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Between Marx, Marxism, and Marxisms Ways of Reading Marxs Theory Ingo Elbe October !, "!

The ob$ecti%e of the following obser%ations is to offer a ro&gh o%er%iew of central ways of reading Marxs theory' These are to be (resented by means of a few selected to(ics as Marxisms that can be relati%ely clearly delimited from one another, and the history of their rece(tion and infl&ence will be e%al&ated with regard to the common)sense &nderstanding of *Marxist theory'+ , distinction will be made between the hitherto (redominant inter(retation of Marx, (rimarily associ) ated with (olitical (arties -traditional Marxism, Marxism in the sing&lar, if yo& will., and the dissident, critical forms of rece(tion of Marx -Marxisms in the (l&ral., with their res(ecti%e claims of a *ret&rn to Marx'+ The first inter(retation is &nderstood as a (rod&ct and (rocess of a restricted reading of Marx, in (art emerging from the *exoteric+ layer of Marxs wor/, which &(dates traditional (aradigms in (olitical economy, the theory of history, and (hiloso(hy' 0ystemati1ed and ele%ated to a doctrine by Engels, 2a&ts/y, et al, it s&cc&mbs to the mystifications of the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction and c&lminates in

the a(ologetic science of Marxism)3eninism' The other two inter(retations, s(ecifically Western Marx) ism as well as the 4erman neue Marx-Lektre -*new reading of Marx+., &s&ally ex(lore the *esoteric+ content of Marxs criti5&e and analysis of society, often cons&mmated o&tside of instit&tionali1ed, c&m&lati%e research (rograms, by isolated actors in the style of an *&ndergro&nd Marxism'+ In order to characteri1e both ways of reading, some strongly tr&ncated theses, limited to a few as(ects, m&st s&ffice' In (artic&lar the ambitio&s (ro(osition, first form&lated by 2arl 2orsch, of an *a((lication of the materialist conce(tion of history to the materialist conce(tion of history itself+ one that goes beyond the mere (resentation of intellect&al history, towards an immanent theoretical criti5&e that crit) ically considers the connection between historical forms of (raxis and theoretical formations of Marxism cannot be carried o&t here' In addition, a consideration of those readings which are critical of Marx or Marxism can also be disregarded here, insofar as their (ict&re of Marx &s&ally corres(onds to that of traditional Marxism' I therefore begin with the hegemonic inter(retati%e model of traditional Marxism, and only at the end of my (resentation will I concl&de with a few (ositi%e determinations of what I regard as the f&ndamen) tal systematic intention of Marxs wor/' I do this (rimarily beca&se a differentiated reading of Marxs wor/ can only be gained in the co&rse of the learning (rocesses of Western Marxism and the neue MarxLektre. I' Marxism The term *Marxism+ was (robably first &sed in the year !678 by the 4erman 0ocial 9emocrat :ran1 Mehring to characteri1e Marxs theory, and established itself at the end of the !66"s as a disc&rsi%e wea(on &sed by both critics and defenders of *Marxs teachings'+ The birth of a *Marxist school,+ how) e%er, is &nanimo&sly dated bac/ to the (&blication of Anti-Dhring by :riedrich Engels in the year !676, and the s&bse5&ent rece(tion of this wor/ by 2arl 2a&ts/y, Ed&ard Berstein, et al' Engels writings e%en if the terms *Marxism+ or *dialectical materialism,+ the self)a((lied labels of traditional readings, do not yet a((ear in them s&((lied entire generations of readers, Marxists as well as anti)Marxists, with the inter(retati%e model thro&gh which Marxs wor/ was (ercei%ed' In (artic&lar, the re%iew of Marxs Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy -!6;8., the late wor/ Lu !ig "euerbach an the En of Classical #erman Philoso$hy -!66<., and the s&((lement to =ol&me III of Ca$ital-!68>?8;., achie%ed an infl&ence that can hardly be &nderestimated' ,bo%e all, howe%er, it was Anti-Dhring that was to be styli1ed as the textboo/ of Marxist theory as well as a (ositi%e de(iction of a *Marxist world) %iew+@ for 2a&ts/y, *there is no other boo/ that has contrib&ted so m&ch to the &nderstanding of Marx) ism' Marxs Ca$italis greater' B&t it was first thro&gh Anti-Dhring that we learned to correctly read and &nderstand Ca$ital'+ ,nd for 3enin, it is one of the *handboo/s of e%ery class)conscio&s wor/er'+! ,t the same time, a general characteristic of the history of *Marxism+ is cons&mmated@ the initiators of the theoretical cor(&s regard it as *&nnecessary ABC to themsel%es ma/e an a((earance as e(onyms ABC the e(onyms are not the real s(ea/ers'+ In many res(ects, Marxism is Engels wor/ and for that reason act&ally an Engelsism' In what follows I will name only two (oints which an ideologi1ed and restricted rece(tion of Marx co&ld draw &(on'

I'! The Ontological)9eterminist Tendency 0cientific socialism was concei%ed of as an ontological system, a *science of the big (ict&re'+ The materi) alist dialectic f&nctions here as a *general law of de%elo(ment of nat&re, society, and tho&ght,+ while nat&re ser%es for Engels as a *(roof of dialectics'+# Engels already &nderta/es a false analogy between historical)social (rocesses and nat&ral (henomena by the mere fact that in his el&cidation of the main feat&res of the dialectic, reference to s&b$ect and ob$ect is missing' *Degation of the negation+ or the *transformation of 5&antity into 5&ality+ are identified in the changes in the (hysical state of water or in the de%elo(ment of a grain of barley' ,gainst a static (oint of %iew, dialectic is s&((osed to demonstrate the *becoming,+ the *transitory character+ of all existence,> and is bo&nd to traditional dichotomies of the (hiloso(hy of conscio&sness, s&ch as the so)called *great basic 5&estion of all (hiloso(hy *as to which com(onent of the relationshi( between *thin/ing and being+ has (rimacy'; The dialectic is s(lit into *two sets of laws,+ into the dialectic of *the external world+ and the dialectic of *h&man tho&ght,+ whereby the latter is &nderstood to be merely a (assi%e mental image of the former'< Engels constricts e%en distorts the three elementary (raxis)(hiloso(hical motifs of Marx, which he had (artially still ad%ocated in his earlier writings@ !' The recognition that not only the ob$ect, b&t also the obser%ation of the ob$ect is historically and (ractically mediated,7 not external to the history of the mode of (rod&ction' ,gainst this, Engels em(hasi1es that *the materialist o&tloo/ on nat&re means nothing more than the sim(le con) ce(tion of nat&re $&st as it is, witho&t alien addition'+6 The nai%e realism of the theory of reflec) tion systemati1ed by 3enin8 and others which falls (rey to the reified a((earance of immediacy of that which is socially mediated, the fetishism of an in)itself of that which exists only %ia a his) torically determined framewor/ of h&man acti%ity already obtains its fo&ndation in Engels writings'!" ,s *things refer to conscio&sness and conscio&sness refers to things,+!! the conce(ts of (raxis and the s&b$ecti%e mediation of the ob$ect, as well as ideology)critical considerations, ha%e hardly any (lace in this (aradigm' ' The conce(t of %atur!chsigkeit -*the state of being nat&rally deri%ed+., which Engels had &sed in &he #erman ' eology in a negati%e sense, is now t&rned into a (ositi%e conce(t' The sublation of s(ecific social laws resting &(on the &nconscio&sness of social actors is no longer (ost&) latedE rather, Engels (ost&lates the conscio&s a((lication of *the general laws of motion ABC of the external world'+! #' If Marx writes in the &heses on "euerbach that *all mysteries which lead theory to mysticism find their rational sol&tion in h&man (ractice and in the com(rehension of this (ractice,+!# Engels red&ces (raxis to the ex(erimental acti%ity of the nat&ral sciences'!> ,dmittedly, ambi%alences and (raxis)(hiloso(hical motifs can also be fo&nd in the writings of the late Engels, which were largely blotted o&t by the e(igones' Donetheless, Engels, b&ndling together the scientism of his e(och, (a%es the way for a mechanistic and fatalistic conce(tion of historical materialism by shifting the accent from a theory of social (raxis to one of a contem(lati%e, reflection)theory doctrine of de%elo(ment'

The %&lgar e%ol&tionism of nineteenth)cent&ry E&ro(ean 0ocial 9emocracy is a nearly &bi5&ito&s (he) nomenon'!; :or that reason, it is not $&st for 2a&ts/y, Bernstein, and Bebel that the deterministic con) ce(t of de%elo(ment and the re%ol&tionary meta(hysic of a (ro%idential mission of the (role) tariat!< occ&(y a central (lace in Marxist doctrine' ,ccordingly, h&manity is s&bordinated to a *scientifi) cally %erifiable+ a&tomatism of liberation' That which (resents itself in the modern scientific garb of a fetishism of laws is &ltimately nothing other than a historical meta(hysic with a socialist signat&re!7@ (re) cisely the in%ersion of s&b$ect and ob$ect that Marx had critici1ed' , (rocess cons&mmated behind the bac/ of social actors is attrib&ted a morally 5&alified aim'!6 Fltimately, in the Erf&rt Grogram of the 4er) man 0ocial 9emocratic Garty, this re%ol&tionary (assi%ity!8 is codified at an official le%el as consistent Marxism@ the tas/ of the (arty is to remain braced for an e%ent that will *necessarily+ ha((en e%en with) o&t inter%ention, *not to ma/e the re%ol&tion, b&t rather to ta/e ad%antage of it'+ " The ontological ori) entation and the encyclo(aedic character of Engels deliberations also feed the tendency to inter(ret scientific socialism as a com(rehensi%e (roletarian world%iew' Fltimately, 3enin will (resent the *Marx) ist doctrine+ as *omni(otent,+ a *com(rehensi%e and harmonio&s+ doctrine that *(ro%ides men with an integral world o&tloo/'+ ! Horres(ondingly, the negati%e conce(t of ideology is ne&trali1ed into a cate) gory for the determinate being of conscio&sness in general' ,ll of these de%elo(ments, which &ndo&btedly constit&te a theoretical regression, &ltimately c&lminate in the theory of *Marxism)3eninism+ concei%ed of by ,bram 9eborin and Iosef 0talin' If for 3enin, Marx) ism constit&tes des(ite all em(hasis &(on the (olitical a *(rofo&nd doctrine of de%elo(ment+ that calls attention to brea/s and lea(s in nat&re and society, in the case of Marxism)3eninism the nat&ralist) ob$ecti%ist c&rrent is ele%ated to a state doctrine' The central arg&mentati%e fig&re will be@ what is %alid for nat&re m&st also be %alid for history' Or@ nat&re ma/es lea(s, therefore so does history' Golitical (raxis is th&s &nderstood as the cons&mmation of historical laws' This im(ressi%e logic is (erfected in 0talins wor/ *9ialectical and Jistorical Materialism+ for decades an a&thoritati%e wor/ in the Marxist theory of the Eastern Bloc' Jistorical materialism stands for the *a((lication+ and *extension+ of onto) logical (rinci(les to society, which im(lies an e(istemological essentialism -a theory of reflection, which in the form of 9ialectical Materialism concei%es of *being+ and *thin/ing+ inde(endent of the conce(t of (raxis. and a sociological nat&ralism -a de%elo(mental logic to be *conscio&sly a((lied+ or *acceler) ated+ by the (arty as the highest technocratic instance # existing inde(endent of h&man agency.' > I' The Jistoricist Inter(retation of the :orm)4enetic Method If 3enins statement that *none of the Marxists for the (ast half cent&ry ha%e &nderstood Marx+ a dic) t&m that in this case howe%er also a((lies to 3enin himself has any %alidity, then it is certainly with regard to the inter(retation of the criti5&e of (olitical economy' E%en !"" years after the (&blication of the first %ol&me of Ca$ital, Engels commentary was widely regarded as the sole legitimate and ade) 5&ate assessment of Marxs criti5&e of economy' Do reading in the Marxist tradition was as &ncontro) %ersial as the one cas&ally de%elo(ed by Engels in texts s&ch as the re%iew of Marxs Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy -!6;8. or the s&((lement to =ol&me III of Ca$ital -!68>.' Jere, consider) ably more ex(licitly than in the ob$ecti%ist conce(tion of historical materialism, Marxism is Engelsism'

,gainst the bac/gro&nd of his conce(tion of reflection, Engels inter(rets the first cha(ter of Ca$ital as a sim&ltaneo&sly logical and historical (resentation of *sim(le commodity (rod&ction+ de%elo(ing toward the relations of ca(italist wage labor, *only stri((ed of the historical form and di%erting chance occ&r) rences'+ ; The term *logical+ in this context basically means nothing more than *sim(lified'+ The method of (resentation, the se5&ence of categories -commodity, the elementary, ex(anded, and general forms of %al&e, money, ca(ital. in the criti5&e of (olitical economy is accordingly *sim(ly the reflection, in abstract and theoretically consistent form, of the historical co&rse'+ < The examination of the genesis of the money form is &nderstood as the descri(tion of *an act&al e%ent which really too/ (lace at some time or other+ and not as *an abstract mental (rocess that ta/es (lace solely in o&r mind'+ 7 In no other (assage of his wor/ does Engels so drastically red&ce historical materialism to a %&lgar em(iricism and historicism, as is made e%ident by his associati%e chain *materialism em(irically %erifiable facts real (rocess+ %s' *idealism abstract tho&ght (rocess (&rely abstract territory'+ With the *logical)historical+ method, Engels (ro%ides a catch(hrase that will be recited and stressed a nauseam in the Marxist orthodoxy' 2arl 2a&ts/y, in his enormo&sly infl&ential (resentations, &nder) stood Ca$ital to be an *essentially historical wor/+ 6@ *Marx was charged with recogni1ing ca(ital to be a historical category and to (ro%e its emergence in history, rather than mentally constr&cting it'+ 8 R&dolf Jilferding also claims that *in accordance with the dialectic method, conce(t&al e%ol&tion r&ns (arallel thro&gho&t with historical e%ol&tion'+#" Both Marxism)3eninism#! and Western Marxism# follow Jilferd) ing in this assessment' B&t if the criti5&e of (olitical economy is inter(reted as historiogra(hy, then con) se5&entially the categories at the beginning m&st corres(ond irectly to em(irical ob$ects, for exam(le a d&bio&s$re-ca$italist commo ity not etermine by $rice(## and the analysis of the form of %al&e m&st begin with the de(iction of a coincidental, moneyless interaction of two commodity owners with Engels so)called *sim(le (rod&ction of commodities,+#>an economic e(och he dates from <""" BH to the !;th cent&ry ,9' ,ccording to this conce(tion, Marxs law of %al&e#; o(erates at times in this e(och in a (&re form *&nad&lterated+ by the category of (rice, which Engels ill&strates with the feigned exam) (le of a moneyless *exchange+ between medie%al (easants and artisans' Jere we are dealing with a trans(arent social interrelationshi( between immediate (rod&cers who are at the same time the owners of their means of (rod&ction, in which one (rod&cer labors &nder the watchf&l eye of the other, and therefore *the (easant of the Middle ,ges /new fairly acc&rately the labor)time re5&ired for the man&fact&re of the articles obtained by him in barter'+#< Fnder the condi) tions of this *nat&ral exchange+, it is not some normati%e criterion that is for him *the only s&itable mea) s&re for the 5&antitati%e determination of the %al&es to be exchanged,+#7 b&t rather the abstraction of a labor)time conscio&sly and directly meas&red by the actors' Deither the (easant nor the artisan is so st&(id as to exchange &ne5&al 5&antities of labor#6@ *Do other exchange is (ossible in the whole (eriod of (easant nat&ral economy than that in which the exchanged 5&antities of commodities tend to be meas&red more and more according to the amo&nts of labor embodied in them'+#8,ccording to Engels, the %al&e of a commodity is determined consciously by the labor, meas&red in time, of indi%id&al (ro) d&cers' In this theory of %al&e, money does not (lay a constit&ti%e role' On the one hand, it is an ex(edi) ent and l&bricant to trade that is external to %al&e, b&t on the other it ser%es to obsc&re the s&bstance of %al&e@ s&ddenly, instead of exchanging according to ho&rs of labor, at some (oint exchange is con)

d&cted by means of cows and then (ieces of gold' The 5&estion of how this notion of e%ery commodity being its own labor)money>" can be reconciled with the conditions of (ri%ate (rod&ction based &(on the di%ision of labor is not (osed by Engels' Engels as will be elaborated by the neue Marx-Lektre (rac) tices exactly what Marx critici1es in the case of the classical economists, abo%e all ,dam 0mith@ a (ro$ec) tion onto the (ast of the ill&sory notion of a((ro(riation thro&gh ones own labor, which in fact only exists in ca(italismE neglect of the necessary connection between %al&e and form of %al&e>!E a transfor) mation of the *ob$ecti%e e5&ali1ation+ of &ne5&al acts of labor cons&mmated by the ob$ecti%e social relationshi( itself into a merely s&b$ecti%e consideration of social actors'> F( &ntil the !8<"s, Engels theorems contin&ed to be (assed on &ndis(&ted' ,long with his form&la -once again ta/en from Jegel. of freedom being the insight into necessity, and the drawing of (arallels between nat&ral laws and social (rocesses, they ga%e s&stenance to a social)technological *conce(t of emanci(ation,+ according to the following (remise@ social necessity -abo%e all the law of %al&e., which o(erates anarchically and &ncontrolled in ca(italism, will be, by means of Marxism as a science of the ob$ecti%e laws of nat&re and society, managed and a((lied according to a (lan' Dot the isa$$earance of ca(italist form)determinations, b&t rather their alternati)e use characteri1es this *socialism of ad$ecti%es+ -this term comes from Robert 2&r1. and *socialist (olitical economy'+># There is a significant dis(ro(ortion between, on the one hand, the em(hasis &(on the *historical,+ and on the other, the absence of a historically s(ecific and socio)theoretically reflected conce(t of economic ob$ecti%ity' This is made e%ident by the irrele%ance of the conce(t of social form in the disc&ssions of traditional Marxism, in which it is at most is considered to be s a category for ideal or marginal circ&mstances, b&t not a con) stit&ti%e characteristic of Marxs scientific re%ol&tion'>> I'# The Hriti5&e of the Hontent of the 0tate Engels theoretical statements concerning the state in &he *rigin of the "amily, Lu !ig "euerbach, AntiDhring, and his criti5&e of the Erf&rt draft (rogram of the 0G9 from !68!, constit&te the so&rce of the traditional Marxist conce(tion of the state' InLu !ig "euerbach, Engels states that the fact that all needs in class societies are artic&lated thro&gh the will of the state is *the formal as(ect of the matter the one which is self)e%ident'+>; The main 5&estion of a materialist theory of the state, howe%er, is *what is the content of this merely formal will of the indi%id&al as well as of the state and whence is this con) tent deri%edK Why is $&st this willed and not something elseK+>< The res&lt of this (&rely content)based 5&estion concerning the will of the state is for Engels the recognition *that in modern history the will of the state is, on the whole, determined by the changing needs of ci%il society, by the s&(remacy of this or that class, in the last resort, by the de%elo(ment of the (rod&cti%e forces and relations of exchange'+>7 :&rthermore, in his deliberations in &he *rigin of the "amily Engels wor/s with &ni%ersal) historical categories onto which modern designations li/e *(&blic a&thority+ are (ro$ected, and con) stantly ass&mes *direct relations of domination, immediate forms of class r&le+>6 in order to ex(lain *the+ state, which is conse5&entially &nderstood as a mere instr&ment of the r&ling class' :rom this content)fixated and &ni%ersal)historical way of considering the state, it can be ded&ced that Engels loses sight of the act&ally interesting 5&estion, namely as to why the class content in ca(italism ta/es on the s(ecific form of (&blic a&thority'>8 The (ersonal definition of class r&le extracted from (re)ca(italist social formations &ltimately leads to red&cing the anonymo&s form of class r&le instit&tionali1ed in the

