "modern $ihar# and slew the last of the !anvas. =ahapana, a king of the !sha% harata clan " eing one of the western )atraps#, seems to have wrested Maharashtra from the )atavahanas. The greatest of the )atavahanas, 7autamiputra )atakarni, the twenty% third king of the Andhra line, succeeded in des%rtoying the !shaharata dynasty and in anne;ing their dominions. .e came to the throne a out the last 9uarter of the first century A.D. "( &'5+'0 A.D.#, and was succeeded y his son, :asishthiputra )ri Pulumavi a out +1' 88 T 8 copper coin is in the private collection of )ri .urtntM( !aus of .ydera ad

AD% Pulumavi seems to have een associated with his father as >oint ruler6 perhaps he reigned over Maharashtra while his father ruled in the hereditary )atavahana dominions. Pulumavi ruled for some thirty years. .e married a daughter of -udradaman, the )aka Mahakashatrapa of ?>>ayini. @a>nasri "+A0%/'1 A.D.# was the last important ruler of the Andhras, who retained some vestiges of the former greatness of the line. After him a few insignificant rulers continued to rule over the eastern portions of his dominions. =othing is known of this dynasty after //A AD. The )atavahana kings appear to have een $rahmins $rahmanism was in a flourishing condition during their period. 7reat sacrifices were performed y some of the kings. !ing )atakarni and his 9ueen performed a num er of sacrifices including two Ashvamedha sacrifices. The worship of some of the :edic gods appears to have continued down to this epoch. Dharma, Indra, :asudeva, )iva and )kanda seem to have een the most popular deities

worshipped. .owever, the )atavahana kings were tolerant of other faiths. $uddhism continued to flourish in the Deccan during their period. =umerous caves were e;cavated and used either as (haityagrihas "temples# or as :iharas "residential 9uarters for $uddhist monks and mendicants#. <e also find many foreigners em racing either $uddhism or $rahmanism. A catholic spirit of religion seems to have prevailed. The Ikshvakus, //,%1'' The kingdom of the Ikshvakus e;tended over the districts a out the mouths of the rivers !rishna and 7odavari. The capital of the kingdom was :i>ayapuri situated in the =agar>unakonda valley in the =allamalai range, the ancient name of which was )riparvata6 The 6BIkshvakus6,appear 546ta3 have3 esta lished B their kingdon y

overthrowing the )atavahanas in this region a out //, A.D. .owever8 the )atavahanas continued till //A ACD

The =agar>unakonda valley is situated in the =algonda district of Andhra Pradesh. It is an ancient centre of $uddhistic culture. At this spot, ruins of stupas, monasteries and a university elonging to the third century A.D. have een discovered. The famous =agar>una, a $uddhist philosopher, who was the e;ponent of the Mahayana school of $uddhism appears to have lived at this university.. An island museum is esta lished at =agar>unakonda, where the smaller relics which have een picked up during the e;cavations conducted y the Archaeological )urvey of India are housed. =ear the remains of a stupa which was unearthed were found a few e;9uisite sla s of limestone illustrating scenes from the $uddhaBs life. Another famous $uddhist site is Amaravati near 7un%tur. A eautiful stupa seems to. have een uilt here in the later )atavahana period. The entire stupa is now in ruins, and the fragments of its railings have een removed, partly to the $ritish Museum,

Eondon, and partly to the 7overnment Museum, Madras. A few sla s from the Amaravati stupa are in the .ydera ad Museum "1A specimens#. The Amaravati school of Indian art had great influence all over Asia. The figures at Amaravati are characterised y slim, lithe features and they are represented in most difficult poses and curves. The scenes are fascinating. The plants and flowers, particularly the lotuses, are most admira ly represented in this school. The image of $uddha occurs here and there ut the $lessed One is often represented y sym ols in the .ina% yana period. It is uncertain if the Ikshvakus of the Andhra country -epresented a rach of the ancient Ikshvaku family of Ayodhya who might have migrated to the Deecan and settled on the lower !rishna8 )antamula "(hamtamula# appears to have founded the dynasty. .e is known to have performed an Ashvamedha sacrifice.

)antamula was succeeded y his son Mathariputra :irapurushadatta. -ecords of :irapurushadattaBs reign have een found at the $uddhist sites of Amaravati, Caggay%yapeta and =agar>unakonda, the latest recorded date eing the kingBs twentieth regnal year. The inscriptions record private donations to some $uddhist esta lishments. :irapurushadatta was succeeded y his son Fhuvula )antamula II who ruled for a out ++ years. The independent rule of the Ikshvakus appears to have terminated y the end of the third century A.D. and the remnants of the kingdom were pro a ly a sor ed into the Pallava dominions. The Ikshvaku dynasty appears to have ended with -udra Purushadatta II. $rihatphalayana)> )alankayanas and :ishnukwndins In the Andhra country, the Ikshvakus were followed y kings of the $rihatphalayana gotra, only one of whom Caya%varman is known from a solitary surviving copper%plate grant found at !ondamudi in the Tenali taluk of 7untur district. .e elonged to the

last 9uarter of the third century and the eginning of the fourth century A.D. .is kingdom was said to have een divided into aharas each under an e;ecutive officer known as :apatam. This grant may e said to start the seiies of $rahmadeyas or gift to $rahmins which increase in num er and importance through the centuries and confirm the decline of $uddhism and Cainism. The capital of the $rihatphalayanas was !udura or 7uduru near Masulipatam in the !rishna district. The )alankayanas ruled over the !rishna, <est 7oda%vari and 7untur districts from :engipura near Fluru. They ruled etween /A, and 0'' A.D. One of the kings of this line y name .asthivarman was the contemporary of )amudra 7upta. The word )alankayana according to )anskrit le;icons means =andi, the vahana of )iva. It is interesting to note that the figure of a ull is found on the seals of the )alankayana kings whose copper plate grants have so far een

discovered. It is therefore possi le that the ull crest of the )alankayana kings was connected with the name of their family. Devavarma was pro a ly the founder of the line who was a devotee of Maheswara and said to have performed Aswamedha. Mahara>a .asti% vatma, the ne;t king of the Peddavegi Plates, is said to have attained vistory in many attles. The Allaha ad pillar inscription of )amudra 7upta mentions the conflict with .astivarman of :engi. <e can have an insight into administrative set up of the )alankayanas through the !ol%lair plates. It appears that the kingdom was divided into several desas "provinces# governed y desadhipatis. These provinces were divided into districts governed y Ayuk%tas4 The village granted in the a ove inscription was to e treated with immunities from all ta;ations and the immunties were to e preserved y the Desadhipatis, Ayuktas, :alla has and -a>apurushas. .astivarman was succeeded y his son =andivarrnan I, who was followed y .astivarman II6

then came )kandavarman, son of .astivarman II. )kanda was succeded y (handavarman who was followed y =andivarman II, the last known king of the dynasty. The tutelary deity of the dynasty was (hitrarathaswami, pro a ly )urya, and they also worshipped )iva and :ishnu. Their inscriptions ear close resem lance in their script to the earliest inscriptions of the .indu colonies of Indo%(hina and Malaysia and there is good reason to elieve that the early Telugu ruleirs took prominent part in the colonisation a road. )alankayanas weGre followed y :ishnukundins who had )riparvataswami as their diety. The accepted chronology of this line of kings starts from 00' A,D, and continued upto & *+* A.D. The original home of the :ishnukundins was pro a ly :inukonda in the 7untur district as suggested y !ielhorn and others, :ikramahendravalrman is said to have su dued the feudatory chiefs y his

own valour. The son and successor of :ikramahendra was 7ovindavarman. .e had the surname :ikramasraya and the epithet naeka%samara )amghatta :i>ayin possi ly show that he was king of some importance. Madhavavaraman I appears to e the greatest in the line who performed eleven Asvamedhas and +''' agni%stomas and some othet rites. . Madhava appears to have married a :akataka princes of northern Deccan. Madha% vavarman II was the son of Devavarman and grandson of Madhavavarman I. In the solitary inscription of his period found at Ipur, he was descri ed as lord of Trikuta and Malaya, the location of which cannot e found out. $etween the kingdom of :ishnukundins in the north and that of the Pallavas in the south, tere arose a small kingdom ruled y kings of Anandagotra. The first of the line was !andata who gave his daughter in marriage to a Pallava prince. .is kingdom was small, comprising pro a ly the modern taluks of 7untur and Tenali. Other kings in the line were Damodaravarman,

Attivarman and a grandson of !andara whose name is not known. The capital of the kingdom was !andarapura. The kings were saivites in religion. The )outhern Invasion of )amudra 7upta )amudra 7upta "circa 11,%1&' A.D.#, the great king of the 7upta dynasty, who ruled over Magadha "modern $ihar#, invaded the )outh and rought under his su >ection several kingdoms of the Deccan. This con9uest y him is known as the great Digvi>aya. .e attacked the countries of south !osala "upper Mahanadi valley# and%!alingadesa. Among )amudra 7uptaBs other con9uests was the territory of )wamidatta, the ruler of a large tract of country which once formed two separate kingdoms with two capitals, Pishtapura "modern Pithapuram in the Fast 7odavari district of Andhra Pradesh# and !ottur "in )ringavarapu%kota taluk, :isakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh#. The (halukyas of :atapi, circa ,''%A,A The (halukyas ruled over a great part of the Deccan with their capital at

