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Sub: Water Resources Engineering

Topic : Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics

MODULE- 66A
Velocity triangles and specific speed of pumps and turbines

Impact of free jets: 1. Fluid jet on stationary flat plate:

Rate of change of momentum= force

] F=

2. Fluid jet on moving flat plate:

)[

)]

Work done= F.u ( )

JH ACADEMY

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Sub: Water Resources Engineering

Topic : Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics to the jet:

3. Fluid jet on stationary flat plate inclined at an angle

Analyzing in normal to the plate [ ]

Analyzing in parallel to the plate:

Continuity equation [ ] [ ]

4. If the flat plate inclined at angle ( ( = ( ) ) ) ( )

is moving with velocity u

Work done =

5. Fluid jet on stationary curved vane.

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Sub: Water Resources Engineering

Topic : Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics

= =

[ [

( ]

)]

6. Fluid jet on moving curved vane. = ( ) [ ( ] ) [ ]

Work done =

7. Jet striking an symmetrically stationary curved vane tangentially at one of the tips. [ ( )]

= = = If = then [

] ]

If there is a friction= velocity at inlet = Velocity at outlet = Then [ [ ] ]

8. Series of curved arranged at equal spacing on the periphery of a large wheel which is capable of rotating in a vertical plane. Jet acting at centre. [( ( Work done = ) )[ ( ( ] ) ( ) ) ]

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Sub: Water Resources Engineering = =


( ) ( ( ) ( )

Topic : Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics

)(

[(

)]

)(

If = 9. Jet striking an unsymmetrical moving curved vane tangentially at one of the tips.

[ W= velocity of whirl velocity of flow

Hydraulic turbines: A turbine is a machine which converts hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. Head race: The water surface in storage reservoir. Fore bay: Storage reservoir at the head of penstock. Penstock: Water from storage reservoir is carried through large diameter pipes, called penstock. Gross head: It is defined as the difference between head race and tail race. Tail race: Tail race is the channel which carries water away from the power house after it has passed through the turbine. Net head or effective head: it is the head available at the entrance to turbine. JH ACADEMY Page 4

Sub: Water Resources Engineering

Topic : Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics

Runner or rotar: The wheel in turbine is called runner or rotar. The runner having number of specially designed vanes buckets. Efficiency: 1. Hydraulic efficiency: 2. Mechanical efficiency: 3. Volumetric efficiency: It is the ratio of quantity of water actually striking and ( ) the quantity of water supplied to turbine. 4. Overall efficiency = Classification of turbines: According to the water flowing through turbine runners are classified as impulse and reaction turbines. Impulse turbine: All the available energy of water is converted into kinetic energy or velocity head by passing it through a contracting nozzle provided at the end of penstock. The water coming out of nozzle is formed into a free jet which impinges on a series of buckets of the runner thus causing it to revolve. The runner revolves freely in air. Purpose of casing is just to prevent the splashing. Ex: Pelton wheel. Reaction turbine: In reaction turbine at the entrance to runner only a part of the available energy of water is converted into kinetic energy and a substantial part remains in the form of pressure energy. As water flows through runner, the change from pressure to kinetic energy takes place gradually as such the pressure at inlet to turbine is much higher than the pressure at outlet and it varies throughout passage of water through the turbine. Further for this gradual change of pressure to be possible the runner in the case must be completely enclosed in an air-tight casing and the passage is entirely full of water throughout the operation of turbine. Ex: Francis, Kalpan. Classification based on direction of flow: 1. 2. 3. 4. Tangential flow turbine Radial flow turbine Axial flow turbine Mixed flow turbine

Draft tube: The water after passing through runner flows to the tail race through a draft tube. It is a pipe or passage of gradually increasing c/s area, which connects the runner exit to the tail race. It permits a negative head to be established at the runner exit, thus making it possible to install turbine above tail race level, without loss of head. It converts a large proportion of velocity energy rejected from runner into useful pressure energy. Specific speed: A specific speed of any turbine is speed in RPM of a turbine geometrically similar to the actual turbine but of such a size that under corresponding conditions it will develop 1 kilowatt power when working under unit head.

Mode testing of turbines: 1. ( ) ( )

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Sub: Water Resources Engineering 2. ( ) ( )

Topic : Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics

3. ( 4. (

) )

( (

) )

5. ( 6. (

) ) (

Centrifugal pumps: The basic principle on which a centrifugal pump works is that when a certain mass of liquid is made to rotate by an external force, it is thrown away from central axis of rotation and a centrifugal head is impressed which enables it to rise to a higher level. Now if more liquid is constantly made available at the centre of rotation a continuous supply of liquid at a higher level may be ensured. Component parts of centrifugal pump: 1. Impeller: It is a wheel or rotator which is provided with a series of backward curved plates or vanes. 2. Casing: it is an air tight chamber which surrounds the impeller. 3. Suction pipe: it is a pipe which is connected at its upper end to the inlet of pump or to the centre of impeller which is commonly known as eye. The lower end of suction pipe is fitted with a foot valve and strainer. 4. Delivery pipe: It is a pipe which is connected at its lower end to the outlet of pump and it delivers the liquid to the required height. Static head: It is the vertical distance between the liquid surfaces in the sump and the tank to which the liquid is delivered by the sump. where sump to centre of pump Centre of pump to tank Static head= suction head+ delivery head Manometric head: It is the total head that must be produced by the pump to satisfy the external requirements. If there are no energy losses in the impeller and casing of the pump, then the Manometric head will be equal to the energy given to the liquid by the impeller.

If losses occur in the pump Losses of head in the pump

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Sub: Water Resources Engineering Limitation of suction lift:

Topic : Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics

Applying Bernoullis eqn between points, O at the sump liquid surface and at the centre line of pump 0 * + pressure at centre line of pump velocity of flow in the suction pipe = suction lift = head loss in suction pipe Absolute pressure head at centre line of pump: * * The limiting case * ( ) + + +

Net positive suction head (NPSH): It is defined as absolute pressure head at the inlet to the pump, minus the vapour pressure head. (in absolute units) plus the velocity head at this point. NPSH = = Thomas cavitation number = = Specific speed

but

Model testing of pumps: ( ( ( (

) ) ) )

( ( ( (

) ) ) )

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