state to a mere ideological ill&sion, which, in the manner of the theory of (riestly dece(tion, is inter) (reted as a (rod&ct of state tactics of dece(tion' Engels in any case attem(ts to ma/e the class character of the state (la&sible by referring to *(lain corr&(tion of officials+ and *an alliance between the go%ern) ment and the stoc/ exchange'+;" Donetheless, in Engels wor/ there still exists, des(ite the (redomi) nance of the instr&mentalist?content)fixated (ers(ecti%e, an &nmediated coexistence between the determination of the state as the *state of the ca(italists+ and of the state as *ideal total ca(ital) ist'+;! The last definition concei%es of the state *not as a tool of the bo&rgeoisie ABC b&t rather as an entity of bo&rgeois society,+; and an *organisation that bo&rgeois society ta/es on in order to s&((ort the general external conditions of the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction against the encroachments as well of the wor/ers as of indi%id&al ca(italists'+;# B&t the s(ecific formal as(ect of modern statehood is not yet ex(lained by this reference to f&nctional mechanisms' Engels also (a%ed the way for the theory of state)mono(oly ca(italism';> In the Critique of the Draft +ocial-Democratic Program of !68! he writes@ *I am familiar with ca(italist (rod&ction as a social form, or an economic (haseE ca(italist (ri%ate (rod&c) tion being a $henomenon which in one form or another is enco&ntered in that (hase' What is ca(ital) ist $ri)ate (rod&ctionK Grod&ction by se$arate entre(rene&rs, which is increasingly becoming an exce() tion' Ha(italist (rod&ction by ,oint-stock com$aniesis no longer $ri)ate (rod&ction b&t (rod&ction on behalf of many associated (eo(le' ,nd when we (ass on from $oint)stoc/ com(anies to tr&sts, which dominate and mono(olise whole branches of ind&stry, this (&ts an end not only to (ri%ate (rod&ction b&t also to $lanlessness'+;; :inally, in Anti-Dhring Engels writes of the state as real total ca(italist@ *The more (rod&cti%e forces it ta/es o%er into its (ossession, the more it act&ally becomes a real aggregate ca(italist, the more citi1ens it ex(loits'+ Jere Engels re%eals a limited &nderstanding of (ri%ate (rod&c) tion, and a tendency to e5&ate state (lanning and mono(oly (ower with direct sociali1ation,;< rein) forced by his constr&ction of the f&ndamental contradiction and his tendency to identify the di%ision of labor within a factory and the di%ision of labor in society' Engels does note that *the transformation, either into $oint)stoc/ com(anies, or into state ownershi(, does not do away with the ca(italistic nat&re of the (rod&cti%e forces,+;7 b&t nonetheless sees an immediate transition to socialism setting in as a res&lt, whereas the conce(ts of mono(oly and state inter%ention remain *economically com(letely &ndetermined'+;6 Engels th&s s&ggests that the wor/ers mo%ement merely has to ta/e o%er the forms of cor(orate boo//ee(ing in $oint)stoc/ com(anies and the com(rehensi%e (lanning by mono(olies de%elo(ed in ca(italism' :or Engels, the bo&rgeoisie has already become obsolete thro&gh the se(ara) tion of ownershi( and management f&nctions';8 The *transformation of the great establishments for (rod&ction and distrib&tion into $oint)stoc/ com(anies and state (ro(erty+ demonstrates, according to Engels, *how &nnecessary the bo&rgeoisie are for that (&r(ose+, i'e' for managing *modern (rod&cti%e forces+@ *,ll the social f&nctions of the ca(italist are now (erformed by salaried em(loyees' The ca(ital) ist has no f&rther social f&nction than that of (oc/eting di%idends, tearing off co&(ons, and gambling on the 0toc/ Exchange, where the different ca(italists des(oil one another of their ca(ital' ,t first the ca(i) talist mode of (rod&ction forces o&t the wor/ers' Dow it forces o&t the ca(italists, and red&ces them, $&st as it red&ced the wor/ers, to the ran/s of the s&r(l&s (o(&lation, altho&gh not immediately into those of the ind&strial reser%e army'+<" Re%iewing this history of rece(tion -only ro&ghly o&tlined here., one co&ld claim that Marxism in the form (resented here was a r&mor abo&t Marxs theory, a r&mor that was gratef&lly ta/en &( by most

critics of *Marx+ and merely s&((lemented with a min&s sign' In fact s&ch an assertion as acc&rate as it may be o%erall ma/es things too easy, in that it disregards certain de%iations from the dominant doc) trine that also &nderstood themsel%es to be Marxisms, while also regarding the abo%e misinter(reta) tions as com(letely external to Marxs own theory, th&s excl&ding the (ossibility of any inconsistencies or theoretical)ideological ambig&ities in Marxs wor/' To clarify this 5&estion, a glance at the differenti) ated reading of Marxs texts wor/ed o&t in the so)called *reconstr&ction debates+ will be &sef&l' In this res(ect, traditional Marxism sho&ld be &nderstood here as an elaboration, systemati1ation, and ass&m(tion of dominance of the ideological content of Marxs wor/ within the framewor/ of a rece() tion by Engels and his e(igones' Gractical infl&ence was almost excl&si%ely allotted to these restricted and ideologi1ed inter(retations of Marxs theory, as historical determinism or (roletarian (olitical economy' II' Western Marxism The formation of a Western Marxism<! arises from the crisis of the socialist wor/ers mo%ement in the wa/e of the :irst World War -the colla(se of the 0econd International as a res&lt of the (olicy of defense of the fatherland, the defeat of re%ol&tions in Hentral and 0o&thern E&ro(e, the emergence of fascist forces, etc'.' Jere it is 4eorg 3&/Lcs and 2arl 2orschs texts (&blished in !8 # which ass&me a (aradig) matic character' ,bo%e all 3&/Lcs is considered the first Marxist theorist who at the le%el of social theory and methodology called into 5&estion the hitherto self)e%ident ass&m(tion of the com(lete identity of Marxs and Engels theories' ,t the center of his criti5&e stood Engels neglect of the s&b$ect)ob$ect dialectic as well as his conce(t of a dialectic of nat&re, to which the fatalism of 0econd International Marxism was oriented' ,gainst this ontologi1ation of historical materialism into a contem(lati%e world) %iew, 3&/Lcs, li/e Western Marxism as a whole, &nderstands Marxs a((roach to be a critical re%ol&tion) ary theory of social (raxis' ,gainst the scientistic tal/ of *ob$ecti%e laws of de%elo(ment+ of social (rogress, 3&/Lcs (osits the criti5&e of ideology of reified conscio&sness, deci(hering the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction as a historically s(ecific form of social (raxis ossified into a *second nat&re,+ and em(ha) si1ing re%ol&tion as a critical act of (ractical s&b$ecti%ity' 0elf)descri(tions s&ch as *(hiloso(hy of (raxis+ -4ramsci. or *critical theory of society+ -Jor/heimer. therefore do not constit&te code words or conce() t&al e5&i%alents for official (arty doctrine, b&t rather em(hasi1e a learning (rocess from which *arises a critical, action)oriented c&rrent of tho&ght of Marxist heritage'+< ,ltho&gh Western Marxism at first (ositi%ely ado(ted the acti%ist im(&lses of the October Re%ol&tion, its leading re(resentati%es wo&ld 5&ic/ly come to re$ect the doctrine of 3eninism, abo%e all its contin&ation of a nat&ralistic social theory and its false &ni%ersali1ation of the ex(erience of the R&ssian Re%ol&tion' 4eorg 3&/Lcs criti5&e of B&/harins *Theory of Jistorical Materialism+ ser%es as an exam(le of the former' In his criti5&e, 3&/Lcs charges that B&/harins theory, with its conce(ts of the (rimacy of the de%elo(ment of the forces of (ro) d&ction and the seamless a((lication of the methods of nat&ral science to the st&dy of society, is fetishistic and obliterates the *qualitati)e ifference+ between the two s&b$ect areas of nat&ral and social sciences, th&s ac5&iring *the accent of a false Mob$ecti%ity and mista/ing the core idea of Marxs method, namely the ascri(tion of *all economic $henomena to the social relationshi$s of human beings to one another'+<#

In his Prison %otebooks, 4ramsci (ro%ided the exem(lary criti5&e of the fixation of re%ol&tionary strat) egy &(on the model of the October Re%ol&tion' Initially, he had greeted the October Re%ol&tion as a *re%ol&tion against 2arl Marxs Ca$ital,+<> that is to say as a ref&tation of the allegedly (ro%en im(ossi) bility of socialist re%ol&tion in ind&strially bac/wards co&ntries' In an almost re%ol&tionary manner, he cited the %ol&ntaristic *socialist ann&nciation+ as a so&rce of a collecti%e socialist *(o(&lar will+ against a class conscio&sness mechanically deri%ed from the economy and the le%el of its forces of (rod&ction' 3ater, 4ramsci wo&ld confront the Marxism of the Third International with his theory of hegemony, which re$ects the *war of mane&%er+ of a frontal attac/ &(on the re(ressi%e state a((arat&s as being a &seless re%ol&tionary strategy for modern Western ca(italist societies' ,ccording to 4ramsci, within these social formations *ci%il society+ is com(osed of a labyrinthine str&ct&re of a((arat&ses in which (atterns of tho&ght and beha%ior are generated which exhibit an inertia that cannot be sha/en by grandiose (olitical deeds' The R&ssian re%ol&tionary model is also condemned to fail&re in the West beca&se the belief in the &ni%ersal nat&re of ex(erience of the Bolshe%i/s with a centralist)des(otic Tsarism leads to a disregard for the rele%ance of ideological sociali1ation by means of the a((arat&ses of ci%il society, and their effect@ s&b$ection in the form of a&tonomo&s agency' Jowe%er, both 3&/Lcs and 4ramsci remain loyal to the *excl&si%ely (roletarian+ conce(tion of re%ol&tion to the extent that the for) mer, des(ite his reflections &(on reified conscio&sness, still attrib&tes an e(istemological (ri%ilege to the (roletariat g&aranteed by its economic (osition, while 4ramscis strategically moti%ated theory of ci%il society is fixated &(on the room for mane&%er of the wor/ing class' With the attem(t at a social)(sychological ex(loration of the dri%e?str&ct&ral fo&ndations of the re(ro) d&ction of an *irrational society,+ abo%e all in the form of a&thoritarian and antisemitic attit&des, the :ran/f&rt Instit&te for 0ocial Research, after Max Jor/heimers ass&m(tion of its directorshi( in !8#!, achie%ed a le%el of reflection that other re(resentati%es and c&rrents of Western Marxism co&ld not match,<; and which gi%es &( on the reass&ring s&((ort of an imagined class conscio&sness of the (role) tariat' :inally, the em(irical class conscio&sness of the (roletariat as the only existing class conscio&s) ness is s&b$ected to analysis, while the *irrational,+ emotional dimensions of social (raxis ignored by other theorists, s&ch as the social dimensions of the libidinal, are considered' This theoretical insight into the &ncom(romising nat&re of critical theory is at the same time an admission of the historical (rocess of an increasing rift between emanci(atory theory and the (ers(ecti%e of re%ol&tionary (raxis' With the (ro(agation of socialism in one co&ntry, the Bolshe%i1ation of the Western Homm&nist Garties, and the establishment of Marxism)3eninism as the official ideology of the Third International after the mid)!8 "s, there begins the characteristic isolation of the re(resentati%es of Western Marxism@ this c&r) rent is left with neither (olitical infl&ence nor -with the (ossible exce(tion of the :ran/f&rt Instit&te for 0ocial Research. the instit&tional fo&ndations for a normal scholarly (raxis' The general characteristics of this Marxist formation its sense for the Jegelian legacy and the critical)h&manist (otential of Marxs theory, the incor(oration of contem(orary *bo&rgeois+ a((roaches to el&cidate the great crisis of the wor/ers mo%ement, the orientation towards methodology, the sensiti1ation to social)(sychological and c&lt&ral (henomena in connection with the 5&estion concerning the reasons for the fail&re of re%ol&tion in *the West+<< (ro%ides the framewor/ for a new ty(e of restricted exegesis of Marx' This is essen) tially characteri1ed by the neglect of (roblems of (olitics and state theory, a selecti%e rece(tion of Marxs theory of %al&e, and the (redominance of a *silent orthodoxy+ concerning the criti5&e of (olitical

economy' ,ltho&gh the first to &nderstand the character of ca(italist r&le the way Marx did anony) mo&s, ob$ecti%ely mediated, and ha%ing a life of its own the *fo&nding doc&ment+ of Western Marx) ism, 3&/acs -istory an Class Consciousness, a%oids a reconstr&ction of Marxs theory of ca(italism' Instead of an analysis of Marxs dialectic of the form of %al&e &( to the form of ca(ital, which in the the) ory of real s&bs&m(tion offers an ex(lanation of the connection so decisi%e for 3&/Lcs between com) modification and the alienated str&ct&re of the labor (rocess, one finds merely an analogi1ing combina) tion of a %al&e theory red&ced to the *5&antifying+ %al&e)form -d&e to an orientation towards 0immels c&lt&ral criti5&e of money. and a diagnosis, oriented towards Max Weber, of the formal)rational ten) dency of the ob$ectification of the labor (rocess and modern law' Fntil the mid)!8<"s it seems that no Western Marxists extended their debate with traditional inter(retations of Marx into the realm of %al&e theory' 0ome (ositions go e%en f&rther than this silent orthodoxy, and witho&t ha%ing serio&sly engaged with the criti5&e of (olitical economy contrast the *h&manist c&lt&ral critic Marx+ with the *economist Marx+ or e%en regard a *Marxism+ witho&t a criti5&e of (olitical economy as being (ossi) ble'<7 III' The *De&e Marx)3e/tNre+ It was first within the framewor/ of the *neue Marx-Lektre+ -*Dew Reading of Marx+., which emerged in the mid)!8<"s, that (roblems of state theory and economic theory once again (layed a role o&tside of Marxism)3eninism' This new wa%e of rece(tion of Marxs theory was also more or less sit&ated o&tside of 0talinism and 0ocial 9emocracy' ,longside the new reading in West E&ro(ean co&ntries, there were isolated r&diments of a *new reading of Marx+ occ&rring in Eastern E&ro(e'<6 Its genesis in West 4er) many coincided with (henomena s&ch as the st&dent mo%ement, the first $olts to belief in a (er(et&al and (olitically manageable (ost)war (ros(erity, the brea/ing &( of the anti)comm&nist consens&s in the co&rse of the =ietnam War, etc', yet remained, des(ite its radical emanci(atory claims, confined largely to academia' Jere, we disting&ish between this *new reading of Marx+ in a broader sense<8, and one more narrowly defined'7" Whereas the former was an international (henomenon, the latter was con) fined (rimarily to West 4ermany' If the former still remained (redominantly tra((ed within Engelsian dogma with regard to the criti5&e of (olitical economy, the latter foregro&nded the re%ision of (re%io&s historicist or em(iricist inter(retations of Marxs form analysis' In terms of content, a threefold aban) donment of central to(oi of traditional Marxism was cons&mmated in the main threads of the debate, themsel%es contradictory and in no way shared by all (artici(ants@ a mo%e away from a s&bstantialist theory of %al&e7!E abandonment of mani(&lati%e)instr&mental conce(tions of the state7 E and a mo%e away from labor mo%ement)centric inter(retations of the criti5&e of (olitical economy, or inter(reta) tions based on a *labor)ontological+ re%ol&tionary theory -or e%en &(on re%ol&tionary theory as s&ch.'7# This new reading artic&lates its theoretical efforts in the form of a reconstr&ction of Marxs theory' With regard to the criti5&e of economy, a crystalli1ation of central 5&estions and research tas/s occ&rred within the framewor/ of the !8<7 collo5&i&m *.// 0ahre 12a$ital'+7> , reinter(retation of Marxs criti5&e was en%isioned from the methodological (ers(ecti%e of social theory@ the 5&estion as to the original ob$ect of Ca$ital-economic form)determination., the (artic&larity of scientific (resentation -the dialectic of the forms of %al&e., as well as the connection between the three %ol&mes -*ca(ital in

general many ca(itals+. are (osed anew, as distinct from 5&antitati%e a((roaches, and with a (artic&) lar em(hasis &(on the significance of the #run risse' Within the field of the conflict between *critical+ and *str&ct&ral+ Marxisms, transitional moments of flight from existing methodological traditions arise, obli5&e to the classical (oints of conflict7;@ both str&ct&ralist anti)historicism as well as Jegelian fig&res of tho&ght -*(rogressi%e)regressi%e method,+ *ret&rn to the fo&ndation+. (lay an im(ortant role in this' Initially with a lot of *ifs and b&ts+7<, and on some (oints remaining within the channels of traditional Marxism, the Dew Reading of Marx ac5&ired more clearly defined conto&rs o%er the co&rse of the !87"s' Traditional readings of Marxs theory Hlassical ,ss&m(tion of the Marxism of the nd and #rd Internationals Marx O Engels -&nified (aradigm, coherent arg&) mentation, closed *world%iew+.