:atapi "$adami in the $i>apur district#. Their kingdom was esta lished a out the middle of the *th century A.D. The first great king was Pulakesin I, who con9uered many provinces, esta lished an overlordship and performed an Ashvamedha sacrifice. .e died a out ,** A.D. .is two sons !irtivarman and Mangalesa followed him. Then came the great pulakesin II, son of !irtivarman, .arshavaBrdhana, the king of Thaneshwar and !anau>, attacked his kingdom ut was repulsed on the anks of the =armada river. Pulakesin II was a very powerful monarch, who esta lished his power firmly over Eata "southern 7u>arat# and thus strengthened his northern frontier against .arsha. The caves which are situated a out ,' miles north%east of Auranga ad in the )tate of Maharashtra were discovered in a out +&/+, and contain mural paintings on the walls and ceilings, which are now world%famous. The /H caves seem to have een e;ecuted etween the +st century. $.(. and the Ath (entury A.D. Most of them elong

to the :aka%taka 7upta age. The =iIamBs 7overnment did much to preserve these paintings. They contain a variety of decorative designs and also depict sacred o >ects and sym ols, figures of the $uddha and incidents from his lives. PulakesinBs court was visited y .iuen%Tsang, the famous (hinese pilgrim. .e "Pulakesin# made himself respected y the rulers of 7u>arat, Malwa and the !onkanu .e overran the territory of the !adam as of $anavasi "=orth (anara# and fre9uently warred with the Pallava power of !anchi .e ruled from *+'%*0/ A,Dt +' The Fastern (halukyas of :engi, an Offshoot of the (halukyas of :atapi, circa *+,%+'A* 5Pulakesin II con9uered from the Pallavas the :engi country "which was situated etween the !rishna and the 7odavari rivers near their mouths# and esta lished his younger rother !u >a :ishnuvardhana as the viceroy of this new dominion and the latter started

the Fastern (halukyan dynasty, which ruled over the :engi%-a>ah%mundry region till late in the eleventh century. The capital of the kingdom was at Pedda :egi near Fllore "<est 7odavari district, Andhra Pradesh#. The important rulers who succeeded !u >a :ishnuvardhana I were Cayasimha I "*0+%*A1 A.D.#, :ishnuvardhana III "A+&%A,/ AD.#, :i>ayaditya I "A,1%AA' AD,#, :i>ayaditya II "&'*%&0* AD.#, :i>ayaditya III "&0&%&H/ AD.#, (halukya $hima I "&H/%H/+ AD.#, Ammara>a I "H0,%HA& AD,#, (halukya $hima II "HA1%+''/ AD.#, )aktivarman "HHH0''/0'++ AD.#, :imaladitya "+'++0'+& AD,#, -a>a%ra>a "+'+H0'*+ AD,#, :i>ayaditya :II "+'*+0'A* AD.#. The (halukyan kings of :engi had a checkered history. After the fall of the (halukyan kingdom of $adami, the (halukyas of :engi had fre9uently wars with the -ashtoa%kutas, (holas, Pallavas, =olam as, 7angas and the =aga%vamsi kings of (hakrakuta. Ater the death of :i>ayaditya :II in +'A* AD. the :engi kingdom came under the suIerainty of his nephew -a>endra

who ecame the (hola Fmperor assuming the title !ulottunga. !ulottunga sent his sons as :iceroys to the :engi kingdom. <hen the last of these :iceroys departed from :engi the territory was left in charge of a local family of (hieftains. The :engi territory was ultimately con9uered y the !akatiya king 7anapatideva. The capital of the :engi kingdom was shifted from Pedda :egi to -a>amahendrapura ."-a>ahmundry# y M Amntara>a I. The Telugu language and literature developed under the patronage of the Fastern (halukyas. =annaya $hat was rendered the first two and half cantos of Maha haratha into Telugu was in the court of -a>ara>a. The Fnd of Puiakesin II The Pallavas of !anchi attacked the (halukyan kingdom and defeated Puiakesin II, who was put to death. The fortunes of the (halukyas were retrieved for a rief period y the son of Puiakesin II, ut the last of

the (halukyas was overthrown y the -ashtrakutas. The -ashtrakutas, A,/%HA1 + he -ashtrakutas, who superseded the (halukyas, had een in the Deccan from very early times. The territory occupied y them was originally known as -attavadi6 they had two capitals, one at Mayurkhandi "in the =asik district of Maharashtra# and the other after the Hth century at Manyakheta "Malkhed in the Mysore )tate#, The first impo rtant !ing was Dantidurga. $y A,1 A.D. he had taken possession of all the (halukyan dominions e;cept the southern portion. A out the same time he completed his con9uests y forcing into su mission the rulers of !anchi, !ali# iga and )risailam. ! rishna I succeeded Dantidurga. .is great achievement was the construction of the famous rock%cut !ailas temple at Fllora, which is situated near Auranga ad in the Maharashtra )tate. There are 10 caves divided into $uddhistic, $rahmanical and Cain caves, all famous for their sculpture.

All the caves are nearly a thousand years old. The chief .interest of -ashtrakuta history in the days of !rishna IBs successors centres round the struggle with the Pratiharas of !anau>. ?nder 7ovinda III the -ashtrakutas verily ecame invinci le. They e;acted tri ute from the Pallavas of !anchi and installed one of their +/ princes on the throne of south 7u>arat. The ne;t great king Amoghavarsha I removed his capital to Manyakheta. .e had to carry on a war with the (halukyas of :engi. .e checked the southern progress of $ho>a I of !anau>. Indra III inflicted a (rushing defeat on Mahipaia, the Pratihara king of !anau>. !rishna III was the last great king of the line. .is dominions e;tended from Cura in $aghelkhand to Tan>ore in the south. The <estern (halukyas of !alyani, HA1% ++H& The <estern (halukyan line was revived a out the last 9uarter of the tenth

century A.D. y one Tailapa, who ac9uired the whole of the -ashtrakuta dominion with the e;ception of southern 7u>arat and ruled from !alyani "7ul arga district, Mysore )tate#, The (hola king -a>a -a>a I pillaged the (halukyas country a out +''A AD#. The (halukyas of !alyani had a distinguished line of kings after )atyasraya. Of these, :ikramaditya :I "+'A*%++/*# is known as a great patron of learning. $il%hana, the famous !ashmiri poet and :i >nyaneshwara, the author of the Mitakshara system of .indu Eaw were patronised y :ikramaditya. =onetheless, he practised e;treme tolerance towards other faiths. This later (halukyan kingdom disappeared a out ++H& A.D. The !akatiyas of <arangBal, +'''%+1/1 The !akatiyas of <arangal were a feudatory family that rose out of the ruins of the (hola and the later (halukyan empires. The details, however, of their rise and early growth are very meagre8 One of the

inscriptions of the dynasty gives a correct genealogy upto 7anapati. The !akatiya dynasty was reigning in the eastern Deccan for the last two centuries efore the capture of their capital city <arangal y Muhammad in Tugla9 in +1/1, The is name !akatiya is derived from !akati, the goddess whom they worshipped. There are various legends which e;plain the origin of this dynasty. The first important ruler was Tri huvanamalla $eta%ra>a II, who was the reigning king at .anumakonda a out ++'' A.D. .e was succeeded y his son Prolara>a II "or Prodara>a# a out +++A A.D. .e was a very powerful king. After Prolara>a II, came his son the famous Pratapa%rudradeva I "circa ++,& A.D.#. .e uilt the temple of thousand pillars at .anumakonda. <ithin this temple was discovered a long )anskrit inscription in the Telugu characters from which our knowledge of the !akatiyas is mainly derived.

7anapati, the ne;t important ruler, ascended the throne in ++H& A.D. .e was a nephew of Prataparudra. .e claimed a victory over the (holas, and his inscriptions are found in !anchi and !alahasti. .e also overcame the Telugu (hoda chiefs of =ellore. Trade was in a flourishing condition under him. .e was followed y his daug%ter -udramma in +/*+, who assumed the male title of -udra Mahara>a. According to Marco Polo, who touched the (oromandel (oast during her reign, Jueen -udramma ruled the country wisely and well. )he finally a dicated the throne in +H/+ in favour of a grandson, Prataparudra II. This king was the last great !akatiya. .is dominion e;tended as far as -aichur in the west and !anchi in the south. It was during his time that Malik !afur, the general of Ala%ud%din !hil>i entered Telangana and attacked <aran%gal. Prataparudra II offered the most desperate resistance. .e had to capitulate and agreed to send an annual tri ute and give up all his

treasure, which was taken to Delhi Malik !afur.

+0 Temples were constructed on a most magnificent scale in the !akatiya period. )pecimens of the eautiful decorative art of these temples can e seen in the .ydera ad Museum, where a pavilion has een e>ected using the pillars and ceiling sla s unearthed during the e;cavations at <arangal. The thousand%pillared temple is dedicated to the Triad, )iva, :ishnu and )urya. In front of the temple is the sacred ull, a splendid specimen of a monolith. In +1/1 Prince Cuna or Cauna !han "later styled Muhammad in Tughla9#, the heir%apparent of 7hiyas%ud%din Tughla9, the founder of the Tughla9 dynasty, was entrusted with the military viceroyalty of the Deccan and led an e;pedition against <arangal. !ing Prataparudra II successfully resisted the invasion6 ut in a later attack <arangal was captured and the king was taken prisoner and sent to

Delhi. ?na le to endure the itterness of his humiliations, he appears to have committed suicide on his way in the year +1/1, on the anks of the =armada river. <ith the defeat and death of Prataparudra II the, rule of the !akatiyas came to an end. )everal minor principalities rose on the ruins of the !akatiya dominions and flourished for a time. A rief account of them is given elow. The Activities of the =ayakas, +1/,% +1*& Prince Cauna !han after his e;pedition to <arangal captured -a>ahmundry where a Muslim 7overnor was appointed. The maladministration and the tyrannical rule to which the Deccan was su >ected during the reign of Muhammad in Tughla96 led the =ayakas of the Andhra country to unite under the leadership of Prolaya =ayaka. They invaded -a>ahmundry and drove away the Muslim 7overno8% of the place. After this, !apaya =ayaka ecame the leader and completed the li eration of the east coast

+, This was accomplished in +1/,. The =ayakas ecame independent thereafter in their respective provinces and a num er of small principalities came into e;istence. The -eddis of !ondavidu, +1/,%+0/0 Prolaya :ema -eddi "+1/,%,1 #, who elonged to Panta family of -eddis, founded this kingdom in +1/,. .e was one of the generals of the last !akatiya king Pratapa%rudra IE .e took possession of the coastal region etween the !rishna river in the north and the Pennar river in the south and the wide tract of land comprising )risailam and Aho ilam in the !urnool district. .e ruled over it from Addanki "Ongole taluk, 7untur district, Andhra Pradesh#. .e was a patron of Telugu literature. .e was followed y his son Anapota -eddi "+1,1%*0 #. This king successfully defended his territory against attacks y the 7anga king of !alinga, the :elamas and $ukkaraya I of :i>ayanagar. .e shifted the capital

from Addanki to !ondavidu "=arasaraopet taluk, 7untur district, Andhra Pradesh# and fortified the hill fortress. .e was succeeded y h6.s rother Anavema -eddi "+1*0%+1&*#. This king con9uered the 7anga kingdom upto )imhachalam in the :isakhapatnam district. .e was succeeded y his nephew !umaragiri -eddi "+1&*%+0'1#. The administration of this kingdom was in the hands of his a le rother%in% law !ataya :ema -eddi who had to defend the kingdom against the attack of the :i>ayanagar king .arihara IE !ataya :ema -eddi also made fresh con9uests in the north for which he was rewarded y eing made :iceroy of the con9uered territories with -a>ahmundry as head9uarters. Eater on, !ataya :ema -eddi ecame independent in -a>ahmundry. !umaragiri -eddi himself was displaced y his cousin Peddakomati :ema -eddi, who ruled from +0'1 to +0/'. The :elamas attacked his kingdom in +0/' and he was killed in an encounter. This -eddi king was a great scholar and wrote several works on music and rhetoric.

+* .e was a patron of the cele rated Telugu poet )rinadha. .e was followed y his son -achavema -eddi "+0/'%+0/0# who was an oppressive ruler and was assassinated y his su ordinates. <ith him ended the -eddi kingdom of !onda% vidu, which was soon a sor ed y :i>ayanagar. The -eddis of -a>ahmundry, +0'1%+00& This kingdom originated as a fief granted y the !onda%vidu king !umaragiri -eddi to his 7eneral !ataya :ema -eddi. After the death of the latter, his su ordinate Allada -eddi carried on the administration as regent in the name of his son for sometime and !ataya :ema -eddfs daughter for sometime. .e took a leading part in repelling the $ahmani invasion etween +0+, and +0+A, .e died in +0/' and the administration was taken over y his elder son :ema -eddi as regent. :ema -eddi invaded !alinga, con9uered numerous places in it and re%esta lished the frontier at

)imhachalam. 7a>apati, the ruler of Orissa, con9uered this kingdom in +00&. The :elamas of =algonda, +1/,%+0A0 The :elama chieftains played a prominent part in the politics of the Deccan for over a century after the fall of <arangaE They elonged to the Padmanayaka section of the :elama community and the -echerla family. )in%gama I of this family was a =ayaka under !akatiya. Prataparudradeva and governed the =algonda district. .e proclaimed his independence like all other =ayakas in +1/,. .e was a contemporary of the famous !apaya =ayaka, who ecame the ruler of <arangal and Telan%gana from +11,. )ingama resisted !apayaBs attempts at su >ugation of the :elama territory. .is son Anapota%nayaka "+1*+%+1&0# e;panded his territory considera ly .e killed !apaya =ayaka, the king of <arangal, in +1*&, occupied all his territory and ecame ruler of Telanagna, .e had KK lights with the $ahLani +A

)ultans in the west, the -eddis of !ondavidu in the east and the -ayas of :i>ayanagar in the south. The :elama kingdom split into two in the time of Ana%pdta, Anapota retaining the northern half with -a>akonda as capital and Mada o taining the southern half which he governed from Devarakonda. The :elamas were inveterate enemies of the -eddis and carried on fre9uent attacks against the -eddi kingdoms. They >oined hands with the :i>ayanagar kings in their attacks against the $ahmani )ultans. In the later period the $ahmani )ultans made repeated attacks against their kingdoms. A gradual disintegration of the two kingdoms took place on account of these incessant wan and they ecame e;tinct y the year +0A0. ./, Muslim Penetration into the Deccan Ala%ud%din, the nephew of the !hil>i king Calal%iid%din, yias the first Muslim invader who entered the Deccan in the year +/H0. .e attacked Devagiri "modern Daulata ad in Maharashtra )tate#, the wealthy capital of the

@adava king. The siege lasted for sometime ut in the end -a>a -am Dev had to sue for peace. Ala%ud%din stipulated for the payment of a large sum of money and for the cession of the territory of Fllichpur and returned to Malwa through !handesh. The gates of the Deccan, thus opened to the north, were never again closed. After Ala%ud%din !hil>i ecame the )ultan of Delhi, he sent his general Malik !afur to invade the Deccan. Malik !afur reduced Devagiri to su mission in +1'A. The kingdom of <arangal was reduced to su mission in +1'H%+' . Malik !afur also invaded the .oyasala kingdom of Dwara%samudra and conducted his e;peditions as far south as Madura. )P2,,,5/ % Muhammad in Tughla9, during his viceroyalty of the Deccan in +1/1, reduced the kingdoms of <arangal and Madura. In +1/A the )ultan decided to shift his capital from Delhi to Devagiri "Daulata ad# in the Deccan. The new%

capital occupied a central and strategic situation. The )ultan also did his est to make the new capital a suita le a ode for his officers and the people y providing it with eautiful uildings and all facilities for the immigrants from Delhi, such as a spacious road, shady trees on oth sides of it, and a regular post etween Delhi and Daulata ad. $ut the whole e;periment failed misera ly as a very large proportion of the people on their march from Delhi to Daulata ad perished on account of fatigue, hunger or illness. The )ultan himself could not remain at Daulata ad for long as trou les roke out in the north and he had to rush ack to Delhi. The people who had come to Daulata ad were ordered a second e;odus, the conse9uences of which were again tragic. .owever, the city of Daulata ad gained some prominence as a result of this e;periment. I n $atuta, a devout Muslim orn in Africa, came to India and en>oyed the patronage of Muhammad in Tugh%la9. .e was much impressed with the

impregna le fortress of Daulata ad, the wealth of the country, its flourishing agriculture and the a undance of fruits grown in the region. Moundation of the $ahmani !ingdom The $ahmani kingdom was founded y Ala%ud%din Nafar !han $ahmani a out the middle of the +0th century. .e is more popularly known as .asan 7angu $ahmani. The story goes that he was employed as a field la ourer in the house of a $rahmin y name 7angu who predicted that he )P2,,,5/8 : would ecome a 4king.4ygO9 is sai9l to have styled himself )ultan Ala%ud%din .asan 7angu $ahmani to keep alive the name of his master. Other historians elieve that he ac9uired his name as he claimed descent from a Persian prince named $ahman !aikaus. .e was one of those who had to change their residence from Delhi to Devagiri "Daulata adB# during the reign of Muhammad in Tugh%la9. .e took

advantage of the disorder prevailing in the Deccan and overthrew one Ismail Makh who was ruling at Daulata ad in +10A. In that year he ascended the throne at Daulata ad and styled himself Ala%ud%din $ahman )hah. <ithin a few years )ultan Ala%ud%din moved to 7ul% arga and made it his capital. .e made himself master of a very large kingdom which e;tended as far as the river Tapti on the north and the Tunga hadra and the !rishna rivers on the south. The eastern and western oundaries of the $ahmani kingdom varied from time to time. It was only a out the close of the fifteenth century that the kingdom e;tended from sea to sea. Architects were invited from Persia to plan and superintend the construction of mos9ues and one of the most remarka le uildings in the Deccan is the great mos9ue at 7ul arga. )aints and scholars from all parts of Asia were welcomed kt the court of the $ahmani kings. Ala%ud%din $ahman )hah divided his kingdom into four provinces, called