Levels of the critical-reconstructive reading 3e%el !@ e'g' Bac/ha&s -Materialien (arts ! and . 3e%el @ e'g' ,lth&sser -3ea ing Ca$ital.E ,' 0chmidtE Bac/ha&s -Materialien. 3e%el #@ e'g' Bac/ha&s -Materialien (arts # and >.E Jeinrich -+cience of 4alue. Engels P exoteric %s' Marx P esoteric Marx P exoteric meta)disco&rse %s' Marx P esoteric real analysis Marx P exoteric?esoteric meta)disco&rse Marx P exoteric?esoteric real analysis

,gainst the classical myth of the com(lete e5&ality between the (aradigms of Marx and Engels, with regard to both historical materialism and the criti5&e of (olitical economy, Engels commentaries were critici1ed as largely inade5&ate to Marxs wor/ and remaining at a (&rely *exoteric+ le%el that (er(et&) ated traditional (aradigms' Th&s, in !87> Jans)4eorg Bac/ha&s em(hasi1ed with regard to %al&e theory that the criti5&e was aimed *at an inter(retati%e (remise which &ntil recently was considered one of the few &ncontested elements of the Marxist literat&re, and which str&ct&red the rece(tion of Marxs %al&e theory witho&t being challenged@ the misinter(retation, to&ched off by Engels, of the first three cha() ters of Ca$ital as a %al&e and money theory of what Engels called Msim(le commodity (rod&c) tion'+77 Bac/ha&s ass&mes that *(roceeding from this f&ndamental error, Marxist %al&e theory neces) sarily inhibited the rece(tion of Marx5s %al&e theory'+76 If therefore at this le%el an initial distinction is made between a Marxist theory and Marxs theory, a (roblemati1ation of Marxs meta)theoretical self) &nderstanding also occ&rs early on' 3o&is ,lth&sser had already affirmed, with the aid of a *sym(to) matic+ reading directed against a s&b$ect)centric intentionalist hermene&tic, that Marxs wor/ re(re)

sents a scientific re%ol&tion in the theoretical (raxis of the analysis of ca(italism, which at the meta) theoretical le%el is s&(erim(osed &(on by a disco&rse inade5&ate to this (roblematic' ,lth&sser defines the tas/s of a reconstr&ction as the remo%al of the inade5&ate meta)disco&rse and the transformation of its dominant meta(hors, which he reads as sym(toms for the absence of an ade5&ate self)reflection of the real (roced&re of the analysis of ca(ital, into conce(ts'78 ,s distinct from ,lth&sser and his d&alist conce(tion of the relationshi( between the real ob$ect and the ob$ect of /nowledge6", this iss&e is &s&) ally form&lated in the reconstr&ction debate within the theoretical framewor/ of a Marxian criti5&e of ideology@ Marx disting&ishes between *esoteric+ and *exoteric+ le%els in the wor/s of classical (olitical economy' If the former contains insights into the social context of mediation of the bo&rgeois mode of (rod&ction, the latter is content with an &nmediated descri(tion and systemati1ation of the ob$ecti%e forms of tho&ght of the e%eryday conscio&sness of social actors, remaining tra((ed in the reified ill&sion of the immediacy of (henomena which are in fact socially mediated' 0o the *exoteric+ arg&mentation cannot be traced bac/ (sychologically to s&b$ecti%e deficiencies or e%en conscio&s attem(ts at dece(tion on the (art of theorists' It res&lts from a determinate form of tho&ght which is the systematic and ini) tially in%ol&ntary (rod&ct of the forms of social interco&rse of the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction' The reconstr&ction debate wo&ld now a((ly the esoteric?exoteric distinction to Marxs wor/ itself' Fltimately, e%en in the criti5&e of (olitical economy and in historical materialism that is to say in the theoretical (raxis regarded at the (re%io&s stage of reconstr&ction as an intact *esoteric+ layer *exo) teric+ content and conce(t&al ambi%alence *between scientific re%ol&tion and classical tradition+6! are manifest' The doctrine of the in%iolability of the (resentation of the criti5&e of (olitical economy in Ca$ital is finally discarded' In (lace of the legend of a linear (rogression of /nowledge on Marxs (art, there a((eared the recognition of a com(lex coexistence and inter(enetration of (rogress and regression in the method of (resentation and the state of research of Marxs criti5&e of economy' Fltimately, the increased (o(&lari1ation of the (resentation of the analysis of the forms of %al&e from the #run risse to the second edition of Ca$ital was (ointed o&t' This (o(&lari1ation, to the extent that it increasingly con) cealed the form)genetic method, offered (oints of reference to historicist and s&bstantialist readings'6 I=' 3earning Grocesses within Marxism 0ince there is not eno&gh s(ace within the framewor/ of this text to el&cidate e%en a((roximately the as(ects of a scientific re%ol&tion internal learning (rocesses, b&t also regressions to traditional eco) nomic and historical)(hiloso(hical (ositions in Marxs wor/ I will attem(t to briefly mention some of the (oints arri%ed at in the abo%e)mentioned learning (rocesses within Marxism' Marxs theory does not affirm some /ind of a&tomatic liberationE rather, it sho&ld be &nderstood as the theoretical instance of a body of wor/, mediated by analysis and criti5&e, contrib&ting to the liberation from the a&tomatism of an irrational mode of sociali1ation' Marxs assertion that he gras(s the de%elo() ment of the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction as *a (rocess of nat&ral history,+6# often cited by both Marx) ists and anti)Marxists as (roof either of the highest scientific stat&s of Marxs wor/ or of &nscientific (ro(hecy, sho&ld be &nderstood as a critical statement' *Dat&re+ or *nat&ralness+ are negati%ely deter) mined categories for a social system that, on the basis of its constit&tion by the (ri%ate di%ision of labor,

asserts itself with regard to social actors as a relentless machine &sing &( abstract labor, as a *destiny of %al&e+ beyond all collecti%e and indi%id&al control and yet re(rod&cing itself by means of their acti%ity' Marxs theory is *a &nified critical $&dgment on (re%io&s history, to the effect that men ha%e allowed themsel%es to be degraded into ob$ects of the blind and mechanical (rocess of its economic de%elo() ment'+6> While Marx does s&cc&mb to a historical o(timism that often ti(s o%er into a (hiloso(hy of his) tory in the declamatory sections of his wor/s, this is f&ndamentally contradicted by his scientific criti5&e of (hiloso(hies of history and (olitical economy'6; B&t it is (recisely from these cliches that the Marxism of the 0econd and Third Internationals, as well as the more ed&cated among those who disdain Marx, (aste together an abstr&se system of iron historical necessities, &( to and incl&ding a *law of the se5&ence of social formations+ which establishes the *general historically necessary tendency of the (rogress of the h&man s(ecies'+6< The criti5&e of (olitical economy, which in the form of Marxs late wor/s *does not withstand com(ari) son with the immanent claim of the (rogrammatic declaration in&he #erman ' eology,+67 namely of (re) senting the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction in its totality, can be (resented as a (rocess of fo&r criti5&es@ !. the criti5&e of bo&rgeois society and its destr&cti%e *nat&ral+ forms of de%elo(ment, against the bac/) gro&nd of the real, ob$ecti%e (ossibility it generates of its own emanci(atory transcendence, . the cri) ti5&e of the fetishi1ed and bac/ward e%eryday conscio&sness of social actors systematically generated by these social relations, #. the criti5&e of the entire theoretical field of (olitical economy66, which &ncritically systemati1es these common (erce(tions, and >. the criti5&e of &to(ian social criticism, which either confronts the system of the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction with a model of social liberation, or (res&mes to bring isolated economic forms to bear against the system as a whole by means of reforms'68 The criti5&e is therefore not immanent in the sense that it wo&ld affirm the determinations of exchange, bo&rgeois ideals, (roletarian demands for rights, or ind&strial (rod&ction -which is s&bs&med to ca(ital. against ca(italism as a whole' The method of the criti5&e of economy can be described as the *de%elo(ment+ or *analysis of forms'+ It aims to gras( the s(ecific sociality of historically distinct modes of (rod&ction' Whereas *bo&rgeois+ a((roaches cond&ct at best a science of the re(rod&ction of society !ithin s(ecific economic and (oliti) cal forms, a criti5&e of (olitical economy m&st be concei%ed of as a science of these forms'8" Golitical economy o(erates at the le%el of already constit&ted economic ob$ects, ta/es them em(irically as a gi%en, or can only $&stify their existence in a circ&lar manner, witho&t conce(t&ally (enetrating the sys) tematic (rocess of their constit&tion' It s&cc&mbs to the self)mystification of the ca(italist world of ob$ects as a world of nat&ral forms8!, th&s de(ri%ing h&mans of the ability to config&re and alter their fun amental structures. In contrast, form)analysis de%elo(s these forms -s&ch as %al&e, money, ca(ital, b&t also law and the state. from the contradictory conditions of the social constit&tion of labor, *clarifies them, gras(s their essence and necessity'+8 :orm e)elo$ment is not to be &nderstood as the retracing of the historical de%elo(ment of the ob$ect, b&t rather the conce(t&al deci(hering of the immanent str&ct&ral relation) shi(s of the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction' It &nscrambles the a((arently inde(endent, a((arently ob$ecti%ely gro&nded forms of social wealth and the (olitical com(&lsion of the ca(italist mode of (ro)

d&ction as historically s$ecific and therefore albeit in no way arbitrarily or in a (iecemeal manner as changeable forms of (raxis' Traditional as well as Western Marxism had com(letely ignored the re%ol&tionary scientific (otential of Marxs a((roach, his theory of the monetary constitution of %al&e' ,bo%e all, the neue Marx-Lektre crit) ici1ed the em(iricist)historicist misinter(retation of the method of (resentation that started with Engels, and the *(remonetary+ inter(retation of the theory of %al&e in Ca$ital, b&t also ambi%alences in Marxs wor/ itself and the (o(&lari1ation of his method, which meant *forgoing a systematic elaboration of f&n) damental ideas of %al&e theory and methodology'+8# Engels and Traditional Marxism inter(reted differ) ent le%els of abstraction of the (resentation of the laws of the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction in Ca$ital as em(irically coe5&al le%els of a model of historically distinct modes of (rod&ction' Th&s categories s&ch as abstract labor, %al&e, and the elementary form of %al&e were reinter(reted in an em(iricist way, and the connection between commodity, money, and ca(ital considered essential by Marx was transformed into a coincidence' Marxism th&s o(erated on a methodological and %al&e)theoretical ter) rain that Marx had critici1ed with regard to classical economics' Jowe%er, Marxs critique of (olitical economy is distinct from an alternati%e (olitical economy in (rimarily two res(ects@ in the first instance it is not the theory of s&r(l&s)%al&e, b&t rather the form theory of labor that disting&ishes Marx from classical (olitical economy' Marx critici1es the way (olitical economy &nreflecti%ely (res&((oses the form of *%al&e,+ ne%er 5&estioning its genesis, &nable to gras( labor that ta/es the form of %al&e as a historically s(ecific social form -the 5&estion is not raised as to *why labo&r is re(resented by the %al&e of its (rod&ct+8>.' Golitical economy therefore o(erates f&ndamentally within the field of fetishistic forms' Moreo%er, Marx critici1es the (remonetary character of its %al&e theory, since it *treatAsC the form of %al&e as a thing of no im(ortance, as ha%ing no connection with the inherent nat&re of com) modities,+8; meaning it does not disting&ish between intrinsic and external meas&re of %al&e as cate) gories existing at two different le%els of theoretical abstraction, and does not gras( the necessity of the money)form for the exchange of commodities' Money is &nderstood as a (&rely technical instr&ment which for reasons of con%enience ta/es the (lace of exchange on the basis of calc&lations of labor)time magnit&des' In Marxs wor/, on the other hand, money is de%elo(ed as a necessary moment in the (rocess of commodity exchange' Witho&t a general form of %al&e, %al&es cannot re(resent %al&e for each other, and wo&ld be red&ced to the stat&s of (rod&cts' One m&st therefore (roceed from the *e5&i(rimordial+ constit&tion of abstract labor as a logically (rior immanent meas&re of %al&e, and money as the external meas&re of %al&e' In this sense, Marx s(ea/s of the s&bstance of %al&e as a res&lt obtained in exchange which f&rthermore first ac5&ires an intertem(oral existence as ca(ital' In contrast to the em(iricism and ahistoricism of (olitical economy, Marxs a((roach th&s re%eals itself to be a (er) ce(tion of essence in the sense of the reconstr&ction of a str&ct&re and system of agency which is em(irically not immediately (ercei%able by means of the elaboration of a non)em(irical theoretical le%el which first ma/es (ossible the ex(lanation of em(irical forms of a((earance, s&ch as money' Marx follows *a (rinci(le of the de%elo(ment of economic categories by disting&ishing between different le%) els of abstraction'+8< Hategories s&ch as abstract labor or %al&e therefore ha%e no immediate em(irical referents' The se5&ence of the categories of commodity and money is not to be &nderstood as a histori) cal se5&ence of inde(endently existing circ&mstances, b&t rather as a conce(t&al analysis'

O%er%iew of the Marxisms Important Theorists Central Reference Texts of Marx/Engels Core Concept Marxs Theory as! Hlosed, coherent (roletarian world%iew and doctrine of the e%ol&tion of nat&re and his) tory -*becoming and (ass) ing away+.

Traditional Marxism A!676ff'C

A:' EngelsC, 2' 2a&ts/y, E' Bernstein, 3afarg&e, :' Mehring, ,' Bebel, 4' Gle/hano%, etc'-O !st 4en) eration.E ='I' 3enin, 3' Trots/y, R' 3&xemb&rg, D' B&/harin, M' ,dler, R' Jil) ferding -O nd 4eneration.

Claim6 Doctrine of the materialist conce$tion of history as the center of the collaborati)e !orks of Marx an EngelsEngels@ AntiDhring, Lu !ig "euerbach, *Re%iew of A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy+ 7!6;8. etc'Marx@ Ca$ital 4ol. . Hha(ter # , *Greface+ to Critique -!6;8., Manifesto -M?E. Claim6 -umanist early !ork as inter$retati)e frame!ork for the 8scientific9 later !orksMarx@ *Theses on :e&erbach,+ .:;; Manuscri$ts( &he #erman ' eology -M?E.

Western Marx) ism A!8 #ff'C

4' 3&/Lcs, 2' 2orsch, E' Bloch, J' 3efeb%re, :ran/) f&rt 0chool, ,' 4ramsci, 2' 2osi/, Q&gosla% Graxis) 4ro&( -4' Getro%ic, G' =ranic/i, etc'., B&da(est 0chool -,' Jeller, 4' Mar/&s, etc'., 3' 2ofler, I') G' 0artre AGredecessors@ I'I' R&bin, E' Gasch&/anisC J'4' Bac/) ha&s, J' Reichelt, 9' Wolf, J'9' 2ittsteiner, M' Jein) rich, 0O0T, Gro$e/t 2lassenanalyse?GEM, 0' Bre&er, 0tate)9eri%ation 9ebate -B' Blan/e, 9'

Hritical) re%ol&tionary theory of social (raxis -*s&b$ec) ti%e mediation of the ob$ect+.

neue MarxLektre A!8<;ff'C

Claim6 a$$rehen ing the !hole Marx( or later !orks as inter$retati)e frame!ork for the early !orksMarx@#runrisse, Ca$ital 4ol. ' first edition,<rtext, *Res&lts of the Immediate Grocess

9eci(hering and Hriti5&e of the :orms of ca(ital) ist sociali1ation by means of logical) systematic method of (re)

3R((le, M4, I' Jirsch, W' MNller? Hh' De&sNS, D' 2ostede, etc'.

of Grod&ction+

senta) tions -*form) de%elo(ment and criti5&e+.

= &ranslate by Alexan er Locascio 'mage thanks to f>b.?./.

!' 2arl 2a&ts/y, 5&oted in 4areth 0tedman Iones, *Engels &nd die 4eschichte des Marxism&s,+ in2lassen( Politik( +$rache. "r eine theorieorientierte +o@ialgeschichte -MNnster@ WestfRlisches 9am(fboot,!866., #>nE ='I' 3enin, *The Three 0o&rces and Three Hom(onent Garts of Marx) ism'+ ,ll English 5&otations from Marx, Engels, 3enin, and 2a&ts/y ta/en from the %ersions a%ail) able at www'marxists'org ' :rederic/ Engels, *9ialectics+ in Dialectics of %ature' #' Engels, *Introd&ction+ in Anti-Dhring' >' Engels, *Jegel+ in Lu !ig "euerbach an the En of #erman Classical Philoso$hy' ;' Ibid' <' Engels, *Marx+ in Lu !ig "euerbach. 7' 2arl Marx, *Theses on :e&erbach'+ 6' Engels, *Dotes and :ragments+ in Dialectics of %ature' 8' ,bo%e all in Materialism an Em$iriocriticism, styli1ed by Marxism)3eninism as the classical text) boo/ of dialectical materialism alongside Anti-Dhring' Jere, Marxism becomes an ideology in the strict Marxian sense@ a systemi1ation of the forms of tho&ght of a reified common sense' Honcerning the (olitical)(ragamatical bac/gro&nd of the text, &s&ally disregarded in M3, see Iohannes B&sch)WeSla&, Der Marxismus un ie Legitimation $olitischer Macht -:ran/f&rt@ Ham) (&s =erl, !88"., #"' !"' :al/o 0chmieder (oints to the a (riori role of the medi&m of (hotogra(hy as a fo&ndation of this nai%e realism in (hiloso(hy, as well as the f&ndamental commonalities between Engels, 3enin, and :e&erbachE Lu !ig "euerbach un er Eingang er klassischen "otografie. Aum 4erhBltnis )on anthro$ologischem un -istorischem Materialismus -Berlin@ GJI3O)=erlag, "">., !#' !!' ,lfred 0ohn)Rethel, Carenform un Denkform -:ran/f&rt@ 0&hr/am(, !876.,!!>' ! ' Engels, *Marx+ in Lu !ig "euerbach'

!#' Marx, *Theses on :e&erbach'+ !>' Engels, *Materialism+ in Lu !ig "euerbach. !;' :or more on this, see the st&dy of Jans)Iosef 0teinberg A!8<7C, +o@ialismus un eutsche +o@ial emokratie. Aur ' eologie er Partei )or em .. Celtkrieg -Berlin)Bonn@ !878., abo%e all >;, <#' ,((roaches toward a social historical ex(lanation are offered by idem, !>;)!;"E 9ieter 4roh, %egati)e 'ntegration un re)olutionBrer Attentismus. Die eutsche +o@ial emokratie am 4oraben es Ersten Celtkrieges -:ran/f&rt@ Fllstein Taschenb&ch%lg, !87>., ;6)<#E Os/ar Degt, *Marxism&s als 3egitimationswissenschaft,+ in %. DucharinEA. Deborin = 2ontro)ersen ber ialektischen un mechanistischen Materialismus -:ran/f&rt@ 0&hr/am(, !87>.E ,ntonio 4ram) sci, Philoso$hie er Praxis. Eine Aus!ahl -:ran/f&rt@ 0 :ischer, !8<7.,!#6<' !<' :or a criti5&e, see ,lexandrine Mohl, 4erelen ung un 3e)olution. * er6 Das Elen es *b,ekti)ismus. Augleich ein Deitrag @ur Marxre@e$tion in er eutschen +o@ial emokratie -:ran/f&rt !876.E Rolf Geter 0ieferle, Die 3e)olution in er &heorie )on 2arl Marx -Berlin@ Fllstein, !878.E Ingo Elbe, *MFmwRl1&ngsmomente der alten 4esellschaft ,s(e/te der Re%ol&tionstheorie &nd ihrer 2riti/ bei Marx,+ "" ' !7' Ernesto 3acla& and Hhantal Mo&ffe (oint o&t the 9arwinist)Jegelian character of this conce() tion@ *9arwinism alone does not offer Mg&arantees for the f&t&re, since nat&ral selection does not o(erate in a direction (redetermined from the beginning' Only if a Jegelian ty(e of teleol) ogy is added to 9arwinism which is totally incom(atible with it can an e%ol&tionary (rocess be (resented as a g&arantee of f&t&re transitions+E -egemony an +ocialist +trategy -Dew Qor/@ =erso, ""!., "' !6' :or more on this, in an instr&cti%e manner, see Jein1 9ieter 2ittsteiner, *Bew&sstseinsbild&ng, Garteilich/eit, diale/tischer &nd historischer Materialism&s' T& einigen 2ategorien der marxistisch)leninistischen 4eschichtsmethodologie,+ 'nternationale Cissenschaftliche 2orres$on en@ @ur #eschichte er eutschen Arbeiterbe!egung' Ig' !", !87>' !8' 0ee 4roh, %egati)e 'ntegration, #<' "' 2a&ts/y, 5&oted in 0teinberg, +o@ialismus un eutsche +o@ial emokratie( <!' 0ee also Ethics an the Materialist Conce$tion *f -istory' ,ccording to 2a&ts/y, the (ros(ects for freedom and h&manity are not *mere ex(ectations of conditions which only o&ght to come, which we sim(ly wish and will, b&t o&tloo/s at conditions which m&st come, which are necessary'+ 2a&ts/y defends himself against inter(retations of necessity *in the fatalist sense, that a higher (ower will (resent them to &s of itself,+ b&t ass&mes an irresistible immanent historical)economic com) (&lsion toward re%ol&tion, whereby the immanent com(&lsi%e laws of ca(italism and the forma) tion of the (roletariat as a s&ccessf&l re%ol&tionary s&b$ect (lay the same role@ *&na%oidable in the sense, that the ABC ca(italists in their desire for (rofit AUC re%ol&tioni1e the whole economic life, as it is also ine%itable that the wor/ers aim for shorter ho&rs of labor and higher wages, that they organi1e themsel%es, that they fight the ca(italist class and its state, as it is ine%itable that