Tarafs, viI.,%7ul arga, Daulata ad, $erar, and $idar, each of which was placed under a 7overnor. The )ultan made an unsuccessful attempt to capture 7oa and other places on the west coastB elonging to. the kingdom of :i>ayanagar and also led an e;pedition into%Telan%gana. .e was assisted y an a le minister% named )aifuddin 7hori. m .istory of the !ingdom The kingdom thus founded y )ultan Ala%ud%din flourished till a out +0H'. This year marks the eginning of the gradual distintegration of the greater $ahmani kingdom, a process which was completed y the year +,/*, i,e., y a out the time India was invaded y $a ar The important rulers who succeeded )ultan Ala%ud%din were Muhammad )hah, Mu>ahid )hah, Muhammad )hah II, MeroI )hah, Ahmad )hah, Ala% ud%din II, .umayun )hah, =iIam )hah, Muhammad )hah III and Muhammad )hah I:. An important event which marked the entire history of the greater $ahmani

kingdom was the intermittent war, which went on from the year +1,& onwards, with the neigh ouring .indu kings of :i>ayanagar. The one of contention etween the two )tates was the -aichur Doa , "the territory etween the !rishna and tho Tunga hadra rivers#, which contained the important forts of -aichur and Mudki or Mudkal. This territory changed hands from time to time. The .indu king Devaraya provoked a war in an effort to seiIe a eautiful daughter of a goldsmith named Pertal. Pertal, the cause of the war, was su se9uently married to the son of Peross )hah. The capital of the greater $ahmani kingdom was transferred from 7ul arga to $idBa: in the year +0/, during the reign of Ahmad )hah <ali, $idar was chosen ecause of its etter climate, its e;cellent fortifications and its strategic position. The huge gates and massive astions of the fort of $idar are an imposing spectacle of the city8s military defences.

In the reign of Muhammad )hah II "+0*1001/ # the $ahmani kingdom attained its Ienith. Muhammad )hah captured $elgaum and 7oa from the .indu ruler of :f>aya%nagar and also su >ugated the feudal lord of !ondapallE /+ $ut he was tyrannical and caused many atrocities against the .indus, a policy which was not relished y the Dec%cani Muslims, who saw in it a fore oding of the coming evil to the integrity of the $ahmani kingdom. $ut the foulest deed of this )ultan was the murder of his own aged minister !hwa>a Mahmud 7awan, a conse9uence of palace intrigues. The rutal murder of 7awan, who more than any one else was responsi le for administrative progress in the $ahmani kingdom, sent a wave of indignation through the )ultanBs dominions and paved the way for its reak%up. The ne;t reign, that of Mahmud )hah II "+0&/0,+& #, son of the murderer of 7awan, was an unceasing tale of murder

and intrigue. During his time the various provincial governors ecame practically independent and each contrived to set up a separate government in his >urisdiction. @usuf Adil !han asserted his independence in $i>a%pur in the year +0H' and founded the Adil )hahi dynasty there. The rulers of Ahmadnagar and $erar are said to have formally assumed independence in the same year, +0H'. The governor of Telangana Jut ul%mulk founded the Jut )hahi line of 7olconda a out the same time ut not styled himself as independent king until +,+/ A.D. The truncated $ahmani kingdom survived for some time at $idar, ut y a out the year +,/* it was usurped y Amir Ali $arid, a minister of the last $ahmani )ultan. Thus the process of the dismem erment of the greater $ahmani kingdom was completed on the eve of the con9uest of .industan y $a ar. Deccan under the $ahmani !ings The following is an assessment of the $ahmani rule in the Deccan84 5

3The history of the $ahmani dynasty in the Deccan on the whole offers no pleasant reading. Most of its )ulP 5 An Advanced .istory of India y Ma>undar, -oy (haudhari 5md !a!kmCw pp. 1*K1*1. // tans employed themselves chiefly in terri le wars, and its internal politics were severely distracted y court intrigues and civil strife. Among the eighteen kings of this dynasty, five were murdered, two died of intemperance, and three were deposed, two of them eing linded. The $ahmani )ultans should, however, e credited with patronage of learning and education, erection of fortresses and uildings, and construction of irrigation works in the eastern provinces, which enefited the peasantry while securing more revenue to the )tate. 3<e get a glimpse of the condition of the common people in the $ahmani kingdom from certain o servations made y the -ussian traveller, Athanasius

=ikitin, who travelled in this kingdom during the years +0A' to +0A0 in the reign of Muhammad )hah III .e writes4 Bthe )ultan is a little man, twenty years old, in the power of the no les. The )ultan goes out with 1'',''' men of his own troops. The land is overstocked with people6 ut those in the country are very misera le, whilst the no les are e;tremely opulent and delight in lu;ury. They are wont to e carried on their silver eds, preceded y some /' chargers caparisoned in gold and followed y 1'' men on horse ack and y ,'' on foot, and y hornmen, ten torch% earers, and ten musicians. 3 BThe )ultan goes out hunting with his mother and his lady, and a train of +',''' men on horse ack, ,',''' on foot6 /'' elephants adorned in gilded armour, and in front +'' horsemen, +'' dancers and 1'' common horses in golden clothing6 +'' monkeys and +'' concu ines, all foreign2 3Thus the testimony of a foreign traveller tells us that the lot of the

common people was hard as compared with the lu;urious standard of living of the no ility. $ut there is no other positive evidence to ena le us to form an accu% rate picture of the condition of the mass of the people during the whole of the $ahmani period. The accounts of the Muslim chroniclers are full of details regarding military%campaigns and wars against infidels, without any reference to the history of the people.3 The five new )ultanates formed after the reak%up of the $ahmani kingdom were4 "+# the Imad )hahi dynasty of $erar, "/# the =iIam )hahi dynasty of Ahmadnagar, "1# the Adil )hahi dynasty of $i>apur, "0# the Jut )hahi dynasty of 7olconda, and ",# the $arid )hahi dynasty of $idar. The history of these dynasties is riefly summarised elow. ' The Imad )hahi Dynasty of $erar, +0H'% +,A0 The Imad )hahi dynasty was founded y Mathullah Imad )hah in a out +0H'.

Mrom the eginning, $erar had cause for 9uarrel with Ahmadnagar. <ithin the orders of $erar there were the town and district of Pathri, which $urhan =iIam )hah of Ahmadnagar claimed as his patrimony. This led to war etween $erar and Ahmadnagar. At one stage "+,/H#, Ala%ud%din Imad )hah of $erar invoked the aid of $ahadur )hah of 7u>arat against Ahmadnagar. This, naturally, em ittered the delations etween $erar on the one hand and Ahmadnagar and the other Deccan )ultanates on the other. Minally $erar was a sor ed into Ahmadnagar in the year +,A0. During the regency of (hand $i i, however, $erar passed under the control of the Mughal Fmperor Ak ar, who made his second son, )ultan Murad, its governor in +,H*. The =iIam )hahi Dynasty of Ahmadnagar +0H'%+*1A The =iIam )hahi dynasty of Ahmadnagar was founded y =iIam%ul%Mulk in +0H'. .is a le son Malik Ahmad founded the city of Ahmadnagar, .e also captured the

/0 fortress of Daulata ad in +0HH. Malik Ahmad was followed y his son $urhan =iIam )hah "+,+'%+,,1#. .e was defeated in a. war with $i>apur in +,/* ut later managed to recover )holapur and the neigh ouring districts from $i>apur. .is son .ussain =iIam )aha was for some time esieged in his own capital y a com ination of the rulers of :i>ayanagar, $i>apur and 7olconda. .e, however, succeeded in reaking up the alliance and turning the Mus%salman rulers against :i>ayanagar as a result of which the attle of Talikota "+,*,# was fought and -ama -aya of :i>ayanagar was captured in the field of attle and eheaded. The last ruler was MurtuIa =iIam )hah. In his time the dowager Jueen (hand $i i offered a gallant and successful resistance to Ak arBs son prince Murad in +,H*, purchasing peace y the cession of $erar. Ahmadnagar was finally anne;ed to the Mughal Fmpire y )hah Cahan in +*1A.

The Adil )hahi Dynasty of $i>apur, +0H'%+*&* The annals of $i>apur and the Adil )hahi dynasty that ruled over it are of great interest to the student of Deccan history. $i>apur stands on the crest of the watershed of the Deccan and the !arnatak. It was the seat of a governorship under the $ahmanis. The founder of this line was @usuf Adil )hah "+0H'%+,+'#. .e was a popular ruler and admitted .indus to offices of trust. .e made Marathi the language of accounts and local usiness. .e uilt the fort and citadel of $i>apur. .e endeavoured with considera le success to esta lish the )hia faith against great opposition. .e made an attempt to recover 7oa, which was then under the Portuguese, ut failed. .is son Ismail Adil )hah "+,+'%10 # ne;t came to the throne, and he followed the policy of his father, After him /, came I rahim Adil )hah I whose vices and follies rought nothing ut

discredit to the $i>apur )tate. .e restored the )unni faith aQd made Persian the language of the administration. In his time there were party factions at :i>aya%nagar and at the invitation of one of the parties, I rahim marched on that city and returned with large presents. .e died in +,,A. The ne;t )ultan was Ali Adil )hah. Mor some time he was friendly with -ama -aya of :i>ayanagar ut eventually he >oined the other Muslim )ultans in a com ination against -ama -aya. Ali Adil )hah completed the walls of $i>apur and erected the spacious Cuma Mas>id. .e died in +,AH, The ne;t ruler was I rahim Adil )hah II. .e appears to have made a secret treaty with the Mughal Fmperor. Thus $i>apur was left in peace in the time of Ak ar and that of his son. .e died in +*/*. .e was, perhaps, the greatest of the Adil )hahi kings. .e greatly improved the land revenue and settlement and seems to have followed the system of -a>a Todar Mai to a great e;tent. Though a )unni, he was tolerant of all

faiths and e;tensively employed $rahmins for administration and Marathas in his military service. In fact the revenue administration in the kingdom of $i>apur and the other Deccan )ultanates was almost entirely in the charge of Maratha karkuns "clerks# who were e;perts in dealing with pro lems of survey and settlement of lands and in preparing administrative orders and other documents relating to revenue administration. The Asaf Cahi rulers of .ydera ad also employed Maratha karkuns and even Maratha daftardars "-ecord%keepers# to ensure efficient administration. I rahim Adil )hah was friendly with the Portuguese and protected (hristian missions. .e adorned his capital with many new uildings. After his death the importance of the dynasty ceased6 In +*&* $i>apur was anne;ed y /* AurangIe . The $i>apur uildings, of which the 7ol 7um aI is well%known, ulit y the Adil )hahi kings, are

remarka le from an architectural point of view. The period also encouraged the chronicling spirit. Muhammad Jasim, surnamed Mirishta "+,A'%+*++#, has left accounts of the Adil )hahs and the =iIam )hahs, which constitute one of the important sources for this period. The Jut )hahi Dynasty of 7olconda, +,+/%+*&A The kingdom of 7olconda was e;tensive and rich in resources. The fort of 7olconda stands on a rocky hill on the northern ank of the Musi a out seven miles from the city of .ydera ad. The fort was surrounded y a strong wall within which the city of 7olconda once stood8 Juli Jut ul Mulk, the 7overnor of 7olconda, asserted his inde%pndenc in +,+/ and styled himself )ultan Juli Jut )hah. .e uilt a strong fort at 7olconda and fought against )hita !han, who had taken possession of <aran%gaE <arangal was permanently anne;ed to the kingdom of 7olconda in the reign of I rahim Jut )hah "+,,'% +,&'#6 I rahim Jut )hah proposed the com ination of the Dec%can )ultans

against the -ayas of :i>ayanagar, which led to the attle of Talikota, resulting in the rout of the :i>ayanagar forces. I rahim Jut )hahBs son, Muhammad Juli Jut )hah "+,&'%+*+/# made large additions to the 7olconda fort and uilt as his residential capital the city of .ydera ad, which he is said to have called $haganagar after his favouriteB, B.indu mistress $hagmati. 55$eautiful edifices like% theB(har Minar were also constructed during this period. A dulla Jut )hah "+*/*%A/ # devoted much care to the improvement of the 7olconda fort. .e accepted Mughal 55 suIerainty in4 +*1,. The )ultan 4grewB >ealous of his.% power%B Minister% Mir Curala, who appealed, to AurangIe B "the% /A Mughal :iceroy of the Deccan#, in +*,,, against his master. AurangIe invaded 7olconda. .ydera ad was plundered and A dulla made peace y paying all arrears of tri ute.

In +*10 A dullah issued 3the 7olden Mirman3 or -oyal Fdict granting trade privileges to the Fnglish on the east coast. A dullah was followed y his nephew A ul .asan Tana )hah. During the reign of A ul .asan, a su sidiary alliance was entered into etween )hiva>i and A ul .asan against AurangIe in Me ruary, +*AA. Pralhad Pant was then the resident envoy of )hiva>i at 7olconda. Akkanna and Madanna arranged a reception to )hiva>i at .ydera ad and an interview with A dul .asan Tana )hah "March 0, +*AA#. .e incurred AurangIe Bs wrath in a special measure as he employed $rahmin ministers and had sent money to )am ha>i, the son of )hiva>i. The dissoluteness of his private life was alleged as another reason for treating him with the utmost severity. The fort of 7olconda was esieged y AurangIe in +*&A. A ul .asan Tana )hah gallantly defended the fort with the aid of a rave and faithful lieutenant named A dur -aIIa9 and it seemed as if the Fmperor would never e a le to take

the fort. AurangIe at last had recourse to ri ery and gained admittance through the treachery of one of the officers of the garrison, who opened a gate. A dur -aIIa9 fought ravely ut fell senseless, covered with severe wounds all over his ody. Tana )hah was captured and made a prisoner and kept in the fortress of Daulata ad. The fall of 7olconda in Octo er +*&A closed the story of the Jut )hahi dynasty. The $arid )hahi Dynasty of $idar, +,/*%+*+H <hen the distant provinces of the $ahmani kingdom declared their independence, the remnant of it survived only in name under the descendants of the $arids, In +,/* Amir All $arid formally dispensed with the rule of /& the puppet $ahmani )ultan and founded the $arid )hahi dynasty of $idar. The )ultans of the $arid )hahi dynasty were a le to maintain their independence till +*+H. Their policy

was to >oin other Muslim states against $i>apur. In this task they did not hesitate to take even the help of the .indu empire of :i>ayanagar. The greatest struggle against $i>apur was in the time of Amir Ali $arid. The result was indecisive. In +*+H I rahim Adil )hah II of $i>apur marched against $idar, took captive its ruler Ali $arid II and formally anne;ed $idar to $i>apur. In +*,A AurangIe laid siege to the fortress of $idar and after a strenuous campaign succeeded in reducing it. It was promptly anne;ed to the Mughal empire. Today the chief interest of $idar consists in the magnificent tom s of the $ahmanis and the $arid )hahis and other structures of great architectural eauty, including the mos9ues, college and other uildings said to have een constructed y the a le $ahmani statesman, Mahmud 7awan. 1. The :i>ayanagar Fmpire The invasion of the Deccan y Malik !afur, the military general of Ala%ud% din !hil>i, had shaken foundations of the .indu kingdoms of the Deccan. The

su se9uent tyranny of Muhammad in Tughla9 increased further a sense of insecurity. .induism appeared to e in danger of e;tinction. .arihara and $ukka, the sons of one )angama, successfully resisted this onslaught against .induism. They pro a ly fled from <arangal which was esieged y the Muslims in +1/1. According to =uniI, a contemporary Portuguese traveller and merchant, .arihara had een appointed as the (hief of Anagundi, a strong fort on the northern ank of the Tunga hadra y Muhammad in Tughla9. Minding his position insecure, .arihara, together with his rother $ukka, crossed the river and founded in +11* a new city which was named :i>ayanagar. The site selected for the new capital was an e;cellent one. In the task of founding this new kingdom the two rothers were assisted y their preceptor Madhava alias :idyaranya )wami The history of :i>ayanagar covers a period of nearly /1' years. Mour

dynasties ruled over this kingdom in succession. The first of these was the )angama dynasty which lasted from +11* till a out the close of +0&,. The chief rulers of this dynasty were .arihara and $ukka, the founders, .arihara II, $ukka II, Devaraya I, :ira :i>aya, Devaraya II, Mallikar>una and :irupaksha. The second dynasty was the )aluva, which lasted from +0&, to +,',. There were only two kings of this dynasty, viI., =arasimha )aluva and Immadi =arasimha. The third dynasty was the Tuluva dynasty which lasted from +,', to +,A'. It was founded y one =arasa =ayaka, who ruled from +0H'%+,'1 as -egent. .e was succeeded y :eera =arsimha "+,'1%+,'H# who usurped the throne in +,', and was succeeded y the great !rishna Devaraya, who ruled from +,'H%+,1'. .e restored order throughout the empire and improved the finances of the state. .is con9uests include the capture of the fortresses of )hivasamudram and )rirangapattanam, reduction of ?dayagiri and !ondavidu.

.e laid siege to !ondapalli and captured it. All these con9uests were a out the year +,+1. .is greatest achievement, however, was the recovery in +,/' from the $ah%mani kings of the much disputed fortresses of -aichur and Mudkal situated in the doa etween the !rishna and the Tunga hadra rivers. !rishna Devaraya was a great patron of )anskrit, !annada and Telugu literature. .e uilt and endowed several temples. The statue of !rishna Devaraya, with his two 9ueens on either side rendering homage to the Eord :enkateswara at Tirupati, is placed at the entrance of the Tirupati shrine. Amukta Malyada, a !avya of great literary merit, is attri% 1' uted to him, It is valua le for our knowledge of medieval Andhra history and culture. !rishna Devaraya followed a policy of universal tolerance. .e encouraged Portuguese and Ara traders in horses.

!rishna Devaraya was succeeded y his rother Achyuta -aya who ruled from +,1'%+,0/. The king was of a violent temper and alienated his est friends. .e was succeeded in +,0/ y his nephew )adasiva -aya. )adBasiva -aya was king only in name. The real power in the state was wielded y his minister -ama -aya along with his rothers Tirumala -aya and :enkatadrE -ama -aya actively interfered in the confused politics of the Deccan )ultanates. In +,01 -ama -aya made an alliance with Ahmadnagar and 7olconda in order to effect a com ined attack on $i>apur, which was, however, saved from destruction y the a ilities of the Minister Asad !han. Mifteen years later "+,,&# $i>apur and :i>ayanagar com ined to attack Ahmadnagar. The territory of that state was so cruelly ravaged y the .indu army and -ama -aya treated his Muslim allies with such open contempt that the )ultans were convinced of the necessity for dropping their private 9uarrels and com ining against -ama

-aya8 The result was the attle of Talikota. It was fought on /1rd Canuary +,*,. Fnormous forces were employed on oth sides. After an initial set% ack the Muslim forces attacked the .indu forces with their guns which were loaded with copper coins. This had a deadly effect. All of a sudden, an elephant elonging to =iIam )hah of Ahmadnagar, mad with the e;citement of the attle, suddenly rushed forward e;actly towards the spot where the aged warrior -ama -aya was viewing the scene from a litter. $efore he could effect his escape, he was taken prisoner. Taken to the camp of =iIam )hah, he was forthwith decapitated. )eeing that their chief was cfeadl m the65i>ayanagar forces roke up and fled. They were hotly pursued until the Muslim forces entered the city of :iCLC5R5 nagar. The city was plundered and almost raIed to the ground during a span of nearly five months y the invading forces.