they aim for the con5&est of (olitical (ower and the o%erthrow of ca(italist r&le' 0ocialism is ine%itable beca&se the class str&ggle and the %ictory of the (roletariat is ine%itable'+ !' 3enin, *Three 0o&rces'+ ' 3enin, 2arl Marx6 A Drief Diogra$hical +ketch Cith an Ex$osition of Marxism' #' On the (aradoxes of this combination of %ol&ntarism and determinism, see Hharles Tay) lor,-egel -Hambridge@ Hambridge Fni%ersity Gress, !877.' >' It is (recisely Western Marxism that against Marxism)3eninism em(hasi1es the non) ontological character of Marxs materialismE see Max Jor/heimer, *Traditional and Hritical The) ory+ in Critical &heory6 +electe Essays -Dew Qor/@ Hontin&&m, !87 ., as well as ,lfred 0chmidt, &he Conce$t of %ature in Marx -Dew Qor/@ =erso, "!>.' 0talin determines the com(o) nents of Marxs theory as follows@ 9iale/ti/@ a &ni%ersal logic of de%elo(ment em(hasi1ing dis) contin&ity, which teaches that e%erything can be concei%ed of as in a state of becoming and decayingE Materialism@ a contem(lati%e ontology which teaches that conscio&sness is merely a reflection of a nat&re existing inde(endent and o&tside of conscio&snessE Jistorical Materialism@ the a((lication of dialectical materialism to historyE &ni%ersal historical laws are class str&ggle, the dialectic between forces of (rod&ction and relations of (rod&ction, rooted in the (rimacy of the de%elo(ment of the forces of (rod&ction -casua sui conce(t of forces of (rod&ction., and &ltimately the law of (rogress of s&ccessi%e social formations' ;' Engels, *2arl Marx@ Hriti5&e of Golitical Economy' Re%iew by :rederic/ Engels'+ <' Ibid' 7' Ibid' 6' 2a&ts/y A!66<C, 2arl Marx5 Fkonomische Lehren. #emein)erstBn lich argestellt un erlButert )on 2arl 2autsky( >.. -Berlin@ !8 ., %iii' 8' 2a&ts/y, 5&oted in Rolf Jec/er, *Einfache Waren(rod&/tion,+ !887' #"' R&dolf Jilferding, DFhm-Da!erk5s Criticism of Marx' #!' M'M' Rosental A!8;;C, Die ialektische Metho e er $olitischen Gkonomie )on 2arl Marx-Berlin@ 9iet1, !87#.' # ' 0ee Ernest Mandel, Marxist Economic &heory -Dew Qor/@ Monthly Re%iew Gress@ !87".' ##' *This ma/es clear, of co&rse, why in the beginning of his first boo/ Marx (roceeds from the sim) (le (rod&ction of commodities as the historical (remise, &ltimately to arri%e from this basis to ca(ital why he (roceeds from the sim(le commodity instead of a logically and historically sec) ondary form from an already ca(italistically modified commodity'+ Engels, *Greface+ in 2arl Marx, Ca$ital, =ol&me #'

#>' Ibid' This inter(retation of the analysis of the form of %al&e is also ado(ted by 2a&ts/y, in &he Economic Doctrines of 2arl Marx' #;' That is to say, the law of %al&e disc&ssed by Marx' 0ee Engels *0&((lement+ to %ol&me #' #<' Ibid #7' Ibid' #6' *Or is it belie%ed that the (easant and the artisan were so st&(id as to gi%e &( the (rod&ct of !" ho&rs labor of one (erson for that of a single ho&rs labor of anotherK+E and whoe%er does so learns *only thro&gh mista/es'+ Ibid' #8' Ibid' >"' In contrast, see Marxs criti5&e of the notion of labor)money, or the notion of a (re)monetary commodity exchange in A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy and in the #runrisse' >!' 0ee footnote ## in cha(ter one of Ca$ital( 4olume .. > ' :or Marxs %iew, see for exam(le@ *,dam 0mith constantly conf&ses the determination of the %al&e of commodities by the labo&r)time contained in them with the determination of their %al&e by the %al&e of labo&rE he is often inconsistent in the details of his ex(osition and he mis) ta/es the ob$ecti%e e5&alisation of &ne5&al 5&antities of labo&r forcibly bro&ght abo&t by the social (rocess for the s&b$ecti%e e5&ality of the labo&rs of indi%id&als+E A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy' >#' ,ccording to Marxism)3eninism, *%al&e f&nctions as an instr&ment of the (lanned administra) tion of the socialist (rocesses of (rod&ction and re(rod&ction, according to the (rinci(les of boo//ee(ing and control of the mass of labor and of cons&m(tion' Horres(ondingly, the relation of %al&e is conscio&sly im(lemented+E Wolfgang Geter Eichhorn, *Wert+ in 4' 2la&s and M' B&hr, ed' Philoso$hisches CFrterbuch, Bd' -:ran/f&rt@ 0&hr/am(, !86;., ! 8!' Within this frame) wor/, socialism consists *merely in the re%ol&tioni1ed way of calc&lating the same social deter) mination of the (rod&cts of h&man labor as exists in the ca(italist commodity economy,+ as 0te) fan 4rigat critically notesE *2riti/ &nd Fto(ie,+ Ceg un Aiel, > -!887.@ "' Th&s, allegedly Marx) ian comm&nism degenerates into a sort of Gro&dhonian system of labor notes, as 9iethard Behrens and 2ornelia Jafner also obser%e@ *all hitherto existing conce(tions of the transition to socialism resort to models of immediate calc&lation of labor)%al&e and &tility+E *,&f der 0&che nach dem wahren 0o1ialism&s' =on der 2riti/ des Gro&dhonism&s Nber die r&ssische Mod) ernisier&ngsdi/tat&r 1&m realso1ialistischen Eti/ettenschwindel+ in ,nton Ganne/oe/,Marxistischer Antileninismus -:reib&rg, !88!., <' 0ee here also Michael Jeinrich, Die Cissenschaft )om Cert. Die Marxsche 2ritik er $olitischen Gkonomie @!ischen !issenschaftlicher 3e)olution un klassischer &ra ition -MNnster@ WestfRlisches 9am(fboot, !888., #6;)#8 E and 2ittsteiner, *Bew&sstseinsbild&ng'+

>>' :or exam(le, Engels, *Marx+ in Lu !ig "euerbach. >;' Ibid' ><' Ibid' >7' Ibid, translation modified' >6' 4ert 0chRfer, *Einige Grobleme des =erhRltnisses %on MV/onomischer &nd M(olitischer Jerrschaft,+ in 2arl Marx an "rie rich Engels = +taatstheorie. Materialien @ur 3ekonstruktion er marxistischen +taatstheorie -Berlin@ Fllstein, !87>.' >8' Hom(are Gash&/anis, &he #eneral &heory of La! an Marxism@ *why is the a((arat&s of state coercion created not as a (ri%ate a((arat&s of the r&ling class, b&t distinct from the latter in the form of an im(ersonal a((arat&s of (&blic (ower distinct from societyK+ ;"' Engels, *Barbarism and Hi%ili1ation+ in &he *rigin of the "amily( Pri)ate Pro$erty( an the +tate. Do wonder, then, that 3enin refers affirmati%ely to this *ex(lanation,+ with its theory of agents and infl&ence' ;!' Engels, Anti-Dhring' ATranslators Dote@ The official translation of *i eeller #esamtka$italist+ in the Marx-Engels Collecte Corks renders this &nsatisfactorily as *the ideal (ersonification of the total national ca(ital,+ when in fact *ideal total ca(italist+ is more acc&rate'C ; ' Iohannes B&sch)WeSla&, Der Marxismus un Ham(&s)=erlag, !88".' ;#' Engels, Anti-Dhring' ;>' Jans Jolger Ga&l, Marx( Engels un !876.' ie 'm$erialismustheorie er >. 'nternationale -Jamb&rg, ie Legitimation $olitischer Macht, :ran/f&rt,

;;' Engels, *, Hriti5&e of the 9raft 0ocial)9emocratic Grogram of !68!'+ ;<' 0chRfer, *Einige Grobleme,+ cxxxi' ;7' Engels, Anti-Dhring' ;6' 0chRfer, *Einige Grobleme,+ cxxxi%' ;8' This old chestn&t will later be (resented by Wolfgang Gohrt and others as a dee( insight abo&t *late ca(italism'+ <"' Engels, Anti-Dhring' <!' The term was (robably first &sed in a 3eninist (olemic against 3&/Lcs -istory an Class Consciousness -see R&dolf Walther, *Marxism&s+ in O' Br&nner, ed', #eschichtliche #run begriffe. -istorisches Lexikon @ur $olitisch-so@ialen +$rache in Deutschlan ( D . H, A0t&ttgart@ E' 2lett,

!86 C, 8<6., b&t did not achie%e greater significance, neither as a (olemical form&lation nor as a self)descri(tion by the theorists commonly s&bs&med &nder the name -s&ch as 3&/Lcs, 2orsch, Bloch, the :ran/f&rt 0chool, 4ramsci, 3efeb%re, etc'.' Jere, I follow Gerry ,ndersons &sage of the term in Consi erations on Cestern Marxism -Dew Qor/@ =erso, !867.' ,s fr&itf&l as the con) ce(t of Western Marxism might be as a he&ristic model, its limits m&st be clearly shownE see the criti5&e of ,nderson by Wolfgang :rit1 Ja&g, *Westlicher Marxism&sK+ in Pluraler Marxismus( D . > -Jamb&rg@ ,rg&ment, !867. and Michael 2rRt/e, *Marxism&s als 0o1ialwissenschaft+ in Ja&g, Materialien @um -istorisch-kritischen CFrterbuch es Marxismus -Jamb&rg@ ,rg&ment, !88<., 77' < ' Wolfgang :rit1 Ja&g, Philoso$hieren mit Drecht un #ramsci -Jamb&rg@ ,rg&ment, !88<., 6' :or a criti5&e of the *code word thesis+ with regard to 4ramscis wor/, see Ja&g, *Einleit&ng,+ in ,ntonio 4ramsci, #efBngnishefte ?. Philoso$hie er Praxis -Jamb&rg@ ,rg&ment, !88;., !!8;) ! "8' <#' 4eorg 3&/Lcs, *D' B&charin@ Theorie des historischen Materialism&s -Re1ension.+ in %. DucharinE A. Deborin6 2ontro)ersen ber ialektischen un mechanistischen Materalismus( 68, 6>' <>' ,ntonio 4ramsci, *The Re%ol&tion ,gainst Ha(ital'+ <;' , scientific (sychology cannot be fo&nd in the tho&ght of most re(resentati%es of Marxism, a(art from (ositi%e references to Ga%lo%s beha%iorism' Gsychoanalysis was mostly re$ected, if not demoni1ed as *bo&rgeois)decadent+' Jelm&t 9ahmer offers a critical o%er%iew of s&ch reac) tions in Libi o un #esellschaft. +tu ien ber "reu un ie "reu sche Linke -:ran/f&rt@ 0&hr/am(, !86 ., >!) 77E within the framewor/ of Western Marxism, it was (rimarily 3&/Lcs who disting&ished himself in the condemnation of :re&d' 4ramsci by his own admission *was not able to st&dy :re&ds theories+ <<' ,s f&rther characteristics of Western Marxism, ,nderson names the reco&rse to (re)Marxian (hiloso(hy in order to clarify the method of a critical social theoryE the incor(oration of contem) (orary *bo&rgeois+ theories@ an esoteric writing styleE a rather (essimistic a((raisal of historical de%elo(ment mar/edly di%ergent from the tri&m(halist diction of classical Marxism and Marxism)3eninismE a (reference for (roblems of aesthetics' <7' :or exam(le, Erich :romms Marx5s Conce$t of Man or INrgen Jabermas *Reconstr&ction of Jis) torical Materialism'+ <6' The first attem(ts at a new reading of Marx already occ&rred in the !8 "s, on the (art of the 0o%iet a&thors Isaa/ Illich R&bin and E%geny Gash&/anis' 0ee I'I' R&bin, Essays on Marx5s &heory of 4alue, and E%geny Gash&/anis, &he #eneral &heory of La! an Marxism' Their awareness of (roblems of as(ects of Marxs theory with regard to %al&e and legal theory was not e%en matched in a r&dimentary way for a long time, in the East or the West' Only with the debates since the end of the !8<"s did this change somewhat'

<8' ,s described by Jeinrich *2ommentierte 3iterat&rliste 1&r 2riti/ der (olitischen W/onomie,+ in Elmar ,lt%ater, Rolf Jec/er, Michael Jeinrich, Getra 0cha(er)Rin/el, ed', 2a$ital. oc. Das 2a$ital 7D . .I )on 2arl Marx in +chaubil ern un 2ommentaren -MNnster@ WestfRlisches 9am(fboot, !888., "7E and Frs Iaeggi, *Einige Bemer/&ngen 1&r Orthodoxie &nd 1&m 9ogmatism&s im Jis) torischen Materialism&s,+ in ,xel Jonneth, ed', &heorien es -istorischen Materialismus -:ran/) f&rt@ 0&hr/am(, !877., !><' It is also referred to &nder the label of *Deo)Marxism'+ 7"' ,s defined by Jans)4eorg Bac/ha&s, Dialektik er Certform. <ntersuchungen @ur Marxschen Gkonomiekritik -:reib&rgE Xa ira, !887.' 0ee also Jeinrich, *2ommentierte 3iterat&rliste,+ !!' 7!' 0ee Jeinrich, Die Cissenschaft )om Cert, and Jelm&t Brentel, +o@iale "orm un Fkonomisches *b,ekt. +tu ien @um #egenstan s- un Metho en)erstBn nis er 2ritik er $olitischen Gkonomie -O(laden@ Westde&tscher, !868.' 7 ' Honcerning the so)called *state deri%ation debate,+ see Dorbert 2ostede, *9ie ne&ere marxistis) che 9is/&ssion Nber den bNrgerlichen 0taat' EinfNhr&ng 2riti/ Res&ltate,+ #esellschaft. DeitrBge @ur Marxschen &heorie -!87<.@ !;")!8<E and 4erd R&del, Die Ent!icklung er marxistischen +taatstheorie in er Dun esre$ublik -:ran/f&rt@ Ham(&s)=erlag, !86!.' 7#' 0tefan Bre&er, Die 2rise er 3e)olutionstheorie. %egati)e 4ergesellschaftung un Arbeitsmeta$hysik bei -erbert Marcuse -:ran/f&rt@ 0yndi/at, !877.E Mohl, *=erelend&ng &nd Re%ol&tion+E Jelm&t 2Vnig, #eist un 3e)olution. +tu ien @u 2ant( -egel un Marx -0t&ttgart@ 2lett)Hotta, !86!.E or the writings of the 2risis gro&(' 7>' ,lfred 0chmidt and Walter E&chner, ed', 2ritik er $olitischen Gkonomie heute. .// 0ahre 82a$ital9 -:ran/f&rt@ E&ro(Rische =erlagsanstalt, !8<6.' 7;' The *critical Marxism+ of the 0ixties, of which ,lfred 0chmidt was the (rimary ad%ocate, em(ha) si1es the negati%e and historically limited character and claim to %alidity of a *materialism of sec) ond nat&re,+ b&t tends to regard methodological indi%id&alism as an ade5&ate descri(tion of coming comm&nist relations' The *scientific+ Marxism of the ,lth&sser school em(hasi1es, against indi%id&alistic theories of a *constit&ting s&b$ect,+ that actors are merely bearers of the relations of (rod&ctions, b&t on the basis of the tendency of its categories to ass&me &ni%ersal) historical character -Balibars combinatorics of le%els, ,lth&ssers conce(ts of (raxis and ideol) ogy., ele%ates the inde(endence of relations of (rod&ction to a scientific norm.' 7<' Bac/ha&s, Dialektik er Certform, !!' 77' Ibid', <8' 76' Ibid' 78' 0ee 3o&is ,lth&sser, *:rom Ha(ital to Marxs Ghiloso(hy+ in 3o&is ,lth&sser and Etienne Bal) ibar, 3ea ing Ca$ital'

6"' 0ee ,lth&sser and Balibar, 3ea ing Ca$ital' The difference between the str&ct&ralist and the critical)reconstr&cti%e reading is not limited to this (oint' Whereas the former attem(ts to &nmas/ Jegelianism as an ineda5&ate meta)disco&rse, for the latter, reference to Jegel on 5&estions of methodology is often regarded as the royal road to &nderstanding Marxs wor/' 6!' This is the s&btitle of Jeinrichs boo/, Die Cissenschaft )om Cert@ see Bac/ha&s criti5&e of his own theoretical (remises in the first two (arts of his Materialien -Bac/ha&s, Dialektik er Certform, !# n.' 6 ' :or a critical (ers(ecti%e on some as(ects of these theses, see 9ieter Wolf, Care un #el . Der ialektische Ci ers$ruch im 2a$ital -Jamb&rg@ =0,, !8;6. -re(&blished in "" &nder the titleDer ialektische Ci ers$ruch im 2a$ital.' Wolf also critici1es tendencies within the neue Marx-Lektre that identify Marxs dialectical method with logical contradictions, th&s lending Marx and his method a (atina of irrationalismE see his criti5&e of Holletti and 4Vhler' Irrational) ist (ositions are also fo&nd today by re(resentati%es of the 2risis and Exit gro&(s and the Initia) ti%e 0o1ialistisches :or&m :reib&rg' 6#' Marx, *Greface to the :irst 4erman Edition'+ 6>' 0chmidt, Conce$t of %ature, >!' 6;' On Marxs criti5&e of (hiloso(hies of history, see@ Jelm&t :leischer, Marxismus un #eschichte, -:ran/f&rt@ 0&hr/am(, !87;.E 2ittsteiner, *Bew&sstseinsbild&ng+E ,ndreas ,rndt,2arl Marx. 4ersuch ber en Ausammenhang seiner &heorie -Boch&m@ 4erminal, !86;., ;")7<E Rolf Jec/er, Harl)Erich =ollgraf, Richard 0(erl, ed', #eschichte un materialistische #eschichtstheorie bei Marx -Jamb&rg@ ,rg&ment, !88<.' 6<' 4' 0tiehler, 5&oted by Iaeggi, *Einige Bemer/&ngen,+ !;#' :or a *criti5&e+ of Marx that tries to sell this as the a&thentic (osition of Marx, see the &s&al wor/s by 2arl Go((er' 67' Jelm&t Reichelt A!87"C, Aur logischen +truktur es 2a$italbegriffs bei 2arl Marx -:reib&rg@ Xa ira, ""!., 7#' 66' 0ee Jeinrich, Die Cissenschaft )om Cert. 68' On this see Brentel !868, cha(ter ;' 8"' On this see Jeinrich, Die Cissenschaft )om Cert( #6")#6>' 8!' In the com(lete form in the so)called *Trinity :orm&la+ of the theory of the com(onents of %al&e' :or a criti5&e of neoclassical economics, see Jeinrich, Die Cissenschaft )om Cert( < ) 6;' 8 ' Marx, *Hriti5&e of Jegels Ghiloso(hy of Right'+

8#' Ian Joff, 2ritik er klassischen $olitischen Gkonomie. Aur 3e@e$tion er !erttheoretischen AnsBt@e Fkonomischer 2lassiker urch 2arl Marx -2Vln@ Ga((yRossa, "">.' 8>' Marx, Ca$ital( 4olume .' 8;' Ibid' 8<' Joff, 2ritik er klassischen $olitischen Gkonomie, 76'