The Aravidu Dynasty, and the fall of the yi>ayanagar K5B 355%55 5B %55%55% 5 yi%i c K !ingdom.........5446 5.B% 5 B55 3 334B 5B% 5%RBR5% The victorious )ultanates did not ultimately gain much as a result of the attle of Talikota. Their alliance was soon .dissolved and there was recrudescence of mutual >ealousy. This afforded the :i>ayanagar Fmpire the opportunity for recuperation under -ama -ayaBs rother, Tiru%mala. .e returned to :i>ayanagar after the Muslims had left it, ut after a short stay there, went to Penugonda "Anantapur district# and restored the prestige and power of the empire to such an e;tent as to e a le to interfere in the affairs of the Muslim kingdoms. In a out +,A' Tirumala dispensed with the nominal ruler )adasiva -ay a and usurped the throne for the Aravidu dynasty to which he elonged. .is sons -anga I and :enkata II maintained the kingdom intact. The latter had his head9uarters at 7handragiri "(hittoor

district#. In +*+/ -a>a <odeyar founded with ig permission the knigdom of Mysore, on the e;tinction of the viceroyalty of )riranga%pattanam under the old :i>ayanagar Fmpire. The death of :enkata II in +*+0 was the signal for the dismem erment of the empire. It was followed6 y a war of succession and the conse9uent rise of disintegrating forces. These could not e checked y -anga III, the last important ruler of :i>ayanagar, in spite of his est attempts, owing to the selfish attitude of the re el vassals of the empire and the am ition of the Muslim states of $i>apur and 7olconda. Pride, selfishness, disloyalty and mutual dissensions largely facilitated the con9uest of the .indu Deccan y the Muslim states of $i>apur and 7olconda. Murther, su ordinate viceroys, like the (hiefs of )rirangapattanam and $ednur "!eladi Ikkeri# and the =ayaks of Madura and Tan>ore, carved out independent kingdoms for themselves.

The Pattern of Administration The ig empire was divided into provinces not unlike the circars of Mughal days. These provinces were in charge of governors, who were de facto sovereigns in their respective areas. They paid a fi;ed revenue to the state and undertook to furnish troops when called upon to do so. Custice was administered according to local custom and no hardship seemed to have een felt y the inha itants. The village panchayats looked after the interests of the villages. Eand was the chief source of the royal revenue. -ent was paya le in cash rather than in kind. The criminal code was not severe ut the method of punishment was cruel and almost ar arous. The :i>ayanagar kings maintained an army on a large scale. $ut as an organised force it does not seem to have een efficient. Patronage to Eearning The :i>ayanagar kings were great patrons of )anskrit and Telugu literature. !rishna Devaraya, himself a poet, was called the Andhra $ho>a and patronised the famous

Ashtadigga>as or the eight poets, the most famous of whom was Alasani Peddanna. $uildings The :i>ayanagar sovereigns e;hi ited considera le originality in their uildings. They evolved a distinct school of architecture. The city of :i>ayanagar itself contained no le monuments, like the palaces of the kings and several temples. The Italian traveller =icolo 7onti, the Portuguese chroniclers =uniI and Paes and the Persian traveller A diIr -aIIa9, have left glowing accounts of the splendour and wealth of %Le 4city%of 5 :i>ayaitiagar. 11 .4.55B8 )everal irrigation works were also constructed y the :i>ayanagar kings. Tolerant )pirit of the -ulers Fpigraphic and literary evidence clearly shows that the irulers of :i>ayanagar were of pious disposition and devoted to Dharma. $ut they were not fanatics. Their attitude towards

the prevailing four sects, )aiva, $uddha, :aish%nava and Caina, and even to alien creeds, (hristian, Cewish and Muslim, was li eral. $ar osa writes4 3The !ing allows such freedom that every man may come and go and live according to his own creed without suffering any annoyance, and without en9uiry, whether he is a (hristian, .Cew, Moor or .indu.3 0. Mughal con9uest of the Deccan Ak ar "+,,*%+*',# was the first Mughal Fmperor who attempted the con9uest of the Deccan. The Deccan )ultanates had grown weak after the attle of Talikota "/1rd Canuary, +,*,# on account of internecine warfare. Ak ar first tried to e;tort from them a formal acknowledgment of his suIerainty over the Deccan y sending am assadors to their respective courts in +,H+. $ut they returned evasive answers to his overtures. The Mughal Fmperor, therefore, sent his son prince Murad to capture Ahmadriagar. BThe Mughal army was commanded y A dur -ahim, son of $airam !han. Ahmadnagar was esieged in +,H,. The

city was defended with splendid courage y (hand $i i, the dowager Jueen and daughter of .ussain =iIam )hah. The esiegers concluded a treaty with (hand $i i in +,H* where y $erar was ceded to the Mughal Fmpire and the oy king of Ahmadnagar promised to recogniIe the over%lordship of Ak ar. The peace did not last long and a faction at Ahmadnagar renewed the war with the Mughals. Ahmadnagar was successfully attacked a second time in )P2,,,51 10 +*'', ut the kingdom was not finally anne;ed to the Mughal Fmpire till the reign of )hah Cehan. In +,HH Ak ar marched to !handesh "a principality in the valley of the Tapti river which was a governorship under MeroI )hah Tugla9 ut which ecame independent later#, captured $urhanpur and took possession of the very strong fortress of Asirgarh y stratagem. The ruler of !handesh Mian $ahadur )hah, who was made a prisoner,

was compelled to accept Mughal suIerainty. $efore returning to the north, Ak ar organised the newly con9uered territories into the three su as of Ahmadnagar, $erar and !handesh and appointed Prince Daniyal as :iceroy. The Deccan campaign of Ak ar resulted in pushing the Mughal frontier from the =armada river to the upper courses of the !rishna river. $ut the civil government esta lished could not keep its hold firmly over the con9uered territory. The war against Ahmadnagar continued throughout the reign of Cehangir "+*',%+*/A#. The kingdom of Ahmadnagar was then a ly served y its A yssinian Minister Malik Am ar1 a orn leader of men ai;d one of the greatest statesmen that mediaeval India produced% .is re% organisation of the revenue system of the kingdom on sound lines contri uted to its financial sta ility and his training of soldiers, mostly Marathas, in the guerilla method of warfare ena led them to cope successfully with the imperialists. Only a partial

success was gained y the Mughals in +*+*, when prince !hurram captured Ahmadnagar. Mor this victory he was rewarded 3 y his. father with the title of )hah Cehan "the !ing of the <orld# and various gifts. .. ... <hen )hah Cehan "+*/&%+*,&# ecame the Fmperor he continued the war against Ahmadnagar. Mateh !han, the unworthy son of Malik Am ar who was the Minister6 at )P,1,%18 1, this time, played fast and loose with the Mughals. <hen the Mughals esieged the fortress of Daulata ad in +*1+, he first fought against the invaders, ut was soon won over y them with a ri e of over +' lakhs of rupees and surrendered the fortress. Ahmadnagar was finally anne;ed to the Mughal Fmpire in +*1A and the nominal king .ussain )hah was confined to lifelong imprisonment in the fort of 7walior. The independence of the )hia states of 7olconda and $i>apur was resented y )hah Cehan. In +*1, when the rulers of

those states secretly helped )haha>i $honsle "the father of )hiva>i#, who made an attempt to revive =iIam%shahi rule in Ahmadnagar, the Mughal Fmperor called upon them to a stain from helping )haha>i and to accept his suIerainty y paying a regular tri ute to him. .e marched in person to the Deccan in +*1* and made vigorous preparations to attack the kingdoms of 7olconda and $i>apur. A dulla Jut )hah was overawed and acknowledged the suIerainty of )hah Cehan y complying with all the demands of the latter such as,paying an annual tri ute to the Fmperor, striking coins in the name of the Fmperor and having the khut a read in his name. $ut the Adil )hahi king of $i>apur refused to su mit to the imperial ehest and made a old stand to defend his rights. Three Mughal armies then attacked his kingdom from three sides. The $i>apur soldiers ravely defended the capital city ut the rest of their kingdom was devastated y the Mughals. The )ultan was compelled to sue for peace, which was concluded in May,

+*1*. .e acknowledged the suIerainty of the Mughal Fmperor and was re9uired not to molest the kingdom of 7olconda which was now a dependency of the Mughal Fmperor. The Fmperor left the Deccan on ++th Culy, +*1* and sent his third son AurangIe , then a youth of eighteen, as m :iceroy of the Mughal Deccan. It was then a fairly e;tensive territory comprising four provinces, !handesh, $erar. Telangana and Daulata ad and estimated to yield an income of , crores of rupees a year. The Mirst :iceroy alty of AurangIe in the Deccan The young :iceroy engaged himself in suppressing the enemies of the empire. .e captured the district of $aga%iana lying etween !handesh and the )urat coast and compelled )haha>i $honsle to su mit to him and surrender certain forts. $ut he was much em arrassed in his administration for lack of finance and also y the influence of a hostile party under his rother Dara )hukoh,

In +*00 he had to go to Agra to see his sister Cahanara, who had een severely urnt. Moi4 reasons which are not clearly known, he resigned his position in the Decean and lived a retired life for some time. .is later years were spent in e;peditions to $alkh, $adakshan and Jandahar. .is )econd :iceroyalty In +*,1 he was sent as :iceroy of the Deccan for a second time. Mrom =ovem er +*,1 either Daulata ad or Auranga ad was the head9uarters of his government. The name Auranga ad was given to the city after the name of AurangIe . .is wife Dilras $anu died in +*,A and to her memory was uilt the finest architectural monument of the city, in imitation of the Ta> Mahal, called the $i ika Ma9 ara. The Pattern of Provincial 7overnment under Mughal -ule The administrative agency in the provinces of the Mughal Fmpire was a miniature version of the (entral 7pyernment The head of a province was styled the

1A )u adar and he was in charge of the entire civil and military administration of the province. .e was assisted y a Diwan, who was in charge of the revenue administration of the province. The !otwal was the Police Officer and the Mau>dar was in charge of the army. The JaIi meted out >ustice. The <a9ai%i%navis "the official chronicler# kept a diary of all important developments. A province was divided into several circars, each of which in turn consisted of a num er of parganas. Fach pargana was a union of several villages. The Amal%guIar or -evenue collector in charge of a district was assisted y a large su ordinate staff. Apart from the village Mu9addam "headman# and the village Patwari who were servants of the village community and not of the state, there were measurers and !arkuns who prepared the seasonal crop statistics6 the Janungo, who kept records of the revenue paya le y the villages6 the $itikchi or accountant6

and the Potdar or district treasurer. These officers were instructed to collect revenue with due care and caution. The administration of the Deccan su as was modelled more or less on the same pattern. Administration of the Deccan under AurangIe During the few years following his resignation, the administration of the Deccan had fallen into utter confusion and its financial condition had ecome deplora le. The administration ran on a constant financial deficit, which had to e made good y draining the imperial e;che9uer. To improve the finances of the Deccan was, therefore, AurangIe Bs first concern. .e not only took steps to promote agriculture in the interests of the peasantry ut also adopted certain revenue measures, which considera ly improved the economic condition of his territory and have made his second :iceroy alty famous in the history of land settlements in the Deccan. .e fortunately

1& received valua assistance MKoK an a le Persian revenue officer named Murshid Jull ! . 58 resides reorganising the iS4 t %5s nf the Deccan su as, Murshid Juli !haa applud to .. .8. G5atGa Todar MaiBs system of survey and assessment, vrth sonu changes suited to local conditions8 )teps were also taken to improve tho condition of the . ruined villages and help the agriculturists with advance payments. On the whole the wise8 measures of Murshid Juli !han contri uted to the restoration nf prosperity in the DJecan though the accumulated evils of several years+ ad government were too numerous to e removed completely within a short time, AurangIe Bs second :icoroyalty in the Deccan ended I5 the year +*,A. The Mall of $i>apnr und 7olconda AurangIe came to the Deccan again in +*&/ us emperor with the determination to crush the Maratha power and to overthrow the kingdoms of $i>apur and 7oleonda8 As in the case of )hah

Cehan, Auranpw Bs altitude towards the )hia )ultanates of the Deccan was influenced partly y imperial interests and partly y religious considerations. The siege of $i>apur commenced on ++th April, +&&, and the Fmperor himself went there in Culy +&&*, The esieged garrison held out ravely, ut had to capitulate in )eptem er +*&* on account of lack of provisions and the Bdeath of countless men and horses caused y the out reak of a famine. )ikandar, the last of the Adil )hahs, surrendered to the Fmperor and the dynasty founded y @usuf Adil )hah ceased to e;ist. Prince )hah Alam laid siege to the fort of 7olconda on /&th Cune, +&&,. The Fmperor personally supervised the operations in the later .stages, 7olconda was a ly defended for more than eight months y the )ultan A ul .asan Tana )hah and his famed 1H lieutenant A dur -aIIak !han EarE The .indu Minister Madanna also played a

great part in the defence of 7ol% conda6 ut all efforts were of no avail. 7olconda fell in Octo er, +*&A. Death of AurangIe After the fall of 7olconda the Fmperor AurangIe carried on a ruthless war against the Marathas for nearly /' years ut he did not succeed in overthrowing them. The Deccan ecame his grave and he died a roken%hearted man at Ahmadnagar on the /'th of Me ruary, +A'A. According to his wishes his remains were carried to -oIa at !hulda ad "near Auranga ad#, where they were interred in a simple grave. 0/ to vacate the province of Malwa, as he wanted it for himself. On the way to 7olconda and .ydera ad, he captured the fort of Asirgarh and the town of $urhanpur, and defeated two armies sent y the )yed rothers, under Dilawar Ali !han and Alam Ali !han. The assassination of )yed .ussain Ali strengthened Asaf CahBs position, and on the defeat of his

rother )yed A dullah y the imperial forces in +A/+, =iIam%ul%Mulk was invited to accept the post of Minister at the imperial court which he did. In +A/0, confronted y intrigues against him in Delhi and a revolt y Mu ariI !han, in the Deccan, he chose to march against the latter, and grasp the su stance of power in the Deccan, rather than its shadow in the imperial capital. .is victory, at )hakar !heda in )eptem er, +A/0 marks the esta lishment of his sovereignty in the Deccan. The Fmperor accepted with a good grace the fait accompli, sent him >ewels and presents with the title of Asaf Cah, and directions 3to settle the country, repress the tur ulent, punish the re els, and cherish the people,3 Although Asaf Cah had o tained a hereditary vice%royalty al>nost entirely y his own efforts, he never ceased to acknowledge the overlordship of the Mughal Fmperor. This tradition he passed on to his successors in his last will, in which he claims to have refused an offer of the empire of

India from the Persian invader, =adir )hah, on the ground that it would e a reach of faith. As )u adar of the Deccan, Asaf Cah controlled, on ehalf of the emperor, a num er of su ordinate rulers, including those of . Arcot, 5 !urnool, -a>ahmundry and (hicacole ")rikakulam#. "The last three are now in Andhra Pradesh#. The areas in which his military activity was undertaken were primarily the territory of Arcot "in the present Madras state# and the <estern Deccar 5tow 01 the state of Maharashtra. .is conflict with the Marathas arose out of their claim to levy chauth, a kind of ta; consisting of one%fourth of the land revenue. The right to collect chauth and sardeshmukhi had een sanctioned y an imperial order during the viceroyalty of )yed .ussain Ali in +A+0%+A+H. Asaf Cah fought the Marathas in +A/A and +A/H, and in oth cases was a le to profit from the dissensions amongst the Maratha

chiefs. .e was, however, forced to acknowledge )hahu (hatrapati, in place of )am ha>i, and to accept the MarathasB right to levy chauth. In +A1+ he was defeated ut the Marathas did not interfere with his affairs for some time owing to their preoccupations in the north. In +A1A the Fmperor persuaded Asaf Cah I to return to the court at Delhi, and estowed the provinces of Malwa and 7u>arat on his eldest son 7haIiuddin. The former province he had lost to $a>i -ao Peshwa, after the attle of $hopal, in +A1&. The invasion of =adir )hah in +A1H must have convinced Asaf Cah of the futility of upholding the emperorBs authority. .e now turned his attention to affairs in the (arnatic, where the Marathas had threatened Trichinopoly. .e appointed Anwar%ud% din !han as the =awa of Arcot and egan friendly relations with the Fnglish at Madras which ena led the latter to estai lsh their power. .e returned to .ydera ad in +A00, and after four years of comparative 9uiet,

passed away at $urhanpur "!handesh# at the age of AA years. In the meantime, it was ecoming gradually clear that the real struggle for power in )outh India was etween the Mrench at Pondicherry and the Fnglish at Madras. The Mirst Anglo%Mrench )truggle, +A0*% +A0& The first Anglo%Mrench struggle "some te;t% ook writers call it the Mirst (arnatic <ar# came a out during the last vears of Asaf Cah I 00 Mrance and Fngland were in opposite camps in the war of Austrian succession, which had roken out in Furope on the 9uestion of the succession of Maria Theresa in the year +A0'. This war had its repercussions in India. .ostilities started etween the Fnglish and the Mrench in India a out +A0*. Duplei; was the 7overnor of Pondicherry. Apprehending an attack on Pondicherry y the Fnglish, he sought the intervention of Anwar%ud%din !han, the =awa of A8cot, in whose territory