Between Marx, Marxism, and Marxisms Ways of Reading Marxs Theory Ingo Elbe October !, "!#

The ob$ecti%e of the following obser%ations is to offer a ro&gh o%er%iew of central ways of reading Marxs theory' These are to be (resented by means of a few selected to(ics as Marxisms that can be relati%ely clearly delimited from one another, and the history of their rece(tion and infl&ence will be e%al&ated with regard to the common)sense &nderstanding of *Marxist theory'+ , distinction will be made between the hitherto (redominant inter(retation of Marx, (rimarily associ) ated with (olitical (arties -traditional Marxism, Marxism in the sing&lar, if yo& will., and the dissident, critical forms of rece(tion of Marx -Marxisms in the (l&ral., with their res(ecti%e claims of a *ret&rn to Marx'+ The first inter(retation is &nderstood as a (rod&ct and (rocess of a restricted reading of Marx, in (art emerging from the *exoteric+ layer of Marxs wor/, which &(dates traditional (aradigms in (olitical economy, the theory of history, and (hiloso(hy' 0ystemati1ed and ele%ated to a doctrine by Engels, 2a&ts/y, et al, it s&cc&mbs to the mystifications of the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction and c&lminates in

the a(ologetic science of Marxism)3eninism' The other two inter(retations, s(ecifically Western Marx) ism as well as the 4erman neue Marx-Lektre -*new reading of Marx+., &s&ally ex(lore the *esoteric+ content of Marxs criti5&e and analysis of society, often cons&mmated o&tside of instit&tionali1ed, c&m&lati%e research (rograms, by isolated actors in the style of an *&ndergro&nd Marxism'+ In order to characteri1e both ways of reading, some strongly tr&ncated theses, limited to a few as(ects, m&st s&ffice' In (artic&lar the ambitio&s (ro(osition, first form&lated by 2arl 2orsch, of an *a((lication of the materialist conce(tion of history to the materialist conce(tion of history itself+ one that goes beyond the mere (resentation of intellect&al history, towards an immanent theoretical criti5&e that crit) ically considers the connection between historical forms of (raxis and theoretical formations of Marxism cannot be carried o&t here' In addition, a consideration of those readings which are critical of Marx or Marxism can also be disregarded here, insofar as their (ict&re of Marx &s&ally corres(onds to that of traditional Marxism' I therefore begin with the hegemonic inter(retati%e model of traditional Marxism, and only at the end of my (resentation will I concl&de with a few (ositi%e determinations of what I regard as the f&ndamen) tal systematic intention of Marxs wor/' I do this (rimarily beca&se a differentiated reading of Marxs wor/ can only be gained in the co&rse of the learning (rocesses of Western Marxism and the neue MarxLektre. I' Marxism The term *Marxism+ was (robably first &sed in the year !678 by the 4erman 0ocial 9emocrat :ran1 Mehring to characteri1e Marxs theory, and established itself at the end of the !66"s as a disc&rsi%e wea(on &sed by both critics and defenders of *Marxs teachings'+ The birth of a *Marxist school,+ how) e%er, is &nanimo&sly dated bac/ to the (&blication of Anti-Dhring by :riedrich Engels in the year !676, and the s&bse5&ent rece(tion of this wor/ by 2arl 2a&ts/y, Ed&ard Berstein, et al' Engels writings e%en if the terms *Marxism+ or *dialectical materialism,+ the self)a((lied labels of traditional readings, do not yet a((ear in them s&((lied entire generations of readers, Marxists as well as anti)Marxists, with the inter(retati%e model thro&gh which Marxs wor/ was (ercei%ed' In (artic&lar, the re%iew of Marxs Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy -!6;8., the late wor/ Lu !ig "euerbach an the En of Classical #erman Philoso$hy -!66<., and the s&((lement to =ol&me III of Ca$ital-!68>?8;., achie%ed an infl&ence that can hardly be &nderestimated' ,bo%e all, howe%er, it was Anti-Dhring that was to be styli1ed as the textboo/ of Marxist theory as well as a (ositi%e de(iction of a *Marxist world) %iew+@ for 2a&ts/y, *there is no other boo/ that has contrib&ted so m&ch to the &nderstanding of Marx) ism' Marxs Ca$italis greater' B&t it was first thro&gh Anti-Dhring that we learned to correctly read and &nderstand Ca$ital'+ ,nd for 3enin, it is one of the *handboo/s of e%ery class)conscio&s wor/er'+! ,t the same time, a general characteristic of the history of *Marxism+ is cons&mmated@ the initiators of the theoretical cor(&s regard it as *&nnecessary ABC to themsel%es ma/e an a((earance as e(onyms ABC the e(onyms are not the real s(ea/ers'+ In many res(ects, Marxism is Engels wor/ and for that reason act&ally an Engelsism' In what follows I will name only two (oints which an ideologi1ed and restricted rece(tion of Marx co&ld draw &(on'

I'! The Ontological)9eterminist Tendency 0cientific socialism was concei%ed of as an ontological system, a *science of the big (ict&re'+ The materi) alist dialectic f&nctions here as a *general law of de%elo(ment of nat&re, society, and tho&ght,+ while nat&re ser%es for Engels as a *(roof of dialectics'+# Engels already &nderta/es a false analogy between historical)social (rocesses and nat&ral (henomena by the mere fact that in his el&cidation of the main feat&res of the dialectic, reference to s&b$ect and ob$ect is missing' *Degation of the negation+ or the *transformation of 5&antity into 5&ality+ are identified in the changes in the (hysical state of water or in the de%elo(ment of a grain of barley' ,gainst a static (oint of %iew, dialectic is s&((osed to demonstrate the *becoming,+ the *transitory character+ of all existence,> and is bo&nd to traditional dichotomies of the (hiloso(hy of conscio&sness, s&ch as the so)called *great basic 5&estion of all (hiloso(hy *as to which com(onent of the relationshi( between *thin/ing and being+ has (rimacy'; The dialectic is s(lit into *two sets of laws,+ into the dialectic of *the external world+ and the dialectic of *h&man tho&ght,+ whereby the latter is &nderstood to be merely a (assi%e mental image of the former'< Engels constricts e%en distorts the three elementary (raxis)(hiloso(hical motifs of Marx, which he had (artially still ad%ocated in his earlier writings@ !' The recognition that not only the ob$ect, b&t also the obser%ation of the ob$ect is historically and (ractically mediated,7 not external to the history of the mode of (rod&ction' ,gainst this, Engels em(hasi1es that *the materialist o&tloo/ on nat&re means nothing more than the sim(le con) ce(tion of nat&re $&st as it is, witho&t alien addition'+6 The nai%e realism of the theory of reflec) tion systemati1ed by 3enin8 and others which falls (rey to the reified a((earance of immediacy of that which is socially mediated, the fetishism of an in)itself of that which exists only %ia a his) torically determined framewor/ of h&man acti%ity already obtains its fo&ndation in Engels writings'!" ,s *things refer to conscio&sness and conscio&sness refers to things,+!! the conce(ts of (raxis and the s&b$ecti%e mediation of the ob$ect, as well as ideology)critical considerations, ha%e hardly any (lace in this (aradigm' ' The conce(t of %atur!chsigkeit -*the state of being nat&rally deri%ed+., which Engels had &sed in &he #erman ' eology in a negati%e sense, is now t&rned into a (ositi%e conce(t' The sublation of s(ecific social laws resting &(on the &nconscio&sness of social actors is no longer (ost&) latedE rather, Engels (ost&lates the conscio&s a((lication of *the general laws of motion ABC of the external world'+! #' If Marx writes in the &heses on "euerbach that *all mysteries which lead theory to mysticism find their rational sol&tion in h&man (ractice and in the com(rehension of this (ractice,+!# Engels red&ces (raxis to the ex(erimental acti%ity of the nat&ral sciences'!> ,dmittedly, ambi%alences and (raxis)(hiloso(hical motifs can also be fo&nd in the writings of the late Engels, which were largely blotted o&t by the e(igones' Donetheless, Engels, b&ndling together the scientism of his e(och, (a%es the way for a mechanistic and fatalistic conce(tion of historical materialism by shifting the accent from a theory of social (raxis to one of a contem(lati%e, reflection)theory doctrine of de%elo(ment'

The %&lgar e%ol&tionism of nineteenth)cent&ry E&ro(ean 0ocial 9emocracy is a nearly &bi5&ito&s (he) nomenon'!; :or that reason, it is not $&st for 2a&ts/y, Bernstein, and Bebel that the deterministic con) ce(t of de%elo(ment and the re%ol&tionary meta(hysic of a (ro%idential mission of the (role) tariat!< occ&(y a central (lace in Marxist doctrine' ,ccordingly, h&manity is s&bordinated to a *scientifi) cally %erifiable+ a&tomatism of liberation' That which (resents itself in the modern scientific garb of a fetishism of laws is &ltimately nothing other than a historical meta(hysic with a socialist signat&re!7@ (re) cisely the in%ersion of s&b$ect and ob$ect that Marx had critici1ed' , (rocess cons&mmated behind the bac/ of social actors is attrib&ted a morally 5&alified aim'!6 Fltimately, in the Erf&rt Grogram of the 4er) man 0ocial 9emocratic Garty, this re%ol&tionary (assi%ity!8 is codified at an official le%el as consistent Marxism@ the tas/ of the (arty is to remain braced for an e%ent that will *necessarily+ ha((en e%en with) o&t inter%ention, *not to ma/e the re%ol&tion, b&t rather to ta/e ad%antage of it'+ " The ontological ori) entation and the encyclo(aedic character of Engels deliberations also feed the tendency to inter(ret scientific socialism as a com(rehensi%e (roletarian world%iew' Fltimately, 3enin will (resent the *Marx) ist doctrine+ as *omni(otent,+ a *com(rehensi%e and harmonio&s+ doctrine that *(ro%ides men with an integral world o&tloo/'+ ! Horres(ondingly, the negati%e conce(t of ideology is ne&trali1ed into a cate) gory for the determinate being of conscio&sness in general' ,ll of these de%elo(ments, which &ndo&btedly constit&te a theoretical regression, &ltimately c&lminate in the theory of *Marxism)3eninism+ concei%ed of by ,bram 9eborin and Iosef 0talin' If for 3enin, Marx) ism constit&tes des(ite all em(hasis &(on the (olitical a *(rofo&nd doctrine of de%elo(ment+ that calls attention to brea/s and lea(s in nat&re and society, in the case of Marxism)3eninism the nat&ralist) ob$ecti%ist c&rrent is ele%ated to a state doctrine' The central arg&mentati%e fig&re will be@ what is %alid for nat&re m&st also be %alid for history' Or@ nat&re ma/es lea(s, therefore so does history' Golitical (raxis is th&s &nderstood as the cons&mmation of historical laws' This im(ressi%e logic is (erfected in 0talins wor/ *9ialectical and Jistorical Materialism+ for decades an a&thoritati%e wor/ in the Marxist theory of the Eastern Bloc' Jistorical materialism stands for the *a((lication+ and *extension+ of onto) logical (rinci(les to society, which im(lies an e(istemological essentialism -a theory of reflection, which in the form of 9ialectical Materialism concei%es of *being+ and *thin/ing+ inde(endent of the conce(t of (raxis. and a sociological nat&ralism -a de%elo(mental logic to be *conscio&sly a((lied+ or *acceler) ated+ by the (arty as the highest technocratic instance # existing inde(endent of h&man agency.' > I' The Jistoricist Inter(retation of the :orm)4enetic Method If 3enins statement that *none of the Marxists for the (ast half cent&ry ha%e &nderstood Marx+ a dic) t&m that in this case howe%er also a((lies to 3enin himself has any %alidity, then it is certainly with regard to the inter(retation of the criti5&e of (olitical economy' E%en !"" years after the (&blication of the first %ol&me of Ca$ital, Engels commentary was widely regarded as the sole legitimate and ade) 5&ate assessment of Marxs criti5&e of economy' Do reading in the Marxist tradition was as &ncontro) %ersial as the one cas&ally de%elo(ed by Engels in texts s&ch as the re%iew of Marxs Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy -!6;8. or the s&((lement to =ol&me III of Ca$ital -!68>.' Jere, consider) ably more ex(licitly than in the ob$ecti%ist conce(tion of historical materialism, Marxism is Engelsism'

,gainst the bac/gro&nd of his conce(tion of reflection, Engels inter(rets the first cha(ter of Ca$ital as a sim&ltaneo&sly logical and historical (resentation of *sim(le commodity (rod&ction+ de%elo(ing toward the relations of ca(italist wage labor, *only stri((ed of the historical form and di%erting chance occ&r) rences'+ ; The term *logical+ in this context basically means nothing more than *sim(lified'+ The method of (resentation, the se5&ence of categories -commodity, the elementary, ex(anded, and general forms of %al&e, money, ca(ital. in the criti5&e of (olitical economy is accordingly *sim(ly the reflection, in abstract and theoretically consistent form, of the historical co&rse'+ < The examination of the genesis of the money form is &nderstood as the descri(tion of *an act&al e%ent which really too/ (lace at some time or other+ and not as *an abstract mental (rocess that ta/es (lace solely in o&r mind'+ 7 In no other (assage of his wor/ does Engels so drastically red&ce historical materialism to a %&lgar em(iricism and historicism, as is made e%ident by his associati%e chain *materialism em(irically %erifiable facts real (rocess+ %s' *idealism abstract tho&ght (rocess (&rely abstract territory'+ With the *logical)historical+ method, Engels (ro%ides a catch(hrase that will be recited and stressed a nauseam in the Marxist orthodoxy' 2arl 2a&ts/y, in his enormo&sly infl&ential (resentations, &nder) stood Ca$ital to be an *essentially historical wor/+ 6@ *Marx was charged with recogni1ing ca(ital to be a historical category and to (ro%e its emergence in history, rather than mentally constr&cting it'+ 8 R&dolf Jilferding also claims that *in accordance with the dialectic method, conce(t&al e%ol&tion r&ns (arallel thro&gho&t with historical e%ol&tion'+#" Both Marxism)3eninism#! and Western Marxism# follow Jilferd) ing in this assessment' B&t if the criti5&e of (olitical economy is inter(reted as historiogra(hy, then con) se5&entially the categories at the beginning m&st corres(ond irectly to em(irical ob$ects, for exam(le a d&bio&s$re-ca$italist commo ity not etermine by $rice(## and the analysis of the form of %al&e m&st begin with the de(iction of a coincidental, moneyless interaction of two commodity owners with Engels so)called *sim(le (rod&ction of commodities,+#>an economic e(och he dates from <""" BH to the !;th cent&ry ,9' ,ccording to this conce(tion, Marxs law of %al&e#; o(erates at times in this e(och in a (&re form *&nad&lterated+ by the category of (rice, which Engels ill&strates with the feigned exam) (le of a moneyless *exchange+ between medie%al (easants and artisans' Jere we are dealing with a trans(arent social interrelationshi( between immediate (rod&cers who are at the same time the owners of their means of (rod&ction, in which one (rod&cer labors &nder the watchf&l eye of the other, and therefore *the (easant of the Middle ,ges /new fairly acc&rately the labor)time re5&ired for the man&fact&re of the articles obtained by him in barter'+#< Fnder the condi) tions of this *nat&ral exchange+, it is not some normati%e criterion that is for him *the only s&itable mea) s&re for the 5&antitati%e determination of the %al&es to be exchanged,+#7 b&t rather the abstraction of a labor)time conscio&sly and directly meas&red by the actors' Deither the (easant nor the artisan is so st&(id as to exchange &ne5&al 5&antities of labor#6@ *Do other exchange is (ossible in the whole (eriod of (easant nat&ral economy than that in which the exchanged 5&antities of commodities tend to be meas&red more and more according to the amo&nts of labor embodied in them'+#8,ccording to Engels, the %al&e of a commodity is determined consciously by the labor, meas&red in time, of indi%id&al (ro) d&cers' In this theory of %al&e, money does not (lay a constit&ti%e role' On the one hand, it is an ex(edi) ent and l&bricant to trade that is external to %al&e, b&t on the other it ser%es to obsc&re the s&bstance of %al&e@ s&ddenly, instead of exchanging according to ho&rs of labor, at some (oint exchange is con)

d&cted by means of cows and then (ieces of gold' The 5&estion of how this notion of e%ery commodity being its own labor)money>" can be reconciled with the conditions of (ri%ate (rod&ction based &(on the di%ision of labor is not (osed by Engels' Engels as will be elaborated by the neue Marx-Lektre (rac) tices exactly what Marx critici1es in the case of the classical economists, abo%e all ,dam 0mith@ a (ro$ec) tion onto the (ast of the ill&sory notion of a((ro(riation thro&gh ones own labor, which in fact only exists in ca(italismE neglect of the necessary connection between %al&e and form of %al&e>!E a transfor) mation of the *ob$ecti%e e5&ali1ation+ of &ne5&al acts of labor cons&mmated by the ob$ecti%e social relationshi( itself into a merely s&b$ecti%e consideration of social actors'> F( &ntil the !8<"s, Engels theorems contin&ed to be (assed on &ndis(&ted' ,long with his form&la -once again ta/en from Jegel. of freedom being the insight into necessity, and the drawing of (arallels between nat&ral laws and social (rocesses, they ga%e s&stenance to a social)technological *conce(t of emanci(ation,+ according to the following (remise@ social necessity -abo%e all the law of %al&e., which o(erates anarchically and &ncontrolled in ca(italism, will be, by means of Marxism as a science of the ob$ecti%e laws of nat&re and society, managed and a((lied according to a (lan' Dot the isa$$earance of ca(italist form)determinations, b&t rather their alternati)e use characteri1es this *socialism of ad$ecti%es+ -this term comes from Robert 2&r1. and *socialist (olitical economy'+># There is a significant dis(ro(ortion between, on the one hand, the em(hasis &(on the *historical,+ and on the other, the absence of a historically s(ecific and socio)theoretically reflected conce(t of economic ob$ecti%ity' This is made e%ident by the irrele%ance of the conce(t of social form in the disc&ssions of traditional Marxism, in which it is at most is considered to be s a category for ideal or marginal circ&mstances, b&t not a con) stit&ti%e characteristic of Marxs scientific re%ol&tion'>> I'# The Hriti5&e of the Hontent of the 0tate Engels theoretical statements concerning the state in &he *rigin of the "amily, Lu !ig "euerbach, AntiDhring, and his criti5&e of the Erf&rt draft (rogram of the 0G9 from !68!, constit&te the so&rce of the traditional Marxist conce(tion of the state' InLu !ig "euerbach, Engels states that the fact that all needs in class societies are artic&lated thro&gh the will of the state is *the formal as(ect of the matter the one which is self)e%ident'+>; The main 5&estion of a materialist theory of the state, howe%er, is *what is the content of this merely formal will of the indi%id&al as well as of the state and whence is this con) tent deri%edK Why is $&st this willed and not something elseK+>< The res&lt of this (&rely content)based 5&estion concerning the will of the state is for Engels the recognition *that in modern history the will of the state is, on the whole, determined by the changing needs of ci%il society, by the s&(remacy of this or that class, in the last resort, by the de%elo(ment of the (rod&cti%e forces and relations of exchange'+>7 :&rthermore, in his deliberations in &he *rigin of the "amily Engels wor/s with &ni%ersal) historical categories onto which modern designations li/e *(&blic a&thority+ are (ro$ected, and con) stantly ass&mes *direct relations of domination, immediate forms of class r&le+>6 in order to ex(lain *the+ state, which is conse5&entially &nderstood as a mere instr&ment of the r&ling class' :rom this content)fixated and &ni%ersal)historical way of considering the state, it can be ded&ced that Engels loses sight of the act&ally interesting 5&estion, namely as to why the class content in ca(italism ta/es on the s(ecific form of (&blic a&thority'>8 The (ersonal definition of class r&le extracted from (re)ca(italist social formations &ltimately leads to red&cing the anonymo&s form of class r&le instit&tionali1ed in the