Pondicherry and Madras were situated. The =awa persuaded+ the Fnglish to maintain peace for the time eing. A out the middle of +A0* a Mrench fleet from Mauritius commanded y Ea $ourdonnais reached the (oroman%dal coast and later laid siege to Madras, and captured it. Duplei; had agreed to hand over Madras to the =awa of Arcot ut did not keep the promise. The =awa of Arcot sent an army to take Madras, ut it was defeated y the Mrench at the attle of )an Thome. Ea $ourdonnais restored Madras to the Fnglish. The Fnglish later attacked Pondicherry without success. The status 9uo was reesta lished in India y the treaty of Ai;%la%(hapelle concluded in Furope in +A0&. The )econd Anglo%Mrench )truggle, +A0&%+A,/ Asaf Cah, =iIam%ul%Mulk died in May +A0&. The succession was disputed etween his second son =asir Cang who had $ritish support, and his grandson MuIaffar Cang. A out this time (handa )ahi , the grandson of )aadatul%la !han, Mau>dar of =ellore, intrigued

with the Mrench to .o tain the post of =awa of Arcot. Duplei; supported oth the claimants, MuIaffar Cang in .ydera ad and (handa )ahi in the (arnatic. .e provided help which secured the defeat and death of Anwar% ud%din !han at Am ur near :ellore in August +A0H. .is son Muhammad 0, Ali retired to Trichinopoly where in Octo er the $ritish egan to send him help. MuIaffar Cang, who had een enthroned as )u adar of the Deccan and (arnatic at Pondicherry y Duplei;, was now confronted with all the forces of =asir Cang, who spent most of +A,' in the (arnatic. MuIaffar Cang su mitted6 Duplei; prepared to make an agreement, when =asir Cang was assassinated. (leverly turning these events to his advantage, Duplei; secured the recognition of MuIaffar Cang as =iIam, sending $ussy with a Mrench force to support him in .ydera ad, and receiving in return large grants and a vague title as ruler of India south of

the river !rishna. MuIaffar Cang was shortly afterwards assassinated, only si; weeks after his accession, and without having had the chance of even entering his capital city of .ydera ad. $ussyBs force promptly secured the succession of )ala at Cang, the third son of Asaf Cah I, and maintained him in power. The Mrench arrived efore Trichinopoly in +A,+, ut meanwhile -o ert (live had created a diversion y seiIing the capital city of Arcot in August. The siege lasted for ,' days. Meanwhile Ma>or )tringer Eawrence rescued Muhammad Ali from Trichinopoly and helped him to return to Arcot. (handa )ahi was forced to surrender to Ma>or Eawrence in the island of )rirangam in Cune +A,/. (handa )ahi was e;ecuted y Muhammad All Thus the second Anglo% Mrench struggle rought Arcot under the influence of the Fnglish and .ydera ad under the influence of the Mrench. The Third Anglo%Mrench )truggle, +A,&% +A*1

.ostilities recommenced in India etween the Mrench and the Fnglish in +A,& on the out reak of the )even @ears <ar in Furope in +A,*. (ount de Eally, who was appointed L5 the 7overnor of the Mrench (ompany, arrived at Pofl0iP 0* cherry in April8 +A,&. Mort )t. David was om arded and taken y the Mrench. (ount de Eally recalled $ussy from .ydera ad. $ussy o eyed with reluctance, knowing all too well that he could never recover his influence there. .is fore odings were soon >ustified. -o ert (live, in spite of his critical position in $engal, was watching events in )outhern India closely and in Octo er +A,& sent (olonel Morde to intervene in the =orthern (ircars, at the re9uest of the -a>a of :iIianagaram. Morde defeated $ussyBs successor at !ondur in Decem er +A,&, and stormed Masulipatam in the following April, Mrench influence at the court of

.ydera ad disappeared. )ala at Cang ceded Masulipatam to the $ritish, with a territory eighty miles long and twenty miles wide, and undertook to have no more dealings with the Mrench. (ount de Eally tried to capture Madras ut failed. .e was forced to retire to Pondicherry and was defeated y )ir Fyre (oote in the attle of <andiwash in Canuary +A*'. It was a decisive attle and sealed the fate of the Mrench. $ussy was taken prisoner. !arikal fell in April +A*'. (ount de Eally surrendered at Pondicherry in Canuary +A*+. (ount de Eally was recalled and, y the treaty of Paris "Me ruary +A*1#, peace was re%esta lished etween the Fnglish and the Mrench. The Mrench in India lost all their power and were allowed to retain only four settlements in )outh India, viI., Pondicherry, Mahe, !arikal and @anam. Of these Mahe was captured y the Fnglish in a out +A&', (handranagore in $engal also continued to e under the Mrench.

The other effects of the third Anglo% Mrench struggle were that Muhammad Ali, the son of the deceased Anwar%ud% din, was recognised as the =awa of Arcot y the Fnglish, and )ala at CangBs title to the )u adarship of the 0A Deccan was acknowledged. The Mrench lost their influence at his court. The =orthern (ircars came under the sway of the Fnglish and in +A** -o ert (live o tained an imperial decree ratifying the regularising the Fnglish title, )ala at Cang was deposed y his rother =awa =iIam Ali !han in +A*/ and was put to death y him fifteen months later. /. Administrative .istory, +A/'%+A*/ The administrative system which characterised the first period of Asaf Cahi rule is a su >ect deserving serious study. It appears that Asaf Cah I was a good administrator in the Mughal tradition, and, y his personal attention to the welfare of the peasantry and the pu lic, was a le to

esta lish a comparatively efficient and sta le government. .is territory was divided into the following si; su as4 "+# !handesh4 comprising si; districts, "/# Auranga ad4 comprising twelve districts, "1# $erar4 comprising twelve districts, "0# $idar4 comprising seven districts, ",# $i>apur4 comprising twenty%three districts and "*# .ydera ad4 comprising thirty% eight districts. 7ri le8 descri es the circumstances in which Asaf Cah I rought with him from Malwa a num er of no les, .indu and Muslim. The former he employed principally in administrative work in the departments of revenue and+ finance. The latter were granted >agirs or estates on military tenure and employed as generals. Although the armies raised in this way were inferior to the smaller and highly disciplined forces of later time, they seem to have served the purpose, as

the other armies of the day were e9ually primitive and unwieldy. 8 .istory afR the Deccan, :ol. II, p.. ,. 8 . 0& The whole of the .ydera ad territory, directly administered y him, was divided into 3three distinct portions, consisting first of these feudal >agirs6 secondly of scattered portions of territory reserved for the =iIamBs privy purse, now known as )arf%i%!has lands6 and, thirdly, of the so%called Diwani or 7overnment lands, the revenues of which were devoted to the e;penses of administration,1. The >agirs were of three kinds4 "+# those deriving from ancient territorial control, e;ercised y -a>as and (hiefs, who accepted Mughal suIerainty, called )amasthans6 "/# the >agirs given for military services, and "1# >agirs granted for civil services. All the three ecame hereditary. In course of time, the second Asaf Cah, =iIam Ali !han,

created a fourth category of >agir, the Paigah Cagir, which was given to the family of A ul !hair !han Tegh Cang, "a trusted lieutenant of the first Asaf Cah, who accompanied him from Malwa# in order to protect the ruler, from a revolt y his own military feudatories. There are two contemporary accounts of the administration of the first Asaf Cah, oth y Eala Mansa -am, Peshkar of )adarat%i%Mau>. The -iTala%i% Dar ar%i%ATafi, which has een pu lished, deals mostly with the rules and regulations laid down y =iIam%ul% Mulk. This was written in +A*+, The second work is MasifA%=iIamE In the first ook, Eala Mansa -am gives a vivid picture of the functionaries, the method of work and the devices for eon%trolling pu lic disorder in the time of the first Asaf Cah, .e mentions that $rahmin vakils were preferred, while government offices were run y !hatris and !ayasthaa ,........The earliest offices, which are known to have e;isted are

5hQ Daftar%iCDiwani and the. .Daftar% i%Mal, which were responsi le for civil administration in the su as allotted to them. They also supervised the maintenance of the records regarding the grant of lands including various >agirs under 0H various conditions of service, including military service. The other two early offices were the Daftar%i% Istifa, which prepared and preserved duplicate copies of sanads and ahkams originating from the a ove Daftars6 and the Darul%Insha, which attended to the official correspondence of the ruler and the Minister. It is not yet clear whether the functions of the Daftar%i%Diwani and Daftar%i%Mal were always as comprehensive as they ecame during =iIam Ali !hanBs reign and later. )ome hold that the Daftar%i%Diwani was actually the Daftar%i%Diwan "Prime MinisterBs Office#6 others like )alar Cang I, accuse the daftardars of usurping administrative functions when

their original function was merely to keep the records. The administration was carried on primarily through the office of Diwan. =ot all the Diwans are known to us y name, and dates do not always tally. .owever,, two of the first Asaf CahBs Diwans are well known4 Anwarullah !han in +A1*, and Puran (hand in +A0A. The former resigned regretfully when =asir Cang, Asaf CahBs second son, worked against his father, while the latter was away in Delhi. Puran (hand had the honour of eing mentioned in the will of Asaf Cah I and recommended to his successor. Other Diwans who served successive rulers are )hah =awaI !han "+A0& and +A,,#, -aghunath Das "+A,'% ,+ # and )yed Eashkar !han. Of these )hah =awaI !han, a litterateur and historian of repute, appears to have een unremitting in his devotion to his masterBs interests, even to the point of turning against $ussy, who had esta lished himself at .ydera ad for a long time. )ala at CangBs dismissal of $ussy, could not, however, take effect, as he was a le

to command military aid from Masulipatam. Eittle is known of administration in the chaotic times etween the death of Asaf Cah I and the accession of =iIam Ali !han. It is, however, evident that administration must )P2,,,50