state to a mere ideological ill&sion, which, in the manner of the theory of (riestly dece(tion, is inter) (reted as a (rod&ct of state tactics of dece(tion' Engels in any case attem(ts to ma/e the class character of the state (la&sible by referring to *(lain corr&(tion of officials+ and *an alliance between the go%ern) ment and the stoc/ exchange'+;" Donetheless, in Engels wor/ there still exists, des(ite the (redomi) nance of the instr&mentalist?content)fixated (ers(ecti%e, an &nmediated coexistence between the determination of the state as the *state of the ca(italists+ and of the state as *ideal total ca(ital) ist'+;! The last definition concei%es of the state *not as a tool of the bo&rgeoisie ABC b&t rather as an entity of bo&rgeois society,+; and an *organisation that bo&rgeois society ta/es on in order to s&((ort the general external conditions of the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction against the encroachments as well of the wor/ers as of indi%id&al ca(italists'+;# B&t the s(ecific formal as(ect of modern statehood is not yet ex(lained by this reference to f&nctional mechanisms' Engels also (a%ed the way for the theory of state)mono(oly ca(italism';> In the Critique of the Draft +ocial-Democratic Program of !68! he writes@ *I am familiar with ca(italist (rod&ction as a social form, or an economic (haseE ca(italist (ri%ate (rod&c) tion being a $henomenon which in one form or another is enco&ntered in that (hase' What is ca(ital) ist $ri)ate (rod&ctionK Grod&ction by se$arate entre(rene&rs, which is increasingly becoming an exce() tion' Ha(italist (rod&ction by ,oint-stock com$aniesis no longer $ri)ate (rod&ction b&t (rod&ction on behalf of many associated (eo(le' ,nd when we (ass on from $oint)stoc/ com(anies to tr&sts, which dominate and mono(olise whole branches of ind&stry, this (&ts an end not only to (ri%ate (rod&ction b&t also to $lanlessness'+;; :inally, in Anti-Dhring Engels writes of the state as real total ca(italist@ *The more (rod&cti%e forces it ta/es o%er into its (ossession, the more it act&ally becomes a real aggregate ca(italist, the more citi1ens it ex(loits'+ Jere Engels re%eals a limited &nderstanding of (ri%ate (rod&c) tion, and a tendency to e5&ate state (lanning and mono(oly (ower with direct sociali1ation,;< rein) forced by his constr&ction of the f&ndamental contradiction and his tendency to identify the di%ision of labor within a factory and the di%ision of labor in society' Engels does note that *the transformation, either into $oint)stoc/ com(anies, or into state ownershi(, does not do away with the ca(italistic nat&re of the (rod&cti%e forces,+;7 b&t nonetheless sees an immediate transition to socialism setting in as a res&lt, whereas the conce(ts of mono(oly and state inter%ention remain *economically com(letely &ndetermined'+;6 Engels th&s s&ggests that the wor/ers mo%ement merely has to ta/e o%er the forms of cor(orate boo//ee(ing in $oint)stoc/ com(anies and the com(rehensi%e (lanning by mono(olies de%elo(ed in ca(italism' :or Engels, the bo&rgeoisie has already become obsolete thro&gh the se(ara) tion of ownershi( and management f&nctions';8 The *transformation of the great establishments for (rod&ction and distrib&tion into $oint)stoc/ com(anies and state (ro(erty+ demonstrates, according to Engels, *how &nnecessary the bo&rgeoisie are for that (&r(ose+, i'e' for managing *modern (rod&cti%e forces+@ *,ll the social f&nctions of the ca(italist are now (erformed by salaried em(loyees' The ca(ital) ist has no f&rther social f&nction than that of (oc/eting di%idends, tearing off co&(ons, and gambling on the 0toc/ Exchange, where the different ca(italists des(oil one another of their ca(ital' ,t first the ca(i) talist mode of (rod&ction forces o&t the wor/ers' Dow it forces o&t the ca(italists, and red&ces them, $&st as it red&ced the wor/ers, to the ran/s of the s&r(l&s (o(&lation, altho&gh not immediately into those of the ind&strial reser%e army'+<" Re%iewing this history of rece(tion -only ro&ghly o&tlined here., one co&ld claim that Marxism in the form (resented here was a r&mor abo&t Marxs theory, a r&mor that was gratef&lly ta/en &( by most

critics of *Marx+ and merely s&((lemented with a min&s sign' In fact s&ch an assertion as acc&rate as it may be o%erall ma/es things too easy, in that it disregards certain de%iations from the dominant doc) trine that also &nderstood themsel%es to be Marxisms, while also regarding the abo%e misinter(reta) tions as com(letely external to Marxs own theory, th&s excl&ding the (ossibility of any inconsistencies or theoretical)ideological ambig&ities in Marxs wor/' To clarify this 5&estion, a glance at the differenti) ated reading of Marxs texts wor/ed o&t in the so)called *reconstr&ction debates+ will be &sef&l' In this res(ect, traditional Marxism sho&ld be &nderstood here as an elaboration, systemati1ation, and ass&m(tion of dominance of the ideological content of Marxs wor/ within the framewor/ of a rece() tion by Engels and his e(igones' Gractical infl&ence was almost excl&si%ely allotted to these restricted and ideologi1ed inter(retations of Marxs theory, as historical determinism or (roletarian (olitical economy' II' Western Marxism The formation of a Western Marxism<! arises from the crisis of the socialist wor/ers mo%ement in the wa/e of the :irst World War -the colla(se of the 0econd International as a res&lt of the (olicy of defense of the fatherland, the defeat of re%ol&tions in Hentral and 0o&thern E&ro(e, the emergence of fascist forces, etc'.' Jere it is 4eorg 3&/Lcs and 2arl 2orschs texts (&blished in !8 # which ass&me a (aradig) matic character' ,bo%e all 3&/Lcs is considered the first Marxist theorist who at the le%el of social theory and methodology called into 5&estion the hitherto self)e%ident ass&m(tion of the com(lete identity of Marxs and Engels theories' ,t the center of his criti5&e stood Engels neglect of the s&b$ect)ob$ect dialectic as well as his conce(t of a dialectic of nat&re, to which the fatalism of 0econd International Marxism was oriented' ,gainst this ontologi1ation of historical materialism into a contem(lati%e world) %iew, 3&/Lcs, li/e Western Marxism as a whole, &nderstands Marxs a((roach to be a critical re%ol&tion) ary theory of social (raxis' ,gainst the scientistic tal/ of *ob$ecti%e laws of de%elo(ment+ of social (rogress, 3&/Lcs (osits the criti5&e of ideology of reified conscio&sness, deci(hering the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction as a historically s(ecific form of social (raxis ossified into a *second nat&re,+ and em(ha) si1ing re%ol&tion as a critical act of (ractical s&b$ecti%ity' 0elf)descri(tions s&ch as *(hiloso(hy of (raxis+ -4ramsci. or *critical theory of society+ -Jor/heimer. therefore do not constit&te code words or conce() t&al e5&i%alents for official (arty doctrine, b&t rather em(hasi1e a learning (rocess from which *arises a critical, action)oriented c&rrent of tho&ght of Marxist heritage'+< ,ltho&gh Western Marxism at first (ositi%ely ado(ted the acti%ist im(&lses of the October Re%ol&tion, its leading re(resentati%es wo&ld 5&ic/ly come to re$ect the doctrine of 3eninism, abo%e all its contin&ation of a nat&ralistic social theory and its false &ni%ersali1ation of the ex(erience of the R&ssian Re%ol&tion' 4eorg 3&/Lcs criti5&e of B&/harins *Theory of Jistorical Materialism+ ser%es as an exam(le of the former' In his criti5&e, 3&/Lcs charges that B&/harins theory, with its conce(ts of the (rimacy of the de%elo(ment of the forces of (ro) d&ction and the seamless a((lication of the methods of nat&ral science to the st&dy of society, is fetishistic and obliterates the *qualitati)e ifference+ between the two s&b$ect areas of nat&ral and social sciences, th&s ac5&iring *the accent of a false Mob$ecti%ity and mista/ing the core idea of Marxs method, namely the ascri(tion of *all economic $henomena to the social relationshi$s of human beings to one another'+<#

In his Prison %otebooks, 4ramsci (ro%ided the exem(lary criti5&e of the fixation of re%ol&tionary strat) egy &(on the model of the October Re%ol&tion' Initially, he had greeted the October Re%ol&tion as a *re%ol&tion against 2arl Marxs Ca$ital,+<> that is to say as a ref&tation of the allegedly (ro%en im(ossi) bility of socialist re%ol&tion in ind&strially bac/wards co&ntries' In an almost re%ol&tionary manner, he cited the %ol&ntaristic *socialist ann&nciation+ as a so&rce of a collecti%e socialist *(o(&lar will+ against a class conscio&sness mechanically deri%ed from the economy and the le%el of its forces of (rod&ction' 3ater, 4ramsci wo&ld confront the Marxism of the Third International with his theory of hegemony, which re$ects the *war of mane&%er+ of a frontal attac/ &(on the re(ressi%e state a((arat&s as being a &seless re%ol&tionary strategy for modern Western ca(italist societies' ,ccording to 4ramsci, within these social formations *ci%il society+ is com(osed of a labyrinthine str&ct&re of a((arat&ses in which (atterns of tho&ght and beha%ior are generated which exhibit an inertia that cannot be sha/en by grandiose (olitical deeds' The R&ssian re%ol&tionary model is also condemned to fail&re in the West beca&se the belief in the &ni%ersal nat&re of ex(erience of the Bolshe%i/s with a centralist)des(otic Tsarism leads to a disregard for the rele%ance of ideological sociali1ation by means of the a((arat&ses of ci%il society, and their effect@ s&b$ection in the form of a&tonomo&s agency' Jowe%er, both 3&/Lcs and 4ramsci remain loyal to the *excl&si%ely (roletarian+ conce(tion of re%ol&tion to the extent that the for) mer, des(ite his reflections &(on reified conscio&sness, still attrib&tes an e(istemological (ri%ilege to the (roletariat g&aranteed by its economic (osition, while 4ramscis strategically moti%ated theory of ci%il society is fixated &(on the room for mane&%er of the wor/ing class' With the attem(t at a social)(sychological ex(loration of the dri%e?str&ct&ral fo&ndations of the re(ro) d&ction of an *irrational society,+ abo%e all in the form of a&thoritarian and antisemitic attit&des, the :ran/f&rt Instit&te for 0ocial Research, after Max Jor/heimers ass&m(tion of its directorshi( in !8#!, achie%ed a le%el of reflection that other re(resentati%es and c&rrents of Western Marxism co&ld not match,<; and which gi%es &( on the reass&ring s&((ort of an imagined class conscio&sness of the (role) tariat' :inally, the em(irical class conscio&sness of the (roletariat as the only existing class conscio&s) ness is s&b$ected to analysis, while the *irrational,+ emotional dimensions of social (raxis ignored by other theorists, s&ch as the social dimensions of the libidinal, are considered' This theoretical insight into the &ncom(romising nat&re of critical theory is at the same time an admission of the historical (rocess of an increasing rift between emanci(atory theory and the (ers(ecti%e of re%ol&tionary (raxis' With the (ro(agation of socialism in one co&ntry, the Bolshe%i1ation of the Western Homm&nist Garties, and the establishment of Marxism)3eninism as the official ideology of the Third International after the mid)!8 "s, there begins the characteristic isolation of the re(resentati%es of Western Marxism@ this c&r) rent is left with neither (olitical infl&ence nor -with the (ossible exce(tion of the :ran/f&rt Instit&te for 0ocial Research. the instit&tional fo&ndations for a normal scholarly (raxis' The general characteristics of this Marxist formation its sense for the Jegelian legacy and the critical)h&manist (otential of Marxs theory, the incor(oration of contem(orary *bo&rgeois+ a((roaches to el&cidate the great crisis of the wor/ers mo%ement, the orientation towards methodology, the sensiti1ation to social)(sychological and c&lt&ral (henomena in connection with the 5&estion concerning the reasons for the fail&re of re%ol&tion in *the West+<< (ro%ides the framewor/ for a new ty(e of restricted exegesis of Marx' This is essen) tially characteri1ed by the neglect of (roblems of (olitics and state theory, a selecti%e rece(tion of Marxs theory of %al&e, and the (redominance of a *silent orthodoxy+ concerning the criti5&e of (olitical

economy' ,ltho&gh the first to &nderstand the character of ca(italist r&le the way Marx did anony) mo&s, ob$ecti%ely mediated, and ha%ing a life of its own the *fo&nding doc&ment+ of Western Marx) ism, 3&/acs -istory an Class Consciousness, a%oids a reconstr&ction of Marxs theory of ca(italism' Instead of an analysis of Marxs dialectic of the form of %al&e &( to the form of ca(ital, which in the the) ory of real s&bs&m(tion offers an ex(lanation of the connection so decisi%e for 3&/Lcs between com) modification and the alienated str&ct&re of the labor (rocess, one finds merely an analogi1ing combina) tion of a %al&e theory red&ced to the *5&antifying+ %al&e)form -d&e to an orientation towards 0immels c&lt&ral criti5&e of money. and a diagnosis, oriented towards Max Weber, of the formal)rational ten) dency of the ob$ectification of the labor (rocess and modern law' Fntil the mid)!8<"s it seems that no Western Marxists extended their debate with traditional inter(retations of Marx into the realm of %al&e theory' 0ome (ositions go e%en f&rther than this silent orthodoxy, and witho&t ha%ing serio&sly engaged with the criti5&e of (olitical economy contrast the *h&manist c&lt&ral critic Marx+ with the *economist Marx+ or e%en regard a *Marxism+ witho&t a criti5&e of (olitical economy as being (ossi) ble'<7 III' The *De&e Marx)3e/tNre+ It was first within the framewor/ of the *neue Marx-Lektre+ -*Dew Reading of Marx+., which emerged in the mid)!8<"s, that (roblems of state theory and economic theory once again (layed a role o&tside of Marxism)3eninism' This new wa%e of rece(tion of Marxs theory was also more or less sit&ated o&tside of 0talinism and 0ocial 9emocracy' ,longside the new reading in West E&ro(ean co&ntries, there were isolated r&diments of a *new reading of Marx+ occ&rring in Eastern E&ro(e'<6 Its genesis in West 4er) many coincided with (henomena s&ch as the st&dent mo%ement, the first $olts to belief in a (er(et&al and (olitically manageable (ost)war (ros(erity, the brea/ing &( of the anti)comm&nist consens&s in the co&rse of the =ietnam War, etc', yet remained, des(ite its radical emanci(atory claims, confined largely to academia' Jere, we disting&ish between this *new reading of Marx+ in a broader sense<8, and one more narrowly defined'7" Whereas the former was an international (henomenon, the latter was con) fined (rimarily to West 4ermany' If the former still remained (redominantly tra((ed within Engelsian dogma with regard to the criti5&e of (olitical economy, the latter foregro&nded the re%ision of (re%io&s historicist or em(iricist inter(retations of Marxs form analysis' In terms of content, a threefold aban) donment of central to(oi of traditional Marxism was cons&mmated in the main threads of the debate, themsel%es contradictory and in no way shared by all (artici(ants@ a mo%e away from a s&bstantialist theory of %al&e7!E abandonment of mani(&lati%e)instr&mental conce(tions of the state7 E and a mo%e away from labor mo%ement)centric inter(retations of the criti5&e of (olitical economy, or inter(reta) tions based on a *labor)ontological+ re%ol&tionary theory -or e%en &(on re%ol&tionary theory as s&ch.'7# This new reading artic&lates its theoretical efforts in the form of a reconstr&ction of Marxs theory' With regard to the criti5&e of economy, a crystalli1ation of central 5&estions and research tas/s occ&rred within the framewor/ of the !8<7 collo5&i&m *.// 0ahre 12a$ital'+7> , reinter(retation of Marxs criti5&e was en%isioned from the methodological (ers(ecti%e of social theory@ the 5&estion as to the original ob$ect of Ca$ital-economic form)determination., the (artic&larity of scientific (resentation -the dialectic of the forms of %al&e., as well as the connection between the three %ol&mes -*ca(ital in

general many ca(itals+. are (osed anew, as distinct from 5&antitati%e a((roaches, and with a (artic&) lar em(hasis &(on the significance of the #run risse' Within the field of the conflict between *critical+ and *str&ct&ral+ Marxisms, transitional moments of flight from existing methodological traditions arise, obli5&e to the classical (oints of conflict7;@ both str&ct&ralist anti)historicism as well as Jegelian fig&res of tho&ght -*(rogressi%e)regressi%e method,+ *ret&rn to the fo&ndation+. (lay an im(ortant role in this' Initially with a lot of *ifs and b&ts+7<, and on some (oints remaining within the channels of traditional Marxism, the Dew Reading of Marx ac5&ired more clearly defined conto&rs o%er the co&rse of the !87"s' Traditional readings of Marxs theory Hlassical ,ss&m(tion of the Marxism of the nd and #rd Internationals Marx O Engels -&nified (aradigm, coherent arg&) mentation, closed *world%iew+.

Levels of the critical-reconstructive reading 3e%el !@ e'g' Bac/ha&s -Materialien (arts ! and . 3e%el @ e'g' ,lth&sser -3ea ing Ca$ital.E ,' 0chmidtE Bac/ha&s -Materialien. 3e%el #@ e'g' Bac/ha&s -Materialien (arts # and >.E Jeinrich -+cience of 4alue. Engels P exoteric %s' Marx P esoteric Marx P exoteric meta)disco&rse %s' Marx P esoteric real analysis Marx P exoteric?esoteric meta)disco&rse Marx P exoteric?esoteric real analysis

,gainst the classical myth of the com(lete e5&ality between the (aradigms of Marx and Engels, with regard to both historical materialism and the criti5&e of (olitical economy, Engels commentaries were critici1ed as largely inade5&ate to Marxs wor/ and remaining at a (&rely *exoteric+ le%el that (er(et&) ated traditional (aradigms' Th&s, in !87> Jans)4eorg Bac/ha&s em(hasi1ed with regard to %al&e theory that the criti5&e was aimed *at an inter(retati%e (remise which &ntil recently was considered one of the few &ncontested elements of the Marxist literat&re, and which str&ct&red the rece(tion of Marxs %al&e theory witho&t being challenged@ the misinter(retation, to&ched off by Engels, of the first three cha() ters of Ca$ital as a %al&e and money theory of what Engels called Msim(le commodity (rod&c) tion'+77 Bac/ha&s ass&mes that *(roceeding from this f&ndamental error, Marxist %al&e theory neces) sarily inhibited the rece(tion of Marx5s %al&e theory'+76 If therefore at this le%el an initial distinction is made between a Marxist theory and Marxs theory, a (roblemati1ation of Marxs meta)theoretical self) &nderstanding also occ&rs early on' 3o&is ,lth&sser had already affirmed, with the aid of a *sym(to) matic+ reading directed against a s&b$ect)centric intentionalist hermene&tic, that Marxs wor/ re(re)

sents a scientific re%ol&tion in the theoretical (raxis of the analysis of ca(italism, which at the meta) theoretical le%el is s&(erim(osed &(on by a disco&rse inade5&ate to this (roblematic' ,lth&sser defines the tas/s of a reconstr&ction as the remo%al of the inade5&ate meta)disco&rse and the transformation of its dominant meta(hors, which he reads as sym(toms for the absence of an ade5&ate self)reflection of the real (roced&re of the analysis of ca(ital, into conce(ts'78 ,s distinct from ,lth&sser and his d&alist conce(tion of the relationshi( between the real ob$ect and the ob$ect of /nowledge6", this iss&e is &s&) ally form&lated in the reconstr&ction debate within the theoretical framewor/ of a Marxian criti5&e of ideology@ Marx disting&ishes between *esoteric+ and *exoteric+ le%els in the wor/s of classical (olitical economy' If the former contains insights into the social context of mediation of the bo&rgeois mode of (rod&ction, the latter is content with an &nmediated descri(tion and systemati1ation of the ob$ecti%e forms of tho&ght of the e%eryday conscio&sness of social actors, remaining tra((ed in the reified ill&sion of the immediacy of (henomena which are in fact socially mediated' 0o the *exoteric+ arg&mentation cannot be traced bac/ (sychologically to s&b$ecti%e deficiencies or e%en conscio&s attem(ts at dece(tion on the (art of theorists' It res&lts from a determinate form of tho&ght which is the systematic and ini) tially in%ol&ntary (rod&ct of the forms of social interco&rse of the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction' The reconstr&ction debate wo&ld now a((ly the esoteric?exoteric distinction to Marxs wor/ itself' Fltimately, e%en in the criti5&e of (olitical economy and in historical materialism that is to say in the theoretical (raxis regarded at the (re%io&s stage of reconstr&ction as an intact *esoteric+ layer *exo) teric+ content and conce(t&al ambi%alence *between scientific re%ol&tion and classical tradition+6! are manifest' The doctrine of the in%iolability of the (resentation of the criti5&e of (olitical economy in Ca$ital is finally discarded' In (lace of the legend of a linear (rogression of /nowledge on Marxs (art, there a((eared the recognition of a com(lex coexistence and inter(enetration of (rogress and regression in the method of (resentation and the state of research of Marxs criti5&e of economy' Fltimately, the increased (o(&lari1ation of the (resentation of the analysis of the forms of %al&e from the #run risse to the second edition of Ca$ital was (ointed o&t' This (o(&lari1ation, to the extent that it increasingly con) cealed the form)genetic method, offered (oints of reference to historicist and s&bstantialist readings'6 I=' 3earning Grocesses within Marxism 0ince there is not eno&gh s(ace within the framewor/ of this text to el&cidate e%en a((roximately the as(ects of a scientific re%ol&tion internal learning (rocesses, b&t also regressions to traditional eco) nomic and historical)(hiloso(hical (ositions in Marxs wor/ I will attem(t to briefly mention some of the (oints arri%ed at in the abo%e)mentioned learning (rocesses within Marxism' Marxs theory does not affirm some /ind of a&tomatic liberationE rather, it sho&ld be &nderstood as the theoretical instance of a body of wor/, mediated by analysis and criti5&e, contrib&ting to the liberation from the a&tomatism of an irrational mode of sociali1ation' Marxs assertion that he gras(s the de%elo() ment of the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction as *a (rocess of nat&ral history,+6# often cited by both Marx) ists and anti)Marxists as (roof either of the highest scientific stat&s of Marxs wor/ or of &nscientific (ro(hecy, sho&ld be &nderstood as a critical statement' *Dat&re+ or *nat&ralness+ are negati%ely deter) mined categories for a social system that, on the basis of its constit&tion by the (ri%ate di%ision of labor,

asserts itself with regard to social actors as a relentless machine &sing &( abstract labor, as a *destiny of %al&e+ beyond all collecti%e and indi%id&al control and yet re(rod&cing itself by means of their acti%ity' Marxs theory is *a &nified critical $&dgment on (re%io&s history, to the effect that men ha%e allowed themsel%es to be degraded into ob$ects of the blind and mechanical (rocess of its economic de%elo() ment'+6> While Marx does s&cc&mb to a historical o(timism that often ti(s o%er into a (hiloso(hy of his) tory in the declamatory sections of his wor/s, this is f&ndamentally contradicted by his scientific criti5&e of (hiloso(hies of history and (olitical economy'6; B&t it is (recisely from these cliches that the Marxism of the 0econd and Third Internationals, as well as the more ed&cated among those who disdain Marx, (aste together an abstr&se system of iron historical necessities, &( to and incl&ding a *law of the se5&ence of social formations+ which establishes the *general historically necessary tendency of the (rogress of the h&man s(ecies'+6< The criti5&e of (olitical economy, which in the form of Marxs late wor/s *does not withstand com(ari) son with the immanent claim of the (rogrammatic declaration in&he #erman ' eology,+67 namely of (re) senting the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction in its totality, can be (resented as a (rocess of fo&r criti5&es@ !. the criti5&e of bo&rgeois society and its destr&cti%e *nat&ral+ forms of de%elo(ment, against the bac/) gro&nd of the real, ob$ecti%e (ossibility it generates of its own emanci(atory transcendence, . the cri) ti5&e of the fetishi1ed and bac/ward e%eryday conscio&sness of social actors systematically generated by these social relations, #. the criti5&e of the entire theoretical field of (olitical economy66, which &ncritically systemati1es these common (erce(tions, and >. the criti5&e of &to(ian social criticism, which either confronts the system of the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction with a model of social liberation, or (res&mes to bring isolated economic forms to bear against the system as a whole by means of reforms'68 The criti5&e is therefore not immanent in the sense that it wo&ld affirm the determinations of exchange, bo&rgeois ideals, (roletarian demands for rights, or ind&strial (rod&ction -which is s&bs&med to ca(ital. against ca(italism as a whole' The method of the criti5&e of economy can be described as the *de%elo(ment+ or *analysis of forms'+ It aims to gras( the s(ecific sociality of historically distinct modes of (rod&ction' Whereas *bo&rgeois+ a((roaches cond&ct at best a science of the re(rod&ction of society !ithin s(ecific economic and (oliti) cal forms, a criti5&e of (olitical economy m&st be concei%ed of as a science of these forms'8" Golitical economy o(erates at the le%el of already constit&ted economic ob$ects, ta/es them em(irically as a gi%en, or can only $&stify their existence in a circ&lar manner, witho&t conce(t&ally (enetrating the sys) tematic (rocess of their constit&tion' It s&cc&mbs to the self)mystification of the ca(italist world of ob$ects as a world of nat&ral forms8!, th&s de(ri%ing h&mans of the ability to config&re and alter their fun amental structures. In contrast, form)analysis de%elo(s these forms -s&ch as %al&e, money, ca(ital, b&t also law and the state. from the contradictory conditions of the social constit&tion of labor, *clarifies them, gras(s their essence and necessity'+8 :orm e)elo$ment is not to be &nderstood as the retracing of the historical de%elo(ment of the ob$ect, b&t rather the conce(t&al deci(hering of the immanent str&ct&ral relation) shi(s of the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction' It &nscrambles the a((arently inde(endent, a((arently ob$ecti%ely gro&nded forms of social wealth and the (olitical com(&lsion of the ca(italist mode of (ro)

d&ction as historically s$ecific and therefore albeit in no way arbitrarily or in a (iecemeal manner as changeable forms of (raxis' Traditional as well as Western Marxism had com(letely ignored the re%ol&tionary scientific (otential of Marxs a((roach, his theory of the monetary constitution of %al&e' ,bo%e all, the neue Marx-Lektre crit) ici1ed the em(iricist)historicist misinter(retation of the method of (resentation that started with Engels, and the *(remonetary+ inter(retation of the theory of %al&e in Ca$ital, b&t also ambi%alences in Marxs wor/ itself and the (o(&lari1ation of his method, which meant *forgoing a systematic elaboration of f&n) damental ideas of %al&e theory and methodology'+8# Engels and Traditional Marxism inter(reted differ) ent le%els of abstraction of the (resentation of the laws of the ca(italist mode of (rod&ction in Ca$ital as em(irically coe5&al le%els of a model of historically distinct modes of (rod&ction' Th&s categories s&ch as abstract labor, %al&e, and the elementary form of %al&e were reinter(reted in an em(iricist way, and the connection between commodity, money, and ca(ital considered essential by Marx was transformed into a coincidence' Marxism th&s o(erated on a methodological and %al&e)theoretical ter) rain that Marx had critici1ed with regard to classical economics' Jowe%er, Marxs critique of (olitical economy is distinct from an alternati%e (olitical economy in (rimarily two res(ects@ in the first instance it is not the theory of s&r(l&s)%al&e, b&t rather the form theory of labor that disting&ishes Marx from classical (olitical economy' Marx critici1es the way (olitical economy &nreflecti%ely (res&((oses the form of *%al&e,+ ne%er 5&estioning its genesis, &nable to gras( labor that ta/es the form of %al&e as a historically s(ecific social form -the 5&estion is not raised as to *why labo&r is re(resented by the %al&e of its (rod&ct+8>.' Golitical economy therefore o(erates f&ndamentally within the field of fetishistic forms' Moreo%er, Marx critici1es the (remonetary character of its %al&e theory, since it *treatAsC the form of %al&e as a thing of no im(ortance, as ha%ing no connection with the inherent nat&re of com) modities,+8; meaning it does not disting&ish between intrinsic and external meas&re of %al&e as cate) gories existing at two different le%els of theoretical abstraction, and does not gras( the necessity of the money)form for the exchange of commodities' Money is &nderstood as a (&rely technical instr&ment which for reasons of con%enience ta/es the (lace of exchange on the basis of calc&lations of labor)time magnit&des' In Marxs wor/, on the other hand, money is de%elo(ed as a necessary moment in the (rocess of commodity exchange' Witho&t a general form of %al&e, %al&es cannot re(resent %al&e for each other, and wo&ld be red&ced to the stat&s of (rod&cts' One m&st therefore (roceed from the *e5&i(rimordial+ constit&tion of abstract labor as a logically (rior immanent meas&re of %al&e, and money as the external meas&re of %al&e' In this sense, Marx s(ea/s of the s&bstance of %al&e as a res&lt obtained in exchange which f&rthermore first ac5&ires an intertem(oral existence as ca(ital' In contrast to the em(iricism and ahistoricism of (olitical economy, Marxs a((roach th&s re%eals itself to be a (er) ce(tion of essence in the sense of the reconstr&ction of a str&ct&re and system of agency which is em(irically not immediately (ercei%able by means of the elaboration of a non)em(irical theoretical le%el which first ma/es (ossible the ex(lanation of em(irical forms of a((earance, s&ch as money' Marx follows *a (rinci(le of the de%elo(ment of economic categories by disting&ishing between different le%) els of abstraction'+8< Hategories s&ch as abstract labor or %al&e therefore ha%e no immediate em(irical referents' The se5&ence of the categories of commodity and money is not to be &nderstood as a histori) cal se5&ence of inde(endently existing circ&mstances, b&t rather as a conce(t&al analysis'

O%er%iew of the Marxisms Important Theorists Central Reference Texts of Marx/Engels Core Concept Marxs Theory as! Hlosed, coherent (roletarian world%iew and doctrine of the e%ol&tion of nat&re and his) tory -*becoming and (ass) ing away+.

Traditional Marxism A!676ff'C

A:' EngelsC, 2' 2a&ts/y, E' Bernstein, 3afarg&e, :' Mehring, ,' Bebel, 4' Gle/hano%, etc'-O !st 4en) eration.E ='I' 3enin, 3' Trots/y, R' 3&xemb&rg, D' B&/harin, M' ,dler, R' Jil) ferding -O nd 4eneration.

Claim6 Doctrine of the materialist conce$tion of history as the center of the collaborati)e !orks of Marx an EngelsEngels@ AntiDhring, Lu !ig "euerbach, *Re%iew of A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy+ 7!6;8. etc'Marx@ Ca$ital 4ol. . Hha(ter # , *Greface+ to Critique -!6;8., Manifesto -M?E. Claim6 -umanist early !ork as inter$retati)e frame!ork for the 8scientific9 later !orksMarx@ *Theses on :e&erbach,+ .:;; Manuscri$ts( &he #erman ' eology -M?E.

Western Marx) ism A!8 #ff'C

4' 3&/Lcs, 2' 2orsch, E' Bloch, J' 3efeb%re, :ran/) f&rt 0chool, ,' 4ramsci, 2' 2osi/, Q&gosla% Graxis) 4ro&( -4' Getro%ic, G' =ranic/i, etc'., B&da(est 0chool -,' Jeller, 4' Mar/&s, etc'., 3' 2ofler, I') G' 0artre AGredecessors@ I'I' R&bin, E' Gasch&/anisC J'4' Bac/) ha&s, J' Reichelt, 9' Wolf, J'9' 2ittsteiner, M' Jein) rich, 0O0T, Gro$e/t 2lassenanalyse?GEM, 0' Bre&er, 0tate)9eri%ation 9ebate -B' Blan/e, 9'

Hritical) re%ol&tionary theory of social (raxis -*s&b$ec) ti%e mediation of the ob$ect+.

neue MarxLektre A!8<;ff'C

Claim6 a$$rehen ing the !hole Marx( or later !orks as inter$retati)e frame!ork for the early !orksMarx@#runrisse, Ca$ital 4ol. ' first edition,<rtext, *Res&lts of the Immediate Grocess

9eci(hering and Hriti5&e of the :orms of ca(ital) ist sociali1ation by means of logical) systematic method of (re)

3R((le, M4, I' Jirsch, W' MNller? Hh' De&sNS, D' 2ostede, etc'.

of Grod&ction+

senta) tions -*form) de%elo(ment and criti5&e+.

= &ranslate by Alexan er Locascio 'mage thanks to f>b.?./.

!' 2arl 2a&ts/y, 5&oted in 4areth 0tedman Iones, *Engels &nd die 4eschichte des Marxism&s,+ in2lassen( Politik( +$rache. "r eine theorieorientierte +o@ialgeschichte -MNnster@ WestfRlisches 9am(fboot,!866., #>nE ='I' 3enin, *The Three 0o&rces and Three Hom(onent Garts of Marx) ism'+ ,ll English 5&otations from Marx, Engels, 3enin, and 2a&ts/y ta/en from the %ersions a%ail) able at www'marxists'org ' :rederic/ Engels, *9ialectics+ in Dialectics of %ature' #' Engels, *Introd&ction+ in Anti-Dhring' >' Engels, *Jegel+ in Lu !ig "euerbach an the En of #erman Classical Philoso$hy' ;' Ibid' <' Engels, *Marx+ in Lu !ig "euerbach. 7' 2arl Marx, *Theses on :e&erbach'+ 6' Engels, *Dotes and :ragments+ in Dialectics of %ature' 8' ,bo%e all in Materialism an Em$iriocriticism, styli1ed by Marxism)3eninism as the classical text) boo/ of dialectical materialism alongside Anti-Dhring' Jere, Marxism becomes an ideology in the strict Marxian sense@ a systemi1ation of the forms of tho&ght of a reified common sense' Honcerning the (olitical)(ragamatical bac/gro&nd of the text, &s&ally disregarded in M3, see Iohannes B&sch)WeSla&, Der Marxismus un ie Legitimation $olitischer Macht -:ran/f&rt@ Ham) (&s =erl, !88"., #"' !"' :al/o 0chmieder (oints to the a (riori role of the medi&m of (hotogra(hy as a fo&ndation of this nai%e realism in (hiloso(hy, as well as the f&ndamental commonalities between Engels, 3enin, and :e&erbachE Lu !ig "euerbach un er Eingang er klassischen "otografie. Aum 4erhBltnis )on anthro$ologischem un -istorischem Materialismus -Berlin@ GJI3O)=erlag, "">., !#' !!' ,lfred 0ohn)Rethel, Carenform un Denkform -:ran/f&rt@ 0&hr/am(, !876.,!!>' ! ' Engels, *Marx+ in Lu !ig "euerbach'

!#' Marx, *Theses on :e&erbach'+ !>' Engels, *Materialism+ in Lu !ig "euerbach. !;' :or more on this, see the st&dy of Jans)Iosef 0teinberg A!8<7C, +o@ialismus un eutsche +o@ial emokratie. Aur ' eologie er Partei )or em .. Celtkrieg -Berlin)Bonn@ !878., abo%e all >;, <#' ,((roaches toward a social historical ex(lanation are offered by idem, !>;)!;"E 9ieter 4roh, %egati)e 'ntegration un re)olutionBrer Attentismus. Die eutsche +o@ial emokratie am 4oraben es Ersten Celtkrieges -:ran/f&rt@ Fllstein Taschenb&ch%lg, !87>., ;6)<#E Os/ar Degt, *Marxism&s als 3egitimationswissenschaft,+ in %. DucharinEA. Deborin = 2ontro)ersen ber ialektischen un mechanistischen Materialismus -:ran/f&rt@ 0&hr/am(, !87>.E ,ntonio 4ram) sci, Philoso$hie er Praxis. Eine Aus!ahl -:ran/f&rt@ 0 :ischer, !8<7.,!#6<' !<' :or a criti5&e, see ,lexandrine Mohl, 4erelen ung un 3e)olution. * er6 Das Elen es *b,ekti)ismus. Augleich ein Deitrag @ur Marxre@e$tion in er eutschen +o@ial emokratie -:ran/f&rt !876.E Rolf Geter 0ieferle, Die 3e)olution in er &heorie )on 2arl Marx -Berlin@ Fllstein, !878.E Ingo Elbe, *MFmwRl1&ngsmomente der alten 4esellschaft ,s(e/te der Re%ol&tionstheorie &nd ihrer 2riti/ bei Marx,+ "" ' !7' Ernesto 3acla& and Hhantal Mo&ffe (oint o&t the 9arwinist)Jegelian character of this conce() tion@ *9arwinism alone does not offer Mg&arantees for the f&t&re, since nat&ral selection does not o(erate in a direction (redetermined from the beginning' Only if a Jegelian ty(e of teleol) ogy is added to 9arwinism which is totally incom(atible with it can an e%ol&tionary (rocess be (resented as a g&arantee of f&t&re transitions+E -egemony an +ocialist +trategy -Dew Qor/@ =erso, ""!., "' !6' :or more on this, in an instr&cti%e manner, see Jein1 9ieter 2ittsteiner, *Bew&sstseinsbild&ng, Garteilich/eit, diale/tischer &nd historischer Materialism&s' T& einigen 2ategorien der marxistisch)leninistischen 4eschichtsmethodologie,+ 'nternationale Cissenschaftliche 2orres$on en@ @ur #eschichte er eutschen Arbeiterbe!egung' Ig' !", !87>' !8' 0ee 4roh, %egati)e 'ntegration, #<' "' 2a&ts/y, 5&oted in 0teinberg, +o@ialismus un eutsche +o@ial emokratie( <!' 0ee also Ethics an the Materialist Conce$tion *f -istory' ,ccording to 2a&ts/y, the (ros(ects for freedom and h&manity are not *mere ex(ectations of conditions which only o&ght to come, which we sim(ly wish and will, b&t o&tloo/s at conditions which m&st come, which are necessary'+ 2a&ts/y defends himself against inter(retations of necessity *in the fatalist sense, that a higher (ower will (resent them to &s of itself,+ b&t ass&mes an irresistible immanent historical)economic com) (&lsion toward re%ol&tion, whereby the immanent com(&lsi%e laws of ca(italism and the forma) tion of the (roletariat as a s&ccessf&l re%ol&tionary s&b$ect (lay the same role@ *&na%oidable in the sense, that the ABC ca(italists in their desire for (rofit AUC re%ol&tioni1e the whole economic life, as it is also ine%itable that the wor/ers aim for shorter ho&rs of labor and higher wages, that they organi1e themsel%es, that they fight the ca(italist class and its state, as it is ine%itable that

they aim for the con5&est of (olitical (ower and the o%erthrow of ca(italist r&le' 0ocialism is ine%itable beca&se the class str&ggle and the %ictory of the (roletariat is ine%itable'+ !' 3enin, *Three 0o&rces'+ ' 3enin, 2arl Marx6 A Drief Diogra$hical +ketch Cith an Ex$osition of Marxism' #' On the (aradoxes of this combination of %ol&ntarism and determinism, see Hharles Tay) lor,-egel -Hambridge@ Hambridge Fni%ersity Gress, !877.' >' It is (recisely Western Marxism that against Marxism)3eninism em(hasi1es the non) ontological character of Marxs materialismE see Max Jor/heimer, *Traditional and Hritical The) ory+ in Critical &heory6 +electe Essays -Dew Qor/@ Hontin&&m, !87 ., as well as ,lfred 0chmidt, &he Conce$t of %ature in Marx -Dew Qor/@ =erso, "!>.' 0talin determines the com(o) nents of Marxs theory as follows@ 9iale/ti/@ a &ni%ersal logic of de%elo(ment em(hasi1ing dis) contin&ity, which teaches that e%erything can be concei%ed of as in a state of becoming and decayingE Materialism@ a contem(lati%e ontology which teaches that conscio&sness is merely a reflection of a nat&re existing inde(endent and o&tside of conscio&snessE Jistorical Materialism@ the a((lication of dialectical materialism to historyE &ni%ersal historical laws are class str&ggle, the dialectic between forces of (rod&ction and relations of (rod&ction, rooted in the (rimacy of the de%elo(ment of the forces of (rod&ction -casua sui conce(t of forces of (rod&ction., and &ltimately the law of (rogress of s&ccessi%e social formations' ;' Engels, *2arl Marx@ Hriti5&e of Golitical Economy' Re%iew by :rederic/ Engels'+ <' Ibid' 7' Ibid' 6' 2a&ts/y A!66<C, 2arl Marx5 Fkonomische Lehren. #emein)erstBn lich argestellt un erlButert )on 2arl 2autsky( >.. -Berlin@ !8 ., %iii' 8' 2a&ts/y, 5&oted in Rolf Jec/er, *Einfache Waren(rod&/tion,+ !887' #"' R&dolf Jilferding, DFhm-Da!erk5s Criticism of Marx' #!' M'M' Rosental A!8;;C, Die ialektische Metho e er $olitischen Gkonomie )on 2arl Marx-Berlin@ 9iet1, !87#.' # ' 0ee Ernest Mandel, Marxist Economic &heory -Dew Qor/@ Monthly Re%iew Gress@ !87".' ##' *This ma/es clear, of co&rse, why in the beginning of his first boo/ Marx (roceeds from the sim) (le (rod&ction of commodities as the historical (remise, &ltimately to arri%e from this basis to ca(ital why he (roceeds from the sim(le commodity instead of a logically and historically sec) ondary form from an already ca(italistically modified commodity'+ Engels, *Greface+ in 2arl Marx, Ca$ital, =ol&me #'

#>' Ibid' This inter(retation of the analysis of the form of %al&e is also ado(ted by 2a&ts/y, in &he Economic Doctrines of 2arl Marx' #;' That is to say, the law of %al&e disc&ssed by Marx' 0ee Engels *0&((lement+ to %ol&me #' #<' Ibid #7' Ibid' #6' *Or is it belie%ed that the (easant and the artisan were so st&(id as to gi%e &( the (rod&ct of !" ho&rs labor of one (erson for that of a single ho&rs labor of anotherK+E and whoe%er does so learns *only thro&gh mista/es'+ Ibid' #8' Ibid' >"' In contrast, see Marxs criti5&e of the notion of labor)money, or the notion of a (re)monetary commodity exchange in A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy and in the #runrisse' >!' 0ee footnote ## in cha(ter one of Ca$ital( 4olume .. > ' :or Marxs %iew, see for exam(le@ *,dam 0mith constantly conf&ses the determination of the %al&e of commodities by the labo&r)time contained in them with the determination of their %al&e by the %al&e of labo&rE he is often inconsistent in the details of his ex(osition and he mis) ta/es the ob$ecti%e e5&alisation of &ne5&al 5&antities of labo&r forcibly bro&ght abo&t by the social (rocess for the s&b$ecti%e e5&ality of the labo&rs of indi%id&als+E A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy' >#' ,ccording to Marxism)3eninism, *%al&e f&nctions as an instr&ment of the (lanned administra) tion of the socialist (rocesses of (rod&ction and re(rod&ction, according to the (rinci(les of boo//ee(ing and control of the mass of labor and of cons&m(tion' Horres(ondingly, the relation of %al&e is conscio&sly im(lemented+E Wolfgang Geter Eichhorn, *Wert+ in 4' 2la&s and M' B&hr, ed' Philoso$hisches CFrterbuch, Bd' -:ran/f&rt@ 0&hr/am(, !86;., ! 8!' Within this frame) wor/, socialism consists *merely in the re%ol&tioni1ed way of calc&lating the same social deter) mination of the (rod&cts of h&man labor as exists in the ca(italist commodity economy,+ as 0te) fan 4rigat critically notesE *2riti/ &nd Fto(ie,+ Ceg un Aiel, > -!887.@ "' Th&s, allegedly Marx) ian comm&nism degenerates into a sort of Gro&dhonian system of labor notes, as 9iethard Behrens and 2ornelia Jafner also obser%e@ *all hitherto existing conce(tions of the transition to socialism resort to models of immediate calc&lation of labor)%al&e and &tility+E *,&f der 0&che nach dem wahren 0o1ialism&s' =on der 2riti/ des Gro&dhonism&s Nber die r&ssische Mod) ernisier&ngsdi/tat&r 1&m realso1ialistischen Eti/ettenschwindel+ in ,nton Ganne/oe/,Marxistischer Antileninismus -:reib&rg, !88!., <' 0ee here also Michael Jeinrich, Die Cissenschaft )om Cert. Die Marxsche 2ritik er $olitischen Gkonomie @!ischen !issenschaftlicher 3e)olution un klassischer &ra ition -MNnster@ WestfRlisches 9am(fboot, !888., #6;)#8 E and 2ittsteiner, *Bew&sstseinsbild&ng'+

>>' :or exam(le, Engels, *Marx+ in Lu !ig "euerbach. >;' Ibid' ><' Ibid' >7' Ibid, translation modified' >6' 4ert 0chRfer, *Einige Grobleme des =erhRltnisses %on MV/onomischer &nd M(olitischer Jerrschaft,+ in 2arl Marx an "rie rich Engels = +taatstheorie. Materialien @ur 3ekonstruktion er marxistischen +taatstheorie -Berlin@ Fllstein, !87>.' >8' Hom(are Gash&/anis, &he #eneral &heory of La! an Marxism@ *why is the a((arat&s of state coercion created not as a (ri%ate a((arat&s of the r&ling class, b&t distinct from the latter in the form of an im(ersonal a((arat&s of (&blic (ower distinct from societyK+ ;"' Engels, *Barbarism and Hi%ili1ation+ in &he *rigin of the "amily( Pri)ate Pro$erty( an the +tate. Do wonder, then, that 3enin refers affirmati%ely to this *ex(lanation,+ with its theory of agents and infl&ence' ;!' Engels, Anti-Dhring' ATranslators Dote@ The official translation of *i eeller #esamtka$italist+ in the Marx-Engels Collecte Corks renders this &nsatisfactorily as *the ideal (ersonification of the total national ca(ital,+ when in fact *ideal total ca(italist+ is more acc&rate'C ; ' Iohannes B&sch)WeSla&, Der Marxismus un Ham(&s)=erlag, !88".' ;#' Engels, Anti-Dhring' ;>' Jans Jolger Ga&l, Marx( Engels un !876.' ie 'm$erialismustheorie er >. 'nternationale -Jamb&rg, ie Legitimation $olitischer Macht, :ran/f&rt,

;;' Engels, *, Hriti5&e of the 9raft 0ocial)9emocratic Grogram of !68!'+ ;<' 0chRfer, *Einige Grobleme,+ cxxxi' ;7' Engels, Anti-Dhring' ;6' 0chRfer, *Einige Grobleme,+ cxxxi%' ;8' This old chestn&t will later be (resented by Wolfgang Gohrt and others as a dee( insight abo&t *late ca(italism'+ <"' Engels, Anti-Dhring' <!' The term was (robably first &sed in a 3eninist (olemic against 3&/Lcs -istory an Class Consciousness -see R&dolf Walther, *Marxism&s+ in O' Br&nner, ed', #eschichtliche #run begriffe. -istorisches Lexikon @ur $olitisch-so@ialen +$rache in Deutschlan ( D . H, A0t&ttgart@ E' 2lett,

!86 C, 8<6., b&t did not achie%e greater significance, neither as a (olemical form&lation nor as a self)descri(tion by the theorists commonly s&bs&med &nder the name -s&ch as 3&/Lcs, 2orsch, Bloch, the :ran/f&rt 0chool, 4ramsci, 3efeb%re, etc'.' Jere, I follow Gerry ,ndersons &sage of the term in Consi erations on Cestern Marxism -Dew Qor/@ =erso, !867.' ,s fr&itf&l as the con) ce(t of Western Marxism might be as a he&ristic model, its limits m&st be clearly shownE see the criti5&e of ,nderson by Wolfgang :rit1 Ja&g, *Westlicher Marxism&sK+ in Pluraler Marxismus( D . > -Jamb&rg@ ,rg&ment, !867. and Michael 2rRt/e, *Marxism&s als 0o1ialwissenschaft+ in Ja&g, Materialien @um -istorisch-kritischen CFrterbuch es Marxismus -Jamb&rg@ ,rg&ment, !88<., 77' < ' Wolfgang :rit1 Ja&g, Philoso$hieren mit Drecht un #ramsci -Jamb&rg@ ,rg&ment, !88<., 6' :or a criti5&e of the *code word thesis+ with regard to 4ramscis wor/, see Ja&g, *Einleit&ng,+ in ,ntonio 4ramsci, #efBngnishefte ?. Philoso$hie er Praxis -Jamb&rg@ ,rg&ment, !88;., !!8;) ! "8' <#' 4eorg 3&/Lcs, *D' B&charin@ Theorie des historischen Materialism&s -Re1ension.+ in %. DucharinE A. Deborin6 2ontro)ersen ber ialektischen un mechanistischen Materalismus( 68, 6>' <>' ,ntonio 4ramsci, *The Re%ol&tion ,gainst Ha(ital'+ <;' , scientific (sychology cannot be fo&nd in the tho&ght of most re(resentati%es of Marxism, a(art from (ositi%e references to Ga%lo%s beha%iorism' Gsychoanalysis was mostly re$ected, if not demoni1ed as *bo&rgeois)decadent+' Jelm&t 9ahmer offers a critical o%er%iew of s&ch reac) tions in Libi o un #esellschaft. +tu ien ber "reu un ie "reu sche Linke -:ran/f&rt@ 0&hr/am(, !86 ., >!) 77E within the framewor/ of Western Marxism, it was (rimarily 3&/Lcs who disting&ished himself in the condemnation of :re&d' 4ramsci by his own admission *was not able to st&dy :re&ds theories+ <<' ,s f&rther characteristics of Western Marxism, ,nderson names the reco&rse to (re)Marxian (hiloso(hy in order to clarify the method of a critical social theoryE the incor(oration of contem) (orary *bo&rgeois+ theories@ an esoteric writing styleE a rather (essimistic a((raisal of historical de%elo(ment mar/edly di%ergent from the tri&m(halist diction of classical Marxism and Marxism)3eninismE a (reference for (roblems of aesthetics' <7' :or exam(le, Erich :romms Marx5s Conce$t of Man or INrgen Jabermas *Reconstr&ction of Jis) torical Materialism'+ <6' The first attem(ts at a new reading of Marx already occ&rred in the !8 "s, on the (art of the 0o%iet a&thors Isaa/ Illich R&bin and E%geny Gash&/anis' 0ee I'I' R&bin, Essays on Marx5s &heory of 4alue, and E%geny Gash&/anis, &he #eneral &heory of La! an Marxism' Their awareness of (roblems of as(ects of Marxs theory with regard to %al&e and legal theory was not e%en matched in a r&dimentary way for a long time, in the East or the West' Only with the debates since the end of the !8<"s did this change somewhat'

<8' ,s described by Jeinrich *2ommentierte 3iterat&rliste 1&r 2riti/ der (olitischen W/onomie,+ in Elmar ,lt%ater, Rolf Jec/er, Michael Jeinrich, Getra 0cha(er)Rin/el, ed', 2a$ital. oc. Das 2a$ital 7D . .I )on 2arl Marx in +chaubil ern un 2ommentaren -MNnster@ WestfRlisches 9am(fboot, !888., "7E and Frs Iaeggi, *Einige Bemer/&ngen 1&r Orthodoxie &nd 1&m 9ogmatism&s im Jis) torischen Materialism&s,+ in ,xel Jonneth, ed', &heorien es -istorischen Materialismus -:ran/) f&rt@ 0&hr/am(, !877., !><' It is also referred to &nder the label of *Deo)Marxism'+ 7"' ,s defined by Jans)4eorg Bac/ha&s, Dialektik er Certform. <ntersuchungen @ur Marxschen Gkonomiekritik -:reib&rgE Xa ira, !887.' 0ee also Jeinrich, *2ommentierte 3iterat&rliste,+ !!' 7!' 0ee Jeinrich, Die Cissenschaft )om Cert, and Jelm&t Brentel, +o@iale "orm un Fkonomisches *b,ekt. +tu ien @um #egenstan s- un Metho en)erstBn nis er 2ritik er $olitischen Gkonomie -O(laden@ Westde&tscher, !868.' 7 ' Honcerning the so)called *state deri%ation debate,+ see Dorbert 2ostede, *9ie ne&ere marxistis) che 9is/&ssion Nber den bNrgerlichen 0taat' EinfNhr&ng 2riti/ Res&ltate,+ #esellschaft. DeitrBge @ur Marxschen &heorie -!87<.@ !;")!8<E and 4erd R&del, Die Ent!icklung er marxistischen +taatstheorie in er Dun esre$ublik -:ran/f&rt@ Ham(&s)=erlag, !86!.' 7#' 0tefan Bre&er, Die 2rise er 3e)olutionstheorie. %egati)e 4ergesellschaftung un Arbeitsmeta$hysik bei -erbert Marcuse -:ran/f&rt@ 0yndi/at, !877.E Mohl, *=erelend&ng &nd Re%ol&tion+E Jelm&t 2Vnig, #eist un 3e)olution. +tu ien @u 2ant( -egel un Marx -0t&ttgart@ 2lett)Hotta, !86!.E or the writings of the 2risis gro&(' 7>' ,lfred 0chmidt and Walter E&chner, ed', 2ritik er $olitischen Gkonomie heute. .// 0ahre 82a$ital9 -:ran/f&rt@ E&ro(Rische =erlagsanstalt, !8<6.' 7;' The *critical Marxism+ of the 0ixties, of which ,lfred 0chmidt was the (rimary ad%ocate, em(ha) si1es the negati%e and historically limited character and claim to %alidity of a *materialism of sec) ond nat&re,+ b&t tends to regard methodological indi%id&alism as an ade5&ate descri(tion of coming comm&nist relations' The *scientific+ Marxism of the ,lth&sser school em(hasi1es, against indi%id&alistic theories of a *constit&ting s&b$ect,+ that actors are merely bearers of the relations of (rod&ctions, b&t on the basis of the tendency of its categories to ass&me &ni%ersal) historical character -Balibars combinatorics of le%els, ,lth&ssers conce(ts of (raxis and ideol) ogy., ele%ates the inde(endence of relations of (rod&ction to a scientific norm.' 7<' Bac/ha&s, Dialektik er Certform, !!' 77' Ibid', <8' 76' Ibid' 78' 0ee 3o&is ,lth&sser, *:rom Ha(ital to Marxs Ghiloso(hy+ in 3o&is ,lth&sser and Etienne Bal) ibar, 3ea ing Ca$ital'

6"' 0ee ,lth&sser and Balibar, 3ea ing Ca$ital' The difference between the str&ct&ralist and the critical)reconstr&cti%e reading is not limited to this (oint' Whereas the former attem(ts to &nmas/ Jegelianism as an ineda5&ate meta)disco&rse, for the latter, reference to Jegel on 5&estions of methodology is often regarded as the royal road to &nderstanding Marxs wor/' 6!' This is the s&btitle of Jeinrichs boo/, Die Cissenschaft )om Cert@ see Bac/ha&s criti5&e of his own theoretical (remises in the first two (arts of his Materialien -Bac/ha&s, Dialektik er Certform, !# n.' 6 ' :or a critical (ers(ecti%e on some as(ects of these theses, see 9ieter Wolf, Care un #el . Der ialektische Ci ers$ruch im 2a$ital -Jamb&rg@ =0,, !8;6. -re(&blished in "" &nder the titleDer ialektische Ci ers$ruch im 2a$ital.' Wolf also critici1es tendencies within the neue Marx-Lektre that identify Marxs dialectical method with logical contradictions, th&s lending Marx and his method a (atina of irrationalismE see his criti5&e of Holletti and 4Vhler' Irrational) ist (ositions are also fo&nd today by re(resentati%es of the 2risis and Exit gro&(s and the Initia) ti%e 0o1ialistisches :or&m :reib&rg' 6#' Marx, *Greface to the :irst 4erman Edition'+ 6>' 0chmidt, Conce$t of %ature, >!' 6;' On Marxs criti5&e of (hiloso(hies of history, see@ Jelm&t :leischer, Marxismus un #eschichte, -:ran/f&rt@ 0&hr/am(, !87;.E 2ittsteiner, *Bew&sstseinsbild&ng+E ,ndreas ,rndt,2arl Marx. 4ersuch ber en Ausammenhang seiner &heorie -Boch&m@ 4erminal, !86;., ;")7<E Rolf Jec/er, Harl)Erich =ollgraf, Richard 0(erl, ed', #eschichte un materialistische #eschichtstheorie bei Marx -Jamb&rg@ ,rg&ment, !88<.' 6<' 4' 0tiehler, 5&oted by Iaeggi, *Einige Bemer/&ngen,+ !;#' :or a *criti5&e+ of Marx that tries to sell this as the a&thentic (osition of Marx, see the &s&al wor/s by 2arl Go((er' 67' Jelm&t Reichelt A!87"C, Aur logischen +truktur es 2a$italbegriffs bei 2arl Marx -:reib&rg@ Xa ira, ""!., 7#' 66' 0ee Jeinrich, Die Cissenschaft )om Cert. 68' On this see Brentel !868, cha(ter ;' 8"' On this see Jeinrich, Die Cissenschaft )om Cert( #6")#6>' 8!' In the com(lete form in the so)called *Trinity :orm&la+ of the theory of the com(onents of %al&e' :or a criti5&e of neoclassical economics, see Jeinrich, Die Cissenschaft )om Cert( < ) 6;' 8 ' Marx, *Hriti5&e of Jegels Ghiloso(hy of Right'+

8#' Ian Joff, 2ritik er klassischen $olitischen Gkonomie. Aur 3e@e$tion er !erttheoretischen AnsBt@e Fkonomischer 2lassiker urch 2arl Marx -2Vln@ Ga((yRossa, "">.' 8>' Marx, Ca$ital( 4olume .' 8;' Ibid' 8<' Joff, 2ritik er klassischen $olitischen Gkonomie, 